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Manual for Noncommissioned Officers and Privates of Infantry by War Department

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11. To salute all officers, and all colors and standards not cased.

12. To be especially watchful at night and during the time for
challenging, to challenge all persons on or near my post and
to allow no one to pass without proper authority.


No. 1: To take charge of this post and all Government property
in view.

157. All persons, of whatever rank in the service, are required
to observe respect toward sentinels and members of the guard
when such are in the performance of their duties.

158. A sentinel will at once report to the corporal of the guard
every unusual or suspicious occurrence noted.

159. He will arrest suspicious persons prowling about the post
or camp at any time, all parties to a disorder occurring on or
near his post, and all, except authorized persons, who attempt
to enter the camp at night, and will turn over ro the corporal
of the guard all persons arrested.

160. The number, limits, and extent of his post will invariably
constitute part of the special orders of a sentinel on post.
The limits of his post should be so defined as to include every
place to which he is required to go in the performance of his

No. 2: To walk my post in a military manner, keeping always on
the alert and observing everything that takes place within sight
or hearing.

161. A sentinel is not required to halt and change the position
of his rifle on arriving at the end of his post, nor to execute TO
THE REAR, MARCH, precisely as prescribed in the drill regulations,
but faces about while walking in the manner most convenient to
him and at any part of his post as may be best suited to the
proper performance of his duties. He carries his rifle on either
shoulder, and in wet or severe weather, when not in a sentry
box, may carry it at a secure.

162. Sentinels when in sentry boxes stand at ease. Sentry boxes
will be used in wet weather only, or at other times when specially
authorized by the commanding officer.

163. In very hot weather, sentinels may be authorized to stand
at ease on their posts, provided they can effectively discharge
their duties in this position; but they will take advantage of
this privilege only on the express authority of the officer of
the day or the commander of the guard.

164. A mounted sentinel may dismount occasionally and lead his
horse, but will not relax his vigilance.

No. 3: To report all violations of orders I am instructed to enforce.

165. A sentinel will ordinarily report a violation of orders
when he is inspected or relieved, but if the case be urgent,
he will call the corporal of the guard, and also, if necessary,
will arrest the offender.

No. 4: To repeat all calls from posts more distant from the
guardhouse than my own.

166. To call the corporal of the guard for any purpose other
than relief, fire, or disorder (pars. 167 and 178), a sentinel
will call, "Corporal of the guard, No. (----)," adding the number
of his post. In no case will any sentinel call, "Never mind the
corporal"; nor will the corporal heed such call if given.

No. 5: To quit my post only when properly relieved.

167. If relief becomes necessary, by reason of sickness or other
cause, a sentinel will call, "Corporal of the guard, No. (----),
Relief," giving the number of his post.

168. Whenever a sentinel is to be relieved, he will halt, and
with arms at a right shoulder, will face toward the relief, when
it is 30 paces from him. He will come to a port arms with the
new sentinel, and in a low tone will transmit to him all the
special orders relating to the post and any other information
which will assist him to better perform his duties.

No. 6: To receive, obey, and pass on to the sentinel who relieves
me, all orders from the commanding officer, officer of the day,
and officers and noncommissioned officers of the guard only.

169. During his tour of duty a soldier is subject to the orders
of the commanding officer, officer of the day, and officers and
noncommissioned officers of the guard only; but any officer is
competent to investigate apparent violations of regulations by
members of the guard.

170. A sentinel will quit his piece on an explicit order from
any person from whom he lawfully receives orders while on post;
under no circumstances will he yield it to any other person. Unless
necessity therefor exists, no person will require a sentinel to
quit his piece, even to allow it to be inspected.

171. A sentinel will not divulge the countersign (pars. 209 to
217) to anyone except the sentinel who relieves him, or to a
person from whom he properly receives orders, on such person's
verbal order given personally. Privates of the guard will not
use the countersign except in the performance of their duties
while posted as sentinels.

No. 7: To talk to no one except in line of duty.

172. When calling for any purpose, challenging, or holding
communication with any person a dismounted sentinel armed with
a rifle or saber will take the position of port arms or saber.
At night a dismounted sentinel armed with a pistol takes the
position of raised pistol in challenging or holding communication.
A mounted sentinel does not ordinarily draw his weapon in the
daytime when challenging or holding conversation; but if drawn, he
holds it at advance rifle, raise pistol, or port saber, according
as he is armed with a rifle, pistol, or saber. At night in
challenging and holding conversation his weapon is drawn and
held as just prescribed, depending on whether he is armed with
a rifle, pistol, or saber.

No. 8: In case of fire or disorder to give the alarm.

173. In case of fire, a sentinel will call, "Fire, No. (----),"
adding the number of his post; if possible, he will extinguish
the fire himself. In case of disorder he will call, "The Guard,
No. (----)," adding the number of his post. If the danger be
great, he will in either case discharge his piece before calling.

No. 11: To salute all officers and all colors and standards not

174. When not engaged in the performance of a specific duty,
the proper execution of which would prevent it, a member of the
guard will salute all officers who pass him. This rule applies
at all hours of the day or night, except in the case of mounted
sentinels armed with a rifle or pistol, or dismounted sentinels
armed with a pistol, after challenging. (See par. 181.)

175. Sentinels will salute as follows: A dismounted sentinel armed
with a rifle or saber, salutes by presenting arms; if otherwise
armed, he salutes with the right hand.

A mounted sentinel, if armed with a saber and the saber be drawn,
salutes by presenting saber; otherwise he salutes in all cases
with the right hand.

176. To salute, a dismounted sentinel, with piece at a right
shoulder or saber at a carry, halts and faces toward the person
to be saluted when the latter arrives within 30 paces.

The limit within which individuals and insignia of rank can be
readily recognized is assumed to be about 30 paces, and therefore
at this distance cognizance is taken of the person or party to
be saluted.

177. The salute is rendered at six paces; if the person to be
saluted does not arrive within that distance, then when he is

178. A sentinel in a sentry box, armed with a rifle, stands at
attention in the doorway on the approach of a person or party
entitled to salute, and salutes by presenting arms according
to the foregoing rules.

If armed with a saber, he stands at a carry and salutes as before.

179. A mounted sentinel on a regular post, halts, faces, and
salutes in accordance with the foregoing rules. If doing patrol
duty, he salutes, but does not halt unless spoken to.

180. Sentinels salute, in accordance with the foregoing rules,
all persons and parties entitled to compliments from the guards
(pars. 224, 227, and 228); officers of the Army, Navy, and Marine
Corps; military and naval officers of foreign powers; officers
of volunteers and militia officers when in uniform.

181. A sentinel salutes as just prescribed when an officer comes
on his post; if the officer holds communication with the sentinel,
the sentinel again salutes when the officer leaves him.

During the hours when challenging is prescribed, the first salute
is given as soon as the officer has been duly recognized and
advanced. A mounted sentinel armed with a rifle or pistol, or a
dismounted sentinel armed with a pistol, does not salute after

He stands at advance rifle or raise pistol until the officer passes.

182. In case of the approach of an armed party of the guard, the
sentinel will halt when it is about 30 paces from him, facing
toward the party with his piece at the right shoulder. If not
himself relieved, he will, as the party passes, place himself
so that the party will pass in front of him; he resumes walking
his post when the party has reached six paces beyond him.

183. An officer is entitled to the compliments prescribed, whether
in uniform or not.

184. A sentinel in communication with an officer will not interrupt
the conversation to salute. In the case of seniors the officer
will salute, whereupon the sentinel will salute.

185. When the flag is being lowered at retreat, a sentinel on
post and in view of the flag will face the flag, and, at the
first note of the Star Spangled Banner or to the color will come
to a present arms. At the sounding of the last note he will resume
walking his post.

No. 12: To be especially watchful at night and during the time
for challenging, to challenge all persons on or near my post,
and to allow no one to pass without proper authority.

186. During challenging hours, it a sentinel sees any person
or party on or near his post, he will advance rapidly along his
post toward such person or party and when within about 30 yards
will challenge sharply, "Halt, Who is there!" He will place himself
in the best possible position to receive or, if necessary, to
arrest the person or party.

187. In case a mounted party be challenged, the sentinel will
call, "Halt, Dismount. Who is there?"

188. The sentinel will permit only one of any party to approach
him for the purpose of giving the countersign (pars. 209 to 217),
or, if no countersign be used, of being duly recognized. When
this is done the whole party is advanced, i. e., allowed to pass.

189. In all cases the sentinel must satisfy himself beyond a
reasonable doubt that the parties are what they represent themselves
to be and have a right to pass. If he is not satisfied, he must cause
them to stand and call the corporal of the guard. So, likewise, if
he have no authority to pass persons with the countersign, or
when the party has not the countersign, or gives all incorrect

190. A sentinel will not permit any person to approach so close
as to prevent the proper use of his own weapon before recognizing
the person or receiving the countersign.

191. When two or more persons approach in one party, the sentinel,
on receiving an answer that indicates that some one in the party
has the countersign, will say, "Advance one with the countersign,"
and, if the countersign is given correctly, will then say, "Advance
(so-and-so)," repeating the answer to his challenge. Thus it the
answer be "Relief (friend with the countersign, patrol, etc.),"
the sentinel will say, "Advance one with the countersign"; then
"Advance, relief (friends, patrol, etc.)."

192. If a person having the countersign approach alone, he advanced
to give the countersign. Thus if the answer be "Friend with the
countersign (or officer of the day, or etc.)." the sentinel will
say, "Advance, friend (or officer of the day, or etc.) with the
countersign"; then "Advance, friend (or officer of the day, or

193. If two or more persons approach a sentinel's post from different
directions at the same time, all such persons are challenged in
turn and required to halt and to remain halted until advanced.

The senior is first advanced, in accordance with the foregoing

194. If a party is already advanced and in communication with
a sentinel, the latter will challenge any other party that may
approach; if the party challenged be senior to the one already
on his post, the sentinel will advance the new party at once. The
senior may allow him to advance any or all of the other parties;
otherwise the sentinel will not advance any of them until the
senior leaves him. He will then advance the senior only of the
remaining parties, and so on.

195. The following order of rank will govern a sentinel in advancing
different persons or parties approaching his post: Commanding
officers, officer of the day, officer of the guard, officers,
patrols, reliefs, noncommissioned officers of the guard in order
of rank, friends.

196. A sentinel will never allow himself to be surprised, nor
permit two parties to advance upon him at the same time.

197. If no countersign be used, the rules for challenging are the
same. The rules for advancing parties are modified only as follows:
Instead of saying "Advance (so-and-so) with the countersign,"
the sentinel will say; "Advance (so-and-so) to be recognized."
Upon recognition he will say, "Advance (so-and-so)."

198. Answers to a sentinel's challenge intended to confuse or
mislead him are prohibited, but the use of such an answer as
"Friends with the countersign," is not to be understood as
misleading, but as the usual answer made by officers, patrol,
etc., when the purpose of their visit makes it desirable that
their official capacity should not be announced.


199. Sentinels posted at the guard will be required to memorize
the following:

Between reveille and retreat to turn out the guard for all persons
designated by the commanding officer, for all colors or standards
not cased, and in time of war for all armed parties approaching
my post, except troops at drill and reliefs and detachments of
the guard.

At night after challenging any person or party, to advance no
one but call the corporal of the guard, repeating the answer
to the challenge.

200. After receiving an answer to his challenge, the sentinel
calls, "Corporal of the guard (so and so)," repeating the answer
to the challenge.

He does not in such cases repeat the number of his post.

201. He remains in the position assumed in challenging until
the corporal has recognized or advanced the person or party
challenged, when he resumes walking his post, or, if the person
or party he entitled thereto, he salutes and, as soon as the
salute has been acknowledged, resumes walking his post.

202. The sentinel at the post of the guard will be notified by
direction of the commanding officer of the presence in camp or
garrison of persons entitled to the compliment. (Par. 224.)

203. The following examples illustrate the manner in which the
sentinel at the post of the guard will turn out the guard upon the
approach of persons or parties entitled to the compliment (pars.
224, 227, and 228), "Turn out the guard, commanding officer"; "Turn
out the guard, governor of a Territory"; "Turn out the guard,
national colors"; "Turn out the guard, armed party"; etc.

At the approach of the new guard at guard mounting the sentinel
will call, "Turn out the guard, armed party."

204. Should the person named by the sentinel not desire the guard
formed, he will salute, whereupon the sentinel will call "Never
mind the guard."

205. After having culled "Turn out the guard," the sentinel will
never call "Never mind the guard," on the approach of an armed

206. Though the guard be already formed he will not fail to call,
"Turn out the guard," as required in his special orders, except
that the guard will not be turned out for any person while his
senior is at or coming to the post of the guard.

207. The sentinels at the post of the guard will warn the commander
of the approach of any armed body and of the presence in the
vicinity of all suspicious or disorderly persons.

208. In case of fire or disorder in sight or hearing, the sentinel
at the guardhouse will call the corporal of the guard and report
the facts to him.


209. _Seventy-seventh_article_of_war_.--Any person subject
to military law who makes known the parole or countersign to any
person not entitled to receive it according to the rules and
discipline of war, or gives a parole or countersign different
from that which he received, shall, if the offense be committed
in time of war, suffer death or such other punishment as a
court-martial may direct. (See par. 171.)

210. The COUNTERSIGN is a word given daily from the principal
headquarters of a command to aid guards and sentinels in identifying
persons who may be authorized to pass at night.

It is given to such persons as may be authorized to pass and
repass sentinels' posts during the night, and to officers,
noncommissioned officers, and sentinels of the guard.

211. The PAROLE is a word used as a check on the countersign
in order to obtain more accurate identification of persons. It
is imparted only to those who are entitled to inspect guards
and to commanders of guards.

The parole or countersign, or both, are sent sealed in the form
of an order to those entitled to them.

212. When the commander of the guard demands the parole, he will
advance and receive it as the corporal receives the countersign.
(See par. 133.)

213. As the communications containing the parole and countersign
must at times be distributed by many orderlies, the parole intrusted
to many officers, and the countersign and parole to many officers
and sentinels, and as both the countersign and parole must, for
large commands, be prepared several days in advance, there is
always danger of their being lost or becoming known to persons
who would make improper use of them; moreover, a sentinel is
too apt to take it for granted that any person who gives the
right countersign is what he represents himself to be; hence for
outpost duty there is greater security in omitting the use of
the countersign and parole, or in using them with great caution.
The chief reliance should be upon personal recognition or
identification of all persons claiming authority to pass.

Persons whose sole means of identification is the countersign, or
concerning whose authority to pass there is a reasonable doubt,
should not be allowed to pass without the authority of the corporal
of the guard after proper investigation; the corporal will take
to his next superior any person about whom he is not competent
to decide.

214. The COUNTERSIGN is usually the name of a battle; the PAROLE,
that of a general or other distinguished person.

215. When they can not be communicated daily, a series of words
for some days in advance may be sent to posts or detachments that
are to use the same parole or countersign as the main body.

216. If the countersign be lost, or if a member of the guard
deserts with it, the commander on the spot will substitute another
for it and report the case at once to headquarters.

217. In addition to the countersign, use may be made of pre-concerted
signals, such as striking the rifle with the hand or striking the
hands together a certain number of times as agreed upon. Such
signals may be used only by guards that occupy exposed points.

They are used before the countersign is given and must not be
communicated to anyone not entitled to know the countersign.
Their use is intended to prevent the surprise of a sentinel.

In the daytime signals such as raising a cap or a handkerchief
in a prearranged manner may be used by sentinels to communicate
with the guard or with each other.


218. A guard patrol consists of one or more men detailed for the
performance of some special service connected with guard duty.

219. If the patrol be required to go beyond the chain of sentinels,
the officer or noncommissioned officer in charge will be furnished
with the countersign and the outposts and sentinels warned.

220. If challenged by a sentinel, the patrol is halted by its
commander, and the noncommissioned officer accompanying it advances
alone and gives the countersign.


221. Enlisted men may be detailed as watchmen or as overseers
over prisoners, and as such will receive their orders and perform
their duties as the commanding officer may direct.


222. The compliment from a guard consists in the guard turning
out and presenting arms. (See par. 50.) No compliments will be paid
between retreat and reveille except as provided in paragraphs 361
and 362, nor will any person other than those named in paragraph
224 receive the compliment.

223. Though a guard does not turn out between retreat and reveille
as a matter of compliment it may be turned out for inspection
at any time by a person entitled to inspect it.

224. Between reveille and retreat, the following persons are
entitled to the compliment: The President; sovereign or chief
magistrate of a foreign country and members of a royal-family;
Vice President: President and President pro tempore of the Senate;
American and foreign ambassadors; members of the Cabinet; Chief
Justice; Speaker of the House of Representatives; committees of
Congress officially visiting a military post; governors within
their respective States and Territories; governors general; Assistant
Secretary of War officially visiting a military post; all general
officers of the Army; general officers of foreign services visiting
a post; naval, marine, volunteer, and militia officers in the
service of the United States and holding the rank of general
officer; American or foreign envoys or ministers; ministers
accredited to the United States; charges d'affaires accredited
to the United States; consuls general accredited to the United
Suites; commanding officer of the post or camp; officer of the

225. The relative rank between officers of the Army and Navy
is as follows: General with admiral, lieutenant general with
vice admiral, major general with rear admiral, brigadier general
with commodore,[13] colonel with captain, lieutenant colonel
with commander, major with lieutenant commander, captain with
lieutenant, first lieutenant with lieutenant (junior grade),
second lieutenant with ensign. (A. R. 12.)

[Footnote 13: The grade of commodore ceased to exist as a grade
on the active list of the Navy of the United States on Mar. 3,
1899. By section 7 of the act of Mar. 3. 1899, the nine junior
rear admirals are authorized to receive the pay and allowances
of a brigadier general of the Army.]

226. Sentinels will not be required to memorize paragraph 224,
and, except in the cases of general officers of the Army, the
commanding officer and the officer of the day will be advised in
each case of the presence in camp or garrison of persons entitled
to the compliment.

227. Guards will turn out and present arms when the national
or regimental colors or standards, not cased, are carried past
by a guard or an armed party. This rule also applies when the
party carrying the colors is at drill. If the drill is conducted
in the vicinity of the guardhouse, the guard will be turned out
when the colors first pass, and not thereafter.

228. In ease the remains of a deceased officer or soldier are
carried past, the guard will turn out and present arms.

229. In time of war all guards will turn out under arms when
armed parties, except troops at drill and reliefs or detachments
of the guard, approach their post. (See par. 53.)

230. The commander of the guard will be notified of the presence
in camp or garrison of all persons entitled to the compliment
except general officers of the Army, the commanding officer,
and the officer of the day. Members of the guard will salute
all persons entitled to the compliment and all officers in the
military or naval service of foreign powers, officers of the
Army, Navy, and Marine Corps, officers of volunteers, and officers
of militia when in uniform.


232. _Eighty-fifth_article_of_war_.-- Any person subject
to military law, except an officer, who is found drunk on duty
shall be punished as a court-martial may direct.

233. All material instructions given to a member of the guard
by an officer having authority will be promptly communicated
to the commander of the guard by the officer giving them.

234. Should the guard be formed, soldiers will fall in ranks
under arms. At roll call each man, as his name or number and
relief are called, will answer "Here," and come to an ORDER ARMS.

235. Whenever the guard or a relief is dismissed, each member
not at once required for duty will place his rifle in the arm
racks, if they be provided, and will not remove it therefrom
unless he requires it in the performance of some duty.

236. Without permission from the commander of the guard, members
of the main guard, except orderlies, will not leave the immediate
vicinity of the guardhouse. Permission to leave will not be granted
except in cases of necessity.

237. Members of the main guard, except orderlies, will not remove
their accouterments or clothing without permission from the commander
of the guard. (Par. 66.)


238. Articles of war 69, 70, 71, 72, and 73 have special reference
to the confinement of prisoners and should be carefully borne
in mind.

239. The commander of the guard will place a civilian in confinement
on an order from higher authority only, unless such civilian is
arrested while in the act of committing some crime within the
limits of the military jurisdiction, in which case the commanding
officer will be immediately notified.

240. Except as provided in the sixty-eighth article of war, or
when restraint is necessary, no soldier will be confined without
the order of an officer, who shall previously inquire into his
offense. (A. R. 930.)

241. An officer ordering a soldier into confinement will send,
as soon as practicable, a written statement, signed by himself,
to the commander of the guard, setting forth the name, company,
and regiment of such soldier, and a brief statement of the alleged
offense. It is a sufficient statement of the offense to give the
number and article of war under which the soldier is charged.

242. A prisoner, after his first day of confinement, and until
his sentence has been duly promulgated, is considered as held
in confinement by the commanding officer. After due promulgation
of his sentence, the prisoner is held in confinement by authority
of the officer who reviews the proceedings of the court awarding
sentence. The commander of the guard will state in his report, in
the proper place, the name of the officer by whom the prisoner
was originally confined.

243. Enlisted men against whom charges have been preferred will
be designated as "awaiting trial"; enlisted men who have been
tried will, prior to the promulgation of the result, be designated
as "awaiting result of trial"; enlisted men serving sentences
of confinement not involving dishonorable discharge, will be
designated as "garrison prisoners." Persons sentenced to dismissal
or dishonorable discharge and to terms of confinement at military
posts or elsewhere will be designated as "general prisoners."
(A. R. 928.)

244. The sentences of prisoners will be read to them when the
order promulgating the same is received. The officer of the guard,
or the officer of the day if there be no officer of the guard, will
lead them unless the commanding officer shall direct otherwise.

245. When the date for the commencement of a term of confinement
imposed by sentence of a court-martial is not expressly fixed
by sentence, the term of confinement begins on the date of the
officer promulgating it. The sentence is continuous until the
term expires, except when the person sentenced is absent without
authority. (A. R. 969.)

246. When soldiers awaiting trial or the result of trial, or
undergoing sentence commit offenses for which they are tried,
the second sentence will be executed upon the expiration of the

247. Prisoners awaiting trial by, or undergoing sentence of, a
general court-martial and those confined for serious offenses
will be kept apart, when practicable, from those confined by
sentence of an inferior court or for minor offenses. Enlisted
men in confinement for minor offenses, or awaiting trial or the
result of trial for the same, will ordinarily be sent to work
under charge of unarmed overseers instead of armed sentinels
and will be required attend drills unless the commanding officer
shall direct otherwise.

248. Prisoners, other than general prisoners, will be furnished
with food from their respective companies or from the organizations
to which they may be temporarily attached.

The food of prisoners will, when practicable, be sent to their
places of confinement, but post commanders may arrange to send
the prisoners, under proper guard, to their messes for meals.

When there is no special mess for general prisoners, they will
be attached for rations to companies.

Enlisted men bringing meals for the prisoners will not be allowed
to enter the prison room. (See par. 289.)

249. With the exception of those specially designated by the
commanding officer, no prisoners will be allowed to leave the
guardhouse unless under charge of a sentinel and passed by an
officer or noncommissioned officer of the guard. The commanding
officer may authorize certain garrison prisoners and paroled
general prisoners to leave the guardhouse, not under the charge
of a sentinel, for the purpose of working outside under such
surveillance and restrictions as he may impose.

250. Prisoners reporting themselves sick at sick cull, or at
the time designated by the commanding officer, will be sent to
the hospital under charge of proper guard, with a sick report
kept for the purpose. The recommendation of the surgeon will
be entered in the guard report.

251. The security of sick prisoners in the hospital devolves
upon the post surgeon, who will, if necessary, apply to the post
commander for a guard.

252. Prisoners will be paraded with the guard only when directed
by the commanding officer or the officer of the day.

253. A prisoner under charge of a sentinel will not salute an

254. All serviceable clothing which belongs to a prisoner, and
his blankets, will accompany him to the post designated for his
confinement, and will be fully itemized on the clothing list
sent to that post. The guard in charge of the prisoner during
transfer will be furnished with a duplicate of this list, and
will be held responsible for the delivery of all articles itemized
therein with the prisoner. At least one serviceable woolen blanket
will be sent with every such prisoner so transferred. (A.R. 939.)

255. When mattresses are not supplied, each prisoner in the
guardhouse will be allowed a bed sack and 30 pounds of straw
per month for bedding. So far as practicable iron bunks will be
furnished to all prisoners in post guardhouses and prison room.
(A. R. 1084.)

256. If the number of prisoners, including general prisoners,
confined at a post justifies it, the commanding officer will
detail a commissioned officer as "officer in charge of prisoners."
At posts where the average number of prisoners continually in
confinement is less than 12, the detail of an officer in charge
of prisoners will not be made.


299. The sentinel at the post of the guard has charge of the
prisoners except when they have been turned over to the prisoner
guard or overseers. (Pars. 247 and 300 to 304.)

(a) He will allow none to escape.

(b) He will allow none to cross his post leaving the guardhouse
except when passed by an officer or noncommissioned officer of
the guard.

(c) He will allow no one to communicate with prisoners without
permission from proper authority.

(d) He will promptly report to the corporal of the guard any
suspicious noise made by the prisoners.

(e) He will be prepared to tell, whenever asked, how many prisoners
are in the guardhouse and how many are out at work or elsewhere.

Whenever prisoners are brought to his post returning from work
or elsewhere, he will halt them and call the corporal of the
guard, notifying him of the number of prisoners returning. Thus:
"Corporal of the guard, (so many). Prisoners."

He will not allow prisoners to pass into the guardhouse until
the corporal of the guard has responded to the call and ordered
him to do so.

300. Whenever practicable, special guards will be detailed for
the particular duty of guarding working parties composed of such
prisoners as can not be placed under overseers. (Par. 247.)

301. The prisoner guard and overseers will be commanded by the
police officer; if there be no police officer, then by the officer
of the day.

302. The provost sergeant is sergeant of the prisoner guard and
overseers, and as such receives orders from the commanding officer
and the commander of the prisoner guard only.

303. Details for prisoner guard are marched to the guardhouse and
mounted by being inspected by the commander of the main guard,
who determines whether all of the men are in proper condition
to perform their duties and whether their arms and equipments
are in proper condition, and rejects any men found unfit.

304. When prisoners have been turned over to the prisoner guard
or overseers, such guards or overseers are responsible for them
under their commander, and all responsibility and control of the
main guard ceases until they are returned to the main guard.
(Par. 306.)

305. It a prisoner attempts to escape, the sentinel will call
"Halt." If he fails to halt when the sentinel has once repeated
his call, and if there be no other possible means of preventing
his escape, the sentinel will fire upon him.

The following will more fully explain the important duties of
a sentinel in this connection:


By direction of the Secretary of War, the following is published
for the information of the Army:

1, 1887.


The circuit court has jurisdiction of a homicide committed by
one soldier upon another within a military reservation of the
United States.

If a homicide be committed by a military guard without malice
and in the performance of his supposed duty as a soldier, such
homicide is excusable, unless it was manifestly beyond the scope
of his authority or was such that a man of ordinary sense and
understanding would know that it was illegal.

It seems that the sergeant of the guard has a right to shoot a
military convict if there be no other possible means of preventing
his escape.

The common-law distinction between felonies and misdemeanors has
no application to military offenses.

While the finding of a court of inquiry acquitting the prisoner
of all blame is not a legal bar to a prosecution, it is entitled
to weight as an expression of the views of the military court
of the necessity of using a musket to prevent the escape of the

* * * * *

By order of the Secretary of War:
R. C. DRUM, _Adjutant_General._

The following is taken from Circular No. 3, of 1883, from
Headquarters Department of the Columbia:

VANCOUVER BARRACKS, W. T., _April_20,_1883_.



* * * * *

A sentinel is placed as guard over prisoners to prevent their
escape, and, for this purpose, he is furnished a musket, with
ammunition. To prevent escape is his first and most important

* * * * *

I suppose the law to be this: That a sentinel shall not use more
force or violence to prevent the escape of a prisoner than is
necessary to effect that object, but if the prisoner, after being
ordered to halt, continues his flight the sentinel may maim or
even kill him, and it is his duty to do so.

A sentinel who allows a prisoner to escape without firing upon
him, and firing to hit him, is, in my judgment, guilty of a most
serious military offense, for which he should and would be severely
punished by a general court-martial.

* * * * *


[Third indorsement.]


Respectfully returned to the assistant adjutant general, Military
Division of the Pacific, concurring fully in the views expressed
by Col. Morrow. I was not aware that such a view had ever been
questioned. That the period is a time of peace does not affect
the authority and duty of the sentinel or guard to fire upon the
escaping prisoner, if this escape can not otherwise be prevented.
He should, of course, attempt to stop the prisoner before firing
by ordering him to halt, and will properly warn him by the words
"Halt, or I fire," or words to such effect.

W. WINTHROP, _Judge_Advocate_.

[Fourth indorsement.]


Respectfully returned to the commanding general, Department of
the Columbia, approving the opinion of the commanding officer,
Twenty-first Infantry, and of the judge advocate of the division,
in respect to the duty of and method to be adopted by sentinels
in preventing prisoners from escaping.

* * * * *

By command of Maj. Gen. Schofield:

See also Circular No. 53, A. G. O., December 22, 1900.

306. On approaching the post of the sentinel at the guardhouse,
a sentinel of the prisoner guard or an overseer in charge of
prisoners will halt them and call, "No. 1, (so many) prisoners."
He will not allow them to cross the post of the sentinel until
so directed by the corporal of the guard.

307. Members of the prisoner guard and overseers placed over
prisoners for work will receive specific and explicit instructions
covering the required work; they will be held strictly responsible
that the prisoners under their care properly and satisfactorily
perform the designated work.


337. The garrison, post, and storm flags are national flags and
shall be of bunting. The union of such is as described in paragraph
216, Army Regulations, and shall be of the following proportions:
Width, seven-thirteenths of the hoist of the flag; length,
seventy-six one-hundredths of the hoist of the flag.

The garrison flag will have 38 feet fly and 20 feet hoist. It
will be furnished only to posts designated in orders from time
to time from the War Department, and will be hoisted only on
holidays and important occasions.

The post flag will have 19 feet fly and 10 feet hoist. It will be
furnished for all garrison posts and will be hoisted in pleasant

The storm flag will have 9 feet 6 inches fly and 5 feet hoist.
It will be furnished for all occupied posts for use in stormy and
windy weather. It will also be furnished to national cemeteries.
(A. R. 223.)

338. At every military post or station the flag will be hoisted
at the sounding of the first note of the reveille, or of the first
note of the march, if a march be played before the reveille. The
flag will be lowered at the sounding of the last note of the
retreat, and while the flag is being lowered the band will play
"The Star Spangled Banner," or, if there be no band present,
the field music will sound "to the color." When "to the color"
is sounded by the field music while the flag is being lowered
the same respect will be observed as when "The Star-Spangled
Banner" is played by the band, and in either case officers and
enlisted men out of ranks will face toward the flag, stand at
attention, and render the prescribed salute at the last note
of the music. (A: R. 437.)

The lowering of the flag will be so regulated as to be completed
at the last note of "The Star-Spangled Banner" or "to the color."

339. The national flag will be displayed at a seacoast or lake
fort at the beginning of and during an action in which a fort
may be engaged, whether by day or by night. (A. R. 437.)

340. The national flag will always be displayed at the time of
firing a salute. (A. R. 397.)

341. The flag of a military post will not be dipped by way of
salute or compliment. (A. R. 405.)

342. On the death of an officer at a military post the flag is
displayed at halfstaff and so remains between reveille and retreat
until the last salvo or volley is fired over the grave; or if
the remains are not interred at the post until they are removed
therefrom. (A. R. 422.)

343. During the funeral of all enlisted man at a military post
the flag is displayed at halfstaff. It is hoisted to the top
after the final volley or gun is fired or after the remains are
taken from the post. The same honors are paid on the occasion
of the funeral of a retired enlisted man. (A. R. 423.)

344. When practicable, a detail consisting of a noncommissioned
officer and two privates of the guard will raise or lower the
flag. This detail wears side arms or if the special equipments
do not include side arms then belts only.

The noncommissioned officer, carrying the flag, forms the detail
in line, takes his post in the center and marches it to the staff.
The flag is then securely attached to the halyards and rapidly
hoisted. The halyards are then securely fastened to the cleat
on the staff and the detail marched to the guardhouse.

345. When the flag is to be lowered, the halyards are loosened
from the staff and made perfectly free. At retreat the flag is
lowered at the last note of retreat. It is then neatly folded
and the halyards made fast. The detail is then re-formed and
marched to the guardhouse, where the flag is turned over to the
commander of the guard.

The flag should never be allowed to touch the ground and should
always be hoisted or lowered from the leeward side of the staff,
the halyards being held by two persons.


346. The morning and evening gun will be fired by a detachment
of the guard, consisting, when practicable, of a corporal and two
privates. The morning gun is fired at the first note of reveille,
or, if marches be played before the reveille, it is fired at the
beginning of the first march. The retreat gun is fired at the
last note of retreat.

The corporal marches the detachment to and from the piece, which
is fired, sponged out, find secured under his direction.


347. Guard mounting will be formal or informal as the commanding
officer may direct. It will be held as prescribed in the drill
regulations of the arm of the service to which the guard belongs.
If none is prescribed, then as for infantry. In case the guard
is composed wholly of mounted organizations, guard mounting may
be held mounted.

348. When infantry and mounted troops dismounted are united for
guard mounting, all details form as prescribed for infantry.


349. Formal guard mounting will ordinarily be held only in posts
or camps where a band is present.

350. At the assembly, the men designated for the guard fall in
on their company parade grounds as prescribed in paragraph 106,
I. D. R. The first sergeant then verifies the detail, inspects
it, replaces any man unfit to go on guard, turns the detail over
to the senior noncommissioned officer, and retires. The band
takes its place on the parade ground so that the left of its
front rank shall be 12 paces to the right of the front rank of
the guard when the latter is formed.

351. At adjutant's call, the adjutant, dismounted and the sergeant
major on his left, marches to the parade ground. The adjutant
halts and takes post so as to be 12 paces in front of and facing
the center of the guard when formed; the sergeant major continues
on, moves by the left flank and takes post facing to the left,
12 paces to the left of the front rank of the hand; the band
plays in quick or double time; the details are marched to the
parade ground by the senior noncommissioned officers; the detail
that arrives first is marched to the line so that, upon halting,
the breast of the front rank men shall be near to and opposite
the left arm of the sergeant major; the commander of the detail
halts his detail, places himself in front of and facing the sergeant
major, at a distance equal to or a little greater than the front
of his detail, and commands: 1. _Right_, 2. DRESS. The detail
dresses up to the line of the sergeant major and its commander,
the right front rank man placing his breast against the left arm
of the sergeant major; the noncommissioned officers take post
two paces in rear of the rear rank of the detail. The detail
aligned, the commander of the detail commands: FRONT, salutes, and
then reports; "The detail is correct," or "(So many) sergeants,
corporals, or privates are absent"; the sergeant major returns
the salute with the right hand after the report is made. The
commander then passes by the right of the guard and takes post
in the line of noncommissioned officers in rear of the right
file of his detail.

Should there be more than one detail, it is formed in like manner
on the left of the one preceding. The privates, noncommissioned
officers, and commander of each detail dress on those of the
preceding details in the same rank or line. Each detail commander
closes the rear rank to the right and fills blank files as far
as practicable with the men from his front rank.

Should the guard from a company not include a noncommissioned
officer, one will be detailed to perform the duties of commander
of the detail. In this case the commander of the detail, after
reporting to the sergeant major, passes around the right flank
between the guard and the band and retires.

352. When the last detail has formed, the sergeant major takes a
side step to the right, draws sword, verifies the detail, takes
post two paces to the right and two paces to the front of the
guard, facing to the left, causes the guard to count off, completes
the left squad, if necessary, as in the School of the Company,
and if there be more than three squads, divides the guard into
two platoons, again takes post as described above and commands:
1. _Open_ranks_, 2. MARCH.

At the command march, the rear rank and file closers march backward
four steps, halt, and dress to the right. The sergeant major aligns
the ranks and file closers and again taking post as described
above, commands: FRONT, moves parallel to the front rank until
opposite the center, turns to the right, halts midway to the
adjutant, salutes and reports: "Sir, the details are correct,"
or "Sir, (so many) sergeants, corporals, or privates are absent";
the adjutant returns the salute, directs the sergeant major:
Take your post, and then draws saber; the sergeant major faces
about, approaches to within two paces of the center of the front
rank, turns to the right, moves three paces beyond the left of
the front rank, turns to the left, halts on the line of the front
rank, faces about, and brings his sword to the order. When the
sergeant major has reported the officer of the guard takes post,
facing to the front three paces in front of the center of the
guard, and draws saber.

The adjutant then commands: 1. _Officer_(or_officer)_and_
_noncommissioned_officers_, 2. _Front_and_center_, 3. MARCH.

At the command center, the officers carry saber. At the command
MARCH, the officer advances and halts three paces from the adjutant,
remaining at the carry; the noncommissioned officers pass by the
flanks, along the front, and form in order of rank from right to
left, three paces in rear of the officer, remaining at the right
shoulder; if there is no officer of the guard the noncommissioned
officers halt on a line three paces from the adjutant; the adjutant
then assigns the officers and noncommissioned officers according
to rank, as follows: Commander of the guard, leader of first
platoon, leader of second platoon, right guide of first platoon,
left guide of second platoon, left guide of first platoon, right
guide of second platoon, and file closers, or, if the guard is
not divided into platoons: Commander of the guard, right guide,
left guide, and file closers.

The adjutant then commands: 1. _Officer_(or_officers)_and_
_noncommissioned_officers_, 2. POSTS, 3. MARCH.

At the command posts, all, except the officer commanding the
guard, face about. At the command MARCH, they take the posts
presented in the school of the company with open ranks. The adjutant
directs: Inspect your guard, sir; at which the officer commanding
the guard faces about, commands: Prepare for inspection, returns
saber and inspects the guard.

During the inspection the band plays; the adjutant returns saber,
observes the general condition of the guard, and falls out any
man who is unfit for guard duty or does not present a creditable
appearance. Substitutes will report to the commander of the guard
at the guardhouse.

353. The adjutant, when so directed, selects orderlies and color
sentinels, as prescribed in paragraphs 140 and 141, and notifies
the commander of the guard of his selection.

354. If there be a junior officer of the guard he takes post at
the same time as the senior, facing to the front, three paces
in front of the center of the first platoon; in going to the
front and center he follows and takes position on the left of
the senior and is assigned as lender of the first platoon; he may
be directed by the commander of the guard to assist in inspecting
the guard.

If there be no officer of the guard, the adjutant inspects the
guard. A noncommissioned officer commanding the guard takes post
on the right of the right guide when the guard is in line, and
takes the post of the officer of the guard when in column or
passing in review.

355. The inspection ended, the adjutant faces himself about thirty
paces in front of and facing the center of the guard and draws
saber; the new officer of the day takes post in front of and
facing the guard, about thirty paces from the adjutant; the old
officer of the day takes post three paces to the right of and
one pace to the rear of the new officer of the day; the officer
of the guard takes post three paces in front of its center, draws
saber with the adjutant, and comes to the order; thereafter he
takes the same relative position as a captain of a company.

The adjutant then commands: 1. _Parade_, 2. REST, 3. SOUND
OFF, and comes to the order and parade rest.

The band, playing, passes in front of the officer of the guard
to the left of the line and back to its post on the right, when
it ceases playing.

The adjutant then comes to attention, carries saber and commands:
1. _Guard_, 2. ATTENTION, 3. _Close_ranks_, 4. MARCH.

The ranks are opened and closed as in paragraph 745, I. D. R.

The adjutant then commands: 1. _Present_, 2. ARMS, faces
toward the new officer of the day, salutes, and then reports:
Sir, the guard is formed. The new officer of the day, after the
adjutant has reported, returns the salute with the hand and directs
the adjutant: March the guard in review, sir.

The adjutant caries saber, faces about, brings the guard to an
order, and commands: 1. _At_trail,_platoons_(or_guard)_right_,
2. MARCH, 3. _Guard_, 4. HALT.

The platoons execute the movement; the band turns to the right
and places itself 12 paces in front of the first platoon.

The adjutant places himself six paces from the flank and abreast
of the commander of the guard; the sergeant major six paces from
the left flank of the second platoon.

The adjutant then commands: 1. _Pass_in_review_, 2. FORWARD,

The guard marches in quick time past the officer of the day,
according to the principles of review, and is brought to eyes right
at the proper time by the commander of the guard; the adjutant,
commander of the guard, leaders of platoons, sergeant major, and
drum major salute.

The band, having passed the officer of the day, turns to the
left of the column, places itself opposite and facing him, and
continues to play until the guard leaves the parade ground. The
field music detaches itself from the band when the latter turns
out of the column, and, remaining in front of the guard, commences
to play when the band ceases.

Having passed 12 paces beyond the officer of the day, the adjutant
halts; the sergeant major halts abreast of the adjutant and 1
pace to his left; they then return saber, salute, and retire;
the commander of the guard then commands: 1. _Platoons,_right_
_by_squads_, 2. MARCH, and marches the guard to its post.

The officers of the day face toward each other and salute; the
old officer of the day turns over the orders to the new officer
of the day.

While the band is sounding off, and while the guard is marching
in review, the officers of the day stand at parade rest with
arms folded. They take this position when the adjutant comes
to parade rest, resume the attention with him, again take the
parade rest at the first note of the march in review, and resume
attention as the head of the column approaches.

The new officer of the day returns the salute of the commander
of the guard and the adjutant, making one salute with the hand.

356. If the guard be not divided into platoons, the adjutant
commands: 1. _At_trail,_guard_right_, 2. MARCH, 3. _Guard_,
4. HALT, and it passes in review as above; the commander of the
guard is 3 paces in front of its center; the adjutant places
himself 6 paces front the left flank and abreast of the commander
of the guard; the sergeant covers the adjutant on a line with
the front rank.


357. Informal guard mounting will be held on the parade ground
of the organization from which the guard is detailed. If it is
detailed from more than one organization, then at such place
as the commanding officer may direct.

358. At assembly, the detail for guard falls in on the company
parade ground. The first sergeant verifies the detail, inspects
their dress and general appearance, and replaces any man unfit
to march on guard. He then turns the detail over to the commander
of the guard and retires.

359. At adjutant's call, the officer of the day takes his place
15 paces in front of the center of the guard and commands: 1.
_Officer_(or_officers)_and_noncommissioned_officers_, 2.
_Front_and_center_, 3. MARCH; whereupon the officers and
noncommissioned officers take their positions, are assigned and
sent to their posts as prescribed in formal guard mounting. (Par.

The officer of the day will then inspect the guard with especial
reference for its fitness for the duty for which it is detailed
and will select, as prescribed in paragraphs 140 and 141, the
necessary orderlies and color sentinels. The men found unfit
for guard will be returned to quarters and will be replaced by
others found to be suitable, if available in the company. If
none are available in the company the fact will be reported to
the adjutant immediately after guard mounting.

When the inspection shall have been completed the officer of
the day resumes his position and directs the commander of the
guard to march the guard to its post.


360. As the new guard approaches the guardhouse, the old guard
is formed in line, with its field music three paces to its right;
and, when the field music at the head of the new guard arrives
opposite its left, the commander of the new guard commands: 1.
_Eyes_, 2. RIGHT; the commander of the old guard commands:
1. _Present_, 2. ARMS; commanders of both guards salute.
The new guard marches in quick time past the old guard.

When the commander of the new guard is opposite the field music
of the old guard, he commands: FRONT; the commander of the old
guard commands: 1. _Order_, 2. ARMS, as soon as the new
guard shall have cleared the old guard.

The field music having marched three paces beyond the field music
of the old guard, changes direction to the right, and, followed
by the guard, changes direction to the left when on a line with
the old guard; the changes of direction are without command.
The commander of the guard halts on the line of the front rank
of the old guard, allows his guard to march past him, and, when
its rear approaches, forms it in line to the left, establishes
the left guide three paces to the right of the field music of the
old guard, and on a line with the front rank, and then dresses
his guard to the left; the field music of the new guard is three
paces to the right of its front rank.

361. The new guard being dressed the commander of each guard,
in front of and facing its center, commands: 1. _Present_,
2. ARMS, resumes his front, salutes, carries saber, faces his
guard, and commands: 1. _Order_, 2. ARMS.

Should a guard be commanded by a noncommissioned officer, he
stands on the right or left of the front rank, according as he
commands the old or new guard, and executes the rifle salute.

362. After the new guard arrives at its post and has saluted the
old guard, each guard is presented by its commander to its officer
of the day; if there be but one officer of the day present, or
if one officer acts in the capacity of old and new officer of
the day, each guard is presented to him by its commander.

363. If other persons entitled to a salute approach, each commander
of the guard will bring his own guard to attention if not already
at attention. The senior commander of the two guards will then
command: "1. Old and new guards, 2. Present, 3. Arms."

The junior will salute at the command "Present Arms" given by
the senior. After the salute has been acknowledged, the senior
brings both guards to the order.

364. After the salutes have been acknowledged by the officers of
the day, each guard is brought to an order by its commander; the
commander of the new guard then directs the orderly or orderlies
to fall out and report and causes bayonets to be fixed if so
ordered by the commanding officer; bayonets will not then be
unfixed during the tour except in route marches while the guard
is actually marching or when specially directed by the commanding

The commander of the new guard then falls out members of the
guard for detached posts, placing them under charge of the proper
noncommissioned officers, divides the guard into three reliefs,
first, second, and third, from right to left, and directs a list
of the guard to be made by reliefs. When the guard consists of
troops of different arms combined, the men are assigned to reliefs
so as to insure a fair division of duty under rules prescribed
by the commanding officer.

365. The sentinels and detachments of the old guard are at once
relieved by members of the new guard, the two guards standing at
ease or at rest while these changes are being made. The commander
of the old transmits to the commander of the new guard all his
orders, instructions, and information concerning the guard and
its duties. The commander of the new guard then takes possession
of the guardhouse and verifies the articles in charge of the

366. If considerable time is required to bring in that portion
of the old guard still on post, the commanding officer may direct
that as soon as the orders and property are turned over to the
new guard the portion of the old guard at the guardhouse may be
marched off and dismissed. In such a case the remaining detachment
or detachments of the old guard will be inspected by the commander
of the new guard when they reach the guardhouse. He will direct the
senior noncommissioned officer present to march these detachments
off and dismiss them in the prescribed manner.

367. In bad weather, at night, after long marches, or when the
guard is very small, the field music may be dispensed with.




When you pick up a map, the first question is, Where is the north?
This can usually be told by an arrow (see fig. 1, section 1)
which will be found in one of the corners of the map, and which
points to the true north--the north of the north star.

On some maps no arrow is to be found. The chances are a hundred
to one that the north is at the top of the map, as it is on almost
all printed maps. But you can only assure yourself of that fact
by checking the map with the ground it represents. For instance,
if you ascertain that the city of Philadelphia is due east of
the city of Columbus, then the Philadelphia-Columbus line on
the map is a due east-and-west line, and establishes at once all
the other map directions.

Now, the map represents the ground as nearly as it can be represented
on a flat piece of paper. If you are standing up. facing the
north, your right hand will be in the east, your left in the
west, and your back to the south. It is the same with a map;
if you look across it in the direction of the arrow--that is,
toward its north--your right hand will be toward what is east
on the map; your left hand to the west; the south will be at
the bottom of the map.

There is another kind of an arrow that sometimes appears on a
map. It is like the one in figure 2, section 1, and points not
to the true north but to the magnetic north, which is the north
of the compass. Though the compass needle, and therefore the arrow
that represents it on the map, does not point exactly north, the
deviation is, from a military point of view, slight, and appreciable
error will rarely result through the use of the magnetic instead
of the true north in the solution of any military problems.

[Illustration: Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5.]

Should you be curious to know the exact deviation, consult your
local surveyor or any civil engineer.

Both arrows may appear on your map. In that case disregard the
magnetic arrow unless you are using the map in connection with
a compass.

If a map is being used on the ground, the first thing to be done
is to put the lines of the map parallel to the real outlines of
the ground forms, and roads, fences, railroads, etc., that the
map shows; for the making of a map is no more than the drawing
on paper of lines parallel to and proportional in length to real
directions and distances on the ground.

For instance, the road between two places runs due north and south.
Then on the map a line representing the road will be parallel to
the arrow showing the north and will be proportional in length
to the real road. In this way a map is a picture, or, better, a
bare outline sketch; and, as we can make out a picture, though
it be upside down, or crooked on the wall, so we call use a map
that is upside down or not parallel to the real ground forms.
But it is easier to make out both the picture and the map if
their lines are parallel to what they represent. So in using a
map on the ground we always put the lines parallel to the actual
features they show. This is easy if the map has an arrow.

If the map has no arrow, you must locate objects or features on
the ground, and on the map, their representations. Draw on the
map a line connecting any two of the features; place this line
parallel to all imaginary line through the two actual features
located, and your map will be correctly placed. Look to it that
you do not reverse on the map the positions of the two objects
or features, or your map will be exactly upside down.

When the map has been turned into the proper position--that is
to say, "oriented"--the next thing is to locate on the map your
position. If you are in the village of Easton and there is a
place on the map labeled Easton, the answer is apparent. But
if you are out in the country, at an unlabeled point that looks
like any one of a dozen other similar points, the task is more
complicated. In this latter case you must locate and identify,
both on the map and on the ground, other points--hills, villages,
peculiar bends in rivers, forests--any ground features that have
some easily recognizable peculiarity and that you can see from
your position.

Suppose, for instance, you were near Leavenworth and wanted to
locate your exact position, of which you are uncertain. You have
the map shown in this manual, and, looking about, you see southwest
from where you stand the United States Penitentiary; also, halfway
between the south and the southeast--south-southeast a sailor would
say--the reservoir (rectangle west of "O" in "Missouri"). Having
oriented your map, draw on it a line from the map position of the
reservoir toward its actual position on the ground. Similarly
draw a line from the map position of penitentiary toward its
actual position. Prolong the two lines until they intersect.
The intersection of the lines will mark the place where you
stand--south Merritt Hill.

This method consists merely in drawing on the map lines that
represent the lines of sight to known and visible places. The
lines pass through the map position of the places you see and
are parallel to the actual lines of sight; therefore they are the
map representations of the lines of sight, and their intersection
is the map position of the eye of the observer.

After this orientation and location of position, one can deduce
from the map everything there is to know in regard to directions.
In this respect, study of the ground itself will show no more
than will study of the map.

After "What direction?" comes "How far?" To answer this, one
must understand that the map distance between any two points
shown bears a fixed and definite relation or proportion to the
real distance between the two points.

For instance: We measure on a map and find the distance between
two points to be 1 inch. Then we measure the real distance on
the ground and find it to be 10,000 inches; hence the relation
between the map distance and the real distance is 1 to 10,000,
or 1/10000. Now, if the map is properly drawn, the same relation
will hold good for all distances, and we can obtain any ground
distance by multiplying by 10,000 the corresponding map distance.

This relation need not be 1/10000, but may be anything from 1/100
that an architect might use in making a map or plan of a house up
to one over a billion and a half, which is about the proportion
between map and real distances in a pocket-atlas representation of
the whole world on a 6-inch page. Map makers call this relation
the "scale" of the map and put it down in a corner in one of
three ways.

First. 1 inch equals 100.

Second. 1/100.

Third. As shown in figure 3 (section 1).

These expressions mean one and the same thing. A variation of
the first method on a map of different scale might be: 1 inch
equals 1 mile. Since a mile contains 63,360 inches, then the
real distance between any two points shown on the map is 63,360
times the map distance.

To find the ground distance by the third kind of scale, copy it
on the edge of a slip of paper, apply the slip directly to the
map, and read off the distance; and so we answer the question,
"How far?"

After direction and distance comes the interpretation of the
signs, symbols, and abbreviations on the map. Those authorized
are given in section 2 (a reprint of Appendix 4, Field Service
Regulations, 1914); but there are a good many other conventional
signs in common use. A key to them is published by the War
Department, and is called "Conventional Signs, United States
Army." From these you read at once the natural and artificial
features of the country shown on your map. It should be borne in
mind that these conventional signs are not necessarily drawn to
scale, as are the distances. They show the position and outline
of the features rather than the size. This, for the reason that
many of the features shown, if drawn to scale, would be so small
that one could not make them out except with a magnifying glass.
If the exact dimensions are of any importance, they will be written
in figures on the map. For instances, bridges.

In addition to te above conventional signs, we have CONTOURS
to show the elevations, depressions, slope, and shape of the
ground. Abroad, HACHURES are much used, but they serve only to
indicate elevation, and, as compared to contours, are of little
value. Contours resemble the lines shown in figure 4 (section

Hachures are shown in figure 5 (section 1), and may be found on
any European map. They simply show slopes, and, when carefully
drawn, show steeper slopes by heavier shading and gentler slopes
by the fainter hachures. The crest of the mountain is within
the hachures. (See fig. 5, section 1.)

_Contours_.--A certain student, when asked by his instructor
to define "space," said: "I have it, sir, in my head, but can
not put it into words." The Instructor replied: "I suppose that
under those circumstances, Mr. ----, the definition really would
not help much." And so it is with contours--the definition does
not help much if you know a contour when you meet it on a map. For
examples of contours, turn to the map in section 2 and, starting
at the United States penitentiary, note the smooth, flowing,
irregular curved lines marked 880, 860, 840, 840, 860, etc.

The only other lines on the map that at all resemble contours
are stream lines, like "Corral Creek," but the stream lines are
readily distinguished from contours by the fact that they cross the
contours squarely, while the contours run approximately parallel
to each other. Note the stream line just to the west of South
Merritt Hill.

The contours represent lines on the ground that are horizontal
and whose meanderings follow the surface, just as the edge of
a flood would follow the irregularities of the hills about it.
Those lines that contours stand for are just as level as the
water's edge of a lake, but horizontally they wander back and
forth to just as great a degree.

The line marked 880, at the penitentiary, passes through on that
particular piece of ground every point that is 880 feet above
sea level. Should the Missouri River rise in flood to 880 feet,
the penitentiary would be on an island, the edge of which is
marked by the 880 contour.

Contours show several things; among them the height of the ground
they cross. Usually the contour has labeled on it in figures the
height above some starting point, called the DATUM PLANE--generally
sea level. If, with a surveying instrument, you put in on a piece
of ground a lot of stakes, each one of which is exactly the same
height above sea level--that is, run a line of levels--then make
a map showing the locution of the stakes, a line drawn on the
map through all the stake positions is a contour and shows the
position of all points of that particular height.

On any given map all contours are equally spaced in a vertical
direction, and the map shows the location of a great number of
points at certain fixed levels. If you know the vertical interval
between any two adjacent contours, you know the vertical interval
for all the contours on that map, for these intervals on a given
map are all the same.

With reference to a point through which no contour passes, we
can only say that the point in question is not higher than the
next contour up the hill, nor lower than the next one down the
hill. For the purposes of any problem, it is usual to assume
that the ground slopes evenly between the two adjacent contours
and that the vertical height of the point above the lower contour
is proportional to its horizontal distance from the contour, as
compared to the whole distance between the two contours. For
instance, on the map, find the height of point A. The horizontal
measurements are as shown on the map. The vertical distance between
the contours is 20 feet. A is about one-quarter of the distance
between the 800 and the 820 contours, and we assume its height
to be one-quarter of 20 feet (5 feet) higher than 800 feet. So
the height of A is 805 feet.

The vertical interval is usually indicated in the corner of the
map by the letters "V. I." For instance: V. I.=20 feet.

On maps of very small pieces of ground, the V. I. is usually
small--perhaps as small as 1 foot; on maps of large areas on a
small scale it may be very great--even 1,000 feet.

Contours also show SLOPES. It has already been explained that
from any contour to the next one above it the ground rises a
fixed number of feet, according to the vertical interval of that
map. From the scale of distances on the map the horizontal
distance between any two contours can be found. For example:
On the map the horizontal distance between D and E is 90
yards, or 270 feet. The vertical distance is 20 feet the V. I. of
the map. The slope then is 20/270 = 1/13.5 = 7-1/2% = 4-1/2 deg., in all of
which different ways the slope can be expressed,


On a good many contoured maps a figure like this will be found
in one of the corners:


On that particular map contours separated by the distance


on the vertical scale show a slope of 1 deg.: if separated by the


they show a 2 deg. slope. etc. A slope of 1 deg. is a rise of 1 foot in
57. To use this scale of slopes copy it on the edge of a piece
of paper just as you did the scale of distances and apply it
directly to the map.

You will notice that where the contours lie closest the slope
is steepest; where they are farthest apart the ground is most
nearly flat,

It has already been set forth how contours show height and slope;
in addition to this they show the shape of the ground, or GROUND
FORMS. Each single contour shows the shape at its particular level
of the hill or valley it outlines; for instance, the 880 contour
about the penitentiary shows that the hill at that level has a
shape somewhat like a horse's head. Similarly, every contour
on the map gives us the form of the ground at its particular
level, and knowing these ground forms for many levels we can form
a fair conception of what the whole surface is like.

A round contour like the letter O outlines a round ground feature;
a long narrow one indicates a long narrow ground feature.

Different hills and depressions have different shapes. A good
many of them have one shape at one level and another shape at
another level, all of which information will be given you by
the contours on the map.

One of the ways to see how contours show the shape of the ground
is to pour half a bucket of water into a small depression in
the ground. The water's edge will be exactly level, and if the
depression is approximately round the water's edge will also be
approximately round. The outline will look something like figure

Draw roughly on a piece of paper a figure of the same shape and
you will have a contour showing the shape of the bit of ground
where you poured your water.

Next, with your heel gouge out on one edge of your little pond
a small round bay. The water will rush in and the water-mark
on the soil will now be shaped something like figure 7.

Alter your drawing accordingly, and the new contour will show
the new ground shape.

Again do violence to the face of nature by digging with a stick a
narrow inlet opening out of your miniature ocean, and the watermark
will now look something like figure 8.

Alter your drawing once more and your contour shows again the
new ground form. Drop into your main pond a round clod and you
will have a new watermark, like figure 9, to add to your drawing.
This new contour, of the same level with the one showing the
limit of the depression, shows on the drawing the round island.

Drop in a second clod, this time long and narrow, the watermark
will be like figure 10, and the drawing of it, properly placed,
will show another island of another shape. Your drawing now will
look like figure 11.

It shows a depression approximately round, off which open a round
bay and a long narrow bay. There is also a round elevation and a
long, narrow one; a long, narrow ridge, jutting out between the
two bays, and a short, broad one across the neck of the round

[Illustration: Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig 8. Fig. 9. Fig 10. Fig. 11.]

Now flood your lake deeply enough to cover up the features you
have introduced. The new water line, about as shown by the dotted
line in figure 11, shows the oblong shape of the depression at a
higher level; the solid lines show the shape farther down; the
horizontal distance between the two contours at different points
shows where the bank is steep and where the slope is gentler.

Put together the information that each of these contours gives
you, and you will see how contours show the shape of the ground.
On the little map you have drawn you have introduced all the
varieties of ground forms there are; therefore all the contour

The contours on an ordinary map seem much more complicated, but
this is due only to the number of them, their length, and many
turns before they finally close on themselves. Or they may close
off the paper. But trace each one out, and it will resolve itself
into one of the forms shown in figure 11.

Just as the high-tide line round the continents of North and
South America runs a long and tortuous course, but finally closes
back on itself, so will every contour do likewise. And just as
truly as every bend in that high-tide mark turns out around a
promontory, or in around a bay, so will every bend in a contour
stand for a hill or a valley, pointing to the lowlands if it
be a hill, and to the height if it mark a valley.

If the map embrace a whole continent or an island, all the contours
will be of closed form, as in figure 11, but if it embrace only
it part of the continent or island, some of the contours will be
chopped off at the edge of the map, and we have the open form
of contours, as we would have if figure 11 were cut into two

The closed form may indicate a hill or a basin; the open form,
a ridge or a valley; sometimes a casual glance does not indicate

Take up, first, the contour of the open type. If the map shows
a stream running down the inside of the contour, there is no
difficulty in saying at once that the ground feature is a valley;
for instance, V, V, V, and the valley of Corral Creek on the
map. But if there is no stream line, does the contour bend show
a valley or a ridge?

First of all, there is a radical difference between the bend
of a contour round the head of a valley and its bend round the
nose of a ridge,

Compare on the map the valleys V and the ridges R. The bend of
the contour round the head of the valley is much sharper than
the bend of the contour round the nose of the ridge. This is a
general truth, not only in regard to maps, but also in regard
to ground forms. Study any piece of open ground and note how
much wider are the ridges than the valleys. Where you find a
"hog back" or "devil's backbone," you have an exception to the
rule, but the exceptions are not frequent enough to worry over.

To tell whether a given point is on a ridge or in a valley, start
from the nearest stream shown on the map and work across the
map to the undetermined point, keeping in mind that in a real
trip across the country you start from the stream, go up the
hill to the top of a ridge, down the other side of the hill to a
water-course, then up a hill to the top of a ridge, down again,
up again, etc. That is all traveling is--valley, hill, valley,
hill, valley, etc., though you wander till the crack o' doom.
And so your map travels must go--valley, hill, valley, hill--till
you run off the map or come back to the starting point.

On the map, follow the R-V line, V indicating valley and R ridge
or hill. Note first the difference in sharpness in the contour
bends; also how the valley contours point to the highland and
the ridge contours to the lowland.

The contours go thus:


The streams flow down the valleys, and the sharp angle of the
contour points always _up_ stream. Note also how the junction
of a stream and its tributary usually makes an angle that points
_down_ stream.

"Which way does this stream run?"

Water flows down hill. If you are in the bed of a stream, contours
representing higher ground must be to your right and to your
left. Get the elevations of these contours. Generally the nearest
contour to the bank of the stream will cross the stream and there
will be an angle or sharp turn in the contour at this crossing.
If the point of the angle or sharp turn is toward you, you are
going downstream; if away from you, you are going upstream.

If the contours are numbered, you have only to look at the numbers
to say where the low and where the high places are; but to read a
map with any speed one must be quite independent of these numbers.
In ordinary map reading look, first of all, for the stream lines.
The streams are the skeleton upon which the whole map is hung.
Then pick out the hilltops and ridges and you have a body to
clothe with ail the details that will be revealed by a close and
careful study of what the map maker has recorded.

As to closed contours, they may outline a depression or a hill.
On the map, "881" or "885" might be hills or ponds, as far as
their shape is concerned. But, clearly, they are hills, for on
either side are small streams running _away_ from them. If
they were ponds, the stream lines would run _toward_ the
closed contours. The rest of "hill, valley, hill," will always
solve the problem when there are not enough stream lines shown
to make evident at once whether a closed contour marks a pond or
a hill. Look in the beginning for the stream lines and valleys,
and, by contrast, if for no other reason, the hills and ridges
at once loom up.

To illustrate the subject of contours to aid those who have
difficulty in reading contoured maps the following is suggested:

1. Secure modeling clay and build a mound.

2. Use wire and slice this mound horizontally at equal vertical
intervals into zones; then insert vertical dowels through the
mound of clay.

3. Remove the top zone, place on paper, and draw outline of the
bottom edge. Trim your paper roughly to the outline drawn. Indicate
where the holes made by the dowels pierce the paper.

4. Do the above with each zone of your mound.

5. Place these papers in proper order on dowels similarly placed
to ones in original mound at, say, 1 inch vertical interval apart.
A skeleton mound results.

6. Replace the zones of the clay mound and form the original clay
mound along the side of skeleton mound.

7. New force all the paper sheets down the dowels onto the bottom
sheet, and we have a map of clay mound with contours.

NOTE.--One-inch or 2-inch planks can be made into any desired
form by the use of dowels and similar procedure followed.

People frequently ask, "What should I see when I read a map?"
and the answer is given, "The ground as it is." This is not true
any more than it is true that the words, "The valley of the Meuse,"
bring to your mind vine-clad hills, a noble river, and green
fields where cattle graze. Nor can any picture ever put into
your thought what the Grand Canyon really is. What printed word
or painted picture can not do, a map will not. A map says to you,
"Here stands a hill," "Here is a valley," "This stream runs so,"
and gives you a good many facts in regard to them. But you do not
have to "see" anything, any more than you have to visualize Liege
in order to learn the facts of its geography. A map sets forth
cold facts in an alphabet all its own, but an easy alphabet, and
one that tells with a few curving lines more than many thousand
words could tell.


Noncommissioned officers and selected privates should be able
to make simple route sketches. This is particularly useful in
patrolling as thereby a patrol leader is able to give his commander
a good idea of the country his patrol has traversed. Sketches
should be made on a certain scale, which should be indicated
on the sketch, such as 3 inches on the sketch equals 1 mile on
the ground. The north should be indicated on the sketch by means
of an arrow pointing in that direction. Any piece of paper may
be used to make the sketch on. The back of the field-message
blank is ruled and prepared for this purpose. The abbreviations
and conventional signs shown on the following pages should be
used in making such simple sketches.

Field Maps and Sketches.

The following abbreviations and signs are authorized for use on
field maps and sketches. For more elaborate map work the authorized
conventional signs as given in the manual of "Conventional Signs,
United States Army Maps," are used.

Abbreviations other than those given should not be used.


A. Arroyo. L. S. S. Life-Saving Station.
abut. Abutment. L. H. Lighthouse
Ar. Arch. Long. Longitude.
b. Brick. Mt. Mountain.
B. S. Blacksmith Shop. Mts. Mountains.
bot. Bottom. N. North.
Br. Branch. n. f. Not fordable.
br. Bridge. P. Pier.
C. Cape. pk. Plank.
cem. Cemetery. P. O. Post Office
con. Concrete. Pt. Point.
cov. Covered. q.p Queen-post
Cr. Creek. R. River.
d. Deep. R. H. Roundhouse.
cul. Culvert. R. R. Railroad.
D. S. Drug Store. S. South.
E. East. s. Steel.
Est. Estuary. S. H. Schoolhouse.
f. Fordable. S. M. Sawmill.
Ft. Fort. Sta. Station.
G. S General Store. st. Stone.
gir. Girder. str. Stream.
G. M. Gristmill. T. G. Tollgate.
I. Iron. Tres. Trestle.
I. Island. tr. Truss.
Jc. Junction. W. T. Water Tank.
k.p. King-post. W. W. Water Works.
L. Lake. W. West.
Lat. Latitude. w. Wood.
Ldg. Landing. wd. Wide.





The heading "From" is filled in with the _name_ of the
detachment sending the information: as "Officer's Patrol, 7th
Cav." Messages sent on the same day from the same source to the
same person are numbered consecutively. The address is written
briefly, thus: "Commanding officer, Outpost, 1st Brigade," In
the signature the writer's surname only and rank are given.

This blank is four and a half by six and three quarters-inches,
including the margin on the left for binding. The back is ruled
in squares, the side of each square representing 100 yards on a
scale of 3 inches to one mile, for use in making simple sketches
explanatory of the message. It is issued by the Signal Corps in
blocks of forty with duplicating sheets. The regulation envelope
is three by five and one-fourth inches and is printed as follows:


_To_ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ._No_ . . . .
(For signal operator only.)
_When_sent_ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ._No_ . . . .
_Rate_of_speed_ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
_Name_of_messenger_ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
_When_and_by_whom_rec'd_ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
This Envelope will be Returned to Bearer.




(Extracts from Signal Book, United States Army, 1916.)

General Instructions for Army Signaling.

1. Each signal station will have its call, consisting of one or
two letters, as Washington, "W"; and each operator or signalist
will also have his personal signal of one or two letters, as
Jones, "Jo." These being once adopted will not be changed without
due authority.

2. To lessen liability of error, numerals which occur in the body
of a message should be spelled out.

3. In receiving a message the man at the telescope should call
out each letter as received, and not wait for the completion
of a word.

4. A record of the date and time of the receipt or transmission
of every message must be kept.

5. The duplicate manuscript of messages received at, or the original
sent from, a station should be carefully filed.

6. In receiving messages nothing should be taken for granted,
and nothing considered as seen until it has been positively and
clearly in view. Do not anticipate what will follow from signals
already given. Watch the communicating station until the last
signals are made, and be very certain that the signal for the
end of the message has been given.

7. Every address must contain at least two words and should be
sufficient to secure delivery.

8. All that the sender writes for transmission after the word
"To" is counted.

9. Whenever more than one signature is attached to a message count
all initials and names as a part of the message.

10. Dictionary words, initial letters, surnames of persons, names
of cities, towns, villages, States, and Territories, or names of
the Canadian Provinces will be counted each as one word: _e._g._,
New York, District of Columbia, East St. Louis should each be
counted as one word. The abbreviation of the names of cities,
towns, villages, States, Territories, and provinces will be
counted the same as if written in full.

11. Abbreviations of weights and measures in common use, figures,
decimal points, bars of division, and in ordinal numbers the
affixes "st," "d," "nd," "rd," and "th" will be each counted
as one word. Letters and groups of letters, when such groups do
not form dictionary words and are not combinations of dictionary
words, will be counted at the rate of five letters or fraction
of five letters to a word. When such groups are made up of

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