Part 5 out of 8
it is very refreshing to adjust the underclothing.
SECTION 3. MAKING CAMP.
On reaching the camp site the men should be allowed to fall out
and rest as soon as the arms have been stacked and the shelter
tents pitched. If the blanket rolls have been carried on the
wagons, then the location of the front poles of the shelter tents
should be marked before they are allowed to fall out. The men
will not be allowed to relieve themselves until sinks are dug.
Temporary sinks may be dug with intrenching tools, if carried.
A guard should be placed over the water supply at once.
As soon as the shelter tents are pitched the company proceeds
to the remainder of the camp work in accordance with a permanent
assignment similar to the following:
One squad helps arrange the kitchen.
One squad pitches the officers' tents.
One squad digs the sink.
One squad procures wood and water.
One squad is held available for details from regimental headquarters.
The officers and first sergeant supervise the work.
The sinks are located by the commanding officer. The detail to
dig them should wait until informed of the location. An officer
should inspect the sink as soon as the detail reports it as
After the camp has been put in order the first sergeant makes
the details from roster for kitchen police and noncommissioned
officer in charge of quarters for the next day and for such guard
as may be ordered for that day.
The details called for by regimental headquarters for pitching
the headquarters camp for the quartermaster, etc., should be
reported to the adjutant without delay.
The cooks pitch their tent at that end of the company street
nearest the kitchen. Space must be left for this tent if the
cooks are not in ranks when the company pitches tents. Unless
lunch has been carried or cooked during the march, the cooks
should get to work on a hot meal as soon as possible. The kitchen
police report at the kitchen as soon as their tent is pitched.
Wood and water will be required at once.
Officers should avoid keeping the men unnecessarily under arms
or on their feet after a hard day's march.
When the details of making camp have been completed, all men
should at once care for their rifles and feet. (For details as
to the care of the rifle see Chapter II Section 1, for the care
of the feet see Chapter IV.)
SECTION 4. CAMP SERVICE AND DUTIES.
In camp "Reveille" is preceded by "First call," and a march played
by the band or field music, and is followed immediately by
"Assembly." If there is a reveille gun, it is fired at the first
note of the march and is the signal for all to arise. The roll
is called at the last notes of assembly after reveille. At this
formation men should fall in in the proper uniform--rifle and
belt, service hat, olive-drab flannel shirt, service breeches,
leggings, and shoes. The regimental commander may prescribe that
coats are to be worn and will prescribe the exact uniform for
all drills, parades, and other formations, as well as for men
going on pass.
Immediately after reveille roll call the sergeant next in rank
to the first sergeant takes command of the company and deploys
it for a general police of the camp within the limits assigned
to the company. Men pick up all scraps of paper and rubbish of
all kinds, depositing it in the company incinerator or place
designated for the purpose. The police limits of each company
are usually designated as extending from head to rear of camp
within the space occupied by the company street, including the
ground occupied by the tents of the company, no unassigned space
being left between companies.
Immediately after breakfast men police their tents and raise
walls of same. If the day is fair, all bedding should be spread
on the tents for several hours' airing.
At sick call all men who are sick fall in and are marched to
the regimental infirmary, under charge of the noncommissioned
officer in charge of quarters. The noncommissioned officer takes
with him the company sick report previously filled in and signed
by the company commander. The surgeon examines all those reporting
and indicates their status on the sick report. This status may be
"Duty" (available for all duty), "Quarters" (patient to remain
in tent or company street), and "Hospital" (patient to be sent
to the hospital). The noncommissioned officer then returns to
the company with all the men not marked "Hospital" and hands
the sick report to the first sergeant.
At "Drill call" the company prepares for drill and falls in so
that it will be completely formed at assembly, which is usually
sounded 10 minutes after drill call. All men are required to attend
drill except those excused by sick report and those specially
excused from headquarters. The excused list should include in each
company only the mess sergeant, the two cooks, one kitchen police,
and men on regimental guard. During drill hours the guard to be
excused should be limited to a small patrol to guard against
fire and thieves in camp.
If the bedding has been aired, it should be taken in immediately
after drill and placed in the tents neatly folded.
Some time during the morning, at a time designated by him, the
company commander inspects the entire company camp. At this
inspection the entire street should be policed, kitchen in order,
and tents policed, as follows:
In permanent camp, when pyramidal, conical, or wall tents are
used: Bedding folded neatly and placed on the head of the cot.
(If bed sacks are used, they will be folded in three folds and
the bedding placed on top.) Hats on top of the bedding. Shoes
under foot of cot. Surplus kit bag at side of squad leader's
cot. Equipment suspended neatly from a frame arranged around
the tent pole. Rifles in rack constructed around the tent pole.
In shelter-tent camp: Bedding neatly folded and placed at rear
of tent, ponchos underneath. Equipment arranged on the bedding.
Rifles laid on bedding except when used as tent poles.
The regimental commander prescribes the exact scheme to be followed
in the police of tents.
Should there be no parade, retreat roll call is held at the same
hour. This roll call is under arms and is supervised by an officer
of the company. After the roll call and at the sounding of "Retreat,"
the officer brings the company to parade rest and keeps it in
this position during the sounding of this call. At the first
note of the National Anthem ("The Star-Spangled Banner") or "To
the Color" the company is brought to attention and so stands
until the end of the playing. The officer then reports the result
of the roll call to the adjutant or officer of the day, returns
to the company, inspects the arms, and dismisses it.
At the sounding of "Call to quarters" all men will repair to their
After taps has sounded all talking must cease and all lights must
be extinguished, and so remain until first call for reveille.
In camp all enlisted men are prohibited from crossing the officers'
street, or from visiting officers' tents unless actually engaged
in some duty requiring them to do so, or sent for by an officer.
Men are not allowed to leave camp without a pass signed by the
company commander and countersigned by the regimental adjutant.
The first sergeant is sometimes allowed to give men permission
to leave camp from retreat to taps.
The noncommissioned officer in charge of quarters, detailed for
24 hours goes on duty each day at reveille. He is responsible
that the grounds around the company are kept in proper police;
that no loud noise, disturbance, or disorder occurs in the company
street; that men confined to the company street do not leave
the same without proper authority. He reports men who are sick
to the surgeon. He may be required to report all other details
called for. He accompanies the captain in his daily inspection
of the company. He will not leave the company street during his
tour of duty except as provided above.
One or two privates are detailed daily as kitchen police. They
go on duty at reveille. It is their duty to assist the cooks in
the kitchen. They assist in the preparation of meals, wait on
the table, wash dishes, procure water and wood, chop firewood,
and keep the kitchen, mess tent, and surrounding ground policed.
They are under the orders of the mess sergeant and the cooks.
Rifles need careful attention in camp. They should be cleaned
and oiled daily, preferably just before retreat or parade. It
is advisable for each man to have a canvas cover to keep off
the dust and dampness. In a shelter-tent camp tie the rifle,
muzzle up, to the pole of the tent, placing a chip of wood under
the butt plate and an oily rag over (never inside) the muzzle.
Wet shoes should be filled with oats or dry sand, and set in a
cool place to dry. Never dry them by a fire.
Uniforms need special care, as camp service is very hard on them.
In a permanent camp every man should have two pair of breeches.
The coat will seldom be worn except at parade or retreat. One
pair of breeches and the coat should be kept neat, clean, and
pressed for use on ceremonies, inspections, and when going on
pass. Woolen uniforms may be cleaned and freed from spots by
rubbing with a flannel rag saturated with gasoline. Cotton uniforms
may be washed with water, soap, and a scrubbing brush, wrung
out, and stretched, properly creased, on a flat wood surface in
the sun to dry. Leggings can be similarly washed. Hats should
be cleaned with gasoline, and dampened and ironed to restore
Enlisted men should be very careful to observe all the sanitary
regulations of the camp. Flies are the greatest spreaders of camp
disease. All fecal matter and food should be carefully guarded from
them. In camps extreme precautions are taken to screen the sinks
and kitchens from flies, and all enlisted men should cooperate in
the effort to make these precautions successful. One fly carrying
germs on his feet from the sinks to the food can start a serious
and fatal epidemic in a camp. Defecating on the ground in the
vicinity of camp or urinating in camp are extremely dangerous
to the health of the command, and are serious military offenses.
At night a urinal can is provided in each company street.
In a permanent camp cots or bed sacks are usually provided for
the men to sleep on. In a shelter tent camp beds should be made
of hay, grass, leaves, pine or spruce boughs, or pine needles,
on top of which the poncho and blanket are spread, thus softening
the ground and keeping the sleeper away from the cold and dampness.
Neglect to prepare the bed when sleeping without cot or bed sack
means a loss of sleep, and may lead to colds, bowel disorders,
In wet weather tents should be ditched, and in windy or cold
weather dirt may be banked around them. A place for washing the
person and clothes should be arranged for in each company street,
and the waste water disposed of by means of drainage or rock-filled
pits. In dry weather the streets in camp should frequently be
sprinkled with water to keep down the dust. This is specially
necessary around the kitchen.
SECTION 1. PRELIMINARY TRAINING IN MARKSMANSHIP.
Effective rifle fire is generally what counts most in battle.
To have effective rifle fire, the men on the firing line must
be able to HIT what they are ordered to shoot at. There is no
man who can not be taught how to shoot. It is not necessary or
even desirable to begin instruction by firing on a rifle range.
A perfectly green recruit who has never fired a rifle may be made
into a good shot by a little instruction and some preliminary
drills and exercises.
Before a man goes on the range to fire it is absolutely necessary
that he should know--
1. How to set the rear sight.
2. How to sight or aim.
3. How to squeeze the trigger.
4. How to hold the rifle in all positions.
If he does not know these things it is worse than useless for
him to fire. He will not improve; the more he shoots the worse
he will shoot, and it will become more difficult to teach him.
SECTION 2. SIGHT ADJUSTMENT.
Men must be able to adjust their sights correctly and quickly.
An error in adjustment so small that one can scarcely see it
on the sight leaf is sufficient to cause a miss at an enemy at
500 yards and over.
Notice your rear sight. When the leaf is laid down the BATTLE
SIGHT appears on top. This sight is set for 547 yards and is
not adjustable. When the leaf is raised four sights come into
view. The extreme range sight for 2,850 yards at the top of the
leaf is seldom used. The open sight at the upper edge of the
drift slide is adjustable from 1,400 to 2,750 yards. To set it
the upper edge of the slide is made to correspond with the range
reading on the leaf, and the slide is then clamped with the slide
screw. This sight also is seldom used. The open sight at the
bottom of the triangular opening in the drift slide is adjustable
from 100 to 2,450 yards. To set it the index line at the lower
corners of the triangle is set opposite the range graduation on
the leaf and the slide clamped. This and the peep sight just
below it are the sights most commonly used. To set the peep sight,
the index lines on either side of the peephole are set opposite
the range desired and the slide clamped.
Notice the scales for the various ranges on either side of the
face of the leaf. The odd-numbered hundreds of yards are on the
right and the even on the left. The line below the number is
the index line for that range. Thus to set the sight for 500
yards the index line of the slide is brought in exact line with
the line on the leaf below the figure 5 and the slide clamped.
To set for 550 yards the index lines of the slide are set half
way between the index lines on the leaf below the figure 5 on
the right side and the figure 6 on the left side. Look at your
sight carefully when setting it and take great pains to get it
exact. An error in setting the width of one of the lines on the
leaf will cause an error of about 8 inches in where your bullet
will strike at 500 yards.
The WIND GAUGE is adjusted by means of the windage screw at the
right front end of the base of the sight. Each graduation on
the wind-gauge scale is called a "point." For convenience in
adjusting the line of each third point on the scale is longer
than the others. If you turn the windage screw so that the movable
base moves to the right, you are taking right windage, which
will cause your rifle to shoot more to the right.
It is seldom that a rifle will shoot correctly to the point aimed
at at a given range with the sights adjusted exactly to the scale
graduations for that range. If your sight is not correctly adjusted
for your shooting and you wish to move it slightly to make it
correct, remember to move it in the direction you wish your shot
to hit. If you wish to shoot higher raise your sight. If to the
right, move the wind gauge to the right. Always move your sight
the correct amount in accordance with the following table:
SECTION 3. TABLE OF SIGHT CORRECTIONS.
by a change by a change
Range. in elevation in windage
of 25 yards. of 1 point.
-------- -------------- -------------
_Yards._ _Inches._ _Inches._
100 0.72 4
200 1.62 8
300 2.79 12
400 4.29 16
500 6.22 20
600 8.59 24
800 15.43 32
1,000 25.08 40
An easy rule to remember the windage correction by is: "A change
of 1 point of wind changes the point of impact 4 inches for every
100 yards of range."
Copy this table and take it to the range with you.
Example of sight adjustment: Suppose you are firing at 500 yards.
The first two or three shots show you that your shots are hitting
about a foot below and a foot to the right of the center of the
bull's-eye. From the above table you will see that if you will
raise your sight 50 yards and move the wind gauge half a point to
the left the rifle will be sighted so that if you aim correctly
the bullets will hit well inside the bull's eye.
SECTION 4. AIMING.
OPEN SIGHT: Always align your sights with the front sight squarely
in the middle of the "U" or notch of the rear sight, and the
top of the front sight even with the upper corners of the "U."
(See fig. 1.) All the sights on the rifle except the peep sight
are open sights.
PEEP SIGHT: Always center the tip of the front sight in the center
of the peephole when aiming with this sight. (See fig. 2.)
[Illustration: FIGURE 1.]
Always aim below the bull's-eye. Never let your front sight appear
to touch the bull's-eye in aiming. Try to see the same amount of
white target between the top of the front sight and the bottom
of the bull's-eye each time. The eye must be focused on the
bull's-eye or mark and not on the front or rear sight.
Look at figures 1 and 2 until your eye retains the memory of
them, then try to duplicate the picture every time you aim. Aim
consistently, always the same. Never change your aim; change
your sight adjustment if your shots are not hitting in the right
SECTION 5. BATTLE SIGHT.
The battle sight is the open sight seen when the leaf is laid
flat. It is adjusted for a range of 547 yards. It is intended
to be used in battle, when you get nearer to the enemy than 600
yards. Always aim at the belt of a standing enemy, or just below
him if he is kneeling, sitting, or lying. On the target range
this sight is used for rapid fire. With it the rifle shoots about
2 feet high at ranges between 200 and 400 yards, so you must aim
below the figure on the target "D." Find out in four instruction
practice just how much you must aim below to hit the figure.
SECTION 6. TRIGGER SQUEEZE.
Use the first joint of the fore finger to squeeze the trigger.
It is the most sensitive and best controlled portion of the body.
As you place the rifle to your shoulder squeeze the trigger so
as to pull it back about one-eighth of an inch, thus taking up
the safety portion, or slack, of the pull. Then contract the
trigger finger gradually, slowly and steadily increasing the
pressure on the trigger while the aim is being perfected. Continue
the gradual increase of pressure so that when the aim has become
exact the additional pressure required to release the point of
the sear can be given almost insensibly and without causing any
deflection of the rifle. Put absolutely all your mind and will
power into holding the rifle steady and squeezing the trigger
off without disturbing the aim. Practice squeezing the trigger
in this way every time you have your rifle in your hand until
you can surely and quickly do it without a suspicion of a jerk.
[Illustration: FIGURE 2.]
By practice the soldier becomes familiar with the trigger squeeze
of his rifle, and knowing this, he is able to judge at any time,
within limits, what additional pressure is required for its
discharge. By constant repetition of this exercise he should be
able finally to squeeze the trigger to a certain point beyond
which the slightest movement will release the sear. Having squeezed
the trigger to this point, the aim is corrected, and, when true,
the additional pressure is applied and the discharge follows
and the bullet flies true to the mark.
SECTION 7. FIRING POSITIONS.
When in ranks at close order the positions are those described
in the Infantry Drill Regulations. When in extended order, or
when firing alone, these positions may be modified somewhat to
better suit the individual. The following remarks on the various
positions are offered as suggestions whereby steady positions
may be learned by the soldier.
STANDING POSITION: Face the target, then execute right half face.
Plant the feet about 12 inches apart. As you raise the ride to
the shoulder lean very slightly backward just enough to preserve
the perfect balance on both feet which the raising of the rifle
has somewhat disturbed. Do not lean far back, and do not lean
forward at all. If your body is out of balance it will be under
strain and you will tremble. The right elbow should be at about
the height of the shoulder. The left hand should grasp well around
the stock and handguard in front of the rear sight, and the left
elbow should be almost directly under the rifle. The right hand
should do more than half the work of holding the rifle up and
against the shoulder, the left hand only steadying and guiding
the piece. Do not try to meet the recoil; let the whole body
move back with it. Do not be afraid to press the jaw hard against
the stock; this steadies the position, and the head goes back
with the recoil and insures that your face is not hurt.
KNEELING POSITION: Assume the position very much as described
in the Infantry Drill Regulations. Sit on the right heel. The
right knee should point directly to the right, that is, along
the firing line. The point of the left elbow should rest over
the left knee. There is a flat place under the elbow which fits
a flat place on the knee and makes a solid rest. Lean the body
well forward. This position is uncomfortable until practiced,
when it quickly ceases to be uncomfortable.
SITTING POSITION: Sit down half faced to the right, feet from 6
to 8 inches apart, knees bent, right knee slightly higher than
the left, left leg pointed toward the target. Rest both elbows
on the knees, hands grasping the piece the same as in the prone
position. This is a very steady position, particularly if holes
can be found or made in the ground for the heels.
PRONE POSITION AND USE OF THE GUN SLING: To adjust the sling
for firing, unhook the straight strap of the sling and let it
out as far as it will go. Adjust the loop so that when stretched
along the bottom of the stock its rear end (bight) comes about
opposite the comb of the stock. A small man needs a longer loop
than a tall man. Lie down facing at an angle of about 60 deg. to
the right of the direction of the target. Spread the legs as
wide apart as they will go with comfort. Thrust the left arm
through between the rifle and the sling, and then back through
the loop of the sling, securing the loop, by means of the keeper,
around the upper left arm as high up as it will go. Pass the
hand under and then over the sling from the left side, and grasp
the stock and handguard just in rear of the lower band. Raise
the right elbow off the ground, rolling slightly over on the
left side. Place the butt to the shoulder and roll back into
position, clamping the rifle hard and steady in the firing position.
The rifle should rest deep down in the palm of the left hand
with fingers almost around the handguard. Shift the left palm
a little to the right or left until the rifle stands perfectly
upright (no cant) without effort. The left elbow should rest
on the ground directly under the rifle, and right elbow on the
ground about 5 inches to the right of a point directly under
the stock. In this position the loop of the sling, starting at
the lower band, passes to the right of the left wrist, and thence
around the left upper arm. The loop should be so tight that about
50 pounds tension is placed on it when the position is assumed.
This position is uncomfortable until practiced, when it quickly
ceases to be uncomfortable. It will be steadier if small holes
can be found or dug in the ground for the elbows. In this position
the sling binds the left forearm to the rifle and to the ground
so that it forms a dead rest for the rifle, with a universal
joint, the wrist, at its upper end. Also the rifle is so bound
to the shoulder that the recoil is not felt at all. This is the
steadiest of all firing positions.
The gun sling can also be used in this manner with advantage in
the other positions.
SECTION 8. CALLING THE SHOT.
It is evident that the sights should be so adjusted at each range
that the rifle will hit where you aim. In order to determine
that the sights are so adjusted it is necessary that you shall
know each time just where you were aiming on the target at the
instant your rifle was discharged. If you know this and your
rifle hits this point your rifle is correctly sighted. If your
shot does not hit near this point, you should change your sight
adjustment in accordance with the table of sight corrections
in section 3.
No man can hold absolutely steady. The rifle trembles slightly,
and the sights seem to wobble and move over the target. You try
to squeeze off the last ounce of the trigger squeeze just as
the sights move to the desired alignment under the bull's-eye.
At this instant, just before the recoil blots out a view of the
sights and target, you should catch with your eye a picture, as
it were, of just where on the target your sights were aligned, and
call to yourself or to the coach this point. This point is where
your shot should strike if your sights are correctly adjusted,
and if you have squeezed the trigger without disturbing your
aim. Until a man can call his shots he is not a good shot, for
he can never tell if his rifle is sighted right or not, or if
a certain shot is a good one or only the result of luck.
SECTION 9. COORDINATION.
Good marksmanship consists in learning thoroughly the details
Holding the rifle in the various positions.
Squeezing the trigger.
Calling the shot.
Adjusting the sights.
And, when these have been mastered in detail, then the coordination
of them in the act of firing. This coordination consists in putting
absolutely all of one's will power into an effort to hold the
rifle steadily, especially in getting it to steady down when
the aim is perfected; in getting the trigger squeezed off easily
at the instant the rifle is steadiest and the aim perfected; in
calling the shot at this instant; and, if the shot does not hit
near the point called, then in adjusting the sights the correct
amount so that the rifle will be sighted to hit where you aim.
SECTION 10. ADVICE TO RIFLEMEN.
Before going to the range clean the rifle carefully, removing
every trace of oil from the bore. This can best be done with
a rag saturated with gasoline. Put a light coat of oil on the
bolt and cams. Blacken the front and rear sights with smoke from
a burning candle or camphor or with liquid sight black.
Look through the bore and see that there is no obstruction in
Keep the rifle off the ground; the stock may absorb dampness,
the sights may be injured, or the muzzle filled with dirt.
Watch your hold carefully and be sure to know where the line
of sight is at discharge. It is only in this way that the habit
of calling shots, which is essential to good shooting, can be
Study the conditions, adjust the sling, and set the sight before
going to the firing point.
Look at the sight adjustment before each shot and see that it
has not changed.
If sure of your hold and if the hit is not as called, determine
and make FULL correction in elevation and windage to put the
next shot in the bull's-eye.
Keep a written record of the weather conditions and the corresponding
elevation and windage for each day's firing.
Less elevation will generally be required on hot days; on wet
days; in a bright sunlight; with a 6 o'clock wind; or with a
More elevation will generally be required on cold days; on very
dry days; with a 12 o'clock wind; with a hot barrel; in a dull
or cloudy light.
The upper band should not be tight enough to bind the barrel.
Do not put a cartridge into the chamber until ready to fire.
Do not place cartridges in the sun. They will get hot and shoot
Do not rub the eyes--especially the sighting eye.
In cold weather warm the trigger hand before shooting.
After shooting, clean the rifle carefully and then oil it to prevent
Have a strong, clean cloth that will not tear and jam, properly
cut to size, for use in cleaning.
Always clean the rifle from the breech, using a brass cleaning
rod when available. An injury to the rifling at the muzzle causes
the piece to shoot very irregularly.
Regular physical exercise, taken systematically, will cause a
marked improvement in shooting.
Frequent practice of the "Position and aiming drills" is of the
greatest help in preparing for shooting on the range.
RAPID FIRING: Success is rapid firing depends upon catching a
quick and accurate aim, holding the piece firmly and evenly,
and in squeezing the trigger without a jerk.
In order to give as much time as possible for aiming accurately,
the soldier must practice taking position, loading with the clip,
and working the bolt, so that no time will be lost in these
operations. With constant practice all these movements may be
made quickly and without false motions.
When the bolt handle is raised, it must be done with enough force
to start the shell from the chamber; and when the bolt is pulled
back, it must be with sufficient force to throw the empty shell
well away from the chamber and far enough to engage the next
In loading, use force enough to load each cartridge with one motion.
The aim must be caught quickly, and, once caught, must be held
and the trigger squeezed steadily. Rapid firing, as far as holding,
aim, and squeezing the trigger are concerned, should be done with
all the precision of slow fire. The gain in time should be in
getting ready to fire, loading, and working the bolt.
FIRING WITH RESTS: In order that the shooting may be uniform the
piece should always be rested at the same point.
SECTION 11. THE COURSE IN SMALL-ARMS FIRING.
The course in small-arms firing consists of--
(a) Nomenclature and care of rifle.
(b) Sighting drills.
(c) Position and aiming drills.
(d) Deflection and elevation correction drills.
(e) Gallery practice.
(f) Estimating distance drill.
(g) Individual known-distance firing, instruction practice.
(h) Individual known-distance firing, record practice.
(i) Long-distance practice.
(j) Practice with telescopic sights.
(k) Instruction combat practice.
(l) Combat practice.
(m) Proficiency test.
The regulations governing these are found in Small Arms Firing
Manual, 1913. There should be several copies of this manual in
SECTION 12. TARGETS.
The accompanying plates show the details and size of the targets:
[Illustration: TARGET A.]
[Illustration: TARGET B.]
[Illustration: TARGET C.]
[Illustration: TARGET D.]
SECTION 13. PISTOL AND REVOLVER PRACTICE.
[Footnote 8: Whenever in these regulations the word "pistol"
appears the regulation applies with equal force to the revolver,
if applicable to that weapon.]
135. NOMENCLATURE AND CARE OF THE WEAPON; HANDLING AND PRECAUTIONS
AGAINST ACCIDENTS.--The soldier will first be taught the nomenclature
of those parts of the weapon necessary to an understanding of
its action and use and the proper measures for its care and
preservation. Ordnance pamphlets Nos. 1866 (description of the
Colt's automatic pistol), 1919, and 1927 (description of the
Colt's revolver, calibers .38 and .45, respectively) contain full
information on this subject, and are furnished to organizations
armed with these weapons.
[Footnote 9: The number refer to paragraphs in the Small Arms
Firing Manual, 1918.]
Careless handling of the pistol or revolver is the cause of many
accidents and results in broken parts of the mechanism. The following
rules will, if followed, prevent much trouble of this character:
(a) On taking the PISTOL from the armrack or holster,
take out the magazine and see that it is empty before replacing
it; then draw back the slide and make sure that the piece is
unloaded. Observe the same precaution after practice on the target
range, and again before replacing the pistol in the holster or
in the armrack. When taking the REVOLVER from the armrack or
holster and before returning it to the same, open the cylinder
and eject empty shells and cartridges. Before beginning a drill
and upon arriving on the range observe the same precaution.
(b) Neither load nor cock the weapon until the moment of
firing, nor until a run in the mounted course is started.
(c) Always keep the pistol or revolver in the position
of "Raise pistol" (par. 146, Cavalry Drill Regulations, 1916),
except when it is pointed at the target. (The position of "Lower
pistol" is authorized for mounted firing only.)
(d) Do not place the weapon on the ground where sand or
earth can enter the bore or mechanism.
(e) Before loading the PISTOL, draw back the slide and
look through the bore to see that it is free from obstruction.
Before loading the REVOLVER, open the cylinder and look through
the bore to see that it is free from obstruction. When loading
the pistol for target practice place five cartridges in the magazine
and insert the magazine in the handle; draw back the slide and
insert the first cartridge in the chamber and carefully lower
the hammer fully down.
[Footnote 10: TO LOAD PISTOL: Being at raise pistol (right hand
grasping stock at the height of and 6 inches in front of the
point of the right shoulder, forefinger alongside barrel, barrel
to the rear and inclined forward about 30 deg.).
Without deranging position of the hand, rotate the pistol so
the sights move to the left, the barrel pointing to the right
front and up.
With the thumb and forefinger of the left hand (thumb to the
right) grasp the slide and pull it toward the body until it stops,
and then release it. The pistol is thus loaded, and the hammer
at full cock.
If the pistol is to be kept in the hand and not to be fired at
once, engage the safety lock with the thumb of the right hand.
If the pistol is to be carried in the holster, remove safety lock,
if on, and lower the hammer fully down.]
[Footnote 11: TO LOWER THE HAMMER: Being at the loading position
at full cock.
I. Firmly seat thumb of right hand on the hammer: insert forefinger
inside trigger guard.
II. With thumb of left hand exert a momentary pressure on the
grip-safety to release hammer from sear.
III. At the same instant exert pressure or the trigger and carefully
and slowly lower the hammer fully down.
IV. Remove finger from trigger.
V. Insert pistol in holster.
CAUTION.--The pistol must never be placed in the holster until
hammer is fully down.]
In loading the REVOLVER place five cartridges in the cylinder
and let the hammer down on the EMPTY CHAMBER.
(f) Whenever the pistol is being LOADED or UNLOADED, the
muzzle must be kept up.
(g) Do not point the weapon in any direction where an
accidental discharge might do harm.
(h) After loading do not cock the pistol or the revolver
until ready to fire.
(i) Keep the working parts properly lubricated.
136. POSITION, DISMOUNTED.--Stand firmly on both feet, body perfectly
balanced and erect and turned at such an angle as is most comfortable
when the arm is extended toward the target; the feet far enough
apart to insure firmness and steadiness or position (about 8 to
10 inches); weight of body borne equally upon both feet; right
arm fully extended, left arm hanging naturally.
REMARKS.--The right arm may be slightly bent, although the difficulty
of holding the pistol uniformly and of keeping it as well as the
forearm in the same vertical plane makes this objectionable.
137. THE GRIP.--Grasp the stock as high as possible with the
thumb and last three fingers, the forefinger alongside the trigger
guard, the thumb extended along the stock. The barrel, hand, and
forearm should be as nearly in one line as possible when the
weapon is pointed toward the target. The grasp should not be so
tight as to cause tremors of the hand or arm to be communicated
to the weapon, but should be firm enough to avoid losing the grip
when the recoil takes place.
REMARKS.--The force of recoil of the pistol or revolver is exerted
in a line above the hand which grasps the stock. The lower the
stock is grasped the greater will be the movement or "jump" of
the muzzle caused by the recoil. This not only results in a severe
strain upon the wrist, but in loss of accuracy.
If the hand be placed so that the grasp is on one side of the
stock, the recoil will cause a rotary movement of the weapon
toward the opposite side.
The releasing of the sear causes a slight movement of the muzzle,
generally to the left. The position of the thumb along the stock
overcomes much of this movement. The soldier should be encouraged
to practice this method of holding until it becomes natural.
To do uniform shooting the weapon must be held with exactly the
same grip for each shot. Not only must the hand grasp the stock
at the same point for each shot, but the tension of the grip
must be uniform.
138. (a) THE TRIGGER SQUEEZE.--The trigger must be squeezed
in the same manner as in rifle dring. (See Chapter VIII, section
6.) The pressure of the forefinger on the trigger should be steadily
increased and should be straight back, not sideways. The pressure
should continue to that point beyond which the slightest movement
will release the sear. Then, when the aim is true, the additional
pressure is applied and the pistol fired.
Only by much practice can the soldier become familiar with the
trigger squeeze. This is essential to accurate shooting. It is the
most important detail to master in pistol or revolver shooting.
(b) SELF-COCKING ACTION.--The force required to squeeze
the trigger of the revolver when the self-cocking device is used
is considerably greater than with the single action. To accustom
a soldier to the use of the self-cocking mechanism, and also to
strengthen and develop the muscles of the hand, a few minutes
practice daily in holding the unloaded revolver on a mark and
snapping it, using the self-cocking mechanism, is recommended.
The use of the self-cocking device in firing is not recommended
except in emergency. By practice in cocking the revolver the
soldier can become sufficiently expert to fire very rapidly,
using single action, while his accuracy will be greater than when
using double action.
139. AIMING.--Except when delivering rapid or quick fire, the
rear and front sights of the pistol are used in the same manner
as the rifle sights. The normal sight is habitually used (see
Pl. VI), and the line of sight is directed upon a point just
under the bull's-eye at "6 o'clock." The front sight must be
seen through the middle of the rear-sight notch, the top being
on a line with the top of the notch. Care must be taken not to
cant the pistol to either side.
[Footnote 12: The instructor should take cognizance of the fact
that the proper aiming point is often affected by the personal
and fixed peculiarities of the firer, and if unable to correct
such abnormalities, permit firer to direct sight at such point
as promises effective results.]
If the principles of aiming have not been taught, the soldier's
instruction will begin with sighting drills as prescribed for
the rifle so far as they may be applicable. The sighting bar
with open sight will be used to teach the normal sight and to
demonstrate errors likely to be committed.
To construct a sighting rest for the pistol (see Pl. VI) take
a piece of wood about 10 inches long, 1-1/4 inches wide, and
9/16 inch thick. Shape one end so that it will fit snugly in
the handle of the pistol when the magazine has been removed.
Screw or nail this stick to the top of a post or other object
at such an angle that the pistol when placed on the stick will
be approximately horizontal. A suitable sighting rest for the
revolver may be easily improvised.
[Illustration: Plate VI.]
140. (a) HOW TO COCK THE PISTOL.--The pistol should be
cocked by the thumb of the right hand and with the least possible
derangement of the grip. The forefinger should be clear of the
trigger when cocking the pistol. Some men have difficulty at
first in cocking the pistol with the right thumb. This can be
overcome by a little practice. Jerking the pistol forward while
holding the thumb on the hammer will not be permitted.
(b) HOW TO COCK THE REVOLVER.--The revolver should be
cocked by putting the thumb on the hammer at as nearly a right
angle to the hammer as possible, and by the action of the thumb
muscles alone bringing the hammer back to the position of full
cock. Some men with large hands are able to cock the revolver
with the thumb while holding it in the position of aim or raise
pistol. Where the soldier's hand is small this can not be done,
and in this case it assists the operation to give the revolver
a slight tilt to the right and upward (to the right). Particular
care should be taken that the forefinger is clear of the trigger
or the cylinder will not revolve. Jerking the revolver forward
while holding the thumb on the hammer will not be permitted.
141. POSITION AND AIMING DRILLS, DISMOUNTED.--For this instruction
the squad will be formed with an interval of 1 pace between files.
Black pasters to simulate bull's-eyes will be pasted opposite
each man on the barrack or other wall, from which the squad is
10 paces distant.
The squad being formed as described above, the instructor gives
the command: 1. _Raise_, 2. _Pistol_ (par. 156, Cavalry
Drill Regulations), and cautions, "Position and aiming drill,
dismounted." The men take the positions described in paragraph
136, except that the pistol is held at "Raise pistol."
The instructor cautions, "Trigger squeeze exercise." At the command
READY, cock the weapon as described in paragraph 140. At the
command, 1. _Squad_, 2. FIRE, slowly extend the arm till
it is nearly horizontal, the pistol directed at a point about 6
inches below the bull's-eye. At the same time put the forefinger
inside the trigger guard and gradually "feel" the trigger. Inhale
enough air to comfortably fill the lungs and gradually raise
the piece until the line of sight is directed at the point of
aim, i. e., just below the bull's-eye at 6 o'clock. While the
sights are directed upon the mark, gradually increase the pressure
on the trigger until it reaches that point where the slightest
additional pressure will release the sear. Then, when the aim
is true, the additional pressure necessary to fire the piece is
given so smoothly as not to derange the alignment of the sights.
The weapon will be held on the mark for an instant after the
hammer falls and the soldier will observe what effect, if any,
the squeezing of the trigger has had on his aim.
It is impossible to hold the arm perfectly still, but each time the
line of sight is directed on the point of aim a slight additional
pressure is applied to the trigger until the piece is finally
discharged at one of the moments when the sights are correctly
aligned upon the mark.
When the soldier has become proficient in taking the proper position,
the trigger squeeze should be executed at will. The instructor
prefaces the preparatory command by "At will" and gives the command
HALT at the conclusion of the exercise, when the soldier will
return to the position of "Raise pistol."
At first this exercise should be executed with deliberation, but
gradually the soldier will be taught to catch the aim quickly
and to lose no time in beginning the trigger squeeze and bringing
it to the point where the slightest additional pressure will
release the sear.
REMARKS.--In service few opportunities will be offered for slow
aimed fire with the pistol or revolver, although use will be
made of the weapon under circumstances when accurate pointing
and rapid manipulation are of vital importance.
In delivering a rapid fire, the soldier must keep his eyes fixed
upon the mark and, after each shot, begin a steadily increasing
pressure on the trigger, trying at the same time to get the sights
as nearly on the mark as possible before the hammer again falls.
The great difficulty in quick firing with the pistol lies in
the fact that when the front sight is brought upon the mark,
the rear sight is often found to be outside the line joining the
eye with the mark. This tendency to hold the pistol obliquely
can be overcome only by a uniform manner of holding and pointing.
This uniformity is to be attained only by acquiring a grip which
can be taken with certainty each time the weapon is fired. It
is this circumstance which makes the position and aiming drills
so important. The soldier should constantly practice pointing
the pistol until he acquires the ability to direct it on the
mark in the briefest interval of time and practically without
the aid of sights.
The soldier then repeats the exercises with the pistol in the
left hand, the left side being turned toward the target.
142. TO DRAW AND FIRE QUICKLY--SNAP SHOOTING.--With the squad
formed as described in paragraph 141 except that the pistol is
in the holster and the flap, if any, buttoned, the instructor
cautions "Quick-fire exercise." And gives the command, 1. SQUAD;
2. Fire. At this command each soldier, keeping his eye on the
target, quickly draws his pistol, cocks it as in paragraph 140,
thrusts it toward the target, squeezes the trigger, and at the
instant the weapon is brought in line with the eye and the objective
increases the pressure, releasing the sear. To enable the soldier
to note errors in pointing, the weapon will be momentarily held
in position after the fall of the hammer. Efforts at deliberate
aiming in this exercise must be discouraged.
Remarks under paragraph 141 are specially applicable also to
this type of fire. When the soldier has become proficient in
the details of this exercise, it should be repeated at will;
the instructor cautions, "At will; quick fire exercise." The
exercise should be practiced until the mind, the eye, and trigger
finger act in unison.
To simulate this type of fire mounted, the instructor places
the squad so that the simulated bull's-eyes are in turn, to the
RIGHT, to the LEFT, to the RIGHT FRONT, to the LEFT FRONT, to
the RIGHT REAR. With the squad in one of these positions, the
instructor cautions, "Position and aiming drill, mounted." At
this caution the right foot is carried 20 inches to the right and
the left hand to the position of the bridle hand (par. 246, Cavalry
Drill Regulations). The exercise is carried out as described for
the exercise dismounted, using the commands and means laid down in
paragraphs 161 to 168, inclusive, Cavalry Drill Regulations, for
firing in the several directions. The exercise is to be executed
at will when the squad has been sufficiently well instructed in
When firing to the left the pistol hand will be about opposite
the left shoulder and the shoulders turned about 45 deg. to the left;
when firing to the right rear the shoulders are turned about
45 deg. to the right.
When the soldier is proficient in these exercises with the pistol
in the right hand, they are repeated with the pistol in the left
REVOLVER OR PISTOL RANGE PRACTICE.--The courses in range practice
are given in paragraphs 147 to 199, Small Arms Firing Manual,
EXTRACTS FROM MANUAL OF INTERIOR GUARD DUTY.
UNITED STATES ARMY, 1914.
[The numbers refer to paragraphs in the Manual.]
SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION.
1. Guards may be divided into four classes: Exterior guards, interior
guards, military police, and provost guards.
2. Exterior guards are used only in time of war. They belong to
the domain of tactics and are treated of in the Field Service
Regulations and in the drill regulations of the different arms
of the service,
The purpose of exterior guards is to prevent surprise, to delay
attack, and otherwise to provide for the security of the main
On the march they take the form of advance guards, rear guards,
and flank guards. At a halt they consist of outposts.
3. Interior guards are used in camp or garrison to preserve order,
protect property, and to enforce police regulations. In time
of war such sentinels of an interior guard as may be necessary
are placed close in or about a camp, and normally there is an
exterior guard further out consisting of outposts. In time of
peace the interior guard is the only guard in a camp or garrison.
4. Military police differ somewhat from either of these classes.
(See Field Service Regulations.) They are used in time of war
to guard prisoners, to arrest stragglers and deserters, and to
maintain order and enforce police regulations in the rear of
armies, along lines of communication, and in the vicinity of large
5. Provost guards are used in the absence of military police,
generally in conjunction with the civil authorities at or near
large posts or encampments, to preserve order among soldiers
beyond the interior guard.
SECTION 2. CLASSIFICATION OF INTERIOR GUARDS.
6. The various elements of an interior guard classified according
to their particular purpose and the manner in which they perform
their duties are as follows:
(a) The main guard.
(b) Special guards: Stable guards, park guards, prisoner
guards, herd guards, train guards, boat guards, watchmen, etc.
SECTION 3. DETAILS AND ROSTERS.
7. At every military post, and in every regiment or separate
command in the field, an interior guard will be detailed and duly
It will consist of such number of officers and enlisted men as
the commanding officer may deem necessary, and will be commanded
by the senior officer or noncommissioned officer therewith, under
the supervision of the officer of the day or other officer detailed
by the commanding officer.
8. The system of sentinels on fixed posts is of value in discipline
and training because of the direct individual responsibility
which is imposed and required to be discharged in a definite
and precise manner. While the desirability of this type of duty
is recognized, it should only be put in practice to an extent
sufficient to insure thorough instruction in this method of
performing guard duty and should not be the routine method of its
performance. The usual guard duty will be performed by watchmen,
patrols, or such method as, in the opinion of the commanding
officer, may best secure results under the particular local
9. At posts where there are less than three companies the main
guard and special guards may all be furnished by one company
or by details from each company. It is directed that whenever
possible such guards shall be furnished by a single company, for
the reason that if guard details are taken from each organization
at a post of two companies, troops, or batteries it will result
in both being so reduced as to seriously interfere with drill
and instruction, whereas if details are taken from only one,
the other is available for instruction at full strength.
Where there are three or more companies, the main guard will,
if practicable, be furnished by a single company, and, as far
as practicable, the same organization will supply all details
for that day for special guard, overseer, and fatigue duty. In
this case the officer of the day and the officers of the guard,
if there are any, will, if practicable, be from the company
furnishing the guard.
10. At a post or camp where the headquarters of more than one
regiment are stationed, or in the case of a small brigade in
the field, if but one guard be necessary for the whole command,
the details will be made from the headquarters of the command.
If formal guard mounting is to be held, the adjutant, sergeant
major, and band to attend guard mounting will be designated by
the commanding officer.
11. When a single organization furnishes the guard, a roster
of organizations will be kept by the sergeant major under the
supervision of the adjutant. (See Appendix B.)
12. When the guard is detailed from several organizations, rosters
will be kept by the adjutant, of officers of the day and officers
of the guard by name; by the sergeant major under the supervision
of the adjutant, of sergeants, corporals, musicians, and privates
of the guard by number per organization; and by first sergeants,
of sergeants, corporals, musicians, and privates by name. (See
13. When organizations furnish their own stable, or stable and
park guards, credit will be given each for the number of enlisted
men so furnished as though they had been detailed for main guard.
14. Special guards, other than stable or park guards, will be
credited the same as for main guard, credited with fatigue duty,
carried on special duty, or credited as the commanding officer
may direct. (Pars. 6, 221, 247, and 300.)
15. Captains will supervise the keeping of company rosters and see
that all duties performed are duly credited. (See pars. 355-364,
A. R., for rules governing rosters, and Form 342, A. G. O., for
instructions as to how rosters should be kept.)
16. There will be an officer of the day with each guard, unless
in the opinion of the commanding officer the guard is so small
that his services are not needed. In this case an officer will
be detailed to supervise the command and instruction of the guard
for such period as the commanding officer may direct.
17. When more than one guard is required for a command, a field
officer of the day will be detailed, who will receive his orders
from the brigade or division commander, as the latter may direct.
When necessary captains may be placed on the roster for field
officer of the day.
18. The detail of officers of the guard will be limited to the
necessities of the service and efficient instruction; inexperienced
officers may be detailed as supernumerary officers of the guard
for purposes of instruction.
19. Officers serving on staff departments are, in the discretion
of the commanding officer, exempt from guard duty.
20. Guard details will, if practicable, be posted or published
the day preceding the beginning of the tour, and officers notified
personally by a written order at the same time.
21. The strength of guards and the number of consecutive days for
which an organization furnishes the guard will be so regulated
as to insure privates of the main guard an interval of not less
than five days between tours.
When this is not otherwise practicable, extra and special duty
men will be detailed for night guard duty, still performing their
daily duties. When so detailed a roster will be kept by the adjutant
showing the duty performed by them.
22. The members of main guards and stable and park guards will
habitually be relieved every 24 hours. The length of the tour
of enlisted men detailed as special guards, other than stable
or park guards, will be so regulated as to permit of these men
being held accountable for a strict performance of their duty.
23. Should the officer of the day be notified that men are required
to fill vacancies in the guard, he will cause them to be supplied
from the organization to which the guard belongs. If none are
available in that organization, the adjutant will be notified
and will cause them to be supplied from the organization that
is next for guard. (Par. 68.)
24. The adjutant will have posted on the bulletin board at his
office all data needed by company commanders in making details
from their companies.
At first sergeant's call, first sergeants will go to headquarters
and take from the bulletin board all data necessary for making
the details required from their companies; these details will
be made from their company rosters.
25. In order to give ample notice, first sergeants will, when
practicable, publish at retreat and post on the company bulletin
board all details made from the company for duties to be performed.
26. Where rosters are required to be kept by this manual, all
details will be made by roster.
SECTION 4. COMMANDER OF THE GUARD.
41. The commander of the guard is responsible for the instruction
and discipline of the guard. He will see that all of its members
are correctly instructed in their orders and duties and that
they understand and properly perform them. He will visit each
relief at least once while it is on post, and at least one of
these visits will be made between 12 o'clock midnight and daylight.
42. He receives and obeys the orders of the commanding officer
and the officer of the day, and reports to the latter without
delay all orders to the guard not received from the officer of
the day; he transmits to his successor all material instructions
and information relating to his duties.
43. He is responsible under the officer of the day for the general
safety of the post or camp as soon as the old guard marches away
from the guardhouse. In case of emergency, while both guards
are at the guardhouse, the senior commander of the two guards
will be responsible that the proper action is taken.
44. Officers of the guard will remain constantly with their guards,
except while visiting patrols or necessarily engaged elsewhere
in the performance of their duties. The commanding officer will
allow a reasonable time for meals.
45. A commander of a guard leaving his post for any purpose will
inform the next in command of his destination and probable time
46. Except in emergencies, the commander of the guard may divide
the night with the next in command, but retains his responsibility;
the one on watch must be constantly on the alert.
47. When any alarm is raised in camp or garrison, the guard will
be informed immediately. (Par, 234.) If the case be serious,
the proper call will be sounded, and the commander of the guard
will cause the commanding officer and the officer of the day
to be at once notified.
48. If a sentinel calls: "The guard," the commander of the guard
will at once send a patrol to the sentinel's post. If the danger
be great, in which case the sentinel will discharge his piece,
the patrol will be as strong as possible.
49. When practicable, there should always be an officer or
noncommissioned officer and two privates of the guard at the
guardhouse in addition to the sentinels there on post.
50. Between reveille and retreat, when the guard had been turned
out for any person entitled to the compliment (see pars. 222 and
224), the commander of the guard, if an officer, will receive
the report of the sergeant, returning the salute of the latter
with the right hand. He will then draw his saber and place himself
two paces in front of the center of the guard. When the person
for whom the guard has been turned out approaches, he faces his
guard and commands: 1. _Present_, 2. ARMS; faces to the
front and salutes. When his salute is acknowledged, he resumes
the carry, faces about, and commands: 1. _Order_, 2. ARMS;
and faces to the front.
If it be an officer entitled to inspect the guard, after saluting
and before bringing his guard to an order, the officer of the
guard reports: "Sir, all present or accounted for"; or "Sir,
(so-and-so) is absent"; or if the roll call has been omitted:
"Sir, the guard is formed," except that at guard mounting the
commanders of the guards present their guards and salute without
making any report.
Between retreat and reveille the commander of the guard salutes
and reports but does not bring the guard to a present.
51. To those entitled to have the guard turned out but not entitled
to inspect it, no report will be made; nor will a report be made
to any officer unless he halts in front of the guard.
52. When a guard commanded by a noncommissioned officer is turned
out as a compliment or for inspection, the noncommissioned officer,
standing at a right shoulder on the right of the right guide,
commands: 1. _Present_, 2. ARMS. He then executes the rifle
salute. If a report be also required, he will, after saluting,
and before bringing his guard to an order, report as prescribed
for the officer of the guard. (Par. 50.)
53. When a guard is in line, not under inspection, and commanded
by an officer, the commander of the guard salutes his regimental,
battalion, and company commander, by bringing the guard to attention
and saluting in person.
For all other officers, excepting those entitled to the compliment
from a guard (par. 224), the commander of the guard salutes in
person, but does not bring the guard to attention.
When commanded by a noncommissioned officer, the guard is brought
to attention in either case, and the noncommissioned officer
The commander of a guard exchanges salutes with the commanders
of all other bodies of troops; the guard is brought to attention
during the exchange.
"Present arms" is executed by a guard only when it has turned
out for inspection or as a compliment, and at the ceremonies
of guard mounting and relieving the old guard.
54. In marching a guard or a detachment of a guard the principles
of paragraph 53 apply. "Eyes right" is executed only in the
ceremonies of guard mounting and relieving the old guard.
55. If a person entitled to the compliment, or the regimental,
battalion, or company commander, passes in rear of a guard, neither
the compliment nor the salute is given, but the guard is brought to
attention while such person is opposite the post of the commander.
After any person has received or declined the compliment, or
received the salute from the commander of the guard, official
recognition of his presence thereafter while he remains in the
vicinity will be taken by bringing the guard to attention.
56. The commander of the guard will inspect the guard at reveille
and retreat, and at such other times as may be necessary, to
assure himself that the men are in proper condition to perform
their duties and that their arms and equipments are in proper
condition. For inspection by other officers, he prepares the
guard in each case as directed by the inspecting officer.
57. The guard will not be paraded during ceremonies unless directed
by the commanding officer.
58. At all formations members of the guard or reliefs will execute
inspection arms as prescribed in the drill regulations of their
59. The commander of the guard will see that all sentinels are
habitually relieved every two hours, unless the weather or other
cause makes it necessary that it be done at shorter or longer
intervals, as directed by the commanding officer.
60. He will question his noncommissioned officers and sentinels
relative to the instructions they may have received from the old
guard; he will see that patrols and visits of inspection are
made as directed by the officer of the day.
61. He will see that the special orders for each post and member of
the guard, either written or printed, are posted in the guardhouse
and, if practicable, in the sentry box or other sheltered place
to which the member of the guard has constant access.
62. He will see that the proper calls are sounded at the hours
appointed by the commanding officer.
63. Should a member of the guard be taken sick, or be arrested,
or desert, or leave his guard, he will at once notify the officer
of the day. ( Par. 23.)
64. He will, when the countersign is used (pars. 210 to 216),
communicate it to the noncommissioned officers of the guard and
see that it is duly communicated to the sentinels before the hour
for challenging; the countersign will not be given to sentinels
posted at the guardhouse.
65. He will have the details for hoisting the flag at reveille
and lowering it at retreat, and for firing the reveille and retreat
gun, made in time for the proper performance of these duties.
(See pars. 338, 344, 345, and 346.) He will see that the flags
are kept in the best condition possible, and that they are never
handled except in the proper performance of duty.
66. He may permit members of the guard while at the guardhouse
to remove their head dress, overcoats, and gloves; if they leave
the guardhouse for any purpose whatever, he will require that
they be properly equipped and armed, according to the character
of the service in which engaged, or as directed by the commanding
67. He will enter in the guard report a report of his tour of
duty and, on the completion of his tour, will present it to the
officer of the day. He will transmit with his report all passes
turned in at the post of the guard.
68. Whenever a prisoner is sent to the guardhouse or guard tent
for confinement, he will cause him to be searched, and will without
unnecessary delay, report the case to the officer of the day.
69. Under war conditions, if anyone is to be passed out of camp
at night, he will be sent to the commander of the guard who will
have him passed beyond the sentinels.
70. The commander of the guard will detain at the guardhouse all
suspicious characters, or parties attempting to pass a sentinel's
post without authority, reporting his action to the officer of
the day, to whom persons so arrested will be sent, if necessary.
71. He will inspect the guardrooms and cells, and the irons of
such prisoners as may be ironed, at least once during his tour,
and at such other times as he may deem necessary.
72. He will cause the corporals of the old and new reliefs to
verify together, immediately before each relief goes on post,
the number of prisoners who should then properly be at the
73. He will see that the sentences of prisoners under his charge
are executed strictly in accordance with the action of the reviewing
74. When no special prisoner guard has been detailed (par. 300),
he will, as far as practicable, assign as guards over working
parties of prisoners sentinels from posts guarded at night only.
75. The commander of the guard will inspect all meals sent to
the guardhouse and see that the quantity and quality of food
are in accordance with regulations.
76. At guard mounting he will report to the old officer of the
day all cases of prisoners whose terms of sentence expire on
that day, and also all cases of prisoners concerning whom no
statement of charges has been received. (See par. 241.)
77. The commander of the guard is responsible for the security
of the prisoners under the charge of his guard; he becomes
responsible for them after their number has been verified and
they have been turned over to the custody of his guard by the
old guard or by the prisoner guard or overseers.
78. The prisoners will be verified and turned over to the new
guard without parading them, unless the commanding officer or
the officer of the day shall direct otherwise.
79. To receive the prisoners at the guardhouse when they have
been paraded and after they have been verified by the officers
of the day, the commander of the new guard directs his sergeant
to form his guard with an interval, and commands: 1. Prisoners, 2.
_Right_, 3. FACE, 4. _Forward_, 5. MARCH. The prisoner's
having arrived opposite the interval in the new guard, he commands:
1. Prisoners, 2. HALT, 3. _Left_, 4. FACE, 5. _Right_(or_left)_,
6. DRESS. 7. FRONT.
The prisoners dress on the line of the new guard.
SECTION 5. SERGEANT OF THE GUARD.
80. The senior noncommissioned officer of the guard always acts
as sergeant of the guard, and if there be no officer of the guard,
will perform the duties prescribed for the commander of the guard.
81. The sergeant of the guard has general supervision over the
other noncommissioned officers and the musicians and privates
of the guard, and must be thoroughly familiar with all of their
orders and duties.
82. He is directly responsible for the property under charge
of the guard, and will see that it is properly cared for. He
will make lists of articles taken out by working parties and see
that all such articles are duly returned. If they are not, he
will immediately report the fact to the commander of the guard.
83. Immediately after guard mounting he will prepare duplicate
lists of the names of all noncommissioned officers, musicians, and
privates of the guard, showing the relief and post or duties of
each. One list will be handed as soon as possible to the commander
of the guard; the other will be retained by the sergeant.
84. He will see that all reliefs are turned out at the proper
time, and that the corporals thoroughly understand, and are prompt
and efficient in, the discharge of their duties.
85. During the temporary absence from the guardhouse of the sergeant
of the guard, the next in rank of the noncommissioned officers
will perform his duties.
86. Should the corporal whose relief is on post be called away
from the guardhouse, the sergeant of the guard will designate
a noncommissioned officer to take the corporal's place until
87. The sergeant of the guard is responsible at all times for
the proper police of the guardhouse or guard tent, including
the ground about them and the prison cells.
88. At first sergeant's call he will proceed to the adjutant's
office and obtain the guard report book.
89. When the national or regimental colors are taken from the
stacks of the color line, the color bearer and guard, or the
sergeant of the guard, unarmed, and two armed privates as a guard,
will escort the colors to the colonel's quarters, as prescribed
for the color guard in the drill regulations of the arm of the
service to which the guard belongs.
90. He will report to the commander of the guard any suspicious
or unusual occurrence that comes under his notice, will warn
him of the approach of any armed body, and will send to him all
persons arrested by the guard.
91. When the guard is turned out its formation will be as follows:
The senior noncommissioned officer, if commander of the guard, is
on the right of the right guide; if not commander of the guard,
he is in the line of file closers, in rear of the right four
of the guard; the next in rank is right guide; the next left
guide: the others in the line of file closers, usually each in
rear of his relief; the field music, with its left three paces
to the right of the right guide. The reliefs form in the same
order as when the guard was first divided, except that if the
guard consists of dismounted cavalry and infantry, the cavalry
forms on the left.
92. The sergeant forms the guard, calls the roll, and, if not
in command of the guard, reports to the commander of the guard
as prescribed in drill regulations for a first sergeant forming
a troop or company; the guard is not divided into platoons or
sections, and, except when the whole guard is formed prior to
marching off, fours are not counted.
93. The sergeant reports as follows: "Sir, all present or accounted
for," or "Sir, (so-and-so) is absent"; or if the roll call has
been omitted, "Sir, the guard is formed." Only men absent without
proper authority are reported absent. He then takes his place,
94. At night the roll may be called by reliefs and numbers instead
of names; thus, the first relief being on post: Second relief:
No. 1; No. 2, etc.; Third relief, Corporal; No. 1, etc.
95. Calling the roll will be dispensed with in forming the guard
when it is turned out as a compliment, on the approach of an
armed body, or in any sudden emergency; but in such cases the
roll may be called before dismissing the guard. If the guard
be turned out for an officer entitled to inspect it, the roll
will, unless he directs otherwise, always be called before a
report is made.
96. The sergeant of the guard has direct charge of the prisoners,
except during such time us they may be under the charge of the
prisoner guard or overseers, and is responsible to the commander
of the guard for their security.
97. He will carry the keys of the guardroom and cells, and will
not suffer them to leave his personal possession while he is
at the guardhouse, except as hereinafter provided. (Par. 99.)
Should he leave the guardhouse for any purpose he will turn the
keys over to the noncommissioned officer who takes his place.
98. He will count the knives, forks, etc., given to the prisoners
with their food, and see that none of these articles remain in
their possession. He will see that no forbidden articles of any
kind are conveyed to the prisoners.
99. Prisoners when paraded with the guard are placed in line, in
its center. The sergeant, immediately before forming the guard,
will turn over his keys to the noncommissioned officer at the
guardhouse. Having formed the guard, he will divide it into two
nearly equal parts. Indicating the point of division with his
hand, he commands: 1. _Right_(or_left)_, 2. FACE, 3.
_Forward_, 4. MARCH, 5. _Guard_, 6. HALT, 7. _Left_
_(or_right)_, 8. FACE.
If the first command be RIGHT FACE, the right half of the guard
only will execute the movements; if LEFT FACE, the left half only
will execute them. The command HALT is given when sufficient
interval is obtained to admit the prisoners. The doors of the
guardroom and cells are then opened by the noncommissioned officer
having the keys. The prisoners will file out under the supervision
of the sergeant, the noncommissioned officer, and sentinel on
duty at the guardhouse, and such other sentinels all may be
necessary; they will form in line in the interval between the
two parts of the guard.
100. To return the prisoners to the guardroom and cells, the
sergeant commands; 1. _Prisoners_, 2. _Right_(or_left)_,_
3. FACE, 4. _Column_right_(or_left)_, 5. MARCH.
The prisoners, under the same supervision as before, return to
their proper rooms or cells.
101. To close the guard. the sergeant commands: 1. _Left_(or_
_right)_, 2. FACE, 3. _Forward_, 4. MARCH, 5. _Guard_,
6. HALT, 7. _Right_(or_left)_, 8. FACE.
The left or right half only of the guard, as indicated, executes
102. If there be but few prisoners, the sergeant may indicate
the point of division as above, and form the necessary interval
by the commands: 1. _Right_(or_left)_step_, 2. MARCH: 3.
_Guard_, 4. HALT, and close the intervals by the commands:
1. _Left_(or_right)_step_, 2. MARCH, 3. _Guard_, 4.
103. If sentinels are numerous, reliefs may, at the discretion of
the commanding officer, be posted in detachments, and sergeants,
as well as corporals, required to relieve and post them.
SECTION 6. CORPORAL OF THE GUARD.
104. A corporal of the guard receives and obeys orders from none
but noncommissioned officers of the guard senior to himself, the
officers of the guard, the officer of the day, and the commanding
105. It is the duty of the corporal of the guard to post and
relieve sentinels and to instruct the members of his relief in
their orders and duties.
106. Immediately after the division of the guard into reliefs
the corporals will assign the members of their respective reliefs
to posts by number, and a soldier so assigned to his post will
not be changed to another during the same tour of guard duty,
unless by direction of the commander of the guard or higher
authority. Usually, experienced soldiers are placed over the arms
of the guard, and at remote and responsible posts.
107. Each corporal will then make a list of the members of his
relief, including himself. This list will contain the number of
the relief, the name, the company, and the regiment of every
member thereof, and the post to which each is assigned. The list
will be made in duplicate, one copy to be given to the sergeant
of the guard as soon as completed, the other to be retained by
108. When directed by the commander of the guard, the corporal
of the first relief forms his relief, and then commands: CALL
Commencing on the right, the men call off alternately rear and
front rank, "one," "two," "three," "four," and so on; it in single
rank, they call off from right to left. The corporal then commands:
1. _Right_, 2. FACE, 3. _Forward_, 4. MARCH.
The corporal marches on the left, and near the rear file, in
order to observe the march. The corporal of the old guard marches
on the right of the leading file, and takes command when the
last one of the old sentinels is relieved, changing places with
the corporal of the new guard.
109. When the relief arrives at six paces from a sentinel (see
par. 168), the corporal halts it and commands, according to the
number of the post: No. (----.)
Both sentinels execute port arms or saber; the new sentinel
approaches the old, halting about one pace from him. (See par.
110. The corporals advance and place themselves, facing each other,
a little in advance of the new sentinel, the old corporal on his
right, the new corporal on his left, both at right shoulder, and
observe that the old sentinel transmits correctly his instructions.
The following diagram will illustrate the positions taken:
| | | | | C| |D
| | | | -
R is the relief; A, the new corporal; B, the old; C, the new
sentinel; D, the old.
111. The instructions relative to the post having been communicated,
the new corporal commands. Post: both sentinels then resume the
right shoulder, face toward the new corporal and step back so as
to allow the relief to pass in front of them. The new corporal
then commands: "1. _Forward_, 2. March"; the old sentinel
takes his place in rear of the relief as it passes him, his piece
in the same position as those of the relief. The new sentinel
stands fast at a right shoulder until the relief has passed six
paces beyond him, when he walks his post. The corporals take
their places as the relief passes them.
112. Mounted sentinels are posted and relieved in accordance with
the same principles.
113. On the return of the old relief, the corporal of the new
guard falls out when the relief halts; the corporal of the old
guard forms his relief on the left of the old guard, salutes,
and reports to the commander of his guard: "Sir, the relief is
present"; or "Sir, (so and so) is absent," and takes his place
in the guard.
114. To post a relief other than that which is posted when the
old guard is relieved, its corporal commands:
1. _(Such)_relief_, 2. FALL IN; and if arms are stacked,
they are taken at the proper commands.
The relief is formed facing to the front, with arms at an order,
the men place themselves according to the numbers of their respective
posts, viz, two, four, six, and so on, in the front rank, and
one, three, five, and so on, in the rear rank. The corporal,
standing about two paces in front of the center of his relief,
then commands: CALL OFF.
The men call off as prescribed. The corporal then commands: 1.
_Inspection_, 2. ARMS, 3. _Order_, 4. ARMS; faces the
commander of the guard, executes the rifle salute, reports: "Sir,
the relief is present "; or "Sir, (so and so) is absent"; he
then takes his place on the right at order arms.
115. When the commander of the guard directs the corporal, POST
YOUR RELIEF, the corporal salutes and posts his relief as prescribed
(Pars. 108 to 111); the corporal of the relief on post does not
go with the new relief, except when necessary to show the way.
116. To dismiss the old relief, it is halted and faced to the
front at the guardhouse by the corporal of the new relief, who
then falls out; the corporal of the old relief then steps in
front of the relief and dismisses it by the proper commands.
117. Should the pieces have been loaded before the relief was
posted, the corporal will, before dismissing the relief, see
that no cartridges are left in the chambers or magazines. The
same rule applies to sentinels over prisoners.
118. Each corporal will thoroughly acquaint himself with all
the special orders of every sentinel on his relief, and see that
each understands and correctly transmits such order in detail
to his successor.
119. There should be at least one noncommissioned officer constantly
on the alert at the guardhouse, usually the corporal whose relief
is on post. This noncommissioned officer takes post near the
entrance of the guardhouse, and does not fall in with the guard
when it is formed. He will have his rifle constantly with him.
120. Whenever it becomes necessary for the corporal to leave
his post near the entrance of the guardhouse, he will notify
the sergeant of the guard, who will at once take his place, or
designate another noncommissioned officer to do so.
121. He will see that no person enters the guardhouse or guard
tent, or crosses the posts of the sentinels there posted without
122. Should any sentinel call for the corporal of the guard,
the corporal will, in every case, at once and quickly proceed to
such sentinel. He will notify the sergeant of the guard before
leaving the guardhouse.
123. He will at once report to the commander of the guard any
violation of regulations or any unusual occurrence which is reported
to him by a sentinel, or which comes to his notice in any other
124. Should a sentinel call "The Guard," the corporal will promptly
notify the commander of the guard.
125. Should a sentinel call "Relief," the corporal will at once
proceed to the post of such sentinel, taking with him the man
next for duty on that post. If the sentinel is relieved for a
short time only, the corporal will again post him as soon as
the necessity for his relief ceases.
126. When the countersign is used, the corporal at the posting
of the relief during whose tour challenging is to begin gives
the countersign to the members of the relief, excepting those
posted at the guardhouse.
127. He will wake the corporal whose relief is next on post in
time for the latter to verify the prisoners, form his relief,
and post it at the proper hour.
128. Should the guard be turned out, each corporal will call his
own relief, and cause its members to fall in promptly.
129. Tents or bunks in the same vicinity will be designated for the
reliefs so that all the members of each relief may, if necessary,
be found and turned out by the corporal in the least time and
with the least confusion.
130. When challenged by a sentinel while posting his relief, the
corporal commands: 1. _Relief_, 2. HALT; to the sentinel's
challenge he answers "Relief," and at the order of the sentinel
he advances alone to give the countersign, or to be recognized.
When the sentinel says, "Advance relief," the corporal commands:
1. _Forward_, 2. MARCH.
If to be relieved, the sentinel is then relieved as prescribed.
131. Between retreat and reveille, the corporal of the guard
will challenge all suspicious looking persons or parties he may
observe, first halting his patrol or relief, if either be with
him. He will advance them in the same manner that sentinels on
post advance like parties (pars. 191 to 197), but if the route
of a patrol is on a continuous chain of sentinels, he should
not challenge persons coming near him unless he has reason to
believe that they have eluded the vigilance of sentinels.
132. Between retreat and reveille, whenever so ordered by an
officer entitled to inspect the guard, the corporal will call:
"Turn out the guard," announcing the title of the officer, and
then, if not otherwise ordered, he will salute and return to
133. As a general rule he will advance parties approaching the
guard at night in the same manner that sentinels on post advance
like parties. Thus, the sentinel at the guardhouse challenges
and repeats the answer to the corporal, as prescribed hereafter
(par. 200); the corporal, advancing at port arms, says: "Advance
(so and so) with the countersign," or "to be recognized," if
there be no countersign used; the countersign being correctly
given, or the party being duly recognized, the corporal says:
"Advance (so and so)," repeating the answer to the challenge
of the sentinel.
134. When officers of different rank approach the guardhouse
from different directions at the same time, the senior will be
advanced first, and will not be made to wait for his junior.
135. Out of ranks and under arms, the corporal salutes with the
rifle salute. He will salute all officers, whether by day or
136. The corporal will examine parties halted and detained by
sentinels, and, if he have reason to believe the parties have
no authority to cross sentinel's posts, will conduct them to
the commander of the guard.
137. The corporal of the guard will arrest all suspicious looking
characters prowling about the post or camp, all persons of a
disorderly character disturbing the peace, and all persons taken
in the act of committing crime against the Government on a military
reservation or post. All persons arrested by corporals of the
guard or by sentinels will at once be conducted to the commander
of the guard by the corporal.
SECTION 7. MUSICIANS OF THE GUARD.
138. The musicians of the guard will sound calls as prescribed
by the commanding officer.
139. Should the guard be turned out for national or regimental
colors or standards, uncased, the field music of the guard will,
when the guard present arms, sound, "To the color" or "To the
standard"; or, if for any person entitled thereto, the march,
flourishes, or ruffles, prescribed in paragraphs 375, 376, and
377, A. R.
SECTION 8. ORDERLIES AND COLOR SENTINELS.
140. When so directed by the commanding officer, the officer
who inspects the guard at guard mounting will select from the
members of the new guard an orderly for the commanding officer
and such number of other orderlies and color sentinels as may
141. For these positions the soldiers will be chosen who are
most correct in the performance of duty and in military bearing,
neatest in person and clothing, and whose arms and accouterments
are in the best condition. Clothing, arms, and equipments must
conform to regulations. If there is any doubt as to the relative
qualifications of two or more soldiers, the inspecting officer
will cause them to fall out at the guardhouse and to form in
line in single rank. He will then, by testing them in drill
regulations, select the most proficient. The commander of the
guard will be notified of the selection.
142. When directed by the commander of the guard to fall out
and report an orderly will give his name, company, and regiment
to the sergeant of the guard, and, leaving his rifle in the arm
rack in his company quarters, will proceed at once to the officer
to whom he is assigned, reporting: "Sir, Private ----, Company
----, reports all orderly."
143. If the orderly selected be a cavalryman, he will leave his
rifle in the arm rack of his troop quarters, and report with
his belt on, but without side arms unless specially otherwise
144. Orderlies, while on duty as such, are subject only to the
orders of the commanding officer and of the officers to whom
they are ordered to report.
145. When an orderly is ordered to carry a message, he will be
careful to deliver it exactly as it was given to him.
146. His tour of duty ends when he is relieved by the orderly
selected from the guard relieving his own.
147. Orderlies are members of the guard, and their name, company,
and regiment are entered on the guard report and lists of the
148. If a color line is established, sufficient sentinels are
placed on the color line to guard the colors and stacks.
149. Color sentinels are posted only so long as the stacks are
formed. The commander of the guard will divide the time equally
150. When stacks are broken, the color sentinels may be permitted
to return to their respective companies. They are required to
report in person to the commander of the guard at reveille and
retreat. They will fall in with the guard, under arms, at guard
151. Color sentinels are not placed on the regular reliefs, nor
are their posts numbered. In calling for the corporal of the
guard, they call: "Corporal of the guard. Color line."
152. Officers or enlisted men passing the uncased colors will
render the prescribed salute. If the colors are on the stacks,
the salute will be made on crossing the color line or on passing
153. A sentinel placed over the colors will not permit them to be
moved except in the presence of an armed escort. Unless otherwise
ordered by the commanding officer, he will allow no one to touch
them but the color bearer.
He will not permit any soldier to take arms from the stacks or
to touch them except by order of an officer or noncommissioned
officer of the guard.
If any person passing the colors or crossing the color line falls
to salute the colors, the sentinel will caution him to do so,
and if the caution be not heeded he will call the corporal of
the guard and report the facts.
SECTION 9. PRIVATES OF THE GUARD.
154. Privates are assigned to reliefs by the commander or the
guard, and to posts usually by the corporal of their relief.
They will not change from one relief or post to another during
the same tour of guard duty unless by proper authority.
SECTION 10. ORDERS FOR SENTINELS.
155. Orders for sentinels are of two classes: General orders and
special orders. General orders apply to all sentinels. Special
orders relate to particular posts and duties.
156. Sentinels will be required to memorize the following:
My general orders are:
1. To take charge of this post and all Government property in
2. To walk my post in a military manner keeping always on the
alert and observing everything that takes place within sight
3. To report all violations of orders I am instructed to enforce.
4. To repeat all calls from posts more distant from the guard
house than my own.
5. To quit my post only when properly relieved.
6. To receive, obey, and pass on to the sentinel who relieves
me all orders from the commanding officer, officer of the day,
and officers and noncommissioned officers of the guard only.
7. To talk to no one except in line of duty.
8. In case of fire or disorder to give the alarm.
9. To allow no one to commit a nuisance on or near my post.
10. In any case not covered by instructions to call the corporal
of the guard.