Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

Manual for Noncommissioned Officers and Privates of Infantry by War Department

Part 3 out of 8

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 0.8 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

other squads or is broken up and its members assigned to other
squads and posted in the line of file closers. These squad
organizations are maintained, by transfers if necessary, until
the company becomes so reduced in numbers us to necessitate a
new division into squads. No squad will contain less than six
men.

161. The company is further divided into two, three, or four
platoons, each consisting of not less than two nor more than
four squads. In garrison or ceremonies the strength of platoons
may exceed four squads.

162. At the formation of the company the platoons or squads are
numbered consecutively from right to left and these designations
do not change.

For convenience in giving commands and for reference, the
designations, RIGHT, CENTER, LEFT, when in line, and LEADING,
CENTER, REAR, when in column, are applied to platoons or squads.
These designations apply to the actual right, left, center, head,
or rear, in whatever direction the company may be facing. The
CENTER squad is the middle or right middle squad of the company.

The designation "So-and-so's" squad or platoon may also be used.

163. Platoons are assigned to the lieutenants and noncommissioned
officers, in order of rank, as follows: 1. right; 2. left; 3.
center (right center); 4. left center.

The noncommissioned officers next in rank are assigned as guides,
one to each platoon. If sergeants still remain, they are assigned
to platoons as additional guides. When the platoon is deployed,
its guide or guides accompany the platoon leader.

During battle, these assignments are not changed; vacancies are
filled by noncommissioned officers of the platoon or by the nearest
available officers or noncommissioned officers arriving with
reenforcing troops.

[Illustration]

164. The first sergeant is never assigned as a guide. When not
commanding a platoon he is posted as a file closer opposite the
third file from the outer flank of the first platoon; and when
the company is deployed he accompanies the captain.

The quartermaster sergeant, when present, is assigned according
to his rank as a sergeant.

Enlisted men below the grade of sergeant, armed with the rifle,
are in ranks unless serving as guides; when not so armed, they
are posted in the line of file closers.

Musicians, when required to play, are at the head of the column.
When the company is deployed, they accompany the captain.

165. The company executes the HALT, RESTS, FACINGS, STEPS and
MARCHINGS, MANUAL OF ARMS, LOADINGS and FIRINGS, TAKES INTERVALS
and DISTANCES and ASSEMBLES, INCREASES and DIMINISHES INTERVALS,
resumes ATTENTION, OBLIQUES, resumes the direct march, preserves
alignments, KNEELS, LIES DOWN, RISES, STACKS, and TAKES ARMS,
as explained in the Schools of the Soldier and the Squad,
substituting in the commands COMPANY for SQUAD.

The same rule applies to platoons, detachments, details, etc.,
substituting their designation for SQUAD in the commands. In
the same manner these execute the movements prescribed for the
COMPANY, whenever possible, substituting their designation for
COMPANY in the commands.

166. A company so depleted as to make division into platoons
impracticable is led by the captain as a single platoon, but
retains the designation of company. The lieutenants and first
sergeant assist in fire control; the other sergeants place themselves
in the filing line as skirmishers.

CLOSE ORDER.

RULES.

167. The guides of the right and left, or leading and rear, platoons,
are the right and left, or leading and rear, guides, respectively,
of the company when it is in line or in column of squads. Other
guides are in the line of file closers.

In platoon movements the post of the platoon guide is at the
head of the platoon, if the platoon is in column, and on the
guiding flank if in line. When a platoon has two guides their
original assignment to flanks of the platoon does not change.

168. The guides of a column of squads place themselves on the
flank opposite the file closers. To change the guides and file
closers to the other flank, the captain commands: 1. _File_
_closers_on_left_(right)_flank_; 2. MARCH. The file closers
dart through the column; the captain and guides change.

In column of squads, each rank preserves the alignment toward
the side of the guide.

169. Men in the line of file closers do not execute the loadings
or firings.

Guides and enlisted men in the line of file closers execute the
manual of arms during the drill unless specially excused, when
they remain at the order. During ceremonies they execute all
movements.

170. In TAKING INTERVALS AND DISTANCES, unless otherwise directed,
the right and left guides, at the first command, place themselves
in the line of file closers, and, with them, take a distance of
4 paces from the rear rank. In taking intervals, at the command
MARCH, the file closers face to the flank and each steps off with
the file nearest him. In ASSEMBLING the guides and file closers
resume their positions in line.

171. In movements executed simultaneously by platoons (as PLATOONS
RIGHT or PLATOONS, COLUMN RIGHT), platoon leaders repeat the
preparatory command (PLATOON RIGHT, etc.), applicable to their
respective platoons. The command of execution is given by the
captain only.

TO FORM THE COMPANY.

172. At the sounding of the assembly the first sergeant takes
position 6 paces in front of where the center of the company
is to be, faces it, draws saber, and commands: FALL IN.

The right guide of the company places himself, facing to the
front, where the right of the company is to rest, and at such
point that the center of the company will be 6 paces from and
opposite the first sergeant; the squads form in their proper
places on the left of the right guide, superintended by the other
sergeants, who then take their posts.

The first sergeant commands: REPORT. Remaining in position at the
order, the squad leaders, in succession from the right, salute
and report: ALL PRESENT; or PRIVATE(S) ------ ABSENT. The first
sergeant does not return the salutes of the squad leaders; he
then commands: 1. _Inspection_, 2. ARMS, 3. _Order_, 4.
ARMS, faces about, salutes the captain, reports: SIR, ALL PRESENT
OR ACCOUNTED FOR, or the names of the unauthorized absentees,
and without command, takes his post.

If the company can not be formed by squads, the first sergeant
commands: 1. _Inspection_, 2. ARMS, 3. _Right_shoulder_,
4. ARMS, and calls the roll. Each man, as his name is called,
answers here and executes order arms. The sergeant then effects
the division into squads and reports the company as prescribed
above.

The captain places himself 12 paces in front of the center of,
and facing, the company in time to receive the report of the
first sergeant, whose salute he returns, and then draws saber.

The lieutenants take their posts when the first sergeant has
reported and draw saber with the captain. The company, if not
under arms, is formed in like manner omitting reference to arms.

173. For the instruction of platoon leaders and guides, the company,
when small, may be formed in single rank. In this formation close
order movements only are executed. The single rank executes all
movements as explained for the front rank of a company.

TO DISMISS THE COMPANY.

174. Being in line at a halt, the captain directs the first sergeant:
DISMISS THE COMPANY. The officers fallout; the first sergeant
places himself faced to the front, 3 paces to the front and 2
paces from the nearest flank of the company, salutes, faces toward
opposite flank of the company, and commands: 1. _Inspection_.
2. ARMS, 3. _Port_, 4. ARMS, 5. DISMISSED.

ALIGNMENTS.

175. The alignments are executed as prescribed in the School
of the Squad, the guide being established instead of the flank
file. The rear-rank man of the flank file keeps his head and
eyes to the front and covers his file leader.

At each alignment the captain places himself in prolongation
of the line, 2 paces from and facing the flank toward which the
dress is made, verifies the alignment, and commands: FRONT.

Platoon lenders take a like position when requited to verify
alignments.

MOVEMENTS ON THE FIXED PIVOT.

176. Being in line, to tune the company: 1. _Company_right_
_(left)_, 2. MARCH, 3. _Company_, 4. HALT; or, 3.
_Forward_, 4. MARCH.

At the second command the right-flank man in the front rank faces
to the right in marching and marks time; the other front-rank
men oblique to the right, place themselves abreast of the pivot,
and mark time; in the rear rank the third man from the right,
followed in column by the second and first, moves straight to
the front until in rear of his front-rank man, when all face to
the right in marching and mark time; the remaining men of the
rear rank move straight to the front 4 paces, oblique to the
right, place themselves abreast of the third man, cover their
file leaders, and mark time; the right guide steps back, takes
post on the flank, and marks time.

The fourth command is given when the last man is 1 pace in rear
of the new line.

The command HALT may be given at any time after the movement
begins; only those halt who are in the new position. Each of
the others halt upon arriving on the line, aligns himself to the
right, and executes FRONT without command.

177. Being in line, to form column of platoons, or the reverse:
1. _Platoons_right_(left)_, 2. MARCH, 3. _Company_,
4. HALT; or, 3. _Forward_, 4. MARCH.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company.

Before forming line the captain sees that the guides on the flank
toward which the movement is to be executed are covering. This
is effected by previously announcing the guide to that flank.

178. Being in line, to form column of squads, or the reverse;
or, being in line of platoons, to form column of platoons, or
the reverse: 1. _Squads_right_(left)_, 2. MARCH, or, 1.
_Squads_right_(left)_, 2. MARCH, 3. _Company_, 4. HALT.

Executed by each squad as described in the School of the Squad.

If the company or platoons be formed in line toward the side of
the file closers, they dart through the column and take posts
in rear of the company at the second command. If the column of
squads be formed from line, the file closers take posts on the
pivot flank, abreast of and 4 inches from the nearest rank.

MOVEMENTS ON THE MOVING PIVOT.

179. Being in line, to change direction: 1. _Right_(Left)_turn_,
2. MARCH, 3. _Forward_, 4. MARCH.

Executed as described in the School of the Squad, except that
the men do not glance toward the marching flank and that all
take the full step at the fourth command. The right guide is
the pivot of the front rank. Each rear-rank man obliques on the
same ground as his file leader.

180. Being in column of platoons, to change direction: 1. _Column_
_right_(left)_, 2. MARCH.

At the first command the leader of the lending platoon commands:
RIGHT TURN. At the command MARCH the leading platoon turns to the
right on moving pivot; its lender commands: 1. _Forward_,
2. MARCH, on completion of the turn. Rear platoons march squarely
up to the turning point of the leading platoon and turn at command
of their lenders.

181. Being in column of squads, to change direction: 1. _Column_
_right_(left)_, 2. MARCH.

At the second command the front rank of the leading squad turns
to the right on moving pivot, as in the School of the Squad;
the other ranks, without command, turn successively on the same
ground and in a similar manner.

182. Being in column of squads, to form line of platoons or the
reverse: 1. _Platoons,_column_right_(left)_, 2. MARCH.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company.

183. Being in line, to form column of squads and change direction:
1. _Squads_right_(left)_,_column_right_(left)_, 2. MARCH;
or, 1. _Right_(Left)_by_squads_, 2. MARCH.

In the first case the right squad initiates the COLUMN RIGHT as
soon as it has completed the SQUAD RIGHT.

In the second case, at the command march, the right squad marches
FORWARD; the remainder of the company executes SQUADS RIGHT,
COLUMN LEFT, and follows the right squad. The right guide, when
he has posted himself in front of the right squad, takes four
short steps, then resumes the full step; the right squad conforms.

184. Being in line, to form line of platoons: 1. _Squads_right_
_(left),_platoons_column_right_(left)_, 2. MARCH; or, 1.
_Platoons,_right_(left)_by_squads_, 2. MARCH.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company in the
preceding paragraph.

FACING OR MARCHING TO THE REAR.

185. Being in line, line of platoons, or in column of platoons or
squads, to face or march to the rear: 1. _Squads_right_(left)_
_about_, 2. MARCH; or, 1. _Squads_right_(left)_about_,
2. MARCH, 3. _Company_, 4. HALT.

Executed by each squad as described in the School of the Squad.

If the company or platoons be in column of squads, the file closers
turn about toward the column, and take their posts; if in line,
each darts through the nearest interval between squads.

186. To march to the rear for a few paces: 1. _About_, 2.
FACE, 3. _Forward_, 4. MARCH.

If in line, the guides place themselves in the rear rank, now
the front rank; the file closers, on facing about, maintain their
relative positions. No other movement is executed until the line
is faced to the original front.

ON RIGHT (LEFT) INTO LINE.

187. Being in column of platoons or squads, to form line on right
or left: 1. _On_right_(left)_into_line_, 2. MARCH, 3. _Company_,
4. HALT, 5. FRONT.

At the first command the leader of the leading unit commands:
RIGHT TURN. The leaders of the other units command: FORWARD, if
at a halt. At the second command the leading unit turns to the
right on moving pivot. The command HALT is given when the leading
unit has advanced the desired distance in the new direction; it
halts; its leader then commands: RIGHT DRESS.

The units in rear continue to march straight to the front; each,
when opposite the right of its place in line, executes right
turn at the command of its leaner; each is halted on the line
at the command of its leader, who then commands: RIGHT DRESS.
All dress on the first unit in line.

If executed in double time, the lending squad marches in double
time until halted.

FRONT INTO LINE.

188. Being in column of platoons or squads. to form line to the
front: 1. _Right_(Left)_front_into_line_, 2. MARCH, 3. _Company_,
4. HALT, 5. FRONT.

At the first command the leaders of the units in rear of the
leading one command: RIGHT OBLIQUE. If at a halt, the leader
of the leading unit commands: FORWARD. At the second command
the leading unit moves straight forward; the rear units oblique
as indicated. The command HALT is given when the leading unit
has advanced the desired distance; it halts; its leader then
commands: LEFT DRESS. Each of the rear units, when opposite its
place in line, resumes the original direction at the command of
its leader; each is halted on the line at the command of its
leader, who then commands: LEFT DRESS. All dress on the first
unit in line.

189. Being in column of squads to form column of platoons, or
being in line of platoons, to form the company in line: 1.
_Platoons,_right,_(left)_front_into_line_, 2. MARCH. 3.
_Company_, 4. HALT, 5. FRONT.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company. In forming
the company in line, the dress is on the left squad of the left
platoon. If forming column of platoons, platoon leaders verify
the alignment before taking their posts; the captain commands
front when the alignments have been verified.

When FRONT INTO LINE is executed in double time the commands
for halting and aligning are omitted and the guide is toward the
side of the first unit in line.

AT EASE AND ROUTE STEP.

190. The column of squads is the habitual column of route. but
route step and at ease are applicable to any marching formation.

191. To march at route step: 1. _Route_step_, 2. MARCH.

Sabers are carried at will or in the scabbard; the men carry
their pieces at will, keeping the muzzles elevated; they are not
required to preserve silence, nor to keep the step. The ranks
cover and preserve their distance. If halted from route step,
the men stand AT REST.

192. To march at ease: 1. _At_ease_, 2. MARCH.

The company marches as in route step, except that silence is
preserved; when halted, the men remain at ease.

193. Marching at route step or fit ease: 1. _Company_, 2.
ATTENTION.

At the command ATTENTION the pieces are brought to the right shoulder
and the cadenced step in quick time is resumed.

TO DIMINISH THE FRONT OF A COLUMN OF SQUADS.

194. Being in column of squads: 1. _Right_(Left)_by_twos_,
2. MARCH.

At the command MARCH all files except the two right files of the
leading squad execute IN PLACE HALT; the two left files of the
leading squad oblique to the right when disengaged and follow the
right files at the shortest practicable distance. The remaining
squads follow successively in like manner.

195. Being in column of squads or twos: 1. _Right_(Left)_by_
_file_, 2. MARCH.

At the command MARCH, all files execute in place halt except
the right file of the leading two or squad. The left file or
files of the leading two or squad oblique successively to the
right when disengaged and each follows the file on its right at
the shortest practicable distance. The remaining twos or squads
follow successively in like manner.

196. Being in column of files or twos, to form column of squads;
or being in column of files, to form column of twos: 1. _Squads_
_(Twos),_right_(left)_front_into_line_, 2. MARCH.

At the command MARCH, the leading file or files halt. The remainder
of the squad, or two, obliques to the right and halts on line with
the leading file or files. The remaining squads or twos close up
and successively form in rear of the first in like manner.

The movement described in this paragraph will be ordered RIGHT
or LEFT, so as to restore the files to their normal relative
positions in the two or squad.

197. The movements prescribed in the three preceding paragraphs
are difficult of execution at attention and have no value as
disciplinary exercises.

198. Marching by twos or files can not be executed without serious
delay and waste of road space. Every reasonable precaution will
be taken to obviate the necessity for these formations.

EXTENDED ORDER.

RULES FOR DEPLOYMENT.

199. The command GUIDE RIGHT (LEFT or CENTER) indicates the base
squad for the deployment; if in line it designates the actual
RIGHT (LEFT or CENTER) squad; if in column the command GUIDE
RIGHT (LEFT) designates the LEADING squad, and the command GUIDE
CENTER designates the center squad. After the deployment is
completed, the guide is CENTER without command, unless otherwise
ordered.

200. At the preparatory command for forming skirmish line, from
either column of squads or line, each squad leader (except the
leader of the base squad, when his squad does not advance), cautions
his squad, FOLLOW ME or BY THE RIGHT (LEFT) FLANK, as the case
may be; at the command MARCH, he steps in front of his squad
and leads it to its place in line.

201. Having given the command for forming skirmish line, the
captain, if necessary, indicates to the corporal of the base squad
the point on which the squad is to march; the corporal habitually
looks to the captain for such directions.

202. The base squad is deployed as soon as it has sufficient
interval. The other squads are deployed as they arrive on the
general line; each corporal halts in his place in line and commands
or signals, as skirmishers; the squad deploys and halts abreast
of him.

If tactical considerations demand it, the squad is deployed before
arriving on the line.

203. Deployed lines preserve a general alignment toward the guide.
Within their respective fronts, individuals or units march so
as best to secure cover or to facilitate the advance, but the
general and orderly progress of the whole is paramount.

On halting a deployed line faces to the front (direction of the
enemy) in all cases and takes advantage of cover, the men lying
down if necessary.

204. The company in skirmish line ADVANCES, HALTS, MOVES BY THE
FLANK, or TO THE REAR, OBLIQUES, resumes the DIRECT MARCH, passes
from QUICK to DOUBLE TIME and the reverse by the same commands and
in a similar manner as in close order; if at a halt, the movement
BY THE FLANK or TO THE REAR is executed by the same commands as
when marching. COMPANY RIGHT (LEFT, HALF RIGHT, HALF LEFT) is
executed as explained for the front rank, skirmish intervals
being maintained.

205. A platoon or other part of the company is deployed and marched
in the same manner as the company, substituting in the commands,
PLATOON (DETACHMENT, etc.) for COMPANY.

DEPLOYMENTS.

206. Being in line, to form skirmish line to the front: 1. _As_
_skirmishers,_guide_right_(left_or_center)_, 2. MARCH.

If marching, the corporal of the base squad moves straight to
the front; when that squad has advanced the desired distance,
the captain commands: 1. _Company_, 2. HALT. If the guide
be RIGHT (LEFT), the other corporals move to the LEFT (RIGHT)
front, and, in succession from the base, place their squads on
the line; if the guide be center, the other corporals move to
the RIGHT or LEFT front, according as they are on the right or
left of the center squad, and in succession from the center squad
place their squads on the line.

If at a halt, the base squad is deployed without advancing; the
other squads may be conducted to their proper places by the flank;
interior squads may be moved when squads more distant from the
base have gained comfortable marching distance.

207. Being in column of squads, to form skirmish line to the
front: 1. _As_skirmishers,_guide_right_(left_or_center)_,
2. MARCH.

If marching, the corporal of the base squad deploys it and moves
straight to the front; if at a halt, he deploys his squad without
advancing. If the guide be RIGHT (LEFT), the other corporals move
to the LEFT (RIGHT) FRONT, and, in succession from the base, place
their squads on the line; if the guide be CENTER, the corporals
in front of the center squad move to the right (if at a halt,
to the right rear), the corporals in rear of the center squad
move to the left front, and each, in succession from the base,
places his squad on the line.

The column of twos or files is deployed by the same commands and
in like manner.

208. The company in line or in column of squads may be deployed
in an oblique direction by the same commands. The captain points
out the desired direction; the corporal of the base squad moves
in the direction indicated; the other corporals conform.

209. To form skirmish line to the flank or rear the line or the
column of squads is turned by squads to the flank or rear and
then deployed as described.

210. The intervals between men are increased or decreased as
described in the School of the Squad, adding to the preparatory
command, GUIDE RIGHT (LEFT or CENTER) if necessary.

THE ASSEMBLY.

211. The captain takes his post in front of, or designates, the
element on which the company is to assemble and commands: 1.
_Assemble_, 2. MARCH.

If in skirmish line the men move promptly toward the designated
point and the company is re-formed in line. If assembled by platoons,
these are conducted to the designated point by platoon leaders,
and the company is re-formed in line.

Platoons may be assembled by the command: 1. _Platoons,_assemble_,
2. MARCH.

Executed by each platoon as described for the company.

One or more platoons may be assembled by the command:

1. _Such_platoon(s),_assemble_, 2. MARCH,

Executed by the designated platoon or platoons as described for
the company.

THE ADVANCE.

212. The advance of a company into an engagement (whether for
attack or defense) is conducted in close order, preferably column
of squads, until the probability of encountering hostile fire
makes it advisable to deploy. After deployment, and before opening
fire, the advance of the company may be continued in skirmish
line or other suitable formation, depending upon circumstances.
The advance may often be facilitated, or better advantage taken
of cover, or losses reduced by the employment of the PLATOON
or SQUAD COLUMNS or by the use of a SUCCESSION OF THIN LINES.
The selection of the method to be used is made by the captain
or major, the choice depending upon conditions arising during
the progress of the advance. If the deployment is found to be
premature, it will generally be best to assemble the company
and proceed in close order.

Patrols ure used to provide the necessary security against surprise.

213. Being in skirmish line: 1. _Platoon_columns_, 2. MARCH.

The platoon leaders move forward through the center of their
respective platoons; men to the right of the platoon leader march
to the left and follow him in file; those to the left march in
like manner to the right; each platoon leader thus conducts the
march of his platoon in double column of files; platoon guides
follow in rear of their respective platoons to insure prompt
and orderly execution of the advance.

214. Being in skirmish line: 1. _Squad_columns_, 2. MARCH.

Each squad leader moves to the front; the members of each squad
oblique toward and follow their squad leader in single file at
easy marching distances.

215. PLATOON COLUMNS are profitably used where the ground is so
difficult or cover so limited as to make it desirable to take
advantage of the few favorable routes; no two platoons should
march within the area of burst of a single shrapnel.[5] SQUAD
COLUMNS are of value principally in facilitating the advance over
rough or brush-grown ground; they afford no material advantage
in securing cover.

[Footnote 5: Ordinarily about 20 yards wide.]

216. To deploy platoon or squad columns: 1. _As_skirmishers_,
2. MARCH.

Skirmishers move to the right or left front and successively place
themselves in their original positions on the line.

217. Being in platoon or squad columns: 1. _Assemble_, 2.
MARCH.

The platoon or squad leaders signal ASSEMBLE. The men of each
platoon or squad, as the case may be, advance and, moving to
the right and left, take their proper places in line; each unit
assembling on the leading element of the column and re-forming
in line. The platoon or squad leaders conduct their units toward
the element or point indicated by the captain, and to their places
in line; the company is re-formed in line.

218. Being in skirmish line, to advance by a succession of thin
lines: 1. _(Such_numbers),_forward_, 2. MARCH.

The captain points out in advance the selected position in front
of the line occupied. The designated number of each squad moves to
the front; the line thus formed preserves the original intervals
as nearly as practicable; when this line has advanced a suitable
distance (generally from 100 to 250 yards, depending upon the
terrain and the character of the hostile fire), a second is sent
forward by similar commands, and so on at irregular distances,
until the whole line has advanced, Upon arriving at the indicated
position, the first line is halted. Successive lines, upon arriving,
halt on line with the first and the men take their proper places
in the skirmish line.

Ordinarily each line is made up of one man per squad and the
men of a squad are sent forward in order from right to left as
deployed. The first line is led by the platoon leader of the
right platoon, the second by the guide of the right platoon, and
so on in order from right to left.

The advance is conducted in quick time unless conditions demand
a faster gait.

The company having arrived at the indicated position; a further
advance by the same means may be advisable.

219. The advance in a succession of thin lines is used to cross
a wide stretch swept, or likely to be swept, by artillery fire or
heavy, long-range rifle fire which can not profitably be returned.
Its purpose is the building up of a strong skirmish line preparatory
to engaging in a fire tight. This method of advancing results in
serious (though temporary) loss of control over the company. Its
advantage lies in the fact that it offers less definite target,
hence is less likely to draw fire.

220. The above are suggestions. Other and better formations may
be devised to fit particular cases. The best formation is the
one which advances the line farthest with the least loss of men,
time, and control.

THE FIRE ATTACK.

221. The principles governing the advance of the firing line in
attack are considered in the School of the Battalion.

When it becomes impracticable for the company to advance as a
whole by ordinary means, it advances by rushes.

222. Being in skirmish line: 1. _By_platoon_(two_platoons,_squad,_
_four_men,_etc.),_from_the_right_(left)_, 2. RUSH.

The platoon leader on the indicated flank carefully arranges
the details for a prompt and vigorous execution of the rush and
puts it into effect as soon as practicable. If necessary, he
designates the leader for the indicated fraction. When about
to rush, he causes the men of the fraction to cease firing and
to hold themselves flat, but in readiness to spring forward
instantly. The leader of the rush (at the signal of the platoon
leader, if the latter be not the leader of the rush) commands:
FOLLOW ME, and, running at top speed, leads the fraction to the
new line, where be halts it and causes it to open fire. The leader
of the rush selects the new line if it has not been previously
designated.

The first fraction having established itself on the new line,
the next like fraction is sent forward by its platoon leader,
without further command of the captain, and so on, successively,
until the entire company is on the line established by the first
rush.

If more than one platoon is to join in one rush, the junior platoon
leader conforms to the action of the senior.

A part of the line having advanced, the captain may increase
or decrease the size of the fractions to complete the movement.

223. When the company forms a part of the firing line, the rush
of the company as a whole is conducted by the captain, as described
for a platoon in the preceding paragraph. The captain leads the
rush; platoon leaders lead their respective platoons; platoon
guides follow the line to insure prompt and orderly execution
of the advance.

224. When the foregoing method of rushing, by running, becomes
impracticable, any method of advance that BRINGS THE ATTACK CLOSER
TO THE ENEMY, such as crawling, should be employed.

For regulations governing the charge, see paragraphs 318 and 319.

THE COMPANY IN SUPPORT.

225. To enable it to follow or reach the firing line, the support
adopts suitable formations, following the principles explained
in paragraphs 212-218.

The support should be kept assembled as long as practicable.
If after deploying a favorable opportunity arises to hold it
for some time in close formation, it should be reassembled. It
is redeployed when necessary.

226. The movements of the support as a whole and the dispatch
of reenforcements from it to the firing line are controlled by
the major.

A reenforcement of less than one platoon has little influence
and will be avoided whenever practicable.

The captain of a company in support is constantly on the alert
for the major's signals or commands.

227. A reenforcement sent to the firing line joins it deployed
as skirmishers. The leader of the reenforcement places it in an
interval in the line, if one exists: and commands it thereafter
as a unit. If no such suitable interval exists, the reenforcement
is advanced with increased intervals between skirmishers; each
man occupies the nearest interval in the firing line, and each
then obeys the orders of the nearest squad lender and platoon
leader.

228. A reenforcement joins the firing line as quickly as possible
without exhausting the men.

229. The original platoon division of the companies in the firing
line should be maintained and should not be broken up by the
mingling of reenforcements.

Upon joining the firing line, officers and sergeants accompanying
a reenforcement take over the duties of others of like grade
who have been disabled, or distribute themselves so as best to
exercise their normal functions. Conditions with vary and no rules
can be prescribed. It is essential that all assist in mastering
the increasing difficulties of control.

THE COMPANY ACTING ALONE.

230. In general, the company, when acting alone, is employed
according to the principles applicable to the battalion acting
alone; the captain employs platoons as the major employs companies,
making due allowance for the difference in strength.

The support may be smaller in proportion or may be dispensed with.

231. The company must be well protected against surprise. Combat
patrols on the flanks are specially important. Each leader of
a flank platoon details a man to watch for the signals of the
patrol or patrols on his flank.

FIRE.

232. Ordinarily pieces are loaded and extra ammunition is issued
before the company deploys for combat.

In close order the company executes the firings at the command
of the captain, who posts himself in rear of the center of the
company.

Usually the firings, in close order consist of saluting volleys
only.

233. When the company is deployed, the men execute the firings
at the command of their platoon leaders; the latter give such
commands as are necessary to carry out the captain's directions,
and, from time to time, add such further commands as are necessary
to continue, correct, and control the fire ordered.

234. The voice is generally inadequate for giving commands during
fire and must be replaced by signals of such character that proper
fire direction and control is assured. To attract attention,
signals must usually be preceded by the whistle signal (short
blast). A friction of the firing line about to rush should, it
practicable, avoid using the long blast signal as an aid to CEASE
FIRING. Officers and men behind the firing line can not ordinarily
move freely along the line, but must depend on mutual watchfulness
and the proper use of the prescribed signals. All should post
themselves so as to see their immediate superiors and subordinates.

235. The musicians assist the captain by observing the enemy, the
target, and the fire effect by transmitting commands or signals
and by watching for signals.

236. Firing with blank cartridges at an outlined or represented
enemy at distances less than 100 yards is prohibited.

237. The effect of fire and the influence of the ground in relation
thereto, and the individual and collective instruction in
marksmanship, are treated in the Small-Arms Firing Manual.

RANGES.

238. For convenience of reference ranges are classified as follows:

0 to 600 yards, close range.
600 to 1,200 yards, effective range.
1,200 to 2,000 yards, long range.
2,000 yards and over, distant range.

239. The distance to the target must be determined as accurately
as possible and the sights set accordingly. Aside from training
and morale, this is the most important single factor in securing
effective fire at the longer ranges.

240. Except in a deliberately prepared defensive position, the
most accurate and only practicable method of determining the
range will generally be to take the mean of several estimates.

Five or six officers or men, selected from the most accurate
estimators in the company, are designated as RANGE ESTIMATORS
and are specially trained in estimating distances.

Whenever necessary and practicable, the captain assembles the
range estimators, points out the target to them, and adopts the
mean of their estimates. The range estimators then take their
customary posts.

CLASSES OF FIRING.

241. VOLLEY FIRING has limited application. In defense it may
be used in the early stages of the action if the enemy presents
a large, compact target. It may be used by troops executing FIRE
OF POSITION. When the ground near the target is such that the
strike of bullets can be seen from the firing line, RANGING VOLLEYS
may be used to correct the sight setting.

In combat, volley firing is executed habitually by platoon.

242. FIRE AT WILL is the class of fire normally employed in attack
or defense.

243. CLIP FIRE has limited application. It is principally used:
1. In the early stages of combat, to steady the men by habituating
them to brief pauses in firing. 2. To produce a short burst of
fire.

THE TARGET.

244. Ordinarily the major will assign to the company an objective
in attack or sector in defense; the company's target will lie
within the limits so assigned. In the choice of target, tactical
considerations are paramount; the nearest hostile troops within
the objective or sector will thus be the usual target. This will
ordinarily be the hostile firing line; troops in rear are ordinarily
proper targets for artillery, machine guns, or, at times, infantry
employing fire of position.

Change of targets should not be made without excellent reasons
therefor, such as the sudden appearance of hostile troops under
conditions which make them more to be feared than the troops
comprising the former target.

245. The distribution of fire over the entire target is of special
importance.

The captain allots a part of the target to each platoon, or each
platoon leader takes as his target that part which corresponds
to his position in the company. Men are so instructed that each
fires on that part of the target which is directly opposite him.

246. All parts of the target are equally important. Care must
be exercised that the men do not slight its less visible parts.
A section of the target not covered by fire represents a number
of the enemy permitted to fire cooly and effectively.

247. If the target can not be seen with the naked eye, platoon
leaders select an object in front of or behind it, designate
this as the AIMING TARGET, and direct a sight setting which will
carry the cone of fire into the target.

FIRE DIRECTION.

248. When the company is large enough to be divided into platoons,
it is impracticable for the captain to command it directly in
combat. His efficiency in managing the firing line is measured
by his ability to enforce his will through the platoon leaders.
Having indicated clearly what he desires them to do, he avoids
interfering except to correct serious errors or omissions.

249. The captain directs the fire of the company or of designated
platoons. He designates the target, and, when practicable, allots
a part of the target to each platoon. Before beginning the fire
action he determines the range, announces the sight setting,
and indicates the class of fire to be employed, and the time
to open fire. Thereafter, he observes the fire effect, corrects
material errors in sight setting, prevents exhaustion of the
ammunition supply, and causes the distribution of such extra
ammunition as may be received from the rear.

FIRE CONTROL.

250. In combat the platoon is the fire unit. From 20 to 35 rifles
are as many as one leader can control effectively.

251. Each platoon leader puts into execution the commands or
directions of the captain, having first taken such precautions
to insure correct sight setting and clear description of the
target or aiming target as the situation permits or requires;
thereafter he gives such additional commands or directions as
are necessary to exact compliance with the captain's will. He
corrects the sight setting when necessary. He designates an aiming
target when the target can not be seen with the naked eye.

252. In general, PLATOON LEADERS observe the target and the effect
of their fire and are on the alert for the captain's commands or
signals; they observe and regulate the rate of fire. The PLATOON
GUIDES watch the firing line and check every breach of fire
discipline. SQUAD LEADERS transmit commands and signals when
necessary, observe the conduct of their squads and abate excitement,
assist in enforcing fire discipline and participate in the firing.

253. The best troops are those that submit longest to fire control.
Loss of control is an evil which robs success of its greatest
results. To avoid or delay such loss should be the constant aim
of all.

Fire control implies the ability to stop firing, change the sight
setting and target, and resume a well directed fire.

FIRE DISCIPLINE.

254. "Fire discipline implies, besides a habit of obedience,
a control of the rifle by the soldier, the result of training,
which will enable him in action to make hits instead of misses.
It embraces taking advantage of the ground; care in setting the
sight and delivery of fire; constant attention to the orders of
the leaders, and careful observation of the enemy; an increase
of fire when the target is favorable, and a cessation of fire
when the enemy disappears; economy of ammunition." (Small-arms
Firing Manual.)

In combat, shots which graze the enemy's trench or position and
thus reduce the effectiveness of his fire have the approximate
value of hits; such shots only, or actual hits, contribute toward
fire superiority.

Fire discipline implies that, in a firing line without leaders,
each man retains his presence of mind and directs effective fire
upon the proper target.

255. To create a correct appreciation of the requirements of
fire discipline, men are taught that the rate of fire should be
as rapid as is consistent with accurate aiming; that the rate
will depend upon the visibility, proximity, and size or the target;
and that the proper rate will ordinarily suggest itself to each
trained man, usually rendering cautions or commands unnecessary.

In attack the highest rate of fire is employed at the halt preceding
the assault, and in pursuing fire.

256. In an advance by rushes, leaders of troops in firing positions
are responsible for the delivery of heavy fire to cover the advance
of each rushing fraction. Troops are trained to change slightly
the direction of fire so as not to endanger the flanks of advanced
portions of the firing line.

257. In defense, when the target disappears behind cover, platoon
leaders suspend fire, prepare their platoons to fire upon the
point where it is expected to reappear, and greet its reappearance
instantly with vigorous fire.

SECTION 7. COMPANY INSPECTION.

745. Being in line at a halt: 1. _Open_ranks_, 2. MARCH.

At the command MARCH the front rank executes right dress; the
rear rank and the file closers march backward 4 steps, halt, and
execute right dress; the lieutenants pass around their respective
flanks and take post, facing to the front, 3 paces in front of
the center of their respective platoons. The captain aligns the
front rank, rear rank, and file closers, takes post 8 paces in
front of the right guide, facing to the left, and commands: 1.
FRONT, 2. PREPARE FOR INSPECTION.

At the second command the lieutenants carry saber; the captain
returns saber and inspects them, after which they face about, order
saber, and stand at ease; upon the completion of the inspection
they carry saber, face about, and order saber. The captain may
direct the lieutenants to accompany or assist him, in which case
they return saber and, at the close of the inspection, resume
their posts in front of the company, draw and carry saber.

Having inspected the lieutenants, the captain proceeds to the
right of the company. Each man, as the captain approaches him,
executes INSPECTION ARMS.

The captain takes the piece, grasping it with his right hand just
above the rear sight, the man dropping his hands. The captain
inspects the piece, and, with the hand and piece in the same
position as in receiving it, hands it back to the man, who takes
it with the left hand at the balance and executes ORDER ARMS.

As the captain returns the piece the next man executes INSPECTION
ARMS, and so on through the company.

Should the piece be inspected without handling, each man executes
ORDER ARMS as soon as the captain passes to the next, man.

The inspection is from right to left in front, and from left
to right in rear, of each rank and of the line of file closers.

When approached by the captain the first sergeant executes INSPECTION
SABER. Enlisted men armed with the pistol execute INSPECTION
PISTOL by drawing the pistol from the holster and holding it
diagonally across the body, barrel up, and 6 inches in front
of the neck, muzzle pointing up and to the left. The pistol is
returned to the holster as soon as the captain passes.

Upon completion of the inspection the captain takes post facing
to the left in front of the right guide and on line with the
lieutenants and commands: 1. _Close_ranks_, 2. MARCH.

At the command MARCH the lieutenants resume their posts in line;
the rear rank closes to 40 inches, each man covering his file
leader; the file closers close to 2 paces from the rear rank.

746. If the company is dismissed. rifles are put away. In quarters,
headdress and accouterments are removed and the men stand near
their respective bunks; in camp they stand covered, but without
accourterments, in front of their tents.

If the personal field equipment has not been inspected in ranks
and its inspection in quarters or camp is ordered, each man will
arrange the prescribed articles on his bunk, if in quarters or
permanent camp, or in front of his half of the tent, if in shelter
tent camp, in the same relative order as directed in paragraph
747.

The captain, accompanied by the lieutenants, then inspects the
quarters or camp. The first sergeant precedes the captain and
calls the men to attention on entering each squad room or on
approaching the tents; the men stand at attention but do not salute.
(_C._I._D._R.,_No._16,_Aug._25,_1916_.)

747. (Edition approved Aug. 10, 1911, and edition corrected to
November, 1913.) If the inspection is to include an examination
of the equipment while in ranks, the captain, after closing ranks,
causes the company to stack arms, to march backward until 4 paces
in rear of the stacks and to take intervals. He then commands:
1. UNSLING EQUIPMENT, 2. OPEN PACKS.

At the first command, each man unslings his equipment and places
it on the ground at his feet, haversack to the front end of the
pack 1 foot in front of toes.

At the second command, pack carriers are unstrapped, packs removed
and unrolled, the longer edge of the pack along the lower edge of
the cartridge belt. Each man exposes shelter tent pins, removes
meat can, knife, fork, and spoon from the meat-can pouch, and
places them on the right of the haversack, knife, fork, and spoon
in the open meat can; removes the canteen and cup from the cover
and places them on the left side of the haversack; unstraps and
spreads out haversack so as to expose its contents; folds up the
carrier to uncover the cartridge pockets; opens same; unrolls
toilet articles and places them on the outer flap of the haversack;
places underwear carried in pack on the left half of the open pack,
with round fold parallel with front edge of pack; opens first-aid
pouch and exposes contents to view. Special articles carried
by individual men, such as flag kit, field glasses, compass,
steel tape, notebook, etc., will be arranged on the right half
of the open pack. Each man then resumes the attention. Plate VI
shows the relative position of all articles except underwear
and special articles.

The captain then passes along the ranks and file closers as be,
fore, inspects the equipment, returns to the right, and commands:
CLOSE PACKS.

Each man rolls up his toilet articles and underwear, straps up
his haversack and its contents, replaces the meat can, knife,
fork, and spoon, and the canteen and cup: closes cartridge pockets
and first-aid pouch; restores special articles to their proper
receptacles; rolls up and replaces pack in currier; and, leaving
the equipment in its position on the ground, resumes the attention.

All equipments being packed, the captain commands: SLING EQUIPMENT.

The equipments are slung and belts fastened.

The captain then causes the company to assemble and take arms.
The inspection is completed as already explained.

748. Should the inspector be other than the captain, the latter,
after commanding FRONT, adds REST, and faces to the front. When
the inspector approaches, the captain faces to the left, brings
the company to attention, faces to the front, and salutes. The
salute acknowledged, the captain carries saber, faces to the
left, commands: PREPARE FOR INSPECTION, and again faces to the
front.

The inspection proceeds as before; the captain returns saber
and accompanies the inspector as soon as the latter passes him.

[Illustration: fig 3.]

SECTION 8. MANUAL OF TENT PITCHING.

SHELTER TENTS.

[For Infantry Equipment, model of 1910.][6]

[Footnote 6: For method of pitching shelter tents, with old model
Infantry equipment or old model shelter tent, see paragraph 792,
in 'Method of Folding Pyramidal Tent'.]

792. Being in line or in column of platoons, the captain commands:
FORM FOR SHELTER TENTS.

The officers, first sergeant, and guides fallout; the cooks form
a file on the flank of the company nearest the kitchen, the first
sergeant and right guide fall in, forming the right file of the
company; blank files are filled by the file closers or by men
taken from the front rank; the remaining guide, or guides, and
file closers form on a convenient flank.

Before forming column of platoons, preparatory to pitching tents,
the company may be redivided into two or more platoons, regardless
of the size of each.

793. The captain then causes the company to take intervals as
described in the School of the Squad and commands: PITCH TENTS.

At the command PITCH TENTS, each man steps off obliquely to the
right with the right foot and lays his rifle on the ground, the
butt of the rifle near the toe of the right foot, muzzle to the
front, barrel to the left, and steps back into his place; each
front rank man then draws his bayonet and sticks it in the ground
by the outside of the right heel.

[Illustration: Plate VI.]

Equipments are unslung, packs opened, shelter half and pins removed:
each man then spreads his shelter half, small triangle to the
rear, flat upon the ground the tent is to occupy, the rear rank
man's half on the right. The halves are then buttoned together;
the guy loops at both ends of the lower half are passed through
the buttonholes provided in the lower and upper halves; the whipped
end of the guy rope is then passed through both guy loops and
secured, this at both ends of the tent. Each front rank man inserts
the muzzle of his rifle under the front end of the ridge and
holds the rifle upright, sling to the front, heel of butt on
the ground beside the bayonet. His rear rank man pins down the
front corners of the tent on the line of bayonets, stretching
the tent taut; he then inserts a pin in the eye of the front
guy rope and drives the pin at such a distance in front of the
rifle as to hold the rope taut; both men go to the rear of the
tent, each pins down a corner, stretching the sides and rear
of the tent before securing; the rear rank man then inserts an
intrenching tool, or a bayonet in its scabbard, under the rear
end of the ridge inside the tent, the front rank man pegging
down the end of the rear guy ropes; the rest of the pins are
then driven by both men, the rear rank man working on the right.

NOTE.--The use of the hand ax and the pick mattock in organizations
equipped with the intrenching tool is authorized for the purpose
of driving shelter tent pins. The use of the bayonet for this
purpose is prohibited.

The front flaps of the tent are not fastened down, but thrown
back on the tent.

As soon as the tent is pitched each man arranges his equipment
and the contents of his pack in the tent and stands at attention
in front of his own half on line with the front guy-rope pin.

To have a uniform slope when the tents are pitched, the guy ropes
should all be of the same length.

In shelter-tent camps, in localities where suitable material
is procurable, tent poles may be improvised and used in lieu of
the rifle and bayonet or intrenching tool as supports for the
shelter tent.

794. When the pack is not carried the company is formed for shelter
tents, intervals are taken, arms are laid aside or on the ground,
the men are dismissed and proceed to the wagon, secure their
packs, return to their places, and pitch tents as heretofore
described.

795. Double shelter tents may be pitched by first pitching one
tent as heretofore described, then pitching a second tent against
the opening of the first, using one rifle to support both tents,
and passing the front guy ropes over and down the sides of the
opposite tents. The front corner of one tent is not pegged down,
but is thrown back to permit an opening into the tent.

SINGLE SLEEPING BAG.

796. Spread the poncho on the ground, buttoned end at the feet,
buttoned side to the left; fold the blanket once across its short
dimension and lay it on the poncho, folded side along the right
side of the poncho; tie the blanket together along the left side
by means of the tapes provided; fold the left half of the poncho
over the blanket and button it together along the side and bottom.

DOUBLE SLEEPING BAG.

797. Spread one poncho on-the ground, buttoned end at the feet,
buttoned side to the left; spread the blankets on top of the
poncho; tie the edges of the blankets together with the tapes
provided; spread a second poncho on top of the blankets, buttoned
end at the feet, buttoned side to the right; button the two ponchos
together along both sides and across the end.

TO STRIKE SHELTER TENTS.

798. The men standing in front of their tents: STRIKE TENTS.

Equipments and rifles are removed from the tent; the tents are
lowered, packs made up, and equipments slung, and the men stand
at attention in the places originally occupied after taking
intervals.

TO PITCH ALL TYPES OF ARMY TENTS, EXCEPT SHELTER AND CONICAL WALL
TENTS.

799. To pitch all types of Army tents, except shelter and conical
wall tents: Mark line of tents by driving a wall pin on the spot
to be occupied by the right (or left) corner of each tent. For
pyramidal tents the interval between adjacent pins should be
about 30 feet, which will give a passage of 2 feet between tents.
Spread tripod on the ground where the center of tent is to be,
if tripod is used. Spread the tent on the ground to be occupied,
door to the front, and place the right (or left) front wall loop
over the pin. The door (or doors, if more than one) being fastened
and held together at the bottom, the left (or right) corner wall
loop is carried to the left (or right) as far as it will go and
a wall pin driven through it, the pin being placed in line with
the right (or left) corner pins already driven. At the same time
the rear corner wall loops are pulled to the rear and outward
so that the rear wall of the tent is stretched to complete the
rectangle. Wall pins are then driven through these loops. Each
corner pin should be directly in rear of the corresponding front
corner pin, making a rectangle. Unless the canvas be wet, a small
amount of slack should be allowed before the corner pins are driven.
According to the size of the tent, one or two men, crawling under
the tent if necessary, fit each pole or ridge or upright into
the ring or ridge-pole holes, and such accessories as hood, fly,
and brace ropes are adjusted. If a tripod be used an additional
man will go under the tent to adjust it. The tent, steadied by
the remaining men, one at each corner guy rope, will then be
raised. If the tent is a ward or storage type, corner poles will
now be placed at the four corners. The four corner guy ropes
are then placed over the lower notches of the large pins driven
in prolongation of the diagonals at such distance as to hold
the walls and end of the tent vertical and smooth when the guy
ropes are drawn taut. A wall pin is then driven through each
remaining wall loop and a large pin for each guy rope is driven
in line with the corner guy pins already driven. The guy ropes
of the tent are placed over the lower notches, while the guy
ropes of the fly are placed over the upper notches, and are then
drawn taut. Brace ropes when used, are then secured to stakes
or pins suitably placed.

800. Rescinded.

CONICAL WALL TENT.

801. Drive the door pin and center pin 8 feet 3 inches apart.
Using the hood lines, with center pin as center, describe two
concentric circles with radii 8 feet 3 inches and 11 feet 3 inches.
In the outer circle drive two door guy pins 3 feet apart. At
intervals of about 3 feet drive the other guy pins.

In other respects conical tents are erected practically as in
the case of pyramidal tents.

TO STRIKE COMMON, WALL, PYRAMIDAL, AND CONICAL WALL TENTS.

802. STRIKE TENTS.

The men first remove all pins except those of the four corner
guy ropes, or the four quadrant guy ropes in the case of the
conical wall tent. The pins are neatly piled or placed in their
receptacle.

One man holds each guy, and when the ground is clear the tent
is lowered, folded, or rolled and tied, the poles or tripod and
pole fastened together, and the remaining pins collected.

TO FOLD TENTS.

803. For folding common, wall, hospital, and storage tents: Spread
the tent flat on the ground, folded at the ridge so that bottoms
of side walls are even, ends of tent forming triangles to the
right and left; fold the triangular ends of the tent in toward
the middle, making it rectangular in shape; fold the top over
about 9 inches; fold the tent in two by carrying the top fold
over clear to the foot; fold again in two from the top to the
foot; throw all guys on tent except the second from each end;
fold the ends in so as to cover about two-thirds of the second
cloths; fold the left end over to meet the turned-in edge of
the right end, then fold the right end over the top, completing
the bundle; tie with the two exposed guys.

METHOD OF FOLDING PYRAMIDAL TENT.

The tent is thrown toward the rear and the back wall and roof
canvas pulled out smooth. This may be most easily accomplished
by leaving the rear-corner wall pins in the ground with the wall
loops attached, one man at each rear-corner guy, and one holding
the square iron in a perpendicular position and pulling the canvas
to its limit away from the former front of the tent. This leaves
the three remaining sides of the tent on top of the rear side,
with the door side in the middle.

Now carry the right-front corner over and lay it on the left-rear
corner. Pull all canvas smooth, throw guys toward square iron,
and pull bottom edges even. Then take the right-front corner
and return to the right, covering the right-rear corner. This
folds the right side of the tent on itself, with the crease in
the middle and under the front side of tent.

Next carry the left-front corner to the right and back as described
above; this when completed will leave the front and rear sides
of the tent lying smooth and fiat and the two side walls folded
inward, each on itself.

Place the hood in the square iron which has been folded downward
toward the bottom of the tent, and continue to fold around the
square iron as a core, pressing all folds down flat and smooth and
parallel with the bottom of the tent. If each fold is compactly
made and the canvas kept smooth, the last fold will exactly cover
the lower edge of the canvas. Lay all exposed guys along the
folded canvas except the two on the center width, which should
be pulled out and away from bottom edge to their extreme length
for tying. Now, beginning at one end, fold toward the center
on the first seam (that joining the first and second widths)
and fold again toward the center, so that the already folded
canvas will come to within about 3 inches of the middle width.
Then fold over to the opposite edge of middle width of canvas.
Then begin folding from opposite end, folding the first width
in half, then making a second fold to come within about 4 or
5 inches of that already folded; turn this fold entirely over
that already folded. Take the exposed guys and draw them taut
across each other, turn bundle over on the under guy, cross guys
on top of bundle, drawing tight. Turn bundle over on the crossed
guys and tie lengthwise.

When properly tied and pressed together this will make a package
11 by 23 by 34 inches, requiring about 8,855 cubic inches to
store or pack.

Stencil the organization designation on the lower half of the
middle width of canvas in the back wall.

WAR DEPARTMENT,
OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF,
_Washington,_December_2,_1911._

Paragraphs 747, 792, 793, 794, 795, 796, 797, and 798. Infantry
Drill Regulations, 1911, apply only to troops equipped with the
Infantry Equipment, model 1910. For troops equipped under General
Orders, No. 23, War Department, 1906, and orders amendatory thereof,
the alternative paragraphs published herewith will govern.

By order of the Secretary of War:

LEONARD WOOD,
_Major_General,_Chief_of_Staff_.

747. If the inspection is to include an examination of the blanket
rolls the captain, before dismissing the company and after inspecting
the file closers, directs the lieutenants to remain in place, closes
ranks, stacks arms, dresses the company back to four paces from
the stacks, takes intervals, and Commands: 1. _Unsling_,
2. PACKS, 3. _Open_, 4. PACKS.

At the second command each man unslings his roll and places it
on the ground at his feet, rounded end to the front, square end
of shelter half to the right.

At the fourth command the rolls are untied, laid perpendicular
to the front, with the triangular end of the shelter half to the
front, opened, and unrolled to the left; each man prepares the
contents of his roll for inspection and resumes the attention.

The captain then returns saber, passes along the ranks and file
closers as before, inspects the rolls, returns to the right,
draws saber and commands: 1. _Close_, 2. PACKS.

At the second command each man, with his shelter half smoothly
spread on the ground with buttons up and triangular end to the
front, folds his blanket once across its length and places it
upon the shelter half, fold toward the bottom, edge one-half
inch from the square end, the same amount of canvas uncovered
at the top and bottom. He then places the parts of the pole at
the side of the blanket next the square end of shelter half, near
and parallel to the fold, end of pole about 6 inches from the
edge of the blanket; nests the pins similarly near the opposite
edge of the blanket find distributes the other articles carried in
the roll; folds the triangular end and then the exposed portion
of the bottom of the shelter half over the blanket.

The two men in each file roll and fasten first the roll of the
front and then of the rear rank man. The file closers work similarly
two and two, or with the front rank man of a blank file. Each
pair stands on the folded side, rolls the blanket roll closely
and buckles the straps, passing the end of the strap through both
keeper and buckle, back over the buckle and under the keeper.
With the roll so lying on the ground that the edge of the shelter
half can just be seen when looking vertically downward one end is
bent upward and over to meet the other, a clove hitch is taken
with the guy rope first around the end to which it is attached and
then around the other end, adjusting the length of rope between
hitches to suit the wearer.

As soon as a file completes its two rolls each man places his
roll in the position it was in after being unslung find stands
at attention.

All the rolls being completed, the captain commands: 1. _Sling_,
2. PACKS.

At the second command the rolls ure slung, the end containing
the pole to the rear.

The company is assembled, takes arms, and the captain completes
the inspection as before.

792. Being in line or in column of platoons, the captain commands:
FORM FOR SHELTER TENTS.

The officers, first sergeant, and guides fall out; the cooks
form a file on the flank of the company nearest the kitchen, the
first sergeant and right guide fall in, forming the right file
of the company; blank files are filled by the file closers or
by men taken from the front rank; the remaining guide or guides,
and file closers form on a convenient flank. Before forming column
of platoons, preparatory to pitching tents, the company may be
redivided into two or more platoons, regardless of the size of
each.

793. The captain then causes the company to take intervals as
described in the School of the Squad, and commands: PITCH TENTS.

At the command PITCH TENTS, each man steps off obliquely to the
right with the right foot and lays his rifle on the ground, the
butt of the rifle near the toe of the right foot, muzzle to the
front, barrel to the left, and steps back into his place; each
front rank man then draws his bayonet and sticks it in the ground
by the outside of the right heel. All unsling and open the blanket
rolls and take out the shelter half, poles, and pins. Each then
spreads his shelter half, triangle to the rear, flat upon the
ground the tent is to occupy, rear rank man's half on the right.
The halves are then buttoned together. Each front rank man joins
his pole, inserts the top in the eyes of the halves, and holds
the pole upright beside the bayonet placed in the ground; his rear
rank man, using the pins in front, pins down the front corners
of the tent on the line of bayonets, stretching the canvas taut;
he then inserts a pin in the eye of the rope and drives the pin
at such distance in front of the pole as to hold the rope taut.
Both then go to the rear of the tent; the rear rank man adjusts
the pole and the front rank man drives the pins. The rest of
the pins are then driven by both men, the rear-rank man working
on the right.

NOTE.--The use of the hand ax and the pick mattock in organizations
equipped with the intrenching tool is authorized for the purpose
of driving shelter tent pins. The use of the bayonet for that
purpose is prohibited.

As soon as the tent is patched each man arranges the contents
of the blanket roll in the tent and stands at attention in front
of his own half on line with the front guy-rope pin.

The guy ropes, to have a uniform slope when the shelter tents
are pitched, should all be of the same length.

794. When the blanket roll is not carried, intervals are taken
as described above; the position of the front pole is marked with
a bayonet and equipments are laid aside. The men then proceed
to the wagon, secure their rolls, return to their places, and
pitch tents as heretofore described.

795. To pitch double shelter tent, the captain gives the same
commands as before, except TAKE HALF INTERVAL is given instead of
TAKE INTERVAL. In taking interval each man follows the preceding
man at 2 paces. The captain then commands: PITCH DOUBLE TENTS.

The first sergeant places himself on the right of the right guide
and with him pitches a single shelter tent.

Only the odd numbers of the front rank mark the line with the
bayonet.

The tent is formed by buttoning together the square ends of two
single tents. Two complete tents, except one pole, are used.
Two guy ropes are used at each end, the guy pins being placed
in front of the corner pins.

The tents are pitched by numbers 1 and 2, front and rear rank;
and by numbers 3 and 4, front and rear rank; the men falling
in on the left are numbered, counting off if necessary.

All the men spread their shelter halves on the ground the tent is
to occupy. Those of the front rank are placed with the triangular
ends to the front. All four halves are then buttoned together,
first the ridges and then the square ends. The front corners
of the tent are pinned by the front rank men, the odd number
holding the poles, the even number driving the pins. The rear
rank men similarly pin the rear corners.

While the odd numbers steady the poles, each even number of the
front rank takes his pole and enters the tent, where, assisted
by the even number of the rear rank, he adjusts the pole to the
center eyes of the shelter halves in the following order: (1)
The lower half of the front tent; (2) the lower half of the rear
tent; (3) the upper half of the front tent; (4) the upper half
of the rear tent. The guy ropes are then adjusted.

The tents having been pitched, the triangular ends are turned back,
contents of the rolls arranged, and the men stand at attention,
each opposite his own shelter half and facing out from the tent.

796. Omitted.

797. Omitted.

798. Omitted.

SECTION 9. MANUAL OF THE BAYONET.

1. The Infantry soldier relies mainly on fire action to disable the
enemy, but he should know that personal combat is often necessary
to obtain success. Therefore, he must be instructed in the use
of the rifle and bayonet in hand-to-hand encounters.

2. The object of this instruction is to teach the soldier how to
make effect use of the rifle and bayonet in personal combat: to
make him quick and proficient in handling his rifle; to give him
an accurate eye and a steady hand; and to give him confidence in
the bayonet in offense and defense. When skill in these exercises
has been acquired, the rifle will still remain a most formidable
weapon at close quarters should the bayonet be lost or disabled,

3. Efficiency of organizations in bayonet fighting will be judged
by the skill shown by individuals in personal combat. For this
purpose pairs or groups of opponents, selected at random from
among recruits and trained soldiers, should engage in assaults,
using the fencing equipment provided for the purpose.

4. Officers and specially selected and thoroughly instructed
noncommissioned officers will act us instructors.

5. Instruction in bayonet combat should begin as soon as the soldier
is familiar with the handling of his rifle and will progress, as
far as practicable, in the order followed in the text.

6. Instruction is ordinarily given on even ground; but practice
should also be had on uneven ground, especially in the attack
and defense of intrenchments.

7. These exercises will not be used as a calisthenic drill.

8. The principles of the commands are the same as those given in
paragraph 9, 15, and 38, Infantry Drill Regulations. Intervals
and distances will be taken as in paragraphs 109 and 111, Infantry
Drill Regulations, except that, in formations for bayonet exercises,
the men should be at least four paces apart in every direction.

9. Before requiring soldiers to take a position or execute a
movement for the first time, the instructor executes the same
for the purpose of illustration, after which he requires the
soldiers to execute the movement individually. Movements prescribed
in this manual will not be executed in cadence as the attempt to
do so results in incomplete execution and lack of vigor. Each
movement will be executed correctly as quickly as possible by
every man. As soon as the movements are executed accurately,
the commands are given rapidly, as expertness with the bayonet
depends chiefly upon quickness of motion.

10. The exercises will he interrupted at first by short and frequent
rests. The rests will be less frequent as proficiency is attained.
Fatigue and exhaustion will be specially guarded against, as
they prevent proper interest being taken in the exercises and
delay the progress of the instruction. Rests will be given from
the position of order arms in the manner prescribed in Infantry
Drill Regulations.

THE BAYONET.

NOMENCLATURE AND DESCRIPTION.

11. The bayonet is a cutting and thrusting weapon consisting
of three principal parts, viz, the _blade,_guard_, and
_grip_.

12. The blade has the following parts: Edge, false edge, back,
grooves, point, and tang. The length of the blade from guard to
point is 16 inches, the edge 14.5 inches, and the false edge
5.6 inches. Length of the rifle, bayonet fixed, is 59.4 inches.
The weight of the bayonet is 1 pound; weight of rifle without
bayonet is 8.69 pounds. The center of gravity of the rifle, with
bayonet fixed, is just in front of the rear sight.

NOTE.--The use of the hand ax and the pick mattock in organizations
equipped with the intrenching tool is authorized for the purpose
of driving shelter-tent pins. The use of the bayonet for that
purpose is prohibited.

I. INSTRUTION WITHOUT THE RIFLE.

13. The instructor explains the importance of good footwork and
impresses on the men the fact that quickness of foot and suppleness
of body are as important for attack and defense as is the ability
to parry and deliver a strong point or cut.

14. All foot movements should be made from the position of guard.
As far as practicable, they will be made on the balls of the
feet to insure quickness and agility. No hard and fast rule can
be laid down as to the length of the various foot movements;
this depends entirely on the situations occurring in combat.

15. The men having taken intervals or distances, the instructor
commands:

1. _Bayonet_exercise_, 2. GUARD.

At the command GUARD, half face to the right, carry back and
place the right foot about once and a half its length to the
rear and about 3 inches to the right, the feet forming with each
other an angle of about 60 deg., weight of the body balanced equally
on the balls of the feet, knees slightly bent, palms of hands
on hips, fingers to the front, thumbs to the rear, head erect,
head and eyes straight to the front.

16. To resume the attention. 1. _Squad_, 2. ATTENTION, The
men take the position of the soldier and fix their attention.

17. ADVANCE. Advance the left foot quickly about once its length,
follow immediately with the right foot the same distance.

18. RETIRE. Move the right foot quickly to the rear about once its
length, follow immediately with the left foot the same distance.

19. 1. _Front_, 2. PASS. Place the right foot quickly about
once its length in front of the left, advance the left foot to
its proper position in front of the right.

20. 1. _Rear_ 2. PASS, Place the left foot quickly about
once its length in rear of the right, retire the right foot to
its proper position in rear of the left.

The passes are used to get quickly within striking distance or
to withdraw quickly therefrom.

21. 1. _Right_, 2. STEP. Step to the right with the right
foot about once its length and place the left foot in its proper
relative position.

22. 1. _Left_, 2. STEP. Step to the left with the left foot
about once its length and place the right foot in its proper
relative position.

These steps are used to circle around an enemy, to secure a more
favorable line of attack, or to avoid the opponent's attack.
Better ground or more favorable light may be gained in this way.
In bayonet fencing and in actual combat the foot first moved in
stepping to the right or left is the one which at the moment
bears the least weight.

II. INSTRUCTION WITH THE RIFLE.

23. The commands for and the execution of the foot movements
are the same as already given for movements without the rifle.

24. The men having taken intervals or distances, the instructor
commands:

1. _Bayonet_exercise_, 2. GUARD.

At the second command take the position of guard (see par. 15);
at the same time throw the rifle smartly to the front, grasp
the rifle with the left hand just below the lower band, fingers
between the stock and gun sling, barrel turned slightly to the
left, the right hand grasping the small of the stock about 6 inches
in front of the right hip, elbows free from the body, bayonet
point at the height of the chin.

25. 1. _Order_, 2. ARMS.

Bring the right foot up to the left and the rifle to the position
of order arms, at the same time resuming the position of attention.

26. During the preliminary instruction, attacks and defenses
will he executed from guard until proficiency is attained, after
which they may be executed from any position in which the rifle
is held.

ATTACKS.

27. 1. THRUST.

Thrust the rifle quickly forward to the full length of the left
arm, turning the barrel to the left, and direct the point of the
bayonet at the point to be attacked, butt covering the right
fore-arm. At the same time straighten the right leg vigorously
and throw the weight of the body forward and on the left leg,
the ball of the right foot always on the ground. Guard is resumed
immediately without command.

The force of the thrust is delivered principally with the right
arm, the left being used to direct the bayonet. The points at
which the attack should be directed are, in order of their
importance, stomach, chest, head, neck, and limbs.

28. 1. LUNGE.

Executed in the same manner as the thrust, except that the left
foot is carried forward about twice its length. The left heel must
always be in rear of the left knee. Guard is resumed immediately
without command. Guard may also be resumed by advancing the right
foot if for any reason it is desired to hold the ground gained
in lunging. In the latter case the preparatory command FORWARD
will be given. Each method should be practiced.

29. 1. _Butt_, 2. STRIKE.

Straighten right arm and right leg vigorously and swing butt of
rifle against point of attack, pivoting the rifle in the left hand
at about the height of the left shoulder, allowing the bayonet to
pass to the rear on the left side of the head, Guard is resumed
without command.

[Illustration: Par. 27.]

[Illustration: Par. 24.]

The points of attack in their order of importance are head, neck,
stomach, and crotch.

30. 1. _Cut_, 2. DOWN.

Execute a quick downward stroke, edge of bayonet directed at point
of attack. Guard is resumed without command.

31. 1. _Cut_, 2. RIGHT (LEFT).

With a quick extension of the arms execute a cut to the right
(left), directing the edge toward the point attacked. Guard is
resumed without command.

The cuts are especially useful against the head, neck, and hands
of an enemy. In executing left cut it should be remembered that
the false, or back edge, is only 5.6 inches long. The cuts can be
executed continuation of strokes, thrusts, lunges, and parries.

[Illustration: Par. 28.]

32. To direct an attack to the right, left, or rear the soldier
will change front as quickly as possible in the most convenient
manner, for example: 1. _To_the_right_rear_, 2. _Cut_,
3. DOWN; 1. _To_the_right_, 2. LUNGE; 1. _To_the_left_,
2. THRUST, etc.

Whenever possible the impetus gained by the turning movement
of the body should be thrown into the attack. In general this
will be best accomplished by turning on the ball of the right
foot.

These movements constitute a change of front in which the position
of guard is resumed at the completion of the movement.

[Illustration: Par. 29.]

33. Good judgment of distance is essential. Accuracy in thrusting
and lunging is best attained by practicing these attacks against
rings or other convenient openings, about 3 inches in diameter,
suitably suspended at desired heights.

34. The thrust and lunges at rings should first be practiced by
endeavoring to hit the opening looked at. This should be followed
by directing the attack against one opening while looking at
another.

35. The soldier should also experience the effect of actual
resistance offered to the bayonet and the butt of the rifle in
attacks. This will be taught by practicing attacks against a
dummy.

36. Dummies should be constructed in such a manner as to permit
the execution of attacks without injury to the point or edge of
the bayonet or to the barrel or stock of the rifle. A suitable
dummy can be made from pieces of rope about 5 feet in length plaited
closely together into a cable between 6 and 12 in diameter. Old
rope is preferable. Bags weighted and stuffed with hay, straw,
shavings, etc. are also suitable.

[Illustration: Par. 36.]

[Illustration: Par. 33.]

DEFENSES.

37. In the preliminary drills in the defenses the position of
guard is resumed, by command, after each parry. When the men have
become proficient the instructor will cause them to resume the
position of guard instantly without command after the execution
of each parry.

38. 1. _Parry_, 2. RIGHT.

Keeping the right hand in the guard position, move the rifle
sharply to the right with the left arm, so that the bayonet point
is about 6 inches to the right.

39. 1. _Parry_, 2. LEFT.

Move the rifle sharply to the left front with both hands so as
to cover the point attacked.

40. 1. _Parry_, 2. HIGH.

Raise the rifle with both hands high enough to clear the line
of vision, barrel downward, point of the bayonet to the left
front.

[Illustration: Par. 40.]

[Illustration: Par. 41.]

When necessary to raise the rifle well above the head, it may
be supported between the thumb and forefinger of the left hand.
This position will be necessary against attacks from higher
elevations, such as men mounted or on top of parapets.

41. 1. _Low_parry_, 2. RIGHT (LEFT).

Carry the point of the bayonet down until it is at the height
of the knee, moving the point of the bayonet sufficiently to the
right (left) to keep the opponent's attacks clear of the point
threatened.

These parries and rarely used, as an attack below the waist leaves
the head and body exposed.

[Illustration: Par. 41.]

[Illustration: Par. 44.]

42. Parries must not be too wide or sweeping, but sharp, short
motions, finished with a jerk or quick catch. The hands should,
as far as possible, be kept in the line of attack. Parries against
BUTT STRIKE are made by quickly moving the guard so as to cover
the point attacked.

43. To provide against attack from the right, left, or rear the
soldier will change front as quickly as possible in the most
convenient maimer: for example: 1. To the left rear, 2. _Parry_,
3. HIGH; 1. To the right, 2. _Parry_, 3. RIGHT, etc.

These movements constitute a change of front in which the position
of guard is resumed at the completion of the movement.

In changing front for the purpose of attack or defense, if there
is danger of wounding a comrade, the rifle should first be brought
to a vertical position.

III. INSTRUCTION WITHOUT THE BAYONET.

44. 1. _Club_rifle_, 2. SWING.

[Illustration: Par. 44.]

Being at order arms, at the preparatory command quickly raise and
turn the rifle, regrasping it with both hands between the rear
sight and muzzle, barrel down, thumbs around the stock and toward
the butt; at the same time raise the rifle above the shoulder
farthest from the opponent, butt elevated and to the rear, elbows
slightly bent and knees straight. Each individual takes such
position of the feet, shoulders, and hands as best accords with
his natural dexterity. SWING. Tighten the grasp of the hands
and swing the rifle to the front and downward, directing it at
the head of the opponent, and immediately return to the position
of club rifle by completing the swing of the rifle downward and
to the rear. Repeat by the command, SWING.

The rifle should be swung with sufficient force to break through
any guard or parry that may be interposed.

Being at CLUB RIFLE, order arms is resumed by command.

The use of this attack against dummies or in fencing is prohibited.

45. The position of CLUB RIFLE may be taken from any position of
the rifle prescribed in the Manual of Arms. It will not be taken
in personal combat unless the emergency is such as to preclude
the use of the bayonet.

IV. COMBINED MOVEMENT.

46. The purpose of combined movements is to develop more vigorous
attacks and more effective defenses than are obtained by the
single movements; to develop skill in passing from attack to
defense and the reverse. Every movement to the front should be
accompanied by an attack, which is increased in effectiveness
by the forward movement of the body. Every movement to the rear
should ordinarily be accompanied by a parry and should always
be followed by an attack. Movements to the right or left may
be accompanied by attacks or defense.

47. Not more than three movements will be used in any combination.
The instructor should first indicate the number of movements
that are to be combined as TWO MOVEMENTS or THREE MOVEMENTS.
The execution is determined by one command of execution, and
the position of guard is taken upon the completion of the last
movement only.

EXAMPLES.

Front pass and LUNGE.

Right step and THRUST.

Left step and low parry RIGHT.

Rear pass, parry left and LUNGE.

Lunge and cut RIGHT.

Parry right and parry HIGH.

Butt strike and cut DOWN.

Thrust and parry HIGH.

Parry high and LUNGE.

Advance, thrust and cut RIGHT.

Right step, parry left and cut DOWN.

To the left, butt strike and cut DOWN.

To the right rear, cut down and butt STRIKE.

Book of the day: