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Manual for Noncommissioned Officers and Privates of Infantry by War Department

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CENTER: The middle point or element of a command.

COLUMN: A formation in which the elements are placed one behind
another.

DEPLOY: To extend the front. In general to change from column
to line, or from close order to extended order.

DEPTH: The space from head to rear of any formation, including
the leading and rear elements. The depth of a man is assumed
to be 12 inches.

DISTANCE: Space between elements in the direction of depth. Distance
is measured from the bark of the man in front to the breast of
the man in rear. The distance between ranks is 40 inches in both
line and column.

ELEMENT: A file, squad, platoon, company, or larger body, forming
part of a still larger body.

FILE: Two men, the front-rank man and the corresponding man of
the rear rank. The front-rank man is the FILE LEADER. A file
which has no rear-rank man is a BLANK file. The term FILE applies
also to a single man in a single-rank formation.

FILE CLOSERS: Such officers and noncommissioned officers of a
company as are posted in rear of the line. For convenience, all
men posted in the line of file closers.

FLANK: The right or left of a command in line or in column: also
the element on the right or left of the line.

FORMATION: Arrangement of the elements of a command. The placing
of all fractions in their order in line, in column, or for battle.

FRONT: The space, in width, occupied by an element, either in
line or in column. The front of a man is assumed to be 22 inches.
Front also denotes the direction of the enemy.

GUIDE: An officer, noncommissioned officer, or private upon whom
the command or elements thereof regulates its march.

HEAD: The leading element of a column.

INTERVAL: Space between elements of the same line. The interval
between men in ranks is 4 inches, and is measured from elbow to
elbow. Between companies, squads, etc., it is measured from the
left elbow of the left man or guide of the group on the right
to the right elbow of the right man or guide of the group on
the left.

LEFT: The left extremity or element of a body of troops.

LINE: A formation in which the different elements are abreast
of each other.

ORDER, CLOSE: The formation in which the units, in double rank,
are arranged in line or in column with normal intervals and
distances.

ORDER, EXTENDED: The formation in which the units are separated
by intervals greater than in close order.

PACE: Thirty inches; the length of the full step in quick time.

POINT OF REST: The point at which a formation begins. Specifically,
the point toward which units are aligned in successive movements.

RANK: A line of men placed side by side.

RIGHT: The right extremity or element of a body of troops.

PART I.--DRILL.

SECTION 2.--INTRODUCTION.

1.[4] Success in battle is the ultimate object of all military
training; success may be looked for only when the training is
intelligent and thorough.

[Footnote 4: The numbers refer to paragraphs in the Infantry Drill
Regulations, 1911.]

2. Commanding officers are accountable for the proper training
of their respective organizations within the limits prescribed
by regulations and orders.

The excellence of an organization is judged by its field efficiency.
The field efficiency of an organization depends primarily upon
its effectiveness as a whole. Thoroughness and uniformity in
the training of the units of an organization are indispensable
to the efficiency of the whole; it is by such means alone that
the requisite teamwork may be developed.

3. Simple movements and elastic formations are essential to correct
training for battle.

4. The Drill Regulations are furnished as a guide. They provide
the principles for training and for increasing the probability
of success in battle.

In the interpretation of the regulations, the spirit must be
sought. Quibbling over the minutiae of form is indicative of failure
to grasp the spirit.

5. The principles of combat are considered in Part II of these
regulations. They are treated in the various schools included in
Part I only to the extent necessary to indicate the functions of
the various commanders and the division of responsibility between
them. The amplification necessary to a proper understanding of
their application is to be sought in Part II.

6. The following important distinctions must be observed:

(a) Drills executed AT ATTENTION and the ceremonies are DISCIPLINARY
EXERCISES designed to teach precise and soldierly movement, and
to inculcate that prompt and subconscious obedience which is
essential to proper military control. To this end smartness and
precision should be exacted in the execution of every detail.
Such drills should be frequent, but short.

(b) The purpose of EXTENDED ORDER DRILL is to teach the mechanism
of deployment, of the firings, and, in general, of the employment
of troops in combat. Such drills are in the nature of disciplinary
exercises and should be frequent, thorough, and exact in order
to habituate men to the firm control of their leaders. Extended
order drill is executed at ease. The company is the largest unit
which executes extended order drill.

(c) FIELD EXERCISES are for instruction in the duties incident to
campaign. Assumed situations are employed. Each exercise should
conclude with a discussion, on the ground, of the exercise and
principles involved.

(d) The COMBAT EXERCISE, a form of field exercise of the company,
battalion, and larger units, consists of the APPLICATION OF TACTICAL
PRINCIPLES to assumed situations, employing in the execution
the appropriate formations and movements of close and extended
order.

Combat exercises must simulate, as far as possible, the battle
conditions assumed. In order to familiarize both officers and men
with such conditions, companies and battalions will frequently
be consolidated to provide war-strength organizations. Officers
and noncommissioned officers not required to complete the full
quota of the units participating are assigned as observers or
umpires.

The firing line can rarely be controlled by the voice alone;
thorough training to insure the proper use of prescribed signals
is necessary.

The exercise should be followed by a brief drill at attention
in order to restore smartness and control.

7. In field exercises the enemy is said to be IMAGINARY when
his position and force are merely assumed; OUTLINED when his
position and force are indicated by a few men; REPRESENTED when
a body of troop acts as such.

General Rules for Drills and Formations.

8. When the PREPARATORY commands consists of more than one part
its elements are arranged as follows:

(1) For movements to be executed successively by the subdivisions
or elements of an organization: (a) Description of the movement;
(b) how executed, or on what element executed.

(2) For movements to be executed simultaneously by the subdivisions
of an organization: (a) The designation of the subdivisions; (b)
the movement to be executed.

9. Movements that may be executed toward either flank are explained
as toward but one flank, it being necessary to substitute the word
"left" for "right," and the reverse, to have the explanation of
the corresponding movement toward the other flank. The commands
are given for the execution of the movements toward either flank.
The substitute word of the command is placed within parentheses.

10. Any movement may be executed either from the halt or when
marching, unless otherwise prescribed. If at a halt, the command
for movements involving marching need not be prefaced by forward,
as 1. _Column_right_(left)_, 2. MARCH.

11. Any movement not specially excepted may be executed in double
time.

If at a halt, or if marching in quick time, the command double
time precedes the command of execution.

12. In successive movements executed in double time the leading or
base unit marches in QUICK TIME when not otherwise prescribed; the
other units march in DOUBLE TIME to their places in the formation
ordered and then conform to the gait of the leading or base unit.
If marching in double time, the command DOUBLE TIME is omitted.
The leading or base unit marches in QUICK TIME; the other units
continue at DOUBLE TIME to their places in the formation ordered
and then conform to the gait of the leading or base unit.

13. To hasten the execution of a movement begun in quick time,
the command: 1. _Double_time_, 2. MARCH, is given. The leading
or base unit continues to march in quick time, or remains at a
halt if already halted; the other units complete the execution
of the movement in double time and then conform to the gait of
the leading or base unit.

14. To stay the execution of a movement when marching, for the
correction of errors, the command: 1. _In_place_, 2. HALT, is
given. All halt and stand fast, without changing the position of
the pieces. To resume the movement the command: 1. _Resume_,
2. MARCH, is given.

15. To revoke a preparatory command, or, being at a halt to begin
anew a movement improperly begun, the command, AS YOU WERE, is
given, at which the movement ceases and the former position is
resumed.

16. Unless otherwise announced, the guide of a company or subdivision
of a company in line is right; of a battalion in line or line of
subdivisions or of a deployed line, center; of a rank in column
of squads, toward the side of the guide of the company.

To march with guide other than as prescribed above, or to change
the guide: Guide (right, left, or center).

In successive formations into line, the guide is toward the point
of rest; in platoons or larger subdivisions it is so announced.

The announcement of the guide, when given in connection with a
movement, follows the command of execution for that movement.
Exception: 1. _As_skirmishers,_guide_right_(left_or_center)_,
2. MARCH.

17. The TURN ON THE FIXED PIVOT by subdivisions is used in all
formations from line into column and the reverse.

The TURN ON THE MOVING PIVOT is used by subdivisions of a column
in executing changes of direction.

18. Partial changes of direction may be executed:

By interpolating in the preparatory command the word HALF, as
COLUMN HALF RIGHT (LEFT), or RIGHT (LEFT) HALF TURN. A change
of direction of 45 deg. is executed.

By the command: INCLINE TO THE RIGHT (LEFT). The guide, or guiding
element, moves in the indicated direction and the remainder of
the command conforms. This movement effects slight changes of
direction.

19. The designations LINE OF PLATOON, LINE OF COMPANIES, LINE OF
BATTALIONS, etc., refer to the formations in which the platoons,
companies, battalions, etc., each in column of squads, are in
line.

20. Full distance in column of subdivisions is such that in forming
line to the right or left the subdivisions will have their proper
intervals.

In column of subdivisions the guide of the leading subdivision is
charged with the step and direction; the guides in rear preserve
the trace, step, and distance.

21. In close order, all details, detachments, and other bodies
of troops are habitually formed in double rank.

To insure uniformity of interval between files when falling in,
and in alignments, each man places the palm of the left hand
upon the hip, fingers pointing downward. In the first case the
hand is dropped by the side when the next man on the left has
his interval; in the second case, at the command front.

22. The posts of officers, noncommissioned officers, special
units (such as band or machine-gun company), etc., in the various
formations of the company, battalion, or regiment, are shown in
plates.

In all changes from one formation to another involving a change
of post on the part of any of these, posts are promptly taken
by the most convenient route as soon as practicable after the
command of execution for the movement; officers and noncommissioned
officers who have prescribed duties in connection with the movement
ordered, take their new posts when such duties are completed.

As instructors, officers and noncommissioned officers go wherever
their presence is necessary. As file closers it is their duty
to rectify mistakes and insure steadiness and promptness in the
ranks.

23. Except at ceremonies, the special units have no fixed places.
They take places as directed; in the absence of directions, they
conform as nearly as practicable to the plates, and in subsequent
movements maintain their relative positions with respect to the
flank or end of the command on which they were originally posted.

24. General, field, and staff officers are habitually mounted.
The staff of an officer forms in single rank 3 paces in rear of
him, the right or the rank extending 1 pace to the right of a point
directly in rear of him. Members of the staff are arranged in order
from right to left as follows: General staff officers, adjutant,
aids, other staff officers, arranged in each classification in
order of rank, the senior on the right. The flag of the general
officer and the orderlies are 3 paces in rear of the staff, the
flag on the right. When necessary to reduce the front of the
staff and orderlies, each line executes twos right or fours right,
as explained in the Cavalry Drill Regulations, and follows the
commander.

When not otherwise prescribed, staff officers draw and return
saber with their chief.

25. In making the about, an officer, mounted, habitually turns
to the left.

When the commander faces to give commands, the staff, flag, and
orderlies do not change position.

26. When making or receiving official reports, or on meeting out
of doors all officers will salute.

Military courtesy requires the junior to salute first, but when
the salute is introductory to a report made at a military ceremony
or formation, to the representative of a common superior (as,
for example, to the adjutant, officer of the day, etc.), the
officer making the report, whatever his rank, will salute first.
The officer to whom the report is made will acknowledge by saluting
that he has received and understood the report.

27. For ceremonies, all mounted enlisted men of a regiment or
smaller unit, except those belonging to the machine-gun
organizations, are consolidated into a detachment. The senior
present commands if no officer is in charge. The detachment is
formed as a platoon or squad of Cavalry in line or column of
fours. Noncommissioned staff officers are on the right or in the
leading ranks.

28. For ceremonies, such of the noncommissioned staff officers
as are dismounted are formed 5 paces in rear of the color in
order of rank from right to left. In column of squads they march
as file closers.

29. Other than for ceremonies, noncommissioned stare officers
and orderlies accompany their immediate chiefs unless otherwise
directed. If mounted, the noncommissioned staff officers are
ordinarily posted on the right or at the head of the orderlies.

30. In all formations and movements a noncommissioned officer
commanding a platoon or company carries his piece as the men
do, if he is so armed, and takes the same post as an officer in
like situation. When the command is formed in line for ceremonies
a noncommissioned officer commanding a company takes post on the
right of the right guide after the company has been aligned.

SECTION 3. ORDERS, COMMANDS, AND SIGNALS.

31. COMMANDS only are employed in drill at attention. Otherwise
either a COMMAND, SIGNAL, or ORDER is employed, as best suits
the occasion, or one may he used in conjunction with another.

32. Signals should be freely used in instruction, in order that
officers and men may readily know them. In making firm signals
the saber, rifle, or headdress may be held in the hand.

33. Officers and men fix their attention at the first word of
command, the first note of the bugle or whistle, or the first
motion of the signal. A signal includes both the preparatory
command and the command of execution: the movement commences as
soon as the signal is understood, unless otherwise prescribed.

34. Except in movements executed AT ATTENTION, commanders or
leaders of subdivisions repeat orders, commands, or signals whenever
such repetition is deemed necessary to insure prompt and correct
execution.

Officers, battalion noncommissioned staff officers, platoon leaders,
guides, and musicians are equipped with whistles.

The major and his staff will use a whistle of distinctive tone;
the captain and company musicians a second and distinctive whistle;
the platoon leaders and guides a third distinctive whistle.

35. Prescribed signals are limited to such as are essential as
a substitute for the voice under conditions which render the
voice inadequate.

Before or during an engagement special signals may be agreed
upon to facilitate the solution of such special difficulties
as the particular situation is likely to develop, but it must
be remembered that simplicity and certainty are indispensable
qualities of a signal.

ORDERS.

36. In these regulations an ORDER embraces instructions or directions
given orally or in writing in terms suited to the particular
occasion and not prescribed herein.

ORDERS are employed only when the COMMANDS prescribed herein do
not sufficiently indicate the will of the commander.

ORDERS are more fully described in paragraphs 378 to 383, inclusive.

COMMANDS.

37. In these regulations a command is the will of the commander
expressed in the phraseology prescribed herein.

38. There are two kinds of commands:

The PREPARATORY command, such as _forward_, indicates the
movement that is to be executed.

The command of EXECUTION, such as MARCH, HALT, or ARMS, causes
the execution.

Preparatory commands are distinguished by _italics_, those
of execution by CAPITALS.

Where it is not mentioned in the text who gives the commands
prescribed, they are to be given by the commander of the unit
concerned.

The PREPARATORY command should be given at such an interval of
time before the command of EXECUTION as to admit of being properly
understood; the command of EXECUTION should be given at the instant
the movement is to commence.

The tone of command is animated, distinct, and of a loudness
proportioned to the number of men for whom it is intended.

Each PREPARATORY command is enunciated distinctly, with a rising
inflection at the end, and in such manner that the command of
EXECUTION may he more energetic.

The command of EXECUTION is firm in tone and brief.

39. Majors and commanders of units larger than a battalion repeat
such commands of their superiors as are to be executed by their
units, facing their units for that purpose. The battalion is the
largest unit that executes a movement at the command of execution
of its commander.

40. When giving commands to troops it is usually best to face
toward them.

Indifference in giving commands must be avoided, as it leads
to laxity in execution. Commands should be given with spirit at
all times.

BUGLE SIGNALS.

41. The authorized bugle signals are published in Part V of these
regulations.

The following bugle signals may be used off the battle field,
when not likely to convey information to the enemy:

ATTENTION: Troops are brought to attention.

ATTENTION TO ORDERS: Troops fix their attention.

FORWARD, MARCH: Used also to execute quick time from double time.

DOUBLE TIME, MARCH.

TO THE REAR, MARCH: In close order, execute SQUADS RIGHT ABOUT.

HALT.

ASSEMBLE, MARCH.

The following bugle signals may be used on the battlefield:

FIX BAYONETS.

CHARGE.

ASSEMBLE, MARCH.

These signals are used only when intended for the entire firing
line; hence they can be authorized only by the commander of a unit
(for example, a regiment or brigade) which occupies a distinct
section of the battle field. Exception: FIX BAYONET. (see par.
318.)

The following bugle signals are used in exceptional cases on
the battle field. Their principal uses are in field exercises
and practice firing.

COMMENCE FIRING: Officers charged with fire direction and control
open fire as soon as practicable. When given to a firing line,
the signal is equivalent to fire at will.

CEASE FIRING: All parts of the line execute CEASE FIRING at once.
These signals are not used by units smaller than a regiment, except
when such unit is independent or detached from its regiment.

WHISTLE SIGNALS.

42. ATTENTION TO ORDERS. A SHORT BLAST of the whistle. This signal
is used on the march or in combat when necessary to fix the attention
of troops, or of their commanders or leaders, preparatory to
giving commands, orders, or signals.

When the firing line is firing, each squad leader suspends firing
and fixes his attention at a SHORT BLAST of his platoon leader's
whistle. The platoon leader's subsequent commands or signals are
repeated and enforced by the squad leader. If a squad leader's
attention is attracted by a whistle other than that of his platoon
leader, or if there are no orders or commands to convey to his
squad, he resumes firing at once.

SUSPEND FIRING. A LONG BLAST of the whistle.

All other whistle signals are prohibited.

ARM SIGNALS.

43. The following arm signals are prescribed. In making signals
either arm may be used. Officers who receive signals, on the
firing line "repeat back" at once to prevent misunderstanding.

FORWARD, MARCH. Carry the hand to the shoulder; straighten and
hold the arm horizontally, thrusting it in direction of march.

This signal is also used to execute quick time from double time.

HALT. Carry the hand to the shoulder; thrust the hand upward and
hold the arm vertically.

DOUBLE TIME, MARCH. Carry the hand to the shoulder; rapidly thrust
the hand upward the full extent of the arm several times.

SQUADS RIGHT, MARCH. Raise the arm laterally until horizontal;
carry it to a vertical position above the head and swing it several
times between the vertical and horizontal positions.

SQUADS LEFT, MARCH. Raise the arm laterally until horizontal;
carry it downward to the side and swing it several times between
the downward and horizontal positions.

SQUADS RIGHT ABOUT, MARCH (if in close order) or, TO THE REAR,
MARCH (if in skirmish line). Extend the arm vertically above
the head; carry it laterally downward to the side and swing it
several times between the vertical and downward positions.

CHANGE DIRECTION OR COLUMN RIGHT (LEFT), MARCH. The hand on the
side toward which the change of direction is to be made is carried
across the body to the opposite shoulder, forearm horizontal;
then swing in a horizontal plane, arm extended, pointing in the
new direction.

AS SKIRMISHERS, MARCH. Raise both arms laterally until horizontal.

AS SKIRMISHERS, GUIDE CENTER, MARCH. Raise both arms laterally
until horizontal; swing both simultaneously upward until vertical
and return to the horizontal; repeat several times.

AS SKIRMISHERS, GUIDE RIGHT (LEFT), MARCH. Raise both arms laterally
until horizontal; hold the arm on the side of the guide steadily
in the horizontal position; swing the other upward until vertical
and return it to the horizontal; repeat several times.

ASSEMBLE, MARCH. Raise the arm vertically to its full extent and
describe horizontal circles.

RANGE, or CHANGE ELEVATION. To announce RANGE, extend the arm
toward the leaders or men for whom the signal is intended, fist
closed; by keeping fist closed battle sight is indicated; by
opening and closing the fist, expose thumb and fingers to a number
equal to the hundreds of yards; to add 50 yards describe a short
horizontal line with forefinger. To CHANGE ELEVATION, indicate
the amount of increase or decrease by fingers as above; point
upward to indicate increase and downward to indicate decrease.

WHAT RANGE ARE YOU USING? or WHAT IS THE RANGE? Extend the arms
toward the person addressed, one hand open, palm to the front,
resting on the other hand, fist closed.

ARE YOU READY? or I AM READY. Raise the hand, fingers extended
and joined, palm toward the person addressed.

COMMENCE FIRING. Move the arm extended in full length, hand palm
down, several times through a horizontal arc in front of the
body.

FIRE FASTER. Execute rapidly the signal "Commence firing."

FIRE SLOWER. Execute slowly the signal "Commence firing."

TO SWING THE CONE OF FIRE TO THE RIGHT, OR LEFT. Extend the arm
in full length to the front, palm to the right (left); swing
the arm to right (left), and point in the direction of the new
target.

FIX BAYONET. Simulate the movement of the right hand in "Fix
bayonet" (par. 95).--(_C._I._D._R.,_No._14,_May_18,_1916._)

SUSPEND FIRING. Raise and hold the forearm steadily in a horizontal
position in front of the forehead, palm of the hand to the front.

CEASE FIRING. Raise the forearm as in SUSPEND FIRING and swing
it up and down several times in front of the face.

PLATOON. Extend the arm horizontally toward the platoon leader;
describe small circles with the hand. (See par. 44.)

SQUAD. Extend the arm horizontally toward the platoon leader;
swing the hand up and down from the wrist. (See par. 44.)

RUSH. Same as double time.

44. The signals PLATOON and SQUAD are intended primarily for
communication between the captain and his platoon leaders. The
signal PLATOON or SQUAD indicates that the platoon commander
is to cause the signal which follows to be executed by platoon
or squad.

FLAG SIGNALS.

45. The signal flags described below are carried by the company
musicians in the field.

In a regiment in which it is impracticable to make the permanent
battalion division alphabetically, the flags of a battalion are
as shown; flags are assigned to the companies alphabetically,
within their respective battalions, in the order given below.

First battalion:
Company A. Red field, white square.
Company B. Red field, blue square.
Company C. Red field, white diagonals.
Company D. Red field, blue diagonals.
Second battalion:
Company E. White field, red square.
Company F. White field, blue square.
Company G. White field, red diagonals.
Company H. White field, blue diagonals.
Third battalion:
Company I. Blue field, red square.
Company K. Blue field, white square.
Company L. Blue field, red diagonals.
Company M. Blue field, white diagonals.

46. In addition to their use in visual signaling, these flags
serve to mark the assembly point of the company when disorganized
by combat, and to mark the location of the company in bivouac
and elsewhere, when such use is desirable.

47. (1) For communication between the firing line and the reserve
or commander in the rear, the subjoined signals (Signal Corps
codes) are prescribed and should be memorized. In transmission,
their concealment from the enemy's view should be insured. In
the absence of signal flags, the headdress or other substitute
may be used.

-------------+--------------------------+--------------------------
Letter of |If signaled from the rear | If signaled from the
alphabet | to the firing line. | firing line to the rear.
-------------+--------------------------+--------------------------
A M |Ammunition going forward. |Ammunition required.
C C C |Charge (mandatory at all |Am about to charge if
| times). | no instructions to the
| | contrary.
C F |Cease firing. |Cease firing.
D T |Double time or "rush". |Double time or "rush".
F |Commence firing. |Commence firing.
F B |Fix bayonets. |Fix bayonets.
F L |Artillery fire is causing |Artillery fire is causing
| us losses. | us losses.
G |Move forward |Preparing to move forward.
H H H |Halt. |Halt.
K |Negative |Negative.
L T |Left. |Left.
O |What is the (R. N., |What is the (R. N.,
(Ardois and | etc.?) Interrogatory. | etc.)? Interrogatory.
Semaphore | |
only.) | |
O | do | Do.
(All methods | |
but ardois &| |
semaphore.) | |
P |Affirmative |Affirmative.
R |Acknowledgment. |Acknowledgment.
R N |Range. |Range.
R T |Right. |Right.
S S S |Support going forward. |Support needed.
S U F |Suspend firing. |Suspend firing.
T |Target. |Target.
-------------+--------------------------+--------------------------

(2) THE TWO-ARM SEMAPHORE CODE.

(See illustrations in chapter XII.)

SECTION 4. SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER.

48. The instructor explains briefly each movement, first executing
it himself if practicable. He requires the recruits to take the
proper positions unassisted and does not touch them for the purpose
of correcting them, except when they are unable to correct
themselves. He avoids keeping them too long at the same movement,
although each should be understood before passing to another.
He exacts by degrees the desired precision and uniformity.

49. In order that all may advance as rapidly as their abilities
permit, the recruits are grouped according to proficiency as
instruction progresses. Those who lack aptitude and quickness
are separated from the others and placed under experienced drill
masters.

INSTRUCTION WITHOUT ARMS.

50. For preliminary instruction a number of recruits, usually
not exceeding three or four, are formed as a squad in single
rank.

POSITION OF THE SOLDIER, OR ATTENTION.

51. Heels on the same line and as near each other us the conformation
of the man permits.

Feet turned out equally and forming an angle of about 45 deg..

Knees straight, without stiffness.

Hips level and drawn back slightly; body erect and resting equally
on hips; chest lifted and arched; shoulders square and falling
equally.

Arms and hands hanging naturally, thumb along the seam of the
trousers.

Head erect and squarely to the front, chin drawn in so that the
axis of the head and neck is vertical; eyes straight to the front.

Weight of the body resting equally upon the heels and balls of
the feet.

THE RESTS.

52. Being at a halt, the commands are: FALL OUT; REST; AT EASE;
and, 1. _Parade_, 2. REST.

At the command FALL OUT, the men may leave the ranks, but are
required to remain in the immediate vicinity. They resume their
former places, at attention, at the command FALL IN.

At the command REST each man keeps one foot in place, but is not
required to preserve silence or immobility.

At the command at ease each man keeps one foot in place and is
required to preserve silence but not immobility.

53. 1. _Parade_, 2. REST. Carry the right foot 6 inches
straight to the rear, left knee slightly bent; clasp the hands,
without constraint, in front of the center of the body, fingers
joined, left hand uppermost, left thumb clasped by the thumb and
forefinger of the right hand; preserve silence and steadiness
of position.

54. To resume the attention: 1. _Squad_, 2. ATTENTION.

The men take the position of the soldier.

EYES RIGHT OR LEFT.

55. 1. _Eyes_, 2. RIGHT (LEFT), 3. FRONT.

At the command right, turn the head to the right oblique, eyes
fixed on the line of eye of the men in, or supposed to be in,
the same rank. At the command front, turn the head and eyes to
the front.

FACINGS.

56. To the flank: 1. _Right_(left)_, 2. FACE. Raise
slightly the left heel and right toe; face to the right turning
on the right heel, assisted by a slight pressure on the ball of
the left foot; place the left foot by the side of the right. Left
face is executed on the left heel in the corresponding manner.

Right (left) half face is executed similarly, facing 45 deg..

"To face in marching" and advance, turn on the ball of either foot
and step off with the other foot in the new line of direction;
to face in marching without gaining ground in the new direction,
turn on the ball of either foot and mark time.

57. To the rear: 1. _About_, 2. FACE.

Carry the toe of the right foot about a half foot-length to the
rear and slightly to the left of the left heel without changing
the position of the left foot; face to the rear, turning to the
right on the left heel and right toe; place the right heel by
the side of the left.

SALUTE WITH THE HAND.

58. 1. _Hand_, 2. SALUTE.

Raise the right hand smartly till the tip of the forefinger touches
the lower part of the headdress or forehead above the right eye,
thumb and fingers extended and joined, palm to the left, forearm
inclined at about 45 deg., hand and wrist straight; at the same time
look toward the person saluted. (TWO) Drop the arm smartly by
the side.

For rules governing salutes, see "Honors and Salutes," paragraphs
758-765.

STEPS AND MARCHINGS.

59. All steps and marchings executed from a halt, except right
step, begin with the left foot.

60. The length of the full step in quick time is 30 inches, measured
from heel to heel, and the cadence is at the rate of 120 steps
per minute.

The length of the full step in double time is 36 inches; the cadence
is at the rate of 180 steps per minute.

The instructor, when necessary, indicates the cadence of the step
by calling ONE, TWO, THREE, FOUR, or LEFT, RIGHT, the instant
the left and right root, respectively, should be planted.

61. All steps and marchings and movements involving march are
executed in QUICK TIME unless the squad be marching in DOUBLE
TIME, or DOUBLE TIME be added to the command: in the latter case
DOUBLE TIME is added to the preparatory command. Example: 1.
_Squad_right,_double_time_, 2. MARCH (School of the Squad).

QUICK TIME.

62. Being at a halt, to march forward in quick time: 1.
_Forward_, 2. MARCH.

At the command FORWARD, shift the weight of the body to the right
leg, left knee straight.

At the command MARCH, move the left foot smartly straight forward
30 inches from the right, sole near the ground, and plant it
without shock; next, in like manner, advance the right foot and
plant it as above; continue the march. The arms swing naturally.

63. Being at a halt, or in march in quick time, to march in double
time; 1. _Double_time_, 2. MARCH.

If at a halt, at the first command shift the weight of the body
to the right leg. At the command MARCH, raise the forearms, fingers
closed, to a horizontal position along the waist line; take up
an easy run with the step and cadence of double time, allowing
a natural swinging motion to the arms.

If marching in quick time, at the command MARCH, given as either
foot strikes the ground, take one step in quick time, and then
step off in double time.

64. To resume the quick time: 1. _Quick_time_, 2. MARCH.

At the command MARCH, given as either foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the other foot in double time; resume the quick
time, dropping the hands by the sides.

TO MARK TIME.

65. Being in march; 1. _Mark_time_, 2. MARCH.

At the command MARCH, given as either foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the other foot; bring up the foot in rear and
continue the cadence by alternately raising each foot about 2
inches and planting it on line with the other.

Being at a halt, at the command MARCH, raise and plant the feet
as described above.

THE HALF STEP.

66. 1. _Half_step_, 2. MARCH.

Take steps of 15 inches in quick time, 18 inches in double time.

67. FORWARD, HALF STEP, HALT, and MARK TIME may be executed one
from the other in quick or double time.

To resume the full step from half step or mark time: 1.
_Forward_, 2. MARCH.

SIDE STEP.

68. Being at a halt or mark time: 1. _Right_(left)_step_,
2. MARCH.

Carry and plant the right foot 15 inches to the right; bring
the left foot beside it and continue the movement in the cadence
of quick time.

The side step is used for short distances only and is not executed
in double time.

If at order arms, the side step is executed AT TRAIL without command.

BACK STEP.

69. Being at a halt or mark time: 1. _Backward_, 2. MARCH.

Take steps of 15 inches straight to the rear.

The back step is used for short distances only and is not executed
in double time.

If at order arms, the back step is executed AT TRAIL without command.

TO HALT.

70. To arrest the march in quick or double time: 1. _Squad_,
2. HALT.

At the command HALT, given as either foot strikes the ground,
plant the other foot as in marching; raise and place the first
foot by the side of the other. If in double time, drop the hands
by the sides.

TO MARCH BY THE FLANK.

71. Being in march: 1. _By_the_right_(left)_flank_, 2. MARCH.

At the command MARCH, given as the right foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the left foot, then face to the right in marching
and step off in the new direction with the right foot.

TO MARCH TO THE REAR.

72. Being in march: 1. _To_the_rear_, 2. MARCH.

At the command MARCH, given as the right foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the left foot; turn to the right about on the
balls of both feet and immediately step off with the left foot.

If marching in double time, turn to the right about, taking four
steps in place, keeping the cadence, and then step off with the
left foot.

CHANGE STEP.

73. Being in march: 1. _Change_step_, 2. MARCH.

At the command march, given as the right foot strikes the ground,
advance and plant the left foot; plant the toe of the right foot
near the heel of the left and step off with the left foot.

The charge on the right foot is similarly executed, the command
MARCH being given as the left foot strikes the ground.

MANUAL OF ARMS.

74. As soon as practicable the recruit is taught the use,
nomenclature (Pl. 1), and care of his rifle; when fair progress
has been made in the instruction without arms, he is taught the
manual of arms; instruction without arms and that with arms
alternate.

75. The following rules govern the carrying of the piece:

First. The piece is not carried with cartridges in either the
chamber or the magazine except when specifically ordered. When
so loaded, or supposed to be loaded, it is habitually carried
locked; that is, with the safety lock turned to the "safe."

At all other times it is carried unlocked, with the trigger pulled.

Second. Whenever troops are formed under arms, pieces are immediately
inspected at the commands: 1. _Inspection_, 2. ARMS; 3.
_Order_(Right_shoulder,_port)_, 4. ARMS.

A similar inspection is made immediately before dismissal.

If cartridges are found in the chamber or magazine, they are removed
and placed in the belt.

Third. The cut-off is kept turned "off" except when cartridges
are actually used.

Fourth. The bayonet is not fixed except in bayonet exercise, on
guard, or for combat.

Fifth. Fall in is executed with the piece at the order arms. FALL
OUT, REST, and AT EASE are executed as without arms. On resuming
ATTENTION the position of order arms is taken.

Sixth. If at the order, unless otherwise prescribed, the piece
is brought to the right shoulder at the command MARCH, the three
motions corresponding with the first three steps. Movements may
be executed at the trail by prefacing the preparatory command
with the words AT TRAIL; as, 1. _At_trail,_forward_, 2.
MARCH; the trail is taken at the command march.

When the facings, alignments, open and close ranks, taking interval
or distance, and assemblings are executed from the order, raise
the piece to the trail while in motion and resume the order on
halting.

Seventh. The piece is brought to the order on halting. The execution
of the order begins when the halt is completed.

Eighth. A disengaged hand in double time is held as when without
arms.

76. The following rules govern the execution of the manual of
arms:

First. In all positions of the left hand at the balance (center
of gravity, bayonet unfixed) the thumb clasps the piece; the
sling is included in the grasp of the hand.

Second. In all positions of the piece "diagonally across the
body" the position of the piece, left arm and hand are the same
as in port arms.

Third. In resuming the order from any position in the manual,
the motion next to the last concludes with the butt of the piece
about 3 inches from the ground, barrel to the rear, the left hand
above and near the right, steadying the piece, fingers extended
and joined, forearm and wrist straight and inclining downward,
all fingers of the right hand grasping the piece. To complete
the order, lower the piece gently to the ground with the right
hand, drop the left quickly by the side, and take the position
of order arms.

Allowing the piece to drop through the right hand to the ground,
or other similar abuse of the rifle to produce effect in executing
the manual, is prohibited.

Fourth. The cadence of the motions is that of quick time; the
recruits are first required to give their whole attention to the
details of the motions, the cadence being gradually acquired as
they become accustomed to handling their pieces. The instructor
may require them to count aloud in cadence with the motions.

Fifth. The manual is taught at a halt and the movements are, for
the purpose of instruction, divided into motions and executed
in detail; in this case the command of EXECUTION determines the
prompt execution of the first motion, and the commands, two,
three, four, that of the other motions.

To execute the movements in detail, the instructor first cautions:
BY THE NUMBERS; all movements divided into motions are then executed
as above explained until he cautions: WITHOUT THE NUMBERS; or
commands movements other than those in the manual of arms.

Sixth. Whenever circumstances require, the regular positions of
the manual of arms and the firings may be ordered without regard
to the previous position of the piece.

Under exceptional conditions of weather or fatigue the rifle may
be carried in any manner directed.

77. POSITION OF ORDER ARMS STANDING: The butt rests evenly on
the ground, barrel to the rear, toe of the butt on a line with
toe of, and touching, the right shoe, arms and hands hanging
naturally, right hand holding the piece between the thumb and
fingers.

78. Being at order arms: 1. _Present_, 2. ARMS.

With the right hand carry the piece in front of the center of
the body, barrel to the rear and vertical, grasp it with the
left hand at the balance, forearm horizontal and resting against
the body. (TWO) Grasp the small of the stock with the right hand.

79. Being at order arms: 1. _Port_, 2. ARMS.

With the right hand raise and throw the piece diagonally across
the body. grasp it smartly with both hands; the right palm down,
at the small of the stock; the left palm up, at the balance;
barrel up, sloping to the left and crossing opposite the junction
of the neck with the left shoulder; right forearm horizontal;
left forearm resting against the body; the piece in a vertical
plane parallel to the front.

80. Being at present arms: 1. _Port_, 2. ARMS.

Carry the piece diagonally across the body and take the position
of port arms.

81. Being at port arms: 1. _Present_, 2. ARMS.

Carry the piece to a vertical position in front of the center
of the body and take the position of present arms.

82. Being at present or port arms: 1. _Order_, 2. ARMS.

Let go with the right hand; lower and carry the piece to the
right with the left hand; regrasp it with the right hand just
above the lower band; let go with the left hand, and take the
next to the last position in coming to the order, (TWO) Complete
the order.

83. Being at order arms: 1. _Right_shoulder_, 2. ARMS.

With the right hand raise and throw the piece diagonally across
the body; carry the right hand quickly to the butt, embracing it,
the heel between the first two fingers. (TWO) Without changing the
grasp of the right hand, place the piece on the right shoulder,
barrel up and inclined at an angle of about 45 from the horizontal,
trigger guard in the hollow of the shoulder, right elbow near
the side, the piece in a vertical plane perpendicular to the
front; carry the left hand, thumb and fingers extended and joined,
to the small of the stock, tip of the forefinger touching the
cocking piece, wrist straight and elbow down. (THREE) Drop the
left hand by the side.

84. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. _Order_, 2. ARMS.

Press the butt down quickly and throw the piece diagonally across
the body, the right hand retaining the grasp of the butt. (TWO),
(THREE) Execute order arms us described from port arms.

85. Being at port arms: 1. _Right_shoulder_, 2. ARMS.

Change the right hand to the butt. (TWO), (THREE) As in right
shoulder arms from order arms.

86. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. _Port_, 2. ARMS.

Press the butt down quickly and throw the piece diagonally across
the body, the right hand retaining its grasp of the butt. (TWO)
Change the right hand to the small of the stock.

87. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. _Present_, 2. ARMS.

Execute port arms. (THREE) Execute present arms.

88. Being at present arms: 1. _Right_shoulder_, 2. ARMS.

Execute port arms. (TWO), (THREE), (FOUR) Execute right shoulder
arms as from port arms.

89. Being at port arms: 1. _Left_shoulder_, 2. ARMS.

Carry the piece with the right hand and place it on the left
shoulder, barrel up, trigger guard in the hollow of the shoulder;
at the same time grasp the butt with the left hand, heel between
first and second fingers, thumb and fingers closed on the stock.
(TWO) Drop the right hand by the side.

Being at left shoulder arms: 1. _Port_, 2. ARMS.

Grasp the piece with the right hand at the small of the stock.
(TWO) Carry the piece to the right with the right hand, regrasp
it with the left, and take the position of port arms.

LEFT SHOULDER ARMS may be ordered directly from the order, right
shoulder or present, or the reverse. At the command ARMS execute
PORT ARMS and continue in cadence to the position ordered.

90. Being at order arms: 1. _Parade_, 2. REST.

Carry the right foot 6 inches straight to the rear, left knee
slightly bent; carry the muzzle in front of the center of the
body, barrel to the left; grasp the piece with the left hand
just below the stacking swivel, and with the right hand below
and against the left.

Being at parade rest: 1. _Squad_, 2. ATTENTION.

Resume the order, the left hand quitting the piece opposite the
right hip.

91. Being at order arms: 1. _Trail_, 2. ARMS.

Raise the piece, right arm slightly bent, and incline the muzzle
forward so that the barrel makes an angle of about 30 with the
vertical.

When it can be done without danger or inconvenience to others,
the piece may be grasped at the balance and the muzzle lowered
until the piece is horizontal; a similar position in the left
hand may be used.

92. Being at trail arms: 1. _Order_, 2. ARMS.

Lower the piece with the right hand and resume the order.

RIFLE SALUTE.

93. Being at right shoulder arms: 1. _Rifle_, 2. SALUTE.

Carry the left hand smartly to the small of the stock, forearm
horizontal, palm of hand down, thumb and fingers extended and
joined, forefinger touching end of cocking piece; look toward
the person saluted. (TWO) Drop left hand by the side; turn head
and eves to the front.

94. Being at order or trail arms: 1. _Rifle_, 2. SALUTE.

Carry the left hand smartly to the right side, palm of the hand
down, thumb and fingers extended and joined, forefinger against
piece near the muzzle; look toward the person saluted. (TWO)
Drop the left hand by the side; turn the head and eyes to the
front.

For rules governing salutes, see "Honors and Salutes."

THE BAYONET.

95. Being at order arms: 1. _Fix_, 2. BAYONET.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Execute parade
rest; grasp the bayonet with the right hand, back of hand toward
the body; draw the bayonet from the scabbard and fix it on the
barrel, glancing at the muzzle; resume the order.

If the bayonet is carried on the haversack: Draw the bayonet with
the left hand and fix it in the most convenient manner.

96. Being at order arms: 1. _Unfix_, 2. BAYONET.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Execute parade
rest; grasp the handle of the bayonet firmly with the right hand,
pressing the spring with the forefinger of the right hand; raise
the bayonet until the handle is about 12 inches above the muzzle
of the piece; drop the point to the left, back of the hand toward
the body, and, glancing at the scabbard, return the bayonet, the
blade passing between the left arm and the body; regrasp the
piece with the right hand and resume the order.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the haversack: Take the
bayonet from the rifle with the left hand find return it to the
scabbard in the most convenient manner.

If marching or lying down, the bayonet is fixed and unfixed in
the most expeditious and convenient manner and the piece returned
to the original position.

Fix and unfix bayonet are executed, with promptness and regularity
but not in cadence.

97. CHARGE BAYONET. Whether executed at halt or in motion, the
bayonet is held toward the opponent as in the position of guard
in the Manual for Bayonet Exercise.

Exercises for instruction in bayonet combat are prescribed in
the Manual for Bayonet Exercise.

THE INSPECTION.

98. Being at order firms: 1. _Inspection_, 2. ARMS.

At the second command take the position of port arms. (TWO) Seize
the bolt handle with the thumb and forefinger of the right hand,
turn the handle up, draw the bolt back, and glance at the chamber.
Having found the chamber empty, or haying emptied it, raise the
head and eyes to the front.

99. Being at inspection arms: 1. _Order_(Right_shoulder,_port)_,
2. ARMS.

At the preparatory command push the bolt forward, turn the handle
down, pull the trigger, and resume port arms. At the command
arms, complete the movement ordered.

TO DISMISS THE SQUAD.

100. Being at halt: 1. _Inspection_, 2. ARMS, 3. _Port_,
4. ARMS, 5. DISMISSED.

SECTION 5. SCHOOL OF THE SQUAD.

101. Soldiers are grouped into squads for purposes of instruction,
discipline, control, and order.

102. The squad proper consists of a corporal and seven privates.

The movements in the School of the Squad are designed to make the
squad a fixed unit find to facilitate the control and movement
of the company. If the number of men grouped is more than 3 and
less than 12, they are formed as a squad of 4 files, the excess
above 8 being posted as file closers. If the number grouped is
greater than 11, 2 or more squads are formed and the group is
termed a platoon.

For the instruction of recruits, these rules may be modified.

103. The corporal is the squad leader, and when absent is replaced
by a designated private. If no private is designated, the senior
in length of service acts as leader.

The corporal, when in ranks, is posted as the left man in the
front rank of the squad.

When the corporal leaves the ranks to lead his squad, his rear
rank man steps into the front rank, and the file remains blank
until the corporal returns to his place in ranks, when his rear
rank man steps back into the rear rank.

104. In battle officers and sergeants endeavor to preserve the
integrity of squads; they designate new leaders to replace those
disabled, organize new squads when necessary, and see that every
man is placed in a squad.

Men are taught the necessity of remaining with the squad to which
they belong and, in case it be broken up or they become separated
therefrom, to attach themselves to the nearest squad and platoon
leaders, whether these be of their own or of another organization.

105. The squad executes the HALT, REST, FACINGS, STEPS, and MARCHINGS
and the MANUAL OF ARMS as explained in the School of the Soldier.

TO FORM THE SQUAD.

106. To form the squad the instructor places himself 3 paces in
front of where the center is to be and commands: FALL IN.

The men assemble at attention, pieces at the order, and are arranged
by the corporal in double rank, as nearly as practicable in order
of height from right to left, each man dropping his left hand
as soon as the man on his left has his interval. The rear rank
forms with distance of 40 inches.

The instructor then commands: COUNT OFF.

At this command all except the right file execute EYES RIGHT,
and beginning on the right, the men in each rank count one, two,
three, four; each man turns his head and eyes to the front as
he counts.

Pieces are then inspected.

ALIGNMENTS.

107. To align the squad, the base file or files having been
established: 1. _Right_(Left)_, 2. DRESS, 3. FRONT.

At the command DRESS all men place the left hand upon the hip
(whether dressing to the right or left); each man, except the
base file, when on or near the new line executes EYES RIGHT,
and, taking steps of 2 or 3 inches, places himself so that his
right arm rests lightly against the arm of the man on his right,
and so that his eyes and shoulders are in line with those of
the men on his right; the rear rank men cover in file.

The instructor verifies the alignment of both ranks from the
right flank and orders up or back such men as may be in rear,
or in advance, of the line; only the men designated move.

At the command front, given when the ranks are aligned, each
man turns his head and eyes to the front and drops his left hand
by his side.

In the first drills the basis of the alignment is established on,
or parallel to, the front of the squad; afterwards, in oblique
directions.

Whenever the position of the base file or files necessitates a
considerable movement by the squad, such movement will be executed
by marching to the front or oblique, to the flank or backward,
as the case may be, without other command, and at the trail.

108. To preserve the alignment when marching: GUIDE RIGHT (LEFT).

The men preserve their intervals from the side of the guide,
yielding to pressure from that side and resisting pressure from the
opposite direction; they recover intervals, if lost, by gradually
opening out or closing in; they recover alignment by slightly
lengthening or shortening the step; the rear-rank men cover their
file leaders at 40 inches.

In double rank, the front-rank man on the right, or designated
flank, conducts the march; when marching faced to the flank,
the lending man of the front rank is the guide.

TO TAKE INTERVALS AND DISTANCES.

109. Being in line at a halt: 1. Take interval, 2. _To_the_right_
_(left)_, 3. MARCH, 4. _Squad_, 5. HALT.

At the second command the rear-rank men march backward 4 steps
and halt; at the command march all face to the right and the
leading man of each rank steps off; the other men step off in
succession, each following the preceding man at 4 paces, rear-rank
men marching abreast of their file leaders.

At the command halt, given when all have their intervals, all
halt and face to the front.

110. Being at intervals, to assemble the squad: 1. _Assemble,_
_to_the_right_(left)_, 2. MARCH.

The front-rank man on the right stands fast, the rear-rank man on
the right closes to 40 inches. The other men face to the right,
close by the shortest line, and face to the front.

111. Being in line at a halt and having counted off: 1. _Take_
_distance_, 2. MARCH, 3. _Squad_, 4. HALT.

At the command march No. 1 of the front rank moves straight to
the front; Nos. 2, 3, and 4 of the front rank and Nos. 1, 2,
3, and 4 of the rear rank, in the order named, move straight
to the front, each stepping off so as to follow the preceding
man at 4 paces. The command HALT is given when all have their
distances.

In case more than one squad is in line, each squad executes the
movement as above. The guide of each rank of numbers is right.

112. Being at distances, to assemble the squad: 1. _Assemble_,
2. MARCH.

No. 1 of the front rank stands fast; the other numbers move forward
to their proper places in line.

TO STACK AND TAKE ARMS.

113. Being in line at a halt: STACK ARMS.

Each even number of the front rank grasps his piece with the
left hand at the upper band and rests the butt between his feet,
barrel to the front, muzzle inclined slightly to the front and
opposite the center of the interval on his right, the thumb and
forefinger raising the stacking swivel; each even number of the
rear rank then passes his piece, barrel to the rear, to his file
leader, who grasps it between the bands with his right hand and
throws the butt about 2 feet in advance of that of his own piece
and opposite the right of the interval, the right hand-slipping
to the upper band, the thumb and forefinger raising the stacking
swivel, which he engages with that of his own piece; each odd
number of the front rank raises his piece with the right hand,
carries it well forward, barrel to the front; the left hand,
guiding the stacking swivel, engages the lower hook of the swivel
of his own piece with the free hook of that of the even number of
the rear rank; he then turns the barrel outward into the angle
formed by the other two pieces and lowers the butt to the ground,
to the right of and against the toe of his right shoe.

The stacks made, the loose pieces are laid on them by the even,
numbers of the front rank.

When each man has finished handling pieces, he takes the position
of the soldier.

114. Being in line behind the stacks: TAKE ARMS.

The loose pieces are returned by the even numbers of the front
rank; each even number of the front rank grasps his own piece
with the left hand, the piece of his rear-rank man with his right
hand, grasping both between the bands; each odd number of the
front rank grasps his piece in the same way with the right hand,
disengages it by raising the butt from the ground and then, turning
the piece to the right, detaches it from the stack; each even
number of the front rank disengages and detaches his piece by
turning it to the left, and then passes the piece of his rear-rank
man to him, and all resume the order.

115. Should any squad have Nos. 2 and 3 blank files, No. 1 rear
rank takes the place of No. 2 rear rank in making and breaking
the stack; the stacks made or broken, he resumes his post.

Pieces not used in making the stack are termed loose pieces.

Pieces are never stacked with the bayonet fixed.

THE OBLIQUE MARCH.

116. For the instruction of recruits, the squad being in column
or correctly aligned, the instructor causes the squad to face
half right or half left, points out to the men their relative
positions, and explains that these are to be maintained in the
oblique march.

117. 1. _Right_(Left)_oblique_, 2. MARCH.

Each man steps off in a direction 45 deg. to the right of his original
front. He preserves his relative position, keeping his shoulders
parallel to those of the guide (the man on the right front of
the line or column), and so regulates his steps that the ranks
remain parallel to their original front.

At the command halt the men halt faced to the front.

To resume the original direction: 1. _Forward_, 2. MARCH.

The men half face to the left in marching and then move straight
to the front.

If at HALF STEP or MARK TIME while obliquing, the oblique march
is resumed by the commands: 1. _Oblique_, 2. MARCH.

TO TURN ON MOVING PIVOT.

118. Being in line: 1. _Right_(Left)_turn_, 2. MARCH.

The movement is executed by each rank successively and on the
same ground. At the second command, the pivot man of the front
rank faces to the right in marching and takes the half step;
the other men of the rank oblique to the right until opposite
their places in line, then execute a second right oblique and
take the half step on arriving abreast of the pivot man. All
glance toward the marching flank while at half step and take the
full step without command as the last man arrives on the line.

RIGHT (LEFT) HALF TURN is executed in a similar manner. The pivot
man makes a half change of direction to the right and the other
men make quarter changes in obliquing.

TO TURN ON FIXED PIVOT.

119. Being in line, to turn and march: 1. _Squad_right_(left)_,
2. MARCH.

At the second command, the right flank man in the front rank faces
to the right in marching and marks time; the other front-rank
men oblique to the right, place themselves abreast of the pivot,
and mark time. In the rear rank the third man from the right,
followed in column by the second and first, moves straight to the
front until in rear of his front-rank man, when all face to the
right in marching and mark time; the other number of the rear rank
moves straight to the front four paces and places himself abreast
of the man on his right. Men on the new line glance toward the
marching flank while marking time and, as the last man arrives
on the line, both ranks execute FORWARD, MARCH, without command.

120. Being in line, to turn and halt: 1. _Squad_right_(left)_,
2. MARCH, 3. _Squad_, 4. HALT.

The third command is given immediately after the second. The
turn is executed as prescribed in the preceding paragraph except
that all men, on arriving on the new line, mark time until the
fourth command is given, when all halt. The fourth command should
be given as the last man arrives on the line.

121. Being in line, to turn about and march: 1. _Squad_right_
_(left)_about_, 2. MARCH.

At the second command, the front rank twice executes SQUAD RIGHT,
initiating the SECOND SQUAD right when the man on the marching
flank has arrived abreast of the rank. In the rear rank the third
man from the right, followed by the second and first in column,
moves straight to the front until on the prolongation of the line
to be occupied by the rear rank; changes direction to the right;
moves in the new direction until in rear of his front-rank man,
when all face to the right in marching, mark time, and glance
toward the marching flank. The fourth man marches on the left
of the third to his new position; as he arrives on the line,
both ranks execute FORWARD, MARCH, without command.

122. Being in line, to turn about and halt: 1. _Squad_right_
_(left)_about_, 2. MARCH, 3. _Squad_, 4. HALT.

The third command is given immediately after the second. The
turn is executed as prescribed in the preceding paragraph except
that all men, on arriving on the new line, mark time until the
fourth command is given, when all halt. The fourth command should
be given as the last man arrives on the line.

TO FOLLOW THE CORPORAL.

123. Being assembled or deployed, to march the squad without
unnecessary commands, the corporal places himself in front of
it and commands FOLLOW ME.

If in line or skirmish line. No. 2 of the front rank follows
in the trace of the corporal at about 3 paces; the other men
conform to the movements of No. 2. guiding on him and maintaining
their relative positions.

If in column, the head of the column follows the corporal.

TO DEPLOY AS SKIRMISHERS.

124. Being in any formation, assembled: 1. _As_skirmishers_,
2. MARCH.

The corporal places himself in front of the squall, if not already
there. Moving at a run, the men place themselves abreast of the
corporal at half-pace intervals, Nos. 1 and 2 on his right, Nos.
3 and 4 on his left, rear-rank men on the right of their file
leaders, extra men on the left of No.4; all then conform to the
corporal's gait.

When the squad is acting alone, skirmish line is similarly formed
on No. 2 of the front rank, who stands fast or continues the
march, as the case may be; the corporal places himself in front
of the squad when advancing find in rear when halted.

When deployed us skirmishers, the men march at ease, pieces at
the trail unless otherwise ordered.

The corporal is the guide when in the line; otherwise No. 2 front
rank is the guide.

125. The normal interval between skirmishers is one-half pace,
resulting practically in one man per yard of front. The front
of a squad thus deployed as skirmishers is about 10 paces.

TO INCREASE OR DIMINISH INTERVALS.

126. If assembled, and it is desired to deploy at greater than the
normal interval; or if deployed, and it is desired to increase or
decrease the interval: 1. _As_skirmishers,_(so_many)_paces_,
2. MARCH.

Intervals are taken at the indicated number of paces. If already
deployed, the men move by the flank toward or away from the guide.

THE ASSEMBLY.

127. Being deployed: 1. _Assemble_, 2. MARCH.

The men move toward the corporal and form in their proper places.

If the corporal continues to advance, the men move in double time,
form, and follow him.

The assembly while marching to the rear is not executed.

KNEELING AND LYING DOWN.

128. If standing: KNEEL.

Half face to the right; carry the right toe about 1 foot to the
left rear of the left heel; kneel on right knee, sitting as nearly
as possible on the right heel; left forearm across left thigh;
piece remains in position of order arms, right hand grasping
it above the lower band.

129. If standing or kneeling: LIE DOWN.

Kneel, but with right knee against left heel; carry back the
left foot and lie flat on the belly, inclining body about 35 deg.
to the right; piece horizontal, barrel up, muzzle off the ground
and pointed to the front; elbows on the ground; left hand at the
balance, right hand grasping the small of the stock opposite
the neck. This is the position of order arms, lying down.

130. If kneeling or lying down: RISE.

If kneeling, stand up, faced to the front, on the ground marked
by the left heel.

If lying down, raise body on both knees; stand up, faced to the
front, on the ground marked by the knees.

131. If lying down: KNEEL.

Raise the body on both knees; take the position of kneel.

132. In double rank, the positions of kneeling and lying down
are ordinarily used only for the better utilization of cover.

When deployed as skirmishers, a sitting position maybe taken in
lieu of the position kneeling.

LOADINGS AND FIRINGS.

133. The commands for loading and firing are the same whether
standing, kneeling, or lying down. The firings are always executed
at a halt.

When kneeling or lying down in double rank, the rear rank does
not load, aim, or fire.

The instruction in firing will be preceded by a command for loading.

Loadings are executed in line and skirmish line only.

134. Pieces having been ordered loaded are kept loaded without
command until the command UNLOAD, or INSPECTION ARMS, fresh clips
being inserted when the magazine is exhausted.

135. The aiming point or target is carefully pointed out. This
may be done before or after announcing the sight setting. Both
are indicated before giving the command for firing, but may be
omitted when the target appears suddenly and is unmistakable; in
such case battle sight is used if no sight setting is announced.

136. The target or aiming point having been designated and the
sight setting announced, such designation or announcement need
not be repeated until a change of either or both is necessary.

Troops are trained to continue their fire upon the aiming point
or target designated, and at the sight setting announced, until
a change is ordered.

137. If the men are not already in the position of load, that
position is taken at the announcement of the sight setting; if
the announcement is omitted, the position is taken at the first
command for firing.

138. When deployed, the use of the sling as an aid to accurate
firing is discretionary with each man.

TO LOAD.

139. Being in line or skirmish line at halt: 1. _With_dummy_
_(blank_or_ball)_cartridges_, 2. LOAD.

At the command load each front-rank man or skirmisher faces half
right and carries the right foot to the right, about 1 foot, to
such position as will insure the greatest firmness and steadiness
of the body; raises, or lowers, the piece and drops it into the
left hand at the balance, left thumb extended along the stock,
muzzle at the height of the breast, and turns the cut-off up. With
the right hand he turns and draws the bolt back, takes a loaded
clip and inserts the end in the clip slots, places the thumb on
the powder space of the top cartridge, the fingers extending
around the piece and tips resting on the magazine floor plate;
forces the cartridges into the magazine by pressing down with
the thumb; without removing the clip, thrusts the bolt home,
turning down the handle; turns the safety lock to the "safe"
find carries the hand to the small of the stock. Each rear-rank
man moves to the right front, takes a similar position opposite
the interval to the right of his front-rank man, muzzle of the
piece extending beyond the front rank, and loads.

A skirmish line may load while moving, the pieces being held as
nearly as practicable in the position of load.

If kneeling or sitting, the position of the piece is similar; if
kneeling, the left forearm rests on the left thigh; if sitting,
the elbows are supported by the knees. If lying down, the left
hand steadies and supports the piece at the balance, the toe
of the butt resting on the ground, the muzzle off the ground.

For reference, these positions (standing, kneeling, and lying
down) are designated as that of load.

140. For instruction in loading: 1. _Simulate_, 2. LOAD.

Executed as above described, except that the cut-off remains "off"
and the handling of cartridges is simulated.

The recruits are first taught to SIMULATE loading and firing;
after a few lessons dummy cartridges may be used. Later, blank
cartridges may be used.

141. The rifle may be used as a single loader by turning the
magazine "off." The magazine may be filled in whole or in part
while "off" or "on" by pressing cartridges singly down and back
until they are in the proper place. The use of the rifle as a
single loader is, however, to be regarded as exceptional.

TO UNLOAD.

142. UNLOAD.

Take the position of load, turn the safety lock up and move bolt
alternately back and forward until all the cartridges are ejected.
After the last cartridge is ejected the chamber is closed by first
thrusting the bolt slightly forward to free it from the stud
holding it in place when the chamber is open, pressing the follower
down and back to engage it under the bolt and then thrusting
the bolt home; the trigger is pulled. The cartridges are then
picked up, cleaned, and returned to the belt and the piece is
brought to the order.

TO SET THE SIGHT.

143. RANGE, ELEVEN HUNDRED (EIGHT-FIFTY, etc.), or BATTLE SIGHT.

The sight is set at the elevation indicated. The instructor explains
and verities sight settings,

TO FIRE BY VOLLEY.

144. 1. READY, 2. AIM, 3. _Squad_, 4. FIRE.

At the command READY turn the safety lock to the "ready"; at
the command AIM raise the piece with both hands and support the
butt firmly against the hollow of the right shoulder, right thumb
clasping the stock, barrel horizontal, left elbow well under the
piece, right elbow as high as the shoulder; incline the head
slightly forward and a little to the right, cheek against the
stock, left eye closed, right eye looking through the notch of
the rear sight so as to perceive the object aimed at, second
joint of forefinger resting lightly against the front of the
trigger and taking up the slack; top of front sight is carefully
raised into, and held in, the line of sight.

Each rear-rank man aims through the interval to the right of
his file leader and leans slightly forward to advance the muzzle
of his piece beyond the front rank.

In aiming kneeling, the left elbow rests on the left knee, point
of elbow in front of kneecap.

In aiming sitting, the elbows are supported by the knees.

In aiming lying down, raise the piece with both hands; rest on
both elbows and press the butt firmly against the right shoulder.

At the command FIRE press the finger against the trigger; fire
without deranging the aim and without lowering or turning the
piece; lower the piece to the position of LOAD and load.

145. To continue the firing: 1. AIM, 2. _Squad_, 3. FIRE.

Each command is executed as previously explained. LOAD (from
magazine) is executed by drawing back and thrusting home the
bolt with the right hand, leaving the safety lock at the "ready."

TO FIRE AT WILL.

146. FIRE AT WILL.

Each man, independently of the others, comes to the READY, aims
carefully and deliberately ut the aiming point or target, FIRES,
LOADS, and continues the firing until ordered to SUSPEND or CEASE
FIRING.

147. To increase (decrease) the rate of fire in progress the
instructor shouts: FASTER (SLOWER).

Men are trained to fire at the rate of about three shots per minute
at effective ranges and five or six at close ranges, devoting
the minimum of time to loading and the maximum to deliberate
aiming. To illustrate the necessity for deliberation, and to
habituate men to combat conditions, small and comparatively
indistinct targets are designated.

TO FIRE BY CLIP.

148. CLIP FIRE.

Executed in the same manner us FIRE AT WILL, except that each
man, after having exhausted the cartridges then in the piece,
SUSPENDS FIRING.

TO SUSPEND FIRING.

149. The instructor blows a LONG BLAST of the whistle and repeats
same, if necessary, or commands: SUSPEND FIRING.

Firing stops; pieces are held, loaded and locked, in a position of
readiness for instant resumption of firing, rear sights unchanged.
The men continue to observe the target or aiming point, or the
place at which the target disappeared, or at which it is expected
to reappear.

This whistle signal may be used as a preliminary to CEASE FIRING.

TO CEASE FIRING.

150. CEASE FIRING.

Firing stops; pieces not already there are brought to the position
of load; those not loaded are loaded; sights are laid, pieces
are locked and brought to the older.

CEASE FIRING is used for long pauses, to prepare for changes of
position, or to steady the men.

151. Commands for suspending or ceasing fire may be given at
any time after the preparatory command for firing whether the
firing has actually commenced or not.

THE USE OF COVER.

152. The recruit should be given careful instruction in the
individual use of cover.

It should be impressed upon him that, in taking advantage of
natural cover, he must be able to fire easily and effectively
upon the enemy; if advancing on an enemy, he must do so steadily
and as rapidly as possible; he must conceal himself as much as
possible while firing and while advancing. While setting his
sight he should be under cover or lying prone.

153. To teach him to fire easily and effectively, at the same time
concealing himself from the view of the enemy, he is practiced in
simulated firing in the prone, sitting, kneeling, and crouching
positions, from behind hillocks, trees, heaps of earth or rocks,
from depressions, gullies, ditches, doorways, or windows. He is
taught to fire around the right side of his concealment whenever
possible, or, when this is not possible, to rise enough to fire
over the top of his concealment,

When these details are understood, he is required to select cover
with reference to an assumed enemy and to place himself behind
it in proper position for firing.

154. The evil of remaining too long in one place, however good
the concealment, should be explained. He should be taught to
advance from cover to cover, selecting cover in advance before
leaving his concealment.

It should be impressed upon him that a man running rapidly toward
all enemy furnishes a poor target. He should be trained in springing
from a prone position behind concealment, running at top speed to
cover and throwing himself behind it. He should also be practiced
in advancing from cover to cover by crawling, or by lying on the
left side, rifle grasped in the right hand, and pushing himself
forward with the right leg.

155. He should be taught that, when fired on while acting
independently, he should drop to the ground, seek cover, and then
endeavor to locate his enemy.

156. The instruction of the recruit in the use of cover is continued
in the combat exercises of the company, but he must then be taught
that the proper advance of the platoon or company and the
effectiveness of its fire is of greater importance than the question
of cover for individuals. He should also be taught that he may
not move about or shift his position in the firing line except
the better to see the target.

OBSERVATION.

157. The ability to use his eyes accurately is of great importance
to the soldier. The recruit should be trained in observing his
surrounding from positions and when on the march.

He should be practiced in pointing out and naming military features
of the ground; in distinguishing between living beings; in counting
distant groups of objects or beings; in recognizing colors and
forms.

158. In the training of men in the mechanism of the firing line,
they should be practiced in repeating to one another target and
aiming point designations and in quickly locating and pointing
out a designated target. They should be taught to distinguish,
from a prone position, distant objects, particularly troops,
both with the naked eye and with field glasses. Similarly, they
should be trained in estimating distances.

SECTION 6. SCHOOL OF THE COMPANY.

159. The captain is responsible for the theoretical and practical
instruction of his officers and noncommissioned officers, not
only in the duties of their respective grades, but in those of
the next higher grades.

160. The company in line is formed in double rank with the men
arranged, as far as practicable, according to height from right
to left, the tallest on the right.

The original division into squads is effected by the command:
COUNT OFF. The squads, successively from the right, count off
as in the School of the Squad, corporals placing themselves as
Nos. 4 of the front rank. If the left squad contains less than
six men, it is either increased to that number by transfers from

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