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Manual for Noncommissioned Officers and Privates of Infantry by War Department

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Produced by Robert J. Hall



To be used by Engineer companies (dismounted) and Coast Artillery
companies for Infantry instruction and training.


WASHINGTON, _April_14,_1917._

The following Manual for Noncommissioned Officers and Privates
of Infantry of the Army of the United States is approved and
herewith published for the information and government of all

This manual will also be used by Engineer companies (dismounted)
and Coast Artillery companies in connection with Infantry instruction
and training prescribed by the War Department.





Section 1. Oath of enlistment
Section 2. Obedience
Section 3. Loyalty
Section 4. Discipline
Section 5. Military courtesy
Section 6. Saluting
Section 7. Rules governing saluting
Section 8. Courtesies in conversation
Section 1. The rifle
Section 2. Care of the rifle
Section 3. Cleaning the rifle
Section 4. Uniforms
Section 5. The service kit
Section 6. The surplus kit
Section 7. Assembling Infantry equipment
Section 1. The ration
Section 2. Individual cooking
Section 3. The forage ration
Section l. Definitions
Section 2. Introduction
Section 3. Orders, commands, and signals
Section 4. School of the soldier
Section 5. School of the squad
Section 6. School of the company
Section 7. Company inspection
Section 8. Manual of tent pitching
Section 9. Manual of the bayonet
Section 1. Principles of Infantry training
Section 2. Combat
Section 3. Patrolling
Section 4. Advance guards
Section 5. Rear guards
Section 6. Flank guards
Section 7. Outposts
Section 8. Rifle trenches
Section 1. Breaking camp and preparation for a march
Section 2. Marching
Section 3. Making camp
Section 4. Camp services and duties
Section 1. Preliminary training in marksmanship
Section 2. Sight adjustment
Section 3. Table of sight corrections
Section 4. Aiming
Section 5. Battle sight
Section 6. Trigger squeeze
Section 7. Firing positions
Section 8. Calling the shot
Section 9. Coordination
Section 10. Advice to riflemen
Section 11. The course in small-arms firing
Section 12. Targets
Section 13. Pistol and revolver practice
Section 1. Introduction
Section 2. Classification of interior guilds
Section 3. Details and rosters
Section 4. Commander of the guard
Section 5. Sergeant of the guard
Section 6. Corporal of the guard
Section 7. Musicians of the guard
Section 8. Orderlies and color sentinels
Section 9. Privates of the guard
Section 10. Orders for sentinels
Section 11. Countersigns and paroles
Section 12. Guard patrols
Section 13. Watchmen
Section 14. Compliments from guards
Section 15. Prisoners
Section 16. Guarding prisoners
Section 17. Flags
Section 18. Reveille and retreat gun
Section 19. Guard mounting
Section 20. Formal guard mounting for Infantry
Section 21. Informal guard mounting for Infantry
Section 22. Relieving the old guard
Section 1. Military map reading
Section 2. Sketching
Section 1. General provisions
Section 2. The Army of the United States
Section 3. Rank and precedence of officers and noncommissioned
Section 4. Insignia of officers and noncommissioned officers
Section 5. Extracts from the Articles of War




Every soldier on enlisting in the Army takes upon himself the
following obligation:

"I,--------, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will bear true
faith and allegiance to the United States of America; that I will
serve them honestly and faithfully against all their enemies
whomsoever; and that I will obey the orders of the President of
the United States, and the orders of the officers appointed over
me according to the Rules and Articles of War." (109th Article
of War.)


The very first paragraph in the Army Regulations reads:

"All persons in the military service are required to obey strictly
and to EXECUTE PROMPTLY the lawful orders of their superiors."

Obedience is the first and last duty of a soldier. It is the
foundation upon which all military efficiency is built. Without
it an army becomes a mob, while with it a mob ceases to be a
mob and becomes possessed of much of the power of an organized
force. It is a quality that is demanded of every person in the
Army, from the highest to the lowest. Each enlisted man binds
himself, by his enlistment oath, to obedience. Each officer, in
accepting his commission, must take upon himself the same solemn

Obey strictly and execute promptly the lawful orders of your
superiors. It is enough to know that the person giving the order,
whether he be an officer, a noncommissioned officer, or a private
acting as such, is your lawful superior. You may not like him,
you may not respect him, but you must respect his position and
authority, and reflect honor and credit upon yourself and your
profession by yielding to all superiors that complete and
unhesitating obedience which is the pleasure as well as the duty
of every true soldier.

Orders must be STRICTLY carried out. It is not sufficient to
comply with only that part which suits you or which involves no
work or danger or hardship. Nor is it proper or permissible, when
you are ordered to do a thing in a certain way or to accomplish a
work in a definitely prescribed manner, for you to obtain the
same results by other methods.

Obedience must be PROMPT AND UNQUESTIONING. When any soldier (and
this word includes officers as well as enlisted men) receives
an order, it is not for him to consider whether the order is
a good one or not, whether it would have been better had such
an order never been given, or whether the duty might be better
performed by some one else, or at some other time, or in some
other manner. His duty is, first, to understand just what the
order requires, and, second, to proceed at once to carry out
the order to the best of his ability.

"Officers and men of all ranks and grades are given a certain
independence in the execution of the tasks to which they are
assigned and are expected to show initiative in meeting the different
situations as they arise. Every individual, from the highest
commander to the lowest private, must always remember that inaction
and neglect of opportunities will warrant more severe censure
than an error in the choice of the means." (_Preface,_Field_


But even with implicit obedience you may yet fail to measure
up to that high standard of duty which is at once the pride and
glory of every true soldier. Not until you carry out the desires
and wishes of your superiors in a hearty, willing, and cheerful
manner are you meeting all the requirements of your profession.
For an order is but the will of your superior, however it may be
expressed. Loyalty means that you are for your organization and
its officers and noncommissioned officers--not against them; that
you always extend your most earnest and hearty support to those in
authority. No soldier is a loyal soldier who is a knocker or a
grumbler or a shirker. Just one man of this class in a company
breeds discontent and dissatisfaction among many others. You should,
therefore, not only guard against doing such things yourself but
should discourage such actions among any of your comrades.


"1. All persons in the military service are required to obey
strictly and to execute promptly the lawful orders of their

"2. Military authority will be exercised with firmness, kindness,
and justice. Punishments must conform to law and follow offenses
as promptly as circumstances will permit.

"3. Superiors are forbidden to injure those under their authority
by tyrannical or capricious conduct or by abusive language. While
maintaining discipline and the thorough and prompt performance
of military duty, all officers, in dealing with enlisted men,
will bear in mind the absolute necessity of so treating them as
to preserve their self-respect. Officers will keep in as close
touch as possible with the men under their command and will strive
to build up such relations of confidence and sympathy as will
insure the free approach of their men to them for counsel and
assistance. This relationship may be gained and maintained without
relaxation of the bonds of discipline and with great benefit to
the service as a whole.

"4. Courtesy among military men is indispensable to discipline;
respect to superiors will not be confined to obedience on duty,
but will be extended on all occasions.

"5. Deliberations or discussions among military men conveying
praise or censure, or any mark of approbation, toward others in
the military service, and all publications relating to private
or personal transactions between officers are prohibited. Efforts
to influence legislation affecting the Army or to procure personal
favor or consideration should never be made except through regular
military channels; the adoption of any other method by any officer
or enlisted man will be noted in the military record of those
concerned," (_Army_Regulations_.)

"The discipline which makes the soldier of a free country reliable
in battle is not to be gained by harsh or tyrannical treatment.
On the contrary, such treatment is far more likely to destroy
than to make an army. It is possible to import instruction and
give commands in such manner and in such tone of voice as to
inspire in the soldier no feeling but an intense desire to obey,
while the opposite manner and tone of voice can not fall to excite
strong resentment and a desire to disobey. The one mode or the
other of dealing with subordinates springs from a corresponding
spirit in the breast of the commander. He who feels the respect
which is due to others can not fail to inspire in them regard
for himself, while he who feels, and hence manifests, disrespect
toward others, especially his inferiors, can not fail to inspire
hatred against himself," (_Address_of_Maj._Gen._John_M._Schofield_

When, by long-continued drill and subordination, you have learned
your duties, and obedience becomes second nature, you have acquired
discipline. It call not be acquired in a day or a month. It is
a growth. It is the habit of obedience. To teach this habit of
obedience is the main object of the close-order drill, and, if
good results are to be expected, the greatest attention must be
paid to even the smallest details. The company or squad must
be formed promptly at the prescribed time--not a minute or even
a second late. All must wear the exact uniform prescribed and
in the exact manner prescribed. When at attention there must
be no gazing about, no raising of hands, no chewing or spitting
in ranks. The manual of arms and all movements must be executed
absolutely as prescribed. A drill of this kind teaches discipline.
A careless, sloppy drill breeds disobedience and insubordination.
In other words, discipline simply means efficiency.


In all walks of life men who are gentlemanly and of good breeding
are always respectful and courteous to those about them. It helps
to make life move along more smoothly. In civil life this courtesy
is shown by the custom of tipping the hat to ladies, shaking
hands with friends. and greeting persons with a nod or a friendly
"Good morning," etc.

In the Army courtesy is just us necessary, and for the same reasons.
It helps to keep the great machine moving without friction.

"Courtesy among military men is indispensable to discipline;
respect to superiors will not be confined to obedience on duty, but
will be extended on all occasions." (_Par._4,_Army_Regulations,_

One method of extending this courtesy is by saluting. When in
ranks the question of what a private should do is simple--he
obeys any command that is given. It is when out of ranks that
a private must know how and when to salute.


In the old days the free men of Europe were all allowed to carry
weapons, and when they met each would hold up his right hand to
show that he had no weapon in it and that they met as friends.
Slaves or serfs, however, were not allowed to carry weapons,
and slunk past the free men without making any sign. In this
way the salute came to be the symbol or sign by which soldiers
(free men) might recognize each other. The lower classes began
to imitate the soldiers in this respect, although in a clumsy,
apologetic way, and thence crept into civil life the custom of
raising the hand or nodding as one passed an acquaintance. The
soldiers, however, kept their individual salute, and purposely
made it intricate and difficult to learn in order that it could be
acquired only by the constant training all real soldiers received.
To this day armies have preserved their salute, and when correctly
done it is at once recognized and never mistaken for that of the
civilian. All soldiers should be careful to execute the salute
exactly as prescribed. The civilian or the imitation soldier
who tries to imitate the military salute invariably makes some
mistake which shows that he is not a real soldier; he gives it
in an apologetic manner, he fails to stand or march at attention,
his coat is unbuttoned or hat on awry, or he falls to look the
person saluted in the eye. There is a wide difference in the
method of rendering and meaning between the civilian salute as
used by friends in passing, or by servants to their employers,
and the MILITARY SALUTE, the symbol and sign of the military

TO SALUTE WITH THE HAND, first assume the position of a soldier
or march at attention. Look the officer you are to salute straight
in the eye. Then, when the proper distance separates you, raise
the right hand smartly till the tip of the forefinger touches
the lower part of the headdress or forehead above the right eye,
thumb and fingers extended and joined, palm to the left, forearm
inclined at about 45 deg., hand and wrist straight. Continue to look
the officer you are saluting straight in the Eye and keep your
hand in the position of salute until the officer acknowledges
the salute or until he has passed. Then drop the hand smartly
to the side. The salute is given with the right hand only.

TO SALUTE WITH THE RIFLE, bring the rifle to right shoulder arms
if not already there. Carry the left hand smartly to the small
of the stock, forearm horizontal, palm of the hand down, thumb
and fingers extended and joined, forefinger touching the end of
the cocking piece. Look the officer saluted in the eye. When
the officer has acknowledged the salute or has passed, drop the
left hand smartly to the side and turn the head and eyes to the
front. The rifle salute may also be executed from the order or
trail. See paragraph 94, Infantry Drill Regulations, and paragraph
111, Cavalry Drill Regulations, 1916.

TO SALUTE WITH THE SABER, bring the saber to order saber if not
already there, raise and carry the saber to the front, base of
the hilt as high as the chin and 6 inches in front of the neck,
edge to the left, point 6 inches farther to the front than the
hilt, thumb extended on the left of the grip, all fingers grasping
the grip. Look the officer saluted in the eye. When the officer
has acknowledged the salute or has passed, lower the saber, point
in prolongation of the right foot and near the ground, edge to
the left, hand by the side, thumb on left of grip, arm extended,
and return to the order saber. If mounted, the hand is held behind
the thigh, point a little to the right and front of the stirrup.

(For Cavalry.) TO SALUTE WITH THE SABER, bring the saber to carry
saber if not already there, carry the saber to the front with
arm half extended until the thumb is about 6 inches in front
of the chin, the blade vertical, guard to the left, all four
fingers grasping the grip, the thumb extending along the back
in the groove, the fingers pressing the back of the grip against
the heel of the hand. Look the officer saluted in the eye. When
the officer has acknowledged the salute or has passed, bring
the saber down with the blade against the hollow of the right
shoulder, guard to the front, right hand at the hip, the third
and fourth finger on the back of the grip and the elbow back.

The pistol is not carried in the hand but in the holster, therefore
when armed with the pistol salute with the hand.

Always stand or march at attention before and during the salute.
The hat should be on straight, coat completely buttoned up, and
hands out of the pockets.


759. (1) Salutes shall be exchanged between officers and enlisted
men not in a military formation, nor at drill, work, games, or
mess, on every occasion of their meeting, passing near or being
addressed, the officer junior in rank or the enlisted man saluting

(2) When an officer enters a room where there are several enlisted
men the word "attention" is given by some one who perceives him,
when all rise, uncover, and remain standing at attention until
the officer leaves the room or directs otherwise. Enlisted men
at meals stop eating and remain seated at attention.

(3) An enlisted man, if seated, rises on the approach of an officer,
faces toward him, stands at attention, and salutes. Standing, he
faces an officer for the same purpose. If the parties remain
in the same place or on the same ground, such compliments need
not be repeated. Soldiers actually at work do not cease work
to salute an officer unless addressed by him.

(4) Before addressing an officer an enlisted man makes the prescribed
salute with the weapon with which he is armed, or, if unarmed, with
the right hand. He also makes the same salute after receiving a

(5) In uniform, covered or uncovered, but not in formation, officers
and enlisted men salute military persons as follows: With arms in
hand, the salute prescribed for that arm (sentinels on interior
guard duty excepted); without arms, the right-hand salute.

(6) In civilian dress, covered or uncovered, officers and enlisted
men salute military persons with the right-hand salute.

(7) Officers and enlisted men will render the prescribed salutes
in a military manner, the officer junior in rank or the enlisted
men saluting first. When several officers in company are saluted
all entitled to the salute shall return it.

(8) Except in the field under campaign or simulated campaign
conditions, a mounted officer (or soldier) dismounts before
addressing a superior officer not mounted.

(9) A man in formation shall not salute when directly addressed,
but shall come to attention if at rest or at ease.

(10) Saluting distance is that within which recognition is easy.
In general, it does not exceed 30 paces.

(11) When an officer entitled to the salute passes in rear of a
body of troops, it is brought to attention while he is opposite
the post of the commander.

(12) In public conveyances, such as railway trains and street
cars, and in public places, such as theaters, honors and personal
salutes may be omitted when palpably inappropriate or apt to
disturb or annoy civilians present.

(13) Soldiers at all times and in all situations pay the same
compliments to officers of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and
Volunteers, and to officers of the National Guard as to officers
of their own regiment, corps, or arm of service.

(14) Sentinels on post doing interior guard duty conform to the
foregoing principles, but salute by presenting arms when armed
with the rifle. They will not salute if it interferes with the
proper performance of their duties. Troops under arms will salute
us prescribed in drill regulations.

760. (1) Commanders of detachments or other commands will salute
officers of grades higher than the person commanding the unit,
by first bringing the unit to attention and then saluting as
required by subparagraph (5). paragraph 759. If the person saluted
is of a junior or equal grade, the unit need not be at attention
in the exchange of salutes.

(2) If two detachments or other commands meet, their commanders
will exchange salutes, both commands being at attention.

761. Salutes and honors, as a rule, are not paid by troops actually
engaged in drill, on the march, or in the field under campaign or
simulated campaign condition. Troops on the service of security
pay no compliments whatever.

762. If the command is in line at a halt (not in the field) and
armed with the rifle, or with sabers drawn, it shall be brought
to PRESENT ARMS or PRESENT SABERS before its commander salutes in
the following cases: When the National Anthem is played, or when
TO THE COLOR or TO THE STANDARD is sounded during ceremonies, or
when a person is saluted who is its immediate or higher commander
or a general officer, or when the national or regimental color
is saluted.

763. At parades and other ceremonies, under arms, the command
shall render the prescribed salute and shall remain in the position
of salute while the National Anthem is being played; also at
retreat and during ceremonies when TO THE COLOR is played, if
no band is present. If not under arms, the organizations shall
be brought to attention at the first note of the National Anthem,
TO THE COLOR or TO THE STANDARD, and the salute rendered by the
officer or noncommissioned officer in command as prescribed in
regulations, as amended herein.

764. Whenever the National Anthem is played at any place when
persons belonging to the military service are present, all officers
and enlisted men not in formation shall stand at attention facing
toward the music (except at retreat, when they shall face toward
the flag). If in uniform, covered or uncovered, or in civilian
clothes, uncovered, they shall, salute at the first note of the
anthem, retaining the position of salute until the last note of
the anthem. If not in uniform and covered, they shall uncover
at the first note of the anthem, holding the headdress opposite
the left shoulder and so remain until its close, except that
in inclement weather the headdress may be slightly raised.

The same rules apply when TO THE COLOR or TO THE STANDARD is sounded
as when the National Anthem is played.

When played by an army band, the National Anthem shall be played
through without repetition of any part not required to be repeated
to make it complete.

The same marks of respect prescribed for observance during the
playing of the National Anthem of the United States shall be
shown toward the national anthem of any other country when played
upon official occasions.

765. Officers and enlisted men passing the uncased color will
render honors as follows: If in uniform, they will salute as
required by subparagraph (5), paragraph 759; if in civilian dress
and covered, they will uncover, holding the headdress opposite
the left shoulder with the right hand; if uncovered, they will
salute with the right-hand salute." (_Infantry_Drill_Regulations,_

The national flag belonging to dismounted organizations is called
a color; to mounted organizations, a standard. An uncased color
is one that is not in its waterproof cover.

Privates do not salute noncommissioned officers. Prisoners are
not permitted to salute; they merely come to attention if not
actually at work. The playing of the National Anthem as a part
of a medley is prohibited in the military service.


In speaking to an officer, always stand at attention and use the
word "Sir." Examples:

"Sir, Private Brown, Company B, reports as orderly."

"Sir, the first sergeant directed me to report to the captain."

(Question by an officer:) "To what company do you belong?"

(Answer:) "Company H, sir."

(Question by an officer:) "Has first call for drill sounded?"

(Answer:) "No, sir;" or "Yes; sir.; it sounded about five minutes

(Question by an officer:) "Can you tell me, please, where Major
Smith's tent is?"

(Answer:) "Yes; sir; I'll take you to it."

Use the third person in speaking to an officer. Examples:

"Does the Lieutenant wish," etc.

"Did the Captain send for me?"

In delivering a message from one officer to another, always use
the form similar to the following: "Lieutenant A presents his
compliments to Captain B and states," etc. This form is not used
when the person sending or receiving the message is an enlisted

In all official conversation refer to other soldiers by their
titles, thus: Sergeant B, Private C.





The rifle now used by the Army of the United States is the United
States magazine rifle, model of 1903, caliber .30.

It is 43.212 inches long and weighs 8.69 pounds.

The bayonet weighs 1 pound and the blade is 16 inches long.

The rifle is sighted for ranges up to 2,850 yards.

The maximum range, when elevated at an angle of 45 degrees, is
4,891 yards (389 yards less than 3 miles).

The smooth bore of the rifle is 0.30 inch in diameter. It is
then rifled 0.004 inch deep, making the diameter from the bottom
of one groove to the bottom of the opposite groove 0.308 inch.
The rifling makes one complete turn in each 10 inches of the

The accompanying plate shows the names of the principal parts
of the rifle.

The only parts of a rifle that an enlisted man is permitted to
take apart are the bolt mechanism and the magazine mechanism.
Learn how to do this from your squad leader, for you must know
how in order to keep your rifle clean. Never remove the hand
guard or the trigger guard, nor take the sights apart unless you
have special permission from a commissioned officer.

The cartridge used for the rifle is called the .30-caliber model
1906 cartridge. There are four types of cartridges.

The BALL CARTRIDGE consists of the brass case or shell, the primer,
the charge of smokeless powder, and the bullet. The bullet has
a sharp point, is composed of a lead core and a jacket of cupro
nickel, and weighs 150 grains. The bullet of this cartridge,
when fired from the rifle, starts with an initial velocity at
the muzzle of 2,700 feet per second.

The BLANK CARTRIDGE contains a paper cup instead of a bullet.
It is dangerous up to 100 feet. Firing with blank cartridges at
a represented enemy at ranges less than 100 yards is prohibited.

The GUARD CARTRIDGE has a smaller charge of powder than the ball
cartridge, and five cannelures encircle the body of the shell
at about the middle to distinguish it from the ball cartridge.
It is intended for use on guard or in riot duty, and gives good
results up to 200 yards. The range of 100 yards requires a sight
elevation of 450 yards, and the range of 200 yards requires all
elevation of 650 yards.

The DUMMY CARTRIDGE is tin plated and the shell is provided with
six longitudinal corrugations and three circular holes. The primer
contains no percussion composition. It is intended for drill
purposes to accustom the soldier to the operation of loading the

All cartridges are secured five in a clip to enable five cartridges
to be inserted into the magazine at one motion. Sixty ball cartridges
in 12 clips are packed in a cloth bandoleer to facilitate issue
and carrying. When full the bandoleer weighs about 3.88 pounds.
Bandoleers are packed 20 in a box, or 1,200 rounds in all. The
full box weighs 99 pounds.


Every part of the rifle must be kept free from rust, dust, and
dirt, A dirty or rusty rifle is a sure sign that the soldier
does not realize the value of his weapon, and that his training
is incomplete. The rifle you are armed with is the most accurate
in the world. If it gets dirty or rusty it will deteriorate in
its accuracy and working efficiency, and no subsequent care will
restore it to its original condition. The most important part
of the rifle to keep clean is the bore. If, after firing, the
bore is left dirty over night, it will be badly rusted in the
morning, therefore your rifle must be cleaned not later than
the evening of the day on which it was fired. The fouling of
the blank cartridge is as dangerous to the bore as the fouling
of the ball cartridge.

Never attempt to polish any part that is blued. If rust appears,
remove, by rubbing with oil. Never use emery paper, pomade, or
any preparation that cuts or scratches, to clean any part of
the rifle.

To beautify and preserve the stock rub with raw linseed oil. The
use of any other preparation on the stock is strictly forbidden.

Always handle your rifle with care. Don't throw it around as
though it were a club. Don't stand it up against anything so
that it rests against the front sight. Don't leave a stopper
or a rag in the bore: it will cause rust to form at that point.
It may also cause the gun barrel to burst if a shot is fired
before removing it.

Guard the sights and muzzle carefully from any blow that might
injure them. The front sight cover should always be on the rifle
except when rifle is being fired. This is especially necessary to
protect the front sight while rifle is being carried in scabbard
by a mounted man.

In coming to the "order arms," lower the piece gently to the ground.

When there is a cartridge in the chamber the piece is always
carried locked. In this position the safety lock should be kept
turned fully to the right, since if it be turned to the left
nearly to the "ready" position and the trigger be pulled, the
rifle will be discharged when the safety lock is turned to the
"ready" position at any time later on.

Cartridges can not be loaded from the magazine unless the bolt
is drawn fully to the rear. When the bolt is closed, or only
partly open, the cut-off may be turned up or down as desired,
but if the bolt is drawn fully to the rear, the magazine can not
be cut off unless the top cartridge or the follower be pressed
down slightly and the bolt be pushed forward so that the cut-off
may be turned "off."

In the case of a misfire, don't open the bolt immediately, as
it may be a hangfire. Misfires are often due to the fact that
the bolt handle was not fully pressed down. Sometimes in pulling
the trigger the soldier raises the bolt handle without knowing

Unless otherwise ordered, arms will be unloaded before being
taken to quarters or tents, or as soon as the men using them are
relieved from duty.

Keep the working parts oiled.

In every company there should be at least one copy of the Manual
of the Ordnance Department entitled "Description and Rules for
the Management of the U. S, Magazine Rifle." This manual gives
the name and a cut of every part of the rifle, explains its use,
shows how to take the rifle apart and care for the same, and
also gives much other valuable and interesting information.


"Cleaning the rifle,--(a) The proper care of the bore requires
conscientious, careful work, but it pays well in the attainment
of reduced labor of cleaning, prolonged accuracy life of the
barrel, and better results in target practice. Briefly stated,
the care of the bore consists in removing the fouling, resulting
from firing, to obtain a chemically clean surface, and in coating
this surface with a film of oil to prevent rusting. The fouling
which results from firing is of two kinds--one, the products
of combustion of the powder; the other, cupro-nickel scraped
off (under the abrading action of irregularities or grit in the
bore). Powder fouling, because of its acid reaction, is highly
corrosive; that is, it will induce rust and must be removed.
Metal fouling of itself is inactive, but may cover powder fouling
and prevent the action of cleaning agents until removed, and when
accumulated in noticeable quantities it reduces the accuracy of
the rifle.

(b) Powder fouling may be readily removed by scrubbing with hot
soda solution, but this solution has no effect on the metal fouling
of cupro-nickel. It is necessary, therefore, to remove all metal
fouling before assurance can be had that all powder fouling, has
been removed and that the bore may be safely oiled. Normally,
after firing a barrel in good condition the metal fouling is
so slight as to be hardly perceptible. It is merely a smear of
infinitesimal thickness, easily removed by solvents of cupro-nickel.
However, due to pitting, the presence of dust, other abrasives,
or to accumulation, metal fouling may occur in clearly visible
flakes or patches of much greater thickness, much more difficult
to remove.

(c) In cleaning the bore after firing it is well to proceed as
follows: Swab out the bore with soda solution (subparagraph j)
to remove powder fouling. A convenient method is to insert the
muzzle of the rifle into the can containing the soda solution
and, with the cleaning rod inserted from the breech, pump the
barrel full a few times. Remove and dry with a couple of patches.
Examine the bore to see that there are in evidence no patches of
metal fouling which, if present, can be readily detected by the
naked eye, then swab out with the swabbing solution--a dilute
metal-fouling solution (subparagraph j). The amount of swabbing
required with the swabbing solution can be determined only by
experience, assisted by the color of the patches. Swabbing should
be continued, however, as long as the wiping patch is discolored
by a bluish-green stain. Normally a couple of minutes' work is
sufficient. Dry thoroughly and oil.

(d) The proper method of oiling a barrel is as follows: Wipe the
cleaning roll dry; select a clean patch and thoroughly saturate
it with sperm oil or warmed cosmic, being sure that the cosmic
has penetrated the patch; scrub the bore with the patch, finally
drawing the patch smoothly from the muzzle to the breech, allowing
the cleaning rod to turn with the rifling. The bore will be found
now to be smooth and bright so that any subsequent rust and sweating
can be easily detected by inspection.

(e) If patches of metal fouling are seen upon visual inspection
of the bore the standard metal fouling solution prepared as
hereinafter prescribed must be used. After scrubbing out with
the soda solution, plug the bore from the breech with a cork
at the front end of the chamber or where the rifling begins.
Slip a 2-inch section of rubber hose over the muzzle down to the
sight and fill with the standard solution to at least one-half
inch above the muzzle of the barrel. Let it stand for 30 minutes,
pour out the standard solution, remove hose and breech plug,
and swab out thoroughly with soda solution to neutralize and
remove all trace of ammonia and powder fouling. Wipe the barrel
clean, dry, and oil. With few exceptions, one application is
sufficient, but if all fouling is not removed, as determined by
careful visual inspection of the bore and of the wiping patches,
repeat as described above.

(f) After properly cleaning with either the swabbing solution
or the standard solution, as has just been described, the bore
should be clean and safe to oil and put away, but as a measure
of safety a patch should always be run through the bore on the
next day and the bore and wiping patch examined to insure that
cleaning has been properly accomplished. The bore should then
be oiled, as described above.

(g) If the swabbing solution or the standard metal-fouling solution
is not available, the barrel should be scrubbed, as already
described, with the soda solution, dried, and oiled with a light
oil. At the end of 24 hours it should again be cleaned, when it
will usually be found to have "sweated"; that is, rust having
formed under the smear of metal fouling where powder fouling was
present, the surface is puffed up. Usually a second cleaning is
sufficient, but to insure safety it should be again examined at
the end of a few days, before final oiling. The swabbing solution
should always be used, if available, for it must be remembered
that each puff when the bore "sweats" is an incipient rust pit.

(h) A clean dry surface having been obtained, to prevent rust
it is necessary to coat every portion of this surface with a
film of neutral oil. If the protection required is but temporary
and the arm is to be cleaned or fired in a few days, sperm oil
may be used. This is easily applied and easily removed, but has
not sufficient body to hold its surface for more than a few days.
If rifles are to be prepared for storage or shipment, a heavier
oil, such as cosmic, must be used.

(i) In preparing arms for storage or shipment they should be
cleaned with particular care, using the metal-fouling solution
as described above. Care should be taken, insured by careful
inspection on succeeding day or days, that the cleaning is properly
done and all traces of ammonia solution removed. The bore is then
ready to be coated with cosmic. At ordinary temperatures cosmic
is not fluid. In order, therefore, to insure that every part of
the surface is coated with a film of oil the cosmic should be
warmed. Apply the cosmic first with a brush; then, with the breech
plugged, fill the barrel to the muzzle, pour out the surplus,
remove the breechblock, and allow to drain. It is believed that
more rifles are ruined by improper preparation for storage than
from any other cause. If the bore is not clean when oiled--that
is, if powder fouling is present or rust has started--a half
inch of cosmic on the outside will not stop its action, and the
barrel will be ruined. Remember that the surface must be perfectly
cleaned before the heavy oil is applied. If the instructions
as given above are carefully followed, arms may be stored for
years without harm.

(j) Preparation of solutions:

_Soda_solution_--This should be a saturated solution or sal
soda (bicarbonate of soda). A strength of at least 20 per cent
is necessary. The spoon referred to in the following directions
is the model 1910 spoon issued in the mess outfit.

Sal soda, one-fourth pound, or four (4) heaping spoonfuls.

Water, 1 pint or cup, model of 1910, to upper rivets.

The sal soda will dissolve more readily in hot water.

_Swabbing_solution_.--Ammonium persulphate, 60 grains, one-half
spoonful smoothed off.

Ammonia, 28 per cent, 6 ounces, or three-eighths of a pint, or
12 spoonfuls.

Water, 4 ounces, or one-fourth pint, or 8 spoonfuls.

Dissolve the ammonium persulphate in the water and add the ammonia.
Keep in tightly corked bottle; pour out only what is necessary
at the time, and keep the bottle corked.

_Standard_metal_fouling_solution_.--Ammonium persulphate,
1 ounce, or 2 medium heaping spoonfuls.

Ammonium carbonate, 200 grains, or 1 heaping spoonful.

Ammonia, 28 per cent, 6 ounces, or three-eighths pint, or 12

Water, 4 ounces, or one-fourth pint, or 8 spoonfuls.

Powder the persulphate and carbonate together, dissolve in the
water and add the ammonia; mix thoroughly and allow to stand
for one hour before using. It should be kept in a strong bottle,
tightly corked. The solution should not be used more than twice,
and used solution should not be mixed with unused solution, but
should be bottled separately, The solution, when mixed, should
be used within 30 days! Care should be exercised in mixing and
using this solution to prevent injury to the rifle. An experienced
noncommissioned officer should mix the solution and superintend
its use.

Neither of these ammonia solutions have any appreciable action
on steel when not exposed to the air, but if allowed to evaporate
on steel they attack it rapidly. Care should, therefore, be taken
that none spills on the mechanism and that the barrel is washed out
promptly with soda solution. The first application of soda solution
removes the greater portion of the powder fouling and permits a
more effective and economical use of the ammonia solution. These
ammonia solutions are expensive and should be used economically.

(k) It is a fact recognized by all that a highly polished steel
surface rusts much less easily than one which is roughened: also
that a barrel which is pitted fouls much more rapidly than one
which is smooth. Every effort, therefore, should be made to prevent
the formation of pits, which are merely enlarged rust spots, and
which not only affect the accuracy of the arm but increase the
labor of cleaning.

(l) The chambers of rifles are frequently neglected because they
are not readily inspected. Care should be taken to see that they
are cleaned as thoroughly as the bore. A roughened chamber delays
greatly the rapidity of fire, and not infrequently causes shells
to stick.

(m) A cleaning rack should be provided for every barrack. Rifles
should always be cleaned from the breach, thus avoiding possible
injury to the rifling at the muzzle, which would affect the shooting
adversely. If the bore for a length of 6 inches at the muzzle
is perfect, a minor injury near the chamber will have little
effect on the accuracy of the rifle. The rifle should be cleaned
as soon as the firing for the day is completed. The fouling is
easier to remove then, and if left longer it will corrode the

(n) The principles as outlined above apply equally well for the
care of the barrel of the automatic pistol. Special attention
should be paid to cleaning the chamber of the pistol, using the
soda solution. It has been found that the chamber pits readily if
it is not carefully cleaned, with the result that the operation
of the pistol is made less certain." (_Par._134,_Small_Arms_


Uniforms and clothing issued to enlisted men must not be sold,
pawned, loaned, given away, lost or damaged through neglect or
carelessness. Any soldier who violates this rule may be tried
by a military court and punished.

All uniforms and articles of clothing issued to enlisted men,
whether or not charged on their clothing allowance, remain the
property of the United States and do not become the property of
the soldier either before or after discharge from the service.
Under the law a soldier honorably discharged from the Army of
the United States is authorized to wear his uniform from the
place of his discharge to his home within three months after the
date of such discharge. To wear the uniform after three months
from the date of such discharge renders such person liable to
fine or imprisonment, or both.

The dress uniform (the blue uniform) consists of the dress cap,
dress coat, dress trousers, and russet-leather shoes. The straight,
standing, military, white linen collar, showing no opening in front,
is always worn with this uniform, with not to exceed one-half
inch showing above the collar of the coat. Turndown, piccadilly,
or roll collars are not authorized.

When under arms, white gloves and the garrison belt (or
russet-leather belt and cartridge box) are worn.

The full-dress uniform is the same as the dress uniform, with
the breast cord added.

The service uniform is either cotton (summer) or woolen (winter)
olive drab.

For duty in the field it consists of the service hat, with cord
sewed on, service coat or sweater, service breeches, olive-drab
flannel shirt, leggings, russet-leather shoes, and identification
tag. In cold weather olive-drab woolen gloves are worn; at other
times, no gloves.

When not in the field, the service cap is worn instead of the
campaign hat. Under arms, white gloves and the garrison belt
(or russet-leather belt and cartridge box) are worn.

Wear the exact uniform prescribed by your commanding officer,
whether you are on duty or off duty.

Never wear a mixed uniform, as, for instance, a part of the service
uniform with the blue uniform.

Never wear any part of the uniform with civilian clothes. It
is very unsoldierly, for example, to wear a civilian overcoat
over the uniform or to wear the uniform overcoat over a civilian

Keep the uniform clean and neat and in good repair.

Grease spots and dust and dirt should be removed as soon as possible.

Rips and tears should be promptly mended.

Missing buttons and cap and collar ornaments should be promptly

There is but one correct and soldierly way to wear the cap. Never
wear it on the back or side of the head.

The service hat should be worn in the regulation shape, peaked,
with four indentations, and with hat cord sewed on. Do not cover
it with pen or pencil mark.

Never appear outside your room or tent with your coat or olive-drab
shirt unbuttoned or collar of coat unhooked. Chevrons, service
stripes, and campaign medals and badges are a part of the uniform
and must be worn as prescribed.

When coats are not worn with the service uniform olive-drab shirts
are prescribed.

Suspenders must never be worn exposed to view.

Never appear in breeches without leggings.

Leather leggings should be kept polished. Canvas leggings should
be scrubbed when dirty.

Russet-leather (tan) shoes should be kept clean and polished.
The overcoat when worn must be buttoned throughout and the collar
hooked. When the belt is worn it will be worn outside the overcoat.


The service kit is composed of two parts--(a) the field kit,
which includes everything the soldier wears or carries with him
in the field, and (b) the surplus kit.

The field kit consists of--

(a) The clothing worn on the person.
(b) Arms and equipment, consisting of--


1 first-aid packet.
1 pouch for first-aid packet.
1 canteen.
1 canteen cover.
1 can, bacon.
1 can, condiment.
1 pack carrier (except individually mounted men).
1 haversack (except individually mounted men).
1 meat can.
1 cup.
1 knife.
1 fork.
1 spoon.
1 shelter tent half.
1 shelter tent pole (when issued).
5 shelter tent pins.
1 identification tag with tape.

[Footnote 1: New model equipment, 1910. The old model equipment
is the same except omit canteen cover, bacon and condiment cans,
and pack carrier, and add 1 cartridge-belt suspenders, 1 canteen
strap, and 1 blanket-roll straps, set.]


1 United States magazine rifle, caliber .30.
1 bayonet.
1 bayonet scabbard.
1 gun sling.
1 rifle cartridge belt.


1 pistol, caliber .45.
1 pistol holster.
1 magazine pocket, double, web.
2 extra magazines.
1 pistol belt (except for men armed _also_ with the rifle).


1 rifle scabbard (if armed with rifle).
1 spurs, pair.
1 spur straps, pair.
1 set of horse equipment.

(c) Extra clothing and articles to be carried on the soldier or
on the packed saddle.

1 blanket.
1 comb.
1 drawers, pair,
1 poncho (dismounted men),
1 slicker (mounted men).
1 soak, cake.
2 stockings, pair.
1 toothbrush.
1 towel.
1 undershirt.
1 housewife (for one man of each squad).

(d) Ammunition, consisting of--

90 rounds ball cartridges, caliber .30 (old model belt).
100 rounds ball cartridges, caliber .30 (new model belt).

(e) Rations, consisting of--

1 or 2 reserve rations (bacon, hard bread, coffee, sugar, and

(f) Intrenching tools, consisting of--

2 pick mattocks, per squad.
1 bolo or hand axe, per squad.
4 shovels, intrenching, per squad.
1 wire cutter, per squad.


The surplus kit for each man consists of--

1 breeches, pair.
1 drawers, pair.
1 shirt, olive drab.
1 shoes, russet leather, pair.
2 stockings, pair.
1 undershirt.
1 shoe laces, extra, pair.

Each surplus kit bag contains 1 jointed cleaning rod and case.

Squad leaders are responsible that surplus kit bags are kept in
order and fully packed in the field.[2] Men are allowed access
to them for the purpose of making substitutions.

[Footnote 2: In campaign or simulated campaign, when an organization
is restricted to its prescribed field-train transportation, surplus
kits, overcoats, and sweaters are stored on the line of
communications or other designated place with the permanent camp
equipment of the organization.]

The surplus kits are packed in surplus kit bags, one for each
squad, one for sergeants, and one for cooks and buglers.

The kit of each man will be packed as follows:

Stockings to be rolled tightly, one pair in the toe of each shoe;
shoes placed together, heels at opposite ends, soles outward,
wrapped tightly in underwear, and bundle securely tied around
the middle by the extra pair of the shoe laces, each bundle to
be tagged with the company number of the owner. These individual
kits will be packed in the surplus kit bag in two layers of four
kits each, the breeches and olive drab shirts to be neatly folded
find packed on the top and sides of the layers, the jointed cleaning
rod and case, provided for each squad, being attached by the
thongs on the inside of the bag.

When overcoats or sweaters are not prescribed to be worn on the
person they will be collected into bundles of convenient size
and secured by burlap or other suitable material, or will be
boxed. They will be marked ready for equipment to be forwarded
when required.


[Footnote 3: Since these instructions were written 1 drawers
and 1 undershirt have been added to the field kit. Place them
in pack when carried, otherwise in haversack.]



Place the assembled equipment on the ground, suspender side of
haversack down, pockets of cartridge belt up, haversack spread
put, inside flap and pack carrier extended their full length
to the rear.

Place three cartons of hard bread in the center of the haversack
body, the lower one on the line of attachment of the inside flap;
lay the remaining carton of hard bread, the condiment can and
the bacon can on the top of these, the condiment can and the
bacon can at the bottom, top of the bacon can to the front; the
socks and toilet articles are rolled, towel on the outside, into
a bundle of the same approximate dimensions as a carton of hard
bread, and are placed in front of the two rows thus formed.

The inside flap of the haversack is folded over these articles, the
end of the flap being turned in so that the flap, thus shortened,
extends about 2 inches beyond the top of the upper row; the sides
of the haversack are folded over the sides of the rows; the upper
binding straps are passed through the loops on the outside of the
inside flap, each strap through the loop opposite the point of
its attachment to the haversack body, and fastened by means of
the buckle on the opposite side, the strap being passed through
the opening in the buckle next to its attachment, over the center
bar, and back through the opening of the buckle away from its
attachment; the strap is pulled tight to make the fastening secure;
the outer flap of the haversack is folded over and fastened by
means of the lower haversack binding strap and the buckle on
the inside of the outer flap; the strap is pulled tight, drawing
the outer flap snugly over the filled haversack.

The haversack is now packed and the carrier is ready for the
reception of the pack.

If one reserve ration and one emergency ration are carried in
lieu of two reserve rations, the haversack is packed in the manner
described above, except that two cartons of hard bread and the
bacon can form the bottom layer, the bacon can on the bottom;
the condiment can, the emergency ration, and the toilet articles
form the top layer.

If one emergency ration is carried in addition to the two reserve
rations, it is packed on top of the top layer.

TO MAKE THE PACK: Spread the shelter half on the ground and fold
in the triangular ends, forming an approximate square from the
half, the guy on the inside; fold the poncho once across its
shortest dimension, then twice across its longest dimension,
and lay it in the center of the shelter half; fold the blanket
as described for the poncho and place it on the latter; place
the shelter tent pins in the folds of the blanket, in the center
and across the shortest dimension; fold the edges of the shelter
half snugly over the blanket and poncho and, beginning on either
of the short sides, roll tightly and compactly. This forms the

TO ASSEMBLE THE PACK: Place the pack in the pack carrier and
grasp the lower suspension rings, one in each hand; place the
right knee against the bottom of the roll; pull the carrier down
and force the pack up close against the bottom of the packed
haversack; without removing the knee, pass the lower carrier
binding strap over the pack and secure it by means of the opposite
buckle; in a similar manner secure the lower haversack binding
strap and then the upper carrier binding strap.

Engage the snap hook on the pack suspenders in the lower suspension

The equipment is now assembled and packed as prescribed for the
full equipment.



Place the assembled equipment on the ground as heretofore described;
fold up the inside flap of the haversack so that its end will
be on a line with the top of the haversack body; fold up the
lower haversack strap in the same manner.

TO MAKE UP THE PACK: Fold the poncho, blanket, and shelter half,
and make up the pack as heretofore prescribed, except that the
condiment and bacon can (the former inside the latter) and the
toilet articles and socks are rolled in the pack. In this case
the pack is rolled, beginning on either of the long sides instead
of the short sides, as heretofore described.

TO ASSEMBLE THE PACK: Place the pack on the haversack and pack
carrier, its upper end on a line with the upper edge of the haversack
body: bind it to the haversack and carrier by means of the haversack
and pack binding straps; fold down the outer flap on the haversack
and secure it by means of the free end of the middle haversack
binding strap and the buckle provided on the underside of the
flap; engage the snap hooks of the park suspenders in the lower
suspension rings.

The equipment is now packed and assembled.

slipping the arms one at a time through the pack suspenders as
through the sleeves of a coat; by means of the adjusting buckles
on the belt suspenders raise or lower the belt until it rests well
down over the hip bones on the sides and below the pit of the
abdomen in front; raise or lower it in rear until the adjusting
strap lies smoothly across the small of the back; by means of
the adjusting buckles on the pack suspenders, raise or lower the
load on the back until the top of the haversack is on a level
with the top of the shoulders, the pack suspenders, from their
point of attachment to the haversack to the line of tangency
with the shoulder, being horizontal. _The_latter_is_absolutely_

The position of the belt is the same whether filled or empty.



Detach the carrier from the haversack; place the rest of the
equipment on the ground as heretofore described; place the four
cartons of hard bread, the bacon can, the condiment can, and the
toilet articles in one row in the middle of the haversack body,
the toilet articles at the top, the bacon can at the bottom,
top to the front, the row extending from top to bottom of the
haversack; fold the inside flap over the row thus formed; fold
the sides of the haversack up and over; pass the three haversack
binding straps through the loops on the inside flap and secure by
means of the buckles on the opposite side of the haversack; pass
the lower haversack binding strap through the small buttonhole
in the lower edge of the haversack, fold the outer flap of the
haversack over the whole, and secure by means of the buckle on
its underside and the lower haversack binding strap.

Pass the haversack suspension rings through the contiguous
buttonholes in the lower edge of the haversack and engage the
snap hooks on the ends of the pack suspenders.

If one reserve ration and one emergency ration are carried in
lieu of two reserve rations, the haversack is packed in the manner
described above, except that one emergency ration is substituted
for two of the cartons of hard bread.

If one emergency ration is carried in addition to the two reserve
rations, it is packed on top of the layer.



Detach the carrier from the haversack; place the rest of the
equipment on the ground, as heretofore described; fold up the
inside flap of the haversack until its upper end is on a line with
the top of the haversack body; fold the sides of the haversack
over, pass the three haversack binding straps through the loops
on the inside flap and secure by means of the buckles on the
opposite side of the haversack; pass the lower haversack binding
strap through the small buttonhole in the lower edge of the
haversack; place the condiment and bacon can (the former inside
the latter) and the toilet articles and socks in the bottom of
the pouch thus formed; fold the outer flap of the haversack over
the whole and secure by means of the buckle on its underside
and the lower haversack binding strap.

Pass the haversack suspension rings through the contiguous
buttonholes in the lower edge of the haversack and engage the
snap hooks on the ends of the pack suspenders.

as prescribed for the full equipment. Adjust the cartridge belt
as prescribed for the full equipment. Adjust the pack suspenders
so that the top of the haversack is on a level with the top of
the shoulders.


Unsnap the pack suspenders from the suspension rings and snap
them into the eyelets on top of the belt and in rear of the real
pockets of the right and left pocket sections; support the bottom
of the pack with the left hand and with the right hand grasp
the coupling strap at its middle and withdraw first one end,
then the other; press down gently on the pack with both hands
and remove it. When the pack has been removed, lace the coupling
strap into the buttonholes along the upper edge of the carrier.
Adjust the pack suspenders.


To roll the blanket roll.--_See_ chapter V, section 8, paragraph




A ration is the allowance of food for one man for one day.

In the field there are three kinds of rations issued, as follows:

The _garrison_ration_ is intended to be issued in kind whenever
possible. The approximate net weight of this ration is 4.5 pounds.

The _reserve_ration_ is the simplest efficient ration, and
constitutes the reserve carried for field service. It consists

Bacon 12
Hard bread 16
Coffee, roasted and ground 1.12
Sugar 2.4
Salt .16
Approximate net weight pounds 2

The _field_ration_ is the ration prescribed in orders by
the commander of the field forces. It consists of the reserve
ration, in whole or in part, supplemented by articles requisitioned
or purchased locally or shipped from the rear.

In campaign a command carries as a part of its normal equipment
the following rations:

(a) On each man: At least two days' reserve rations.
(b) In the ration section of the field train, for each man:
Two days' field and one day's reserve rations.
(c) In the supply train: Two days' field rations.

In addition to the foregoing, commanders will require each man
on the march to carry the unconsumed portion of the day's ration
issued the night before for the noonday meal. Reserve rations are
consumed only in case of extreme necessity, when other supplies
are not available. They are not to be consumed or renewed without
an express order from the officer in command of the troops who is
responsible for the provision of supplies, namely, the division
commander or other independent-detachment commander. Every officer
within the limits of his command is held responsible for the
enforcement of this regulation. Reserve rations consumed must
he replaced at the first Opportunity.


Sometimes rations for several days are issued to the soldier
at one time, and in such cases you should be very careful to
so use the rations that they will last you the entire period.
If you stuff yourself one day, or waste your rations, you will
have to starve later on.

Generally the cooking for the company will be done by the company
cook, but sometimes every soldier will have to prepare his own
meals, using only his field mess kit for the purpose.

The best fire for individual cooking is a small, clear one, or,
better yet, a few brisk coals. To make such a fire, first gather
a number of sticks about 1 inch in diameter. These should be
dry. Dead limbs adhering to a tree are dryer than those picked
up from the ground. Split some of these and shave them up into
kindling. Dig a trench in the ground, laid with the wind, about
a foot long, 4 inches wide, and 6 inches deep. Start the fire in
this trench gradually, piling on the heavier wood as the fire
grows. When the trench is full of burning wood, allow it a few
minutes to burn down to the coals and stop blazing high. Then
rest the meat can and cup over the trench and start cooking.
Either may be supported, if necessary, with green sticks. If you
can not scrape a trench in the soil, build one up out of rocks
or with two parallel logs.

The following recipes have been furnished from the office of the
Quartermaster General, United States Army:

_Coffee_.--Fill the cup two-thirds full of water and bring
to a boil. Add one heaping spoonful of coffee and stir well,
adding one spoonful of sugar if desired. Boil five minutes and
then set it to the side of the fire to simmer for about 10 minutes.
Then, to clear the coffee, throw in a spoonful or two of cold
water. This coffee is of medium strength and is within the limit
of the ration if made but twice a day.

_Cocoa_.--Take two-thirds of a cupful of water, bring to a
boil, add one heaping spoonful of cocoa, and stir until dissolved.
Add one spoonful of sugar, if desired, and boil for five minutes.

_Chocolate_.--Take two-thirds of a cupful of water, bring
to a boil, add a piece of chocolate about the size of a hickory
nut, breaking or cutting it into small pieces and stirring until
dissolved. Add one spoonful of sugar, if desired, and boil for
five minutes.

_Tea_.--Take two-thirds of a cupful of water, bring to a
boll, add one-half of a level spoonful of tea, and then let it
stand or "draw" for three minutes. If allowed to stand longer
the tea will get bitter, unless separated from the ten leaves.


_Bacon_.--Cut slices about five to the inch, three of which
should generally be sufficient for one man for one meal. Place
in a meat can with about one-half inch of cold water. Let come
to a boll and then pour the water off. Fry over a brisk fire,
turning the bacon once and quickly browning it. Remove the bacon
to lid of meat can, leaving the grease for frying potatoes, onions,
rice, flapjacks, etc., according to recipe.

_Fresh_meat_ (to fry).--To fry, a small amount of grease
(one to two spoonfuls) is necessary. Put grease in the meat can
and let come to a smoking temperature, then drop in the steak
and, if about one-half inch thick, let fry for about one minute
before turning, depending upon whether it is desired it shall be
rare, medium, or well done. Then turn and fry briskly as before.
Salt and pepper to taste.

Applies to beef, veal, pork, mutton, venison, etc.

_Fresh_meat_ (to broil).--Cut in slices about one inch thick,
from half as large as the hand to four times that size. Sharpen
a stick or branch of convenient length--say, from two to four
feet long--and weave the point of the stick through the steak
several times, so that it may be readily turned over a few brisk
coals or on the windward side of a small fire. Allow to brown
nicely, turning frequently. Salt and pepper to taste. Meat with
considerable fat is preferred, though any meat may be broiled
in this manner.

_Fresh_meat_ (to stew).--Cut into chunks from one-half inch
to one inch cubes. Fill cup about one-third full of meat and cover
with about one inch of water. Let boil or simmer about one hour,
or until tender. Add such fibrous vegetables as carrots, turnips,
or cabbage, cut into small chunks, soon after the meat is put
on to boil, and potatoes, onions, or other tender vegetables
when the meat is about half done. Amount of vegetables to be
added, about the same as meat, depending upon supply and taste.
Salt and pepper to taste. Applies to ail fresh meats and fowls.
The proportion of meat and vegetables used varies with their
abundance, and fixed quantities can not be adhered to. Fresh fish
can be handled as above, except that it is cooked much quicker,
and potatoes and onions and canned corn are the only vegetables
generally used with it, thus making a chowder. A slice of bacon
would greatly improve the flavor. May be conveniently cooked
in meat can or cup.


_Potatoes_ (fried).--Take two medium-sized potatoes or one
large one (about one-half pound), peel and cut into slices about
one-fourth inch thick and scatter well in the meat can in which
the grease remains after trying the bacon. Add sufficient water to
half cover the potatoes, cover with the lid to keep the moisture
in, and let come to a boil for about 15 to 20 minutes. Remove
the cover and dry as desired. Salt and pepper to taste. During
the cooking the bacon already prepared may be kept on the cover,
which is most conveniently placed bottom side up over the cooking

_Onions_ (fried).--Same as potatoes.

_Potatoes_ (boiled).--Peel two medium-sized potatoes (about
one-half pound) or one large one, and cut in coarse chunks of
about the same size--say 1-1/2 inch cubes. Place in meat can and
three-fourths fill with water. Cover with lid and let boil or
simmer for 15 or 20 minutes. They are done when easily penetrated
with a sharp stick. Pour off the water and let dry out for one
or two minutes over hot ashes or light coals.

_Potatoes_ (baked).--Take two medium-sized potatoes (about,
one-half pound) or one large one cut in half. Lay in a bed of
light coals and cover with same and smother with ashes. Do not
disturb for 30 or 40 minutes, when they should be done.

_Canned_tomatoes_.--One 2-pound can is generally sufficient
for five men.

_Stew_.--Pour into the meat can one man's allowance of tomatoes
and add about two large hardtacks broken into small pieces and
let come to a boil. Add salt and pepper to taste, or add a pinch
of salt and one-fourth spoonful of sugar.

_Or_, having tried the bacon, pour the tomatoes into the
meat can, the grease remaining, and add, if desired, two broken
hardtacks. Set over a brisk fire and let come to a boil.

_Or_, heat the tomatoes just as they come from the can,
adding two pinches of salt and one-half spoonful of sugar, if

_Or_, especially in hot weather, eaten cold with hard bread,
they are very palatable.

_Rice_.--Take about two-thirds of a cupful of water, bring
to a boll, add four heaping spoonfuls of rice, and boil until the
grains are soft enough to be easily mashed between the fingers
(about 20 minutes). Add two pinches of salt and, after stirring,
pour off the water and empty rice out on meat can. Bacon grease
or sugar may be added.

_Corn_meal,_fine_hominy,_oatmeal_.--Take about one-third
of a cupful of water, bring to a boil, add 4 heaping spoonfuls
of the meal or hominy, and boil about 20 minutes. Then add about
two pinches of salt and stir well.

_Dried_beans_and_peas_.--Put 4 heaping spoonfuls in about
two-thirds of a cupful of water and boil until soft. This generally
takes from three to four hours. Add one pinch of salt. About half
an hour before the beans are done add one slice of bacon.


_Flapjacks_.--Take 6 spoonfuls of flour and one-third spoonful
of baking powder and mix thoroughly (or dry mix in a large pan
before issue, at the rate of 25 pounds of flour and 3 half cans
of baking powder for 100 men). Add sufficient cold water to make
a batter that will drip freely from the spoon, adding a pinch of
salt. Pour into the meat can, which should contain the grease
from fried bacon or a spoonful of butter or fat, and place over
medium hot coals sufficient to bake, so that in from 5 to 7 minutes
the flapjack may be turned by a quick toss of the pan. Fry from
5 to 7 minutes longer, or until by examination it is found to
be done.

_Hoecake_.--Hoecake is made exactly the same as flapjacks
by substituting _corn_meal_ for _flour_.

_Emergency_rations_.--Detailed instructions as to the manner
of preparing the emergency ration are found on the label of each
can. Remember that even a very limited amount of bacon or hard
bread, or both, consumed with the emergency ration makes it far
more palatable, and generally extends the period during which it
can be consumed with relish. For this reason it would be better
to husband the supply of hard bread and bacon for use with the
emergency ration when it becomes evident that the latter must
be consumed rather than to retain the emergency ration to the
last extremity and force its exclusive use for a longer period
than two or three days.


"_1077,_Army_Regulations_.--The forage ration for a horse
is 14 pounds of hay and 12 pounds of oats, corn, or barley, and
3-1/3 pounds of straw (or hay) for bedding; for a Field Artillery
horse of the heavy-draft type, weighing 1,300 pounds or over,
17 pounds of hay and 14 pounds of oats, corn, or barley, and
3-1/3 pounds of straw (or hay) for bedding; for a mule, 14 pounds
of hay and 9 pounds of oats, corn, or barley, and 3-1/3 pounds
of straw (or hay) for bedding. To each animal 3 pounds of bran
may be issued in lieu of that quantity of grain.

"The commanding officer may, in his discretion, vary the proportions
of the components of the ration (1 pound of grain, 1-1/2 pounds
of hay, and 2 pounds of straw being taken as equivalents), and
in the field may substitute other recognized articles of forage
obtained locally, the variation or the substitution not to exceed
the money value of the components of the ration at the contract
rates in effect at the time of change.

"_1078,_Army_Regulations_.--Where grazing is practicable, or
when little work is required of the animals, commanding officers
will reduce the forage ration. When, on the other hand, conditions
demand it, they are authorized to increase the ration, not in
excess, however, of savings made."

In the field the authorized allowances must often be reduced
and supplemented by grazing and other kinds of food, such as
green forage, beans, peas, rice, palay, wheat, and rye. Wheat
and rye should be crushed and fed sparingly (about one-fourth
of the allowance). For unshelled corn, add about one-quarter

On the march the grain ration is the only forage carried. It
consists of 12 pounds of grain for each horse and 9 pounds of
grain for each mule. Recourse must be had to grazing if it is
not possible to procure long forage in the country traversed.

In campaign a command carries as a part of its normal equipment
the following forage:

(a) For each draft animal: On each vehicle a _reserve_ of
one day's grain ration for its draft animals.

(b) On animals and vehicles: A portion of their grain ration issued
the night before, for a noonday feed.

(c) In the ration section of the field train, for each animal,
two day's grain rations.

(d) In supply train of an Infantry division two days' grain rations,
and of a Cavalry division one days' grain ration.




History shows that in almost every war many more men die of disease
than from wounds received in battle. Much of this disease is
preventable and is due either to the ignorance or carelessness
of the person who has the disease or of other persons about him.
It is a terrible truth that one man who violates any of the great
rules of health may be the means of killing many more of his
comrades than are killed by the bullets of the enemy.

It is therefore most important that every soldier should learn
how to take care of his health when in the field and that he
should also insist that his comrades do not violate any of the
rules prescribed for this purpose.

A great many diseases are due to germs, which are either little
animals or little plants so very small that they can only be
seen by aid of the microscope. All diseases caused by germs are
"catching." All other diseases are not "catching."

There are only five ways of catching disease:

(a) Getting certain germs on the body by touching some one or
something which has them on it. Thus, one may catch venereal
diseases, smallpox, measles, scarlet fever, chicken pox, mumps,
bolls, body lice, ringworm, barber's itch, dhopie itch, and some
other diseases. Wounds are infected in this manner.

(b) Breathing in certain germs which float in the air. In this
way one may catch pneumonia, consumption, influenza, diphtheria,
whooping cough, tonsilitis, spinal meningitis, measles, and certain
other diseases.

(c) Taking certain germs in through the mouth in eating or drinking.
Dysentery, cholera, typhoid fever, diarrhea, and intestinal worms
may be caught in this manner,

(d) Having certain germs injected into the body by the bites
of insects, such as mosquitoes, fleas, and bedbugs. Malaria,
yellow fever, dengue fever, and bubonic plague may be caught in
this way.

(e) Inheriting the germ from one's parents.

Persons may have these germs sometimes without apparently being
sick with any disease. Such persons and persons who are sick
with the diseases are a great source of danger to others about
them. Germs which multiply in such persons are found in their
urine and excretions from the bowels; in discharges from ulcers
and abscesses; in the spit or particles coughed or sneezed into
the air; in the perspiration or scales from the skin; and in
the blood sucked up by biting insects.

Those who have taken care of their health and who have not become
weakened by bad habits, exposure, and fatigue are not only less
liable to catch disease, but are more apt to recover when taken

Knowing all these things, the soldier can understand the reasons
for the following rules and how important it is that they should
be carried out by each and every person:

Stay away from persons having "catching" diseases.

It you have any disease, don't try to cure it yourself, but go
to the surgeon. Insist that other soldiers do likewise.

Typhoid fever is one of the most dangerous and common camp diseases.
Modern medicine has, however, discovered an effective preventative
for this disease in the typhoid prophylactic, which renders the
person immune from typhoid fever. The treatment consists in injecting
into the arm a preventative serum. The injection is given three
times at 10-day intervals.

Association with lewd women is dangerous. It may result in disabling
you for life. It is the cause of a disease (syphilis) which may be
transmitted by a parent to his children. Soldiers with venereal
diseases should not use basins or toilet articles used by others,
as the germs of these diseases if gotten into the eye very often
cause blindness. Likewise, if they use the same drinking cup used
by others they may give others the disease. They should promptly
report their trouble to the surgeon, that they may receive the
best medical advice and attention.

Should a soldier expose himself to infection by having intercourse
with an unknown woman, he should report as soon as possible
afterwards to the regimental infirmary for prophylactic treatment,
which, if taken within a few hours after intercourse, will prevent
to a large degree the liability of contracting any disease.

Cooked germs are dead and therefore harmless. Water, even when
clear, may be alive with deadly germs. Therefore, when the conditions
are such that the commanding officer orders all drinking water
to be boiled, be careful to live up to this order.

Use the latrines and don't go elsewhere to relieve yourself. In
open latrines cover your deposit with dirt, as it breeds files
and may also be full of germs.

Flies carry germs from one place to another. Therefore see that
your food and mess kit are protected from them.

All slops find scraps of food scattered about camp soon produce
bad odors and draw flies. Therefore do your part toward keeping
the camp free from disease by carefully depositing such refuse
in the pits or cans used for this purpose.

Urinate only in the latrines, or in the cans set out for this
purpose, never on the ground around camp, because it not only
causes bad smells but urine sometimes contains the germs of
"catching" diseases.

Soapy water thrown on the ground soon produces bad odors. Therefore
in camps of several days' duration this water should be thrown
in covered pits or in cans used for this purpose.

As certain mosquitoes can transmit malaria and yellow fever,
use your mosquito bar for this reason as well as for personal

Keep your mouth clean by brushing your teeth once or twice a day.
It helps to prevent the teeth from decaying. Decayed teeth cause
toothache. They also lead one to swallow food without properly
chewing it, and this leads to stomach troubles of various kinds.
Food left around and between the teeth is bad for the teeth and
forms good breeding places for germs.

Keep the skin clean. Through the pores of the skin the body gets
rid of much waste and poisonous matter. Therefore remove this
and keep the pores open by bathing once every day, if possible.
If water is scarce, rub the body over with a wet towel. If no
water is at hand, take a dry rub. Wash carefully the armpits,
between the legs, and under the foreskin, as this will prevent

The skin protects the sensitive parts underneath from injury
and helps to keep out germs. Therefore when blisters are formed
don't tear off the skin. Insert a needle under the skin a little
distance back from the blister and push it through to the opposite
side. Press out the liquid through the holes thus formed. Heat
the needle red hot first, with a match or candle, to kill the

When the skin is broken (in cuts and wounds) keep the opening
covered with a bandage to keep out germs and dirt; otherwise
the sore may fester. Pus is always caused by germs.

Keep your hair short. Long hair and a long beard in the field
generally means a dirty head and a dirty face and favors skin
diseases, lice, and dandruff.

Don't let any part of the body become chilled, as this very often
is the direct cause of diarrhea, dysentery, pneumonia, rheumatism,
and other diseases.

Wet clothes may be worn while marching or exercising without bad
results; but there is great danger if one rests in wet clothing,
as the body may become chilled.

Don't sit or lie or sleep directly on damp ground, as this is
sure to chill the body.

When hot or perspiring or when wearing damp clothes, don't remain
where a breeze can strike you. You are sure to become chilled.

Every day, if possible, hang your blanket and clothing out to
air in the sun; shake or beat them with a small stick. Germs
and vermin don't like this treatment, but damp, musty clothing
suits them very well. Wash your shirts, underwear, and socks
frequently. The danger of blood poisoning from a wound is greatly
increased if the bullet passes through dirty clothes.

Ditch your tent as soon as you can, particularly a shelter tent,
even if you camp for one night only. Otherwise a little rain
may ruin a whole night's rest.

Always prepare your bed before dark. Level off the ground and
scrape out a little hollow for your hips. Get some straw or dry
grass if possible. Green grass or branches from trees are better
than nothing. Sleep on your poncho. This keeps the dampness from
coming up from the ground and chilling the body. Every minute
spent in making a good bed means about an hour's good rest later

Avoid the food and drink found for sale in the cheap stands about
camp. The quality is generally bad, and it is often prepared in
filthy places by very dirty persons.

The use of intoxicating liquor is particularly dangerous in the
field. Its excessive use, even at long intervals, breaks down
one's system. Drinking men are more apt to get sick and less
liable to get well than are their more sober comrades. If alcohol
is taken at all, it is best after the work of the day is over. It
should never be taken when the body is exposed to severe cold,
as it diminishes the resistance of the body. Hot tea or coffee
is much preferable under these circumstances.


A soldier can not march with sore feet, and marching is the main
part of an infantryman's daily duty in the field. All soldiers
should be familiar with the proper methods of caring for the
feet. Sore feet are generally due to carelessness, neglect, or
ignorance on the part of the soldier.

The most important factor in the care of the feet and the marching
ability of the soldier is the shoe. Civilian shoes, particularly
light, patent leather, or low shoes, are sure to cause injury and
in time will ruin a man's foot. Only the marching shoe issued by
the Quartermaster Corps should be worn, and they must be properly
fitted to the individual. It will not suffice to order a marching
shoe of the same size as one's ordinary civilian shoes, for it
must be remembered that a soldier may have to march many miles
daily over rough roads and carrying a heavy pack. The pack itself
causes the foot to spread out to a larger size, and the rough
roads give so much exercise to the muscles of the feet that they
swell greatly through the increased blood supply. (For directions
as to measuring the foot for the marching shoe see General Order
No. 26, War Department, 1912, a copy of which should be on hand
in each company.)

Do not start out on a march wearing new shoes. This is a frequent
cause of sore feet. New shoes should be properly broken in before
beginning a march by wearing them for several hours daily for a
week before the march, and they should be adapted to the contours
of the feet by stretching them with shoe stretchers with adjustable
knobs to take the pressure off painful corns and bunions. Such
stretchers are issued by the Quartermaster Corps, and there should
be one or more pair in every company of infantry. Should this
be impracticable, then the following is suggested:

The soldier stands in his new shoes in about 2-1/2 inches of
water for about five minutes until the leather is thoroughly
pliable and moist; he should then walk for about an hour on a
level surface, letting the shoes dry on his feet, to the
irregularities of which the leather is thus molded in the same
way as it was previously molded over the shoe last. On taking
the shoes off a very little neat's-foot oil should be rubbed
into the leather to prevent its hardening and cracking.

If it is desired to waterproof shoes at any time, a considerable
amount of neat's-foot oil should be rubbed into the leather.
Waterproof leather causes the feet of some men to perspire unduly
and keeps them constantly soft.

Light woolen or heavy woolen socks will habitually be worn for
marching. Cotton socks will not be worn unless specifically ordered
by the surgeon. The socks will be large enough to permit free
movement of the toes, but not so loose as to permit of wrinkling.
Darned socks, or socks with holes in them, will not be worn in

Until the feet have hardened they should be dusted with foot
powder, which can be obtained at the regimental infirmary, before
each day's march. Clean socks should be worn daily.

As soon as possible after reaching camp after a day of marching
the feet should be washed with soap and water, and the soldier
should put on a dry pair of socks and his extra pair of shoes
from his surplus kit. If the skin is tender, or the feet perspire,
wash with warm salt water or alum water, but do not soak the feet
a long time, as this, although very comforting at the time, tends
to keep them soft. Should blister's appear on the feet, prick
and evacuate them by pricking at the lower edge with a pin which
has been passed through the flame of a match and cover them with
zinc oxide plaster applied hot. This plaster can be obtained
on request at the regimental infirmary. If serious abrasions
appear on the feet, or corns, bunions, and ingrowing nails cause
trouble, have your name placed on sick report and apply to the
surgeon for treatment. Cut the toe nails square (fairly close
in the middle, but leaving the sides somewhat longer), as this
prevents ingrowing nails.




[Corrected to April 15, 1917.]


ALIGNMENT: A straight line upon which several elements are formed,
or are to be formed; or the dressing of several elements upon
a straight line.

BASE: The element on which a movement is regulated.

BATTLE SIGHT: The position of the rear sight when the leaf is
laid down.

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