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Manners and Monuments of Prehistoric Peoples by The Marquis de Nadaillac

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[174] -- ACADEMIE DES SCIENCES, Nov., 1883. MAT. Jan., 1884. Nature,
June 18, 1887.

[175] -- NATURE, June 16, 1887.

[176] -- Heilbig: "Osservazioni sopra il Commercio del l'Ambra"
(ACAD. DEI LINCEI). We must not confound the yellow amber of the Baltic
with the red amber found in Italy, in the mountains of Lebanon, and
even in some lignites in the south of France. Sadowski: "Le Commerce
de l'Ambre chez les Anciens."

[177] -- Nephrite is found in Turkestan, in Siberia, and in New
Zealand. Deposits of jadeite are known in Burmah, Jeannetay, and Michel
-- "Note stir la Nephrite ou jade de Siberie" (BUL. SOC. MINERALOGIQUE
DE FRANCE, 1881). Meyer: "Die Nephritfrage kein ethnologische Problem,"
Berlin, 1882.

[178] -- Objects made of chloromelanite have been picked up in
thirty-eight of the departments of France. No deposit of it is known
now. -- Fischer and Damour: REV. ARCH., 1877.

[179] -- Obsidian is chiefly found in the mines and quarries of Terro
de las Navajas (Mexico), known in the time of the Aztecs. Deposits
have also lately been discovered in Hungary and the island of Melos.

[180] -- Calaite differs from the turquoise by an equivalent of
aluminium; it was described by M. Damour in 1864. It is said that
traces of it have been found in the tin mines of Montebras, which
appear to have been worked from prehistoric times. -- MAT., 1881,
p. 166, etc. Cartailhac: BUL. SOC. ANTH., 1881, p. 295.

[181] -- Broca: "Les Ossements des Eyzies," Paris, 1868.

[182] -- Lartet and Chaplain-Duparc: "Une Sepulture des Anciens
Troglodytes des Pyrenees."

[183] -- BULL. SOC. ANTH., 1878, p. 215. The Baumes-Chaudes
caves are the most complete charnel houses of Neolithic times yet
discovered. Dr. Prunieres collected in them as many as three hundred

[184] -- "In a large proportion of the long barrows I have opened,
the skulls exhumed have been found to be cleft apparently with a blunt
weapon, such as a club or stone axe." -- ARCHAEOLOGIA, vol. xlii.,
p. 161, etc.

[185] -- Wilson: "Prehistoric Annals of Scotland," 2d ed., vol. i.,
p. 187.

[186] -- Keller: "Pfahlbauten," SIEBENTER BERICHT, P. 27, Zurich, 1876.

[187] -- "Habitants Primitifs de la Scandinavie," pp. 212 and 213.

[188] -- "On the Occurrence of Fossil Bones in South America."


[190] -- Wyman: REPORT PEABODY MUSEUM, 1874, p, 40.

[191] -- This skill was not always shown, for Dr. Topinard speaks
of a femur found at Feigneux which had been so clumsily set that one
part greatly overlapped the other. -- Bul. Soc. ANTH., P. 534.

[192] -- BUL. SOC. ANTH., 1883, pp. 258 -- 301; 1885,
p. 412. BUL. SOC. POLYMATIQUE DU MORBIHAN, 1883, p. 12.

[193] -- NATURE, January 2, 1886.

[194] -- BUL. SOC. ANTH. DE LYON, 1883 -- 1884.

[195] -- Belucci: CONGRES PREHISTORIQUE DE LISBONNE, 1880, p. 471.

[196] -- "Uber trepanirte Schadel won Giebiechenstein" (VERH. DER


[198] -- American Ass., Detroit, 1875, Nashville, 1877; "Ancient Men of
the Great Lakes" "Additional Facts Concerning Artificial Perforation of
the Cranium in Ancient Mounds in Michigan." See also on this question
generally Fletcher "On Prehistoric Trepanning and Cranial Amulets,"
Washington, 1882.

[199] -- BUL. SOC. ANTH., February 17, 1881.

[200] -- Jehan Taxil: "Traite de l'Epilepsie, Maladie Appalee
Vulgairement la Gouttete aux Petits Enfants."

[201] -- BUL. SOC. ANTH., 1887, p. 527.

[202] -- De Baye: "Trepanations Prehistoriques," p. 28, fig. 11.

[203] -- BUL. SOC. ANTH., 1877, p. 42. Broca constantly dwells on this
idea. "This funeral rite," he said, addressing the Anthropological
Society, "implies belief in another life."

[204] -- ASS. FRANCAISE, Lille, 1874, p. 631.

[205] -- BUL. SOC. ANTH., 1864, p. 199.

[206] -- BUL. SOC. ANTH., 1882, pp. 143, 535.

[207] -- ASS. FRANCAISE, Blois, 1884, p. 417.

series, Paris, 1868. Vedrenes: "Le Trepanation du Crane" (REV. ANTH.,
October, 1886).

[209] -- On this point an admirable book should be consulted, by De
la Noe: "Enceintes Prehistoriques," MAT., 1888, p. 324, in which
the author says that positions protected by escarpments bordering
the greater party of the circumference of the ENCEINTE were at all
times chosen for the erection of fortifications. The absence of
water, however, often makes him hesitate in coming to a decision,
and leads him to think that the remains where it is absent must have
been temples for the worship of deities.

[210] -- CONGRES PREHISTORIQUES, Brussels, 1872, p. 318.

[211] -- "De Bello Gallico," book vii., chap. xxiii.

[212] -- Dupont: "Les Temps Prehistoriques en Belgique," p. 235.

[213] -- H. Bauduin: BUL. SOC. BELGE DE GEOGRAPHIE, 1879.


[215] -- REV. D'ANTH., 1880, p. 469.

[216] -- "Notice sur Quelques Monuments Trouves sur le Sommet des

[217] -- REV. D'ANTH., 1880, p. 295.

[218] -- We may also mention the Pen Richard in Charente Inferieure,
so well described by Cartailhac in his "France Prehistorique," p. 131.

[219] -- Arcelin: "L'Age de Pierre et la Classification Prehistorique,"
Paris, 1873. Flouest: "Notice sur le Camp de Chassey." Perrault:
"Un Foyer de l'Age de la Pierre Polie au Camp de Chassey" (MAT.,
1870). Coynart: "Fouilles au Camp de Chassey" (REV. ARCH., 1866
and 1867).

[220] -- Ponthieux, "Le Camp de Catenoy" (Oise).

[221] -- "Hist. Francorum," book i., chap. xxxii.

[222] -- De Rosemont: "Etude sur les Antiquites anterieures
aux Romains." Desjardins: "Les Camps Retranches des Environs de
Nice." Riviere: ASS. FRANCAISE, Rheims, 1880, p. 628.

[223] -- Pigorini: "Terramara dell'Eta del Bronzo Situata in Castione
de' Marchesi."

[224] -- NATURE, 1887, second week, p. 62.

[225] -- Memoranda read to the Royal Society of Antiquaries in
London (ARCHAEOLOGIA, vol. xlii., pp. 27 -- 76). Lane Fox: BRITISH
ASSOCIATION, Bristol, 1875. Evans: "Stone Age."

[226] -- "Solent et subterraneos specus aperire, eosque multo insuper
fimo onerant, suffugium hiemi et receptaculum frugibus" ("De Moribus
Germanorum," chap. xvi.).


[228] -- ZEITSCHRIFT FUR ANTHROPOLOGIE, 1874, p. 115; 1875, p. 127.

[229] -- Zaborowski: "Monuments Prehistoriques de la Basse Vistule."

[230] -- Ribeiro: "Notice sur Quelques Monuments Prehistoriques du
Portugal," Lisbon, 1878.

[231] -- "Noticia de Algunas Estarves e Monumentos Prehistoricos."

[232] -- H. and L. Siret: "Les Premiers Ages du Metal dans le Sud-est
de l'Espagne."


[234] -- Putnam: "Report Peabody Museum," vol. iii., p. 348.

[235] -- "Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley."

[236] -- See Dr. Hibbert in the TRANSACTIONS OF THE SOCIETY OF
ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, vol. iv., Appendix, p. 181.

[237] -- ZEITSCHRIFT FUR ETHNOGRAPHIE, 1870, p. 270.

[238] -- Pomerol: "Murailles Vitrifiees de Chateauneuf," ASS. FRANC.,
Blois, 1884.

[239] -- CONGRES SOC. SAV., Sorbonne, 1882.

[240] -- J. Marion: BUL. DES SOC. SAVANTES, 4th series,
vol. iv. Daubree: REV. ARCH., July, 1881.

[241] -- Sir J. Lubbock compares the ruins of Aztalan, in America,
with the vitrified forts of Scotland; but we think this is a mistake,
for the walls of Aztalan consisted of irregularly shaped masses of
hard, reddish clay, full of hollows, retaining the impression of
the straw or dried grass with which the clay was mixed before it
was subjected to the action of heat, whether the application of that
heat was intentional or accidental. There is nothing about this at
all resembling the melted granite of the vitrified forts.

[242] -- De Cassac: "Notes sur les Forts Vitrifies de la
Creuse." Thuot: "La Forteresse Vitrifiee du Pay de Gaudy," p. 102.

[243] -- We take most of these details from a note by M. A. de
Montaiglon published in the BULLETIN DES SOCIETES SAVANTES.

[244] -- MAT., 1881, p. 371.

[245] -- BUL. SOC. ANTH., 1884, p. 816, etc.

[246] -- Fouque, NATURE, 1876, second week, p. 65.

[247] -- Book vi., chap. xvi. and xx. -- Pliny the Elder, uncle
and father by adoption of Pliny the Younger, lost his life in this
catastrophe, which took place in 79 A. D.

[248] -- Cigalla: ACAD. DES SCIENCES, November 12, 1866. Fouque:
ACAD. DES SCIENCES, March 25, 1867. "Un Pompei Prehistorique," REVUE
DES DEUX-MONDES, October 15, 1869.

[249] -- Schliemann: "Troy and its Remains," translated by Philip
Smith, London, Murray, 1875; "Ilios Ville et Pays des Troyens,"
translated by Mme. E. Egger, Paris, Hachette, 1885; E. Burnouf:
REVUE DES DEUX-MONDES, January 1, 1874; Virchow: "Alt Trojanische
Graber and Schadel."

[250] -- Iliad, canto v., v., 692.

[251] -- Egyptologists tell us that in the fourth year of the reign
of Ramses II., or about 1406 B.C., the Hittites placed themselves
at the head of a coalition against the Egyptian Pharaoh. With these
Hittites, or Khittas, whose descendants still dwell in the north of
Syria, were the Mysians, the Lycians, the Dardanians, and other tribes.

[252] -- "Amerique Prehistorique" (Masson), translated by Nancy Bell
(N. D'Anvers), and published by Murray, London; Putnam, New York.

[253] -- "Troy and its Remains," plate ix. See also excellent essay
on the same subject by S. Reinach, which appeared in the REVUE
ARCHEOLOGIQUE in 1885. Later investigations by Dr. Schliemann also
brought to light a remarkable resemblance between the buildings at
Hissarlik and those of Tiryns.

[254] -- The British Museum contains a manuscript of the fourteenth
century, in which is a letter from Julian, written when he was emperor,
between 361 and 363 A.D., and relating to his visit to Ilium.

[255] -- The potter's wheel was, however, in use at a very remote
antiquity. In China its invention is attributed to the legendary
Emperor Hwang-Ti, who is supposed to have lived about 2697 B.C. The
wheel was also known from the very earliest times in Egypt, and Homer
(Iliad, c. xviii., v. 599) compares the light motions of the dancers
represented on the shield of Achilles to the rapid rotation of the
potter's wheel.

[256] -- Rivett-Carnac: "Memorandum on Clay Discs Called Spindle
Whorls and Votive Seals Found at Sankisa" (Behar), JOURNAL ASIATIC
SOCIETY OF BENGAL, vol. xlix., p. 1.

[257] -- "De Sacris AEdificiis," ch. ix., p. 128.

[258] -- It is interesting to note the discovery of urns closely
resembling those of Troy, and containing human remains, in Persia (Sir
W. Ouseley: "Travels in Persia"), and at Travancore, in the south of
Malabar, where, according to tradition, they were intended to receive
the remains of young virgins sacrificed in honor of the gods. --
"Some Vestiges of Girl Sacrifices," JOURN. ANTH. INST., May, 1882.

[259] -- The vulva was sometimes represented by a large triangle. The
same peculiarity occurs on some black marble statuettes, found in
the tombs of the Cyclades and Attica. Three such statuettes from
the island of Paros are in the Louvre, and the British Museum owns
a rich collection. Dr. Schliemann also mentions a female idol made
in lead of very coarse workmanship, in which the sexual organs are
represented by a double cross.

[260] -- The PHALLUS was, as we have already stated, the symbol of
generative force. Its worship extended throughout India and Syria;
a gigantic Phallus adorned the temple of the mother of the gods at
Hierapolis, and it was carried in triumph in processions through
Egypt and Greece. It is still worshipped in some places at the
present day. Near Niombo, in Africa, there is a temple containing
several phallic statues; at Stanley-Pool the fete of the PHALLUS is
celebrated with obscene rites. The Kroomen observe similar ceremonies
at the time of the new moon, and in Japan on certain fete clays young
girls flourish gigantic PHALLI at the end of long poles. The PHALLUS
is also often represented on the monuments of Central America -- on
the stones of the temples of Izamal and the island of Zapatero, for
instance. Possibly the worship of the productive and generative forces
of nature was the earliest religion of many primitive peoples, but
all that is said on the subject must be sifted with considerable care.

[261] -- Similar hatchets of pure copper (Fig. 2) have been found in
Hungary, and Butler ("Prehistoric Wisconsin") speaks of them also as
being found in North America.

[262] -- The tin used is making bronze probably came from Spain or
Cornwall, perhaps also from the Caucasus, where small quantities of
it are still found. It was doubtless imported by the Phoenicians, the
great navigators of antiquity. See Rudolf Virchow's "Das Gruberfeld
Von Koban im Laude der Osseten," Berlin, 1883.

[263] -- This idea gains probability from the fact that the remains
of a key were picked up near the treasure, which we have reason to
suppose belonged to Priam.

[264] -- The gold may have come from the mines of Astyra, not far
from Troy.

[265] -- Electrum was the ancient name for amber, but was also given
to an alloy of gold and silver, the yellow color of which resembles
that of amber.

[266] -- Dr. Schliemann gives a very careful description of all these
objects. See "Troy and its Remains," Figs. 174 to 497, pp. 260 to 353.

[267] -- The qr'hdemnon or diadem of the wife of Menelaus is a
narrow fillet from which hang several little chains formed of links
alternating with small leaves, and ending in rather larger leaves,
these leaves all representing the woman with the owl's head, so
characteristic of Trojan art. The golden objects are all soldered
with the same metals, which modern goldsmiths seem unable to do. At
Tiryns, which we believe to have been contemporary with Troy, the art
of soldering was unknown, and ornaments were merely screwed together.

vol. xiii., plates 1 and 2.

[269] -- If we accept 1200 B.C. as the date of the Trojan war and
the eighth century as that of the foundation of Ilium, the towns
that succeeded each other on the hill of Hissarlik only lasted four
centuries altogether.

[270] -- In the Vedas the word SWASTI is often used in the sense of
happiness or good-fortune.

[271] -- Comte Goblet d'Auriella, BUL. ACAD. ROYALE DE BELGIQUE, 1889.

[272] -- G. Atkinson, CONGRES PREHISTORIQUE, Lisbon, 1880, p. 466.

[273] -- "Ages Prehistoriques en Espagne et Portugal," figs 410, 411,
412, p. 286.

KUNDE, 1884. Musoeon, 1888 and 1889.

[275] -- Virchow, who visited the remains at Hissarlik, treats this
idea as FURCHTBAREN UNSINN (ridiculous nonsense).

[276] -- The true name of this cave is the BETCHE AUX ROCHES. A very
excellent essay on the subject was read by the explorers, MM. de
Puydt and Lohest, in August, 1886, to the Historic Society of Belgium,
and "Les Fouilles de Spy," by Dr. Collignon, published in the REVUE
D'ANTHROPOLOGIE, 1887, may also be consulted. Excavations were also
carried on in the same cave in 1879 by M. Bucquoy (BUL. SOC. ANTH. DE
BELGIQUE, 1887). He distinguished five ossiferous levels and picked up
some flints of the Mousterien type, and even some Chelleen hatchets,
to which he gave the name of coups DE POING. -- Fraipont and Lohest;
"Recherches sur les Ossements Humains Decouvertes dans les Depots
Quaternaires d'un grotte a Spy."

[277] -- We borrow these details from a valuable work by Cartailhac
(MAL., 1886, p. 441; REV. D'ANTH., 1886, p. 448). The conclusions of
our learned colleague are that we really know nothing of the funeral
rites of the men of Chelles and Moustier, and that it is to the
Solutreen period that we must assign the first really authenticated
tombs. Cartailhac's admirable book, "La France Prehistorique," p. 302,
should also be consulted.

[278] -- "Ipui Antichi Sepolcri dell Italia."

[279] -- ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, vol. xxii.

[280] -- MATERIAUX, 1885, p. 299.

[281] -- This dolmen was carefully excavated by MM. Hahn and
Millescamps, BUL. SOC. ANTH., 1883, p. 312.

[282] -- Riviere; CONGRES DES SCIENCES GEOGRAPHIQUES, Paris, 1878.

[283] -- ATTI DELLA R. ACAD. DEI LINCEI, 1879 -- 1880. Pigorini:
BUL. DE PAL. ITALIANA, 1880, p. 33.

[284] -- SOC. ANTH. DE MUNICH, 1886.

[285] -- SOC. ANTH. DE LYON, 1889.

[286] -- "Histoire du Travail en Gaule," p. 24.

[287] -- Troyon: "De l' Attitude Repliee dans la Sepulture Antique,"
REVUE ARCH., 1864.

[288] -- MATERIAUX, 1875, p. 327.

[289] -- A. Nicaise: MATERIAUX, 1880, p. 186.

[290] -- ARCH. PREHISTORIQUE, p. 178.


[292] -- BUL. SOC. ANTH., 1876, p. 191. Grad: NATURE, 1877, 1st week,
p. 314.


[294] -- Pallery: "Mon. Megalithiques de Mascara," BUL. SOC. ETHN.,

[295] -- Bancroft: "The Native Races of the Pacific," vol. i., pp. 365,
etc. Moreno: "Les Paraderos de la Patagonie," REV. D'ANTH., 1874.

[296] -- "Necropole de Colonna, prov. de Grosseto," R. ACAD. DEI
LINCEI, Roma, 1885.

[297] -- BUL. SOC. ANTH., 1880, p. 895.

[298] -- Abbe Baudry et Ballereau: "Les Puits Funeraires du Bernard,"
La Roche-sur-Yon, 1873.

[299] -- "Renseignements sur une Ancienne Necropole Manzabotta,
pres de Bologna," Bologna, 1871.

[300] -- Gross: "Les Proto-Helvetes." Morel-Fatio: "Sepultures des
Populations Lacustres de Chamblandes." As at Auvernier, a great many
bears' tusks were found lying near the dead, which may possibly also
have had something to do with a funeral rite.

[301] -- D. Charnay: NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW, January, 1881.

[302] -- Stuart: "The Early Modes of Burial."

[303] -- Vidal Seneze; BUL. SOC. ANTH., 1877, p. 561.

[304] -- "Histoire des Incas," Paris, 1744, chap. xviii.

[305] -- Conestabile: "De l'incineration chez les Etrusques."

[306] -- A. Bertrand: "Arch. Celtique et Gauloise," Introduction.

[307] -- ASS. FRANCAISE, Nantes, 1875; Havre, 1877.

[308] -- Luco: "Exposition de Trois Monuments Quadrilateres par feu
James Miln," Vannes, 1883.

[309] -- P. du Chatellier: "Mem. Soc. d'Emulation des Cotes-du-Nord,"
Saint Brieuc, 1883.

[310] -- PROCEEDINGS SOC. ANTH. OF SCOTLAND, January 11, 1886.

[311] -- "On the Ancient Modes of Sepulchre in the Orkneys" (BRITISH

[312] -- Kohn and Mehlis: "Zur Vorgeschichte des Menschen im Ostlichen
Europa," Iena, 1879.

[313] -- Hochstetter: "Die neueste Graber Funde von Watsch. und
S. Margarethen und der Kultur Kreiss der Hallstadter Period," Wien,
1883. Siebenter: "Bericht der Prehistorischen Commission," Wien, 1884.

[314] -- In these tombs were found 61 gold objects, 5,574 bronze,
593 iron, 270 amber, 73 glass, and 1,813 terra-cotta. A. Bertrand:

[315] -- SMITHSONIAN REPORT, 1881.

[316] -- Putnam, xii. and XX. REPORTS OF THE PEABODY MUSEUM.

[317] -- "De Bello Gallico," book vi., cap. xix. Consult also Pomponius
Mela: "De Situ Orbis," book iii., cap. ii.

[318] -- In his fruitful excavations of Gallic, Gallo-Roman, and
Merovingian tombs, Moreau collected no less than 31,515 flint celts
or hatchets, which had evidently been votive offerings. See Album
de Caranda: "Fouilles de Sainte Restitute, de Trugny, d'Armentiere,
d'Arcy, de Brenny," etc.

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