Part 5 out of 6
epic poem which has borne his . name so long. Tradition, however, was
pretty constant in pointing to the hill of Hissarlik as the site on
which Troy was built. Strabo was quite an exception in relegating the
town to the lower end of the bay; where the miserable little village
of Akshi-koi now stands. In 1788 a new idea was started; Lechevalier in
his account of his journey in Troas claims to have recognized the site
of Troy at Bunarbashi. At that time erudition was not very profound,
and Lechevalier's site was accepted; indeed it was long maintained,
and quite recently it has been defended by Perrot. But the nineteenth
century is more exacting; the most plausible hypotheses are not enough
without facts to support them, and excavations at Akshi-koi and at
Bunarbashi show that there never was a town on either of these sites.
Excavations on the hill of Hissarlik, begun by Dr. Schliemann in 1871,
and carried on under his superintendence for more than ten years, have,
on the contrary, yielded most definite, satisfactory, and conclusive
results. At a depth of fifty-two feet the diggers came to the virgin
soil, a very hard conchiferous limestone. The immense masses of DEBRIS
of which the embankment is made up date front different epochs; we have
before us, if we may use such an expression, a perpendicular Pentapolis
or series of five ancient cities one above the other. One town was
destroyed by assault and by fire; another rapidly rose from its ruins,
built with stones taken front the midst of those very remains. The
study of the piled-up rubbish enables us to build up again a picture
of the remote past with all its vicissitudes, and Virchow may well
say that the hill of Hissarlik will for ever be considered one of
the best authenticated witnesses of the progress of civilization.
The first layer of rubbish rests on the rock itself, and may very
well have belonged to the town built by Dardanus, of which Tlepolemus
relates the destruction by his grandfather Hercules. According to
the Homeric story six generations, and according to generally accepted
modern calculations two centuries, separate Dardanus from Priam. If
therefore we accept 1200 B.C. as the date of the Trojan war, the town
built by Dardanus would date from 1400 B.C., and we should. possess
data, if not absolutely certain, at least approximately so.
There remain but a few relics of the buildings erected by the first
inhabitants of the bill of Hissarlik, which relics consist of great
blocks of irregular size, with remains of bearing walls composed of
small stones cemented together with clay and faced with a glaze which
has withstood the wear and tear of centuries.
The second town, which would appear to have been that described in the
Iliad, was probably built by a race foreign to those who erected the
first. The hill, which was to become the Acropolis of the new town,
was surrounded by the new-comers with a wall several feet thick, of
which the foundations consisted of unhewn stones; whilst the upper
part was made of artificially baked bricks, the baking having been
done after they were put in place, by large fires lit in vacant places
left at regular intervals; an arrangement recalling what we have said
in speaking of vitrified forts. It is also interesting to note
a similar mode of construction at Aztalan in Wisconsin in structures
which probably date from the time of the Mound Builders. The walls
at Hissarlik were protected by re-entering angles and projecting
forts. The interior of the ENCEINTE was reached by three doors, and
it is still easy to make out the ruins of the different buildings. A
room sixty-five feet long by thirty-two wide is surrounded by very
thick walls, and towards the southeast is a square vestibule, opening
into the room by a large door. These, Dr. Schliemann thinks,
were the NAOS and PRONAOS of a temple dedicated to the tutelary gods
of the town. Quite close to them is another building with similar
dispositions; a square vestibule giving access to a large room,
which in its turn leads to a smaller apartment. These two buildings,
which are reached through a PROPYLAEUM, are the only ones of which
the explorers have been able to make out the measurements with any
Other ruins are evidently remains of the royal residence. The homes
of the people were clustered on the sides and at the foot of the
hill. After the destruction of the town by the Greeks, the Acropolis
formed one vast mass of ruins, from which bits of walls stood out here
and there as mute witnesses of the catastrophe. The thin layer of black
earth covering the ruins seems to point to the speedy rebuilding of the
town. The houses of the third settlement are very irregularly grouped,
and consisted mostly of one story only, containing a number of very
small rooms. Some of the walls are of bricks with glazed facings,
others of very small stones cemented together with clay. In one
house of rather larger size than the others was found some cement
made of cinders, mixed with fragments of charcoal, broken bones,
and the remains of shells and pottery. On the northwest the new
colonists erected walls in place of those which had fallen down, but
they were of very inferior masonry, coarse bricks baked on the spot,
in the way customary among the Trojans, having formed the material.
The destruction of the third town was more complete than that of
Troy. The walls of the houses can still be made out rising to a
certain height, and it was upon them as foundations that the fourth
colony set up their abodes. These dwellings are smaller still, with
flat roofs formed of beams on which was laid a coating of rushes and
clay. Every generation appears to have been poorer than the last,
alike in material wealth and in fertility of resource.
The fifth colony spread northwards and eastwards. Their homes were
built very much in the same style as those of their predecessors. The
resemblance does not end there, and Dr. Schliemann notes that among
the ruins of the three towns, which successively rose from the site
of Troy, are found similar strange-looking idols, hatchets in jade,
porphyry, diorite, and bronze, goblets with two handles, clumsy
stone hammers, trachyte grindstones, and fusaioles or perforated
whorls bearing symbolic signs of a similar form. Evidently the men
who succeeded each other after the great siege of Troy on the now
celebrated hill of Hissarlik belonged to the same race, perhaps even
to the same tribe. There are, however, certain notable differences
which must not be passed over. The later pottery is not of such
fine clay or so well moulded as the earlier specimens, nor are the
stone hammers, which appear to have been the chief implements used,
of such good workmanship. The piles of shells left to accumulate
about the houses of the fourth and fifth towns can only be compared
to the kitchen-middings so often referred to, and there is no doubt
that those who left such heaps of rubbish about their dwellings could
not have been so civilized as were the celebrated Trojans.
Beneath the ruins of the Greek town, which strictly speaking belongs
to history, Schliemann found a quantity of pottery of curious shapes
and very different to anything he had previously discovered. He
ascribes them to a Lydian colony which dwelt for a short time upon the
hill. This pottery resembles that known as proto-Etruscan, of which
so many specimens have been found in Italy. Probably the makers of
both were contemporaries.
By numerous and careful measurements Dr. Schliemann has been able to
determine exactly the thickness of the layers, which correspond with
the different periods during which Hissarlik was inhabited. The remains
of the Greek and Lydian towns extend to a depth of 7 1/2 feet beneath
the actual level of the soil; the fourth layer, from 7 1/2 to 15 feet;
the third, from 15 to 22 1/2 feet; Troy itself, from 22 1/2 to 32 feet;
and lastly Dardania, from 32 to 52 feet. The last layer carries us
back to the golden age of Greek art, where all doubt is finally at
an end. The bas-reliefs of remarkable workmanship bear witness to
the Ilium, founded in memory of Troy. This is the town visited by
Xerxes, Alexander the Great, and Julian the Apostate. That the
town still existed about the middle of the fourth century is proved
by medals taken from the ruins, but it evidently fell into decadence
soon after that time, for its very .name was forgotten by history,
and it was reserved for our own time to resuscitate the ancient city
of Priam and its successors from the ruins which lead been piled up
by the destructive hand of man and by the lapse of tinge. But this
task has been nobly achieved by the enthusiasm, scientific acumen,
and we may perhaps add good-fortune of an archaeologist who cherished
a positive passion for everything relating to Homeric times.
The number of objects picked up at different stages of the excavations
was very considerable. Dr. Schliemann neglected absolutely nothing that
appeared to him at all worthy of his collection, which now belongs to
the Royal Museum of Berlin and contains some twenty thousand objects,
including weapons and implements, some of stone, others of bronze,
and thousands of vases and fusaioles, gazing upon which we see rise
before our eyes a picture of a civilization unknown before but through
the Iliad and a few meagre historical allusions.
Before we note in detail the most remarkable of the objects in
Dr. Schliemann's collection, we must add that recent researches
have also brought to light the remains of a little temple dedicated
to Pallas Athene and referred to in history, as well as those of a
large Doric temple erected by Lysimachus, and of a magnificent theatre
capable of holding six thousand spectators, and which probably dates
from the end of the Roman Republic. The human bones picked lip among
the ruins of the different towns play be attributed to the practice,
already general, of cremation. Virchow has examined the skull of a
woman found at Troy, which is of a pronounced brachycephalic type
(82.5). The crania from the third town, on the other hand, are
dolichocephalic, the mean cranial capacity being sixty-seven. If we
could reason with any certainty from cranial capacity, this would
appear to point to a different race, but it would not do to come to
any positive conclusion with only one Trojan cranium to judge by.
Vase ending in the snout of an animal. Found on the hill of Hissarlik
at a depth of 45 1/2 feet.
But to return to Dr. Schliemann's fine collection. The pottery from
the first town, found at a depth of from thirty-two to fifty-two feet
(Fig. 89), is superior alike in color, form, and construction, to the
keramic ware of the following periods. The potter's wheel was unknown,
or at least very rarely used, and pottery was hand made and
polished with bone or wood polishers, the marks of which can still
be made out. The forms are varied and often graceful, many of them,
as do those found in the mounds of North America imitating those of
the animals among which the potters lived. The usual color of the
keramic ware is black, some times decorated with white lozenge-shaped
ornaments. Some vases have also been found colored red, yellow,
and brown, and even decked with garlands of flower and fruit, as are
some of those of Santorin. We must also mention some apodal vases,
and others with three feet, used for funeral purposes, containing
human ashes (Fig. 90). The terra-cotta fusaioles, found in such
numbers among the ruins of the towns that rose successively from
the hill of Hissarlik, are, on the other hand, rare at Dardania,
if we may retain that name.
Funeral vase containing human ashes. Found at a depth of 50 feet.
Excavations have brought to light more than six hundred celts or
knives, generally of smaller size than those found in Denmark or
France. Rock of many kinds, including serpentine, schist, felsite,
jadeite, diorite, and nephrite, were used; and saws of flint or
chalcedony, some toothed on one side only, others on both, are of
frequent occurrence. They were fixed into handles of wood or horn,
and kept in place with some agglutinative substance, such as pitch,
several of them still retaining traces of this primitive glue. We must
also mention awls, pins of bone and ivory, and ossicles or knuckle
bones, in every stage of manufacture, confirming the accounts of
Greek historians, who tell us of the great antiquity of the game
played with them. The Dardanians used wooden and bone implements and
weapons almost exclusively. It is impossible to say whether they were
acquainted with the use of metals, but we might assert that they were
if we could quite certainly attribute to them a certain mould of mica
schist, found at a depth of 45 1/2 feet, which bad been used in the
process of casting spits and pins, which are. supposed to be of more
ancient date than the fibulae.
Large terra-cotta vases found at Troy.
Earthenware pitcher found at a depth of 19 1/2 feet.
Vase found beneath the ruins of Troy.
The most valuable objects of the collection come from the deposits
representing the town of Troy; they are all twisted, broken, and
charred, bearing witness to the fierceness of the flames in which the
town perished. These discoveries reveal to us the daily life of the
people of Troy. Judging from the number of boars' tusks found, hunting
must have been a favorite pastime with them. The bones of oxen, sheep,
and goats, of smaller species than those of the present day, have also
been found. Horses and dogs were rare, and cats unknown. The domestic
poultry of the present day was also wanting, no remains of birds
having been found except a few bones of the wild swan and the wild
goose. Fish and mollusca, as proved by the immense numbers of bones
and shells, formed an important part of the diet of the Trojans. They
also fed largely on cereals, which they cultivated with success; and
wheat, the grains of which were very small, was known to them. The
preservation of these vegetable relics was due to carbonization.
Terra-cotta vase found with the treasure of Priam.
Vase found beneath the ruins of Troy.
The pottery discovered is of an infinite variety, and includes jars
from 4 3/4 feet to 7 3/4 feet high (Fig. 91), of Which Schliemann
found more than six hundred, nearly all of them empty. Their size
need not surprise us, for Ciampini speaks of a pottery DOLIUM
of such vast size and height that a ladder of ten or twelve rungs was
needed to reach the opening. With these jars were found some large
goblets, some long-necked vessels (Fig. 92), some amphorae, and vases
with three feet (Fig. 93). Some of the vases had lids the shape of a
bell (Fig. 94), others were provided with flaps or horns by which to
lift them (Fig. 95). The potter gave free vent to his imagination,
but the decorations representing fish-bones, palm branches, zigzags,
circles, and dots, are all of very inferior execution.
Earthenware pig found at a depth of 13 feet.
Vase surmounted by an owl's head. Found beneath the ruins of Troy.
Two series of terra-cotta objects deserve special mention, one
representing animals, generally pigs (Fig. 96), though an example
has been found of a hippopotamus; a fact of very great interest,
as this animal does not live at the present day anywhere but in the
heart of Africa. We know from this terra-cotta representation that
it lived in Greece in the days of Troy. Pliny speaks of it in Upper
Egypt in his day, and according to Mariette it lived thirty-five
centuries before the Christian era in the delta formed by the mouth
of the Nile. The second series of objects referred to above as of
special interest are vases representing the heads of owls with the
busts of women (Fig. 97). It is easy to make out the beak, eyes,
and ears of the bird, and the breasts and navel of the woman. In
some instances the face, breasts, and sexual organs of a woman are
represented by a series of dots forming a triangle with the point
downwards. Other dots represent a necklace, and very similar
designs are to be seen on the Chaldean cylinders. Can we then connect
them in any way with the relics of Troy, and is it possible that
the Trojans and Chaldeans were of common origin? However that may
be, the constant repetition of these signs proves that they were of
hieratic character. Terra-cotta was also used for a very great number
of other purposes, as was the case everywhere before the introduction
of metals. Some deep and some flat plates made of very common clay have
been found, together with buttons, funnels, bells, children's toys,
and seals on which, some authorities think, Hittite characters can
be made out. No lamps, or anything that could serve their purpose,
have been found. The Trojans probably used torches of resinous wood
or braziers, when they required artificial light.
It would be impossible to give a list of the objects of every variety
found among the ruins of Troy, with the aid of which we can form a very
definite idea of the private life of its people. Some fragments of an
ivory lyre, and some pipes pierced with three holes at equal distances,
bear witness to their taste for music; a distaff, still full of charred
wool, deserted by the spinner when she fled before the conflagration,
tells of domestic industry and manual dexterity, while marble and stone
phalli prove that the generative forces of nature were worshipped.
Copper vases found at Troy.
The weapons and implements found included haematite and diorite
projectiles used in slings, stone hatchets, and hammers pierced to
receive handles, flint saws and obsidian knives. Metallurgy began to
play an important part, and stone with its minor resisting power was
quickly superseded by bronze. In fact, Virchow was certainly justified
in saying that the whole town belonged to the Bronze age. Iron was
still unknown, at least so far no trace of it has been found, either
among the ruins of Troy or of the towns which succeeded it. Several
crucibles and moulds of mica, schist, or clay have been found with one
of granite of rectangular shape bearing on each face the hollows in
tended to receive the fused- metal. The Schliemann museum possesses
numerous battle-axes of bronze, some double-bladed daggers
with crooked ends, lances similar to those discovered at Koban,
and thousands of spits, some with spherically shaped heads, others
of spiral form. Some of these spits are made of copper, as are some
large nails weighing thirty ounces, so that this metal was evidently
still often used in a pure state.
Vases of gold and electrum, with two ingots, found beneath the ruins
Gold and silver objects from the treasure of Priam.
Gold ear-rings, head-dress, and necklace of golden beads from the
treasure of Priam.
At the foot of the palace, the ruins of which rise from the Acropolis
at a depth of 27 1/2 feet, the pick-axes of the explorers brought to
light metal shields, vases (Fig. 98), and dishes mixed together in
the greatest confusion, often soldered together by the intense heat
to which they had been subjected. They had probably been enclosed in
a wooden chest that was destroyed in the conflagration. We are
astonished at the wealth revealed to us. Cups, goblets, and bottles of
gold (Figs. 99 and 100) lay side by side with golden necklaces
and ear-rings of electrum. The ornaments that had belonged to
women are especially curious. At one place alone several diadems
(Fig. 101) were picked up, with fifty-six ear-rings, six bracelets,
and nine thousand minor objects, such as rings, buckles, buttons, dice,
pins, beads, and ornaments of a great variety. All these treasures
were piled up in a great silver vase, into which they had doubtless
been hastily thrown in the confusion of a precipitate flight. They
are all of characteristic forms, quite unlike anything in Assyrian or
Egyptian art. Were they made in Troy itself? Dr. Schliemann doubts
it; he thinks that the makers of such clumsy pottery are not likely
to have been able to produce jewelry of such delicate and remarkable
workmanship. I should not like to be so positive, for even amongst
the most advanced peoples we find very common objects mixed with
others showing artistic skill. Why should it not have been the same
at Troy? I think that in future Trojan art must take its place in the
history of the progress of humanity. The nineteenth century has brought
that art to light, and by a strange caprice of chance the treasures
of Priam adorn the museum of Berlin, and we have seen the diadem of
fair Helen exhibited in the South Kensington Museum of London.
Treasures nearly as valuable as those we have been describing
were found in earthenware vases in several other parts of the
ruins. Unfortunately, many of the objects found were stolen and melted
down by the workmen, whilst others were taken to the Imperial Palace
at Constantinople, whence they are doomed to be dispersed. In 1873,
however, Dr. Schliemann was fortunate enough to hit upon a deposit
containing twenty gold ear-rings, and four golden ornaments which
had formed part of a necklace. Similar ornaments were found at
Mykenae, near Bologna, in the Caucasus, in the Lake dwellings, and,
stranger still, on the banks of the Rio Suarez in Colombia.
I will not add more to what I have already said about the towns which
succeeded each other on the ruins of Troy, and of which the successive
stages of rubbish on the hill of Hissarlik are the only witnesses
left. The flames spared none who settled on that doomed spot, and
new arrivals disappeared as rapidly as they came. The Ilium of the
Greeks and Romans alone enjoyed any prosperity, but it too was in its
turn swept away; and at the present day a few wandering shepherds and
their flocks are the sole dwellers upon the hill immortalized by Homer.
Before concluding this chapter I must refer once more to a, fact of
considerable interest. In that part of the deposits of Hissarlik which
represents Troy, Dr. Schliemann picked up the perforated whorls to
which the name of fusaioles has been given (Fig. 102), and of which
we spoke in our account of the Lake Dwellings of Switzerland. These
fusaioles are generally of common clay mixed with bits of mica,
quartz, or silica, though some few have been found at Mykenae and
Tiryns of steatite. The clay whorls before being baked were plunged
into a bath of a very fine clay of gray, yellow, or black color,
and then carefully polished. They nearly all bear ornaments of very
primitive execution, such as stars, the sun, flowers, or animals,
and more rarely representations of the human figure.
We ourselves think these fusaioles are amulets which were taken to
Troy by the Trojans, and piously preserved by their successors. One
important fact tends to confirm this hypothesis. A great number of them
bear the sign of the SWASTIKA (Fig. 103), the cross with the four
arms, the sacred symbol of the great Aryan race so long supposed to be
the source of all the Indo-European races. The SWASTIKA is engraved,
not only on the fusaioles, but also on the diadems of the daughters of
Priam, on the idols the Trojans worshipped, and on numerous objects
from the Lydian and Greco-Roman towns. We meet with the double cross
among the prehistoric races of the basin of the Danube, who colonized
the shores of the Troad and the north of Italy, and it was introduced
with the products of that antique civilization on the one side to the
Greeks, the Etruscans, the Latins, the Gauls, the Germanic races,
the Scandinavians, and the Bretons; and on the other to the people
of Asia Minor, Persia, India, China, and Japan.
Cover of a vase with the symbol of the SWASTIKA. Found at Troy.
This sign of the SWASTIKA meets us at every turn; we find it on many
ancient Persian books, on the temples of India, on Celtic funeral
stones, and on a Hittite cylinder. It is seen on vases of elegant
form from Athens and Melos; on others from Ceres, Chiusi, and Cumae,
as well as on the clumsy pottery recently discovered at Konigswald
on the Oder and on the borders of Hungary; on bronze objects from
the Caucasus, and the celebrated Albano urn; on a medal from Gaza
in Palestine and on an Iberian medal from Asido. We see it on the
Gallo-Roman rings of the Museum of Namur, and on the plaques of the
belt, dating from the same epoch, which form part of the magnificent
collection of M. Moreau. Schliemann tells us of it at Mykenae and
at Tiryns. Chantre found it on the necropoles of the Caucasus. It
is engraved on the walls of the catacombs of Rome, on the chair of
Saint Ambrose at Milan, on the crumbling walls of Portici, and on the
most ancient monuments of Ireland, where it is often associated with
inscriptions in the ogham character.
The SWASTIKA occurs twice on a large piece of copper found at Corneto,
which now belongs to the Museum of Berlin. Cartailhac noticed it in
the CITANIA of Portugal, some of which date from Neolithic times.
The English in the Ashantee war noticed it on the bronzes they took
at Coomassie on the coast of Guinea, and it has also been found on
objects discovered in the English county of Norfolk.
Stone hammer from New Jersey bearing an undeciphered inscription.
Moreover, if we cross the Atlantic we find the same symbol engraved
on the temples of Yucatan, the origin of which is unknown, on a
hatchet found at Pemberton, in New Jersey (Fig. 104), on vases from
a Peruvian sepulchre near Lima, and on vessels from the PUEBLOS of
New Mexico. Dr. Hamy, in his "American Decades," represents it on a
flattened gourd belonging to the Wolpi Indians, and the sacred tambours
of the Esquimaux of the present day bear the same symbol, which was
probably transmitted to them by their ancestors. The universality of
this one sign amongst the Hindoos, Persians, Hittites, Pelasgians,
Celts, and Germanic races, the Chinese, Japanese, and the primitive
inhabitants of America is infinitely strange, and seems to prove the
identity of races so different to each other, alike in appearance
and in customs, and is a very important factor in dealing with the
great problem of the origin of the human species.
We have dwelt much on the discoveries of Dr. Schliemann, but we must
add that, like all great discoveries, they have been very vigorously
contested. Boetticher, for instance, considers the ruins
of Hissarlik to be nothing more than the remains of a necropolis
where cremation was practised according to the Assyrio-Babylonian
custom. A distinguished and very honest savant, S. Reinach,
constituted himself the champion of this theory at the meeting of the
Congress in Paris in 1889. Schliemann replied very forcibly, and the
meeting appeared to be with him in the matter, as were also a number
of men of science who visited Hissarlik in 1888, and we think that in
the end history will adopt the opinion of the great Danish antiquarian.
We have now passed in review the chief of the works left behind him by
man from the earliest (lays of his existence to the dawn of historic
times. We must still show prehistoric man in the presence of death,
the universal destroyer, and learn from the evidence of the tombs of
the remote past how our ancestors met the common doom.
The true history of man will be found in his tombs, says Thucydides;
and as a matter of fact the sepulchre has ever occupied much of the
thoughts of man, the result of a religious sentiment, a conviction
that all does not end with the life which so quickly passes by.
From the very earliest times we meet with tokens of the hopes and
fears connected with a future existence; but, as I have already
stated, the human bones that can with certainty be said to date
from Palaeolithic times are very rare. We know but very few facts
justifying us in asserting that the contemporary of the mammoth and
of the cave bear had already learnt to respect the remains of what
had once been a man like himself. One of these few facts deserves,
I think, to be noticed with some detail.
In 1886, excavations in the cave of Spy (Namur), or rather in a
terrace some thirty-six feet long by nineteen and a half wide giving
access to it, brought to light two human skeletons. One was that of
an individual already advanced in life, probably of the feminine sex,
the other of a man in the prime of life. These skeletons were imbedded
in a very hard breccia containing also fragments of ivory and numerous
flints of very small size. Some of them had very fine scratches on both
sides. From what I could learn on the spot, the skeletons when found
were in a recumbent position. The bones, few of which were missing,
were still in their natural position, and near to one of them were
picked up several arrow- or lance-heads, one of which, of phtanite,
some two and a half inches long, was of the purest Mousterien type. The
bones were those of short, squat individuals, and the skulls were of
the type of the Canstadt race, the most ancient of which anything is
known; the thickness of the crania was about one third of an inch. The
forehead, is low and retreating, the eyebrows are prominent, and the
lower jaws strong and well developed.
At the same level and in that immediately above it were picked up
the remains of the mammoth, the RHINOCEROS TICHORHINUS, the cave
bear, and the large cave hyena, the reindeer, and numerous other
mammals belonging to the Quaternary fauna. Everything points to the
conclusion that the man and woman whose remains have so opportunely
come to light were contemporary with these animals, and that their
bodies were placed after death in the cave in which they were found.
Belgium has furnished numerous examples of sepulchral caves, of a
date, however, less ancient than that we have been considering. Recent
excavations in the Chauvaux Cave revealed two skeletons leaning against
the walls in a crouching position, the legs tucked under the body. In
the Gendron Cave M. Dupont discovered seventeen skeletons lying in a
low, narrow passage, stretched out at full length with the feet toward
the wall, and arranged in twos and threes, one above the other. In the
middle of all these dead was the skeleton of one man placed upright,
as if to watch over the other bodies.
The Duruthy Cave at Sordes opens near the point of junction of the
waters of the Pan and Oloron, whence their united waters flow into
the Adour. At the northern extremity of this cave is a natural niche
in which lay more than thirty skeletons, some of men, some of women,
and some of children, mixed together in the greatest confusion. Worked
flints, bone stilettos, and ornaments lay around, all. of the forms
characteristic of Palaeolithic times.
It would seem that we have here evidence of the practice of a funeral
rite, which consisted in first stripping the bodies of flesh, and
then laying the bones in caves, where they were often left unnoticed
by the living occupants of the same refuge.
The caves of Baousse-Rousse, near Mentone, give fresh proof of the
extension of this rite, if we may so call it. The skeletons lay upon
a bed of powdered iron ore, in some cases as much as two fifths of an
inch thick, and this accumulation could not have taken place if the
skeleton had not been deprived of its flesh before inhumation. The
flesh must have been taken off by some rapid process, for the bones
remain, as a general rule, in their natural positions, united by
their tendons and ligaments. In Italy, says Issel, the cave men
buried their dead in the caves they lived in, a thin layer of earth
alone separating them from the living; the bodies, adds Pigorini,
generally lay on the left side, the head rested on the left hand, and
the knees were bent. Beside the skeleton was placed a vase containing
red chalk, to be used for painting the body in the new world it was
supposed to be about to enter.
We could quote similar discoveries in Sicily, Belgium, and the southern
Pyrenees. Beneath the tumulus of Plouhennec, in Brittany, bones were
strewn about in the greatest disorder. Some archaeologists are of
opinion that the openings in certain dolmens were used for throwing in
the bones of the dead who successively went to join their ancestors. In
many of the Long Barrows of England the bones appear to have been
flung in pell-mell; the space was too narrow to hold the complete body,
so that before inhumation the flesh must have been separated from the
bones. In no other way can we explain the confusion in which the human
remains lay when they were discovered. Pigorini thinks this is
a proof that primitive races worshipped their dead, and held their
bodies in veneration. Perhaps they even carried them about in
their migrations. However that may be, the custom of separating the
flesh from the bones was continued until cremation became general. This
would explain the huge ossuaries found in regions so widely separated.
Although, however, the mode of sepulture we have just described was
practised for a long time in certain places, we cannot admit it to have
been general. In certain megalithic tombs we find dispositions similar
to those described in speaking of the Gendron Cave. Excavations beneath
the Port-Blanc dolmen (Morbihan) brought to light a rough pavement on
which lay numbers of skeletons, closely packed one against another,
which skeletons were probably those of men who had been held in honor,
and to commemorate whom the dolmen was set up. Separated from them
by a layer of stones and earth rested another series of skeletons,
not so closely packed as the first. The new-comers had respected
their predecessors, and no one had violated the sanctuary of the
dead. Similar facts were noted at Grand Compans, near Luzarches,
and it is evident that successive inhumations beneath dolmens often
took place, and instances might, if necessary, be multiplied.
Another singular funeral rite was practised in remote antiquity. Many
of the bones found in the various caves of Mentone were colored with
red hematite. As this was only the case with the bones of adults,
those of children retaining their natural whiteness, it evidently
had some special significance. In 1880, the opening of a cave of
the Stone age in the district of Anagni, a short distance from Rome,
brought to light the facial portion of a human cranium, colored bright
red with cinnabar. Nor are these by any means exceptional cases, for
similar coloration was noticed on bones picked up at Finalmarina and
several other places in Liguria and Sicily. The custom had therefore
become general in the Neolithic period in the whole of the Italian
peninsula. We also meet with it in other countries; at the
Prehistoric Congress, when in session at Lisbon, Dolgado added to
what was said about the discoveries in Italy the fact that the cave
men of Furninha practised a similar rite. In the KURGANES of the
department of Kiev crania were found colored with a mineral substance,
fragments of which were strewn about near the skeletons. The most
ancient of the KURGANES appear to date from the Stone age, for in
them were found implements made of flint and reindeer-horn, mixed
with the bones of rodents long since extinct in that district. A
similar practice is met with in the tombs of Poland, many bones being
covered with a coating of red color, in some instances one fifth of
an inch thick. Excavations in the Kitor valley (province of Irkutsk,
Siberia have brought to light several tombs which appear to date
from the sauce period as the KURGANES of Kiew. The dead were buried
with the weapons and ornaments they would like to use in the new life
which had begun for them. The tomb was then filled in with sand, with
which care was taken to mix plenty of red ochre. It is difficult not
to conclude that this was a relic of a rite fallen into desuetude.
At the present day certain tribes of North America expose their dead on
the tops of trees, and before burying the bones, when stripped of their
flesh, cover them with a coating of a bright red color. In the island
of Espiritu Santo many human bones have also been picked up painted
with an oxide of argillaceous iron. These customs, strange as they
may appear, were evidently practised in honor of ancestors; atavism
is as clearly shown in customs and traditions as in physical structure.
At Solutre is a sepulchre formed of unhewn slabs of stone. The body
of the dead rested on a thick bed of the broken and crushed bones of
horses. The remains of reindeer were mixed with the human bones. Were
these too relics of funeral rites, and were the animal bones those
of the horses and reindeer that had belonged to their hunter? It
is impossible to say. Solutre, situated as it was on an admirable
site on a hill overlooking the valley of the Seine, protected from
the north winds and close to a plentiful stream, has also been a
favorite resort of man. In the tombs all ages are mixed together,
and if some do indeed date from Neolithic times, others are Roman,
Burgundian, Merovingian. There may be among them a certain number
dating from the Reindeer period; that is about all we can assert
with any certainty in the present state of our knowledge. The Abbe
Ducrost, however, in an important essay asserts that he has found
incontrovertible proofs of the interment of Solutreens on the hearths
of their homes in Palaeolithic times. If this be so, the custom is
one of frequent occurrence, and has been continued for centuries;
for De Colanges, in his fine work on ancient cities, shows that at
Rome the earliest tombs were on the hearth itself of the dwelling. De
Mortillet, on the other hand, dwells very earnestly on the mode of
inhumation at Solutre, and sees in the juxtaposition of human remains
and the DEBRIS of hearths but the result of displacement, and of the
regular turning upside down of which the hill of Solutre has been
the scene. To this Reinach replied, to the effect that, whereas a few
years ago De Mortillet's authority led many archaeologists to suppose
that the men of the Reindeer period did not bury their dead, facts,
ever more important than theories, have now proved beyond a doubt
that this very decided opinion is a mistake. Not only did the men
of remote antiquity bury their dead; they laid them, as at Solutre,
on the hearths near which they had lived.
The dead were often buried seated or bent forward, and it is
interesting to note the same custom beneath the mounds of America and
the tumuli of Europe. It is touching to see how in death men wished to
recall their life on earth; the cradle was, so to speak, reproduced
in the tomb, and man lay on the bosom of earth, the common mother
of humanity, like the child on the bosom of his own mother. Perhaps,
too, the seated position was meant to indicate that man, who had never
known rest during his hard struggle for existence, had found it at
last in his new life. The men of the rough and barbarous times of the
remote past were unable to conceive the idea of a future different
to the present, or of a life which was not in every respect the same
as that on earth had been.
Whatever may have been the motive, this mode of burial was practised
from the Madeleine period. At Bruniquel, in Aveyron, the
dead were found crouching in their last home. This position is,
however, peculiarly characteristic of Neolithic times, and is met
with throughout Europe. Eight skeletons were recently discovered
bending forward in the sepulchral cave of Schwann (Mecklenburg). In
Scandinavia there are so many similar cases that it is difficult to
make a selection. Tit the sepulchral cave of Oxevalla (East Gothland)
the dead are all in crouching attitudes, and tumuli dating from the
most remote antiquity cover over a passage, formed of immense blocks
of stone, leading to a central chamber, in which are numerous seated
skeletons resting against the walls.
On the shores of the Mediterranean, excavations of the Vence Cave
(Alpes-Maritimes) brought to light a number of dead arranged in a
circle as if about to take a meal in common. The bodies were crouching
in the position of men sitting on their heels; the spinal column was
bent forward and the head nearly touched the knees. In the centre
of this strange group were noticed some fragments of pottery and the
remains of a large bird, a buzzard probably. Perhaps its death among
the corpses was a mere accident. The dolmens of Aveyron yielded
some flint-flakes and arrow-heads, pieces of pottery, pendants,
and bone, stone, shell, and slate-colored schist beads. Beneath
one of these dolmens was found one small bronze object, quite an
exceptional instance of the occurrence of that metal. The skeletons
rested against the walls. In one of the tombs some human bones,
which bad been originally placed at the entrance to the cave, had
been moved to the back; the vanquished had here, as in life, to give
way before the conquerors. Excavations in the Mane-Lud tomb have
led explorers to suppose that here too the corpses were buried in a
crouching position. It is the same at Luzarches and in the Varennes
cemetery near Dormans. In the last named were found traces of a
fire that had been lit above the tomb, and some pottery was picked
up ornamented with hollow lines, filled with some white matter not
unlike barbotine. M. de Baye says this mode of interment is confined
to the district of Marne; but for all that he himself gives an example
of its practice elsewhere.
In the prehistoric tombs discovered at Cape Blanc-Nez, near Escalles
(Pas-de-Calais), the position in which the body had been interred
could be made out in four instances. The ends of the tibiae, humeri,
and .radii were united, the bones of the hands were found near the
clavicles, so that the bodies had evidently been bending forward with
the arms crossed and the fingers pointing toward the shoulders.
Similar facts are quoted from a cave at Equehen on the plateau which
stretches along the seashore on the east of Boulogne. The bodies,
to the number of nine, were crouching with the face turned toward
the entrance of the cave, which was closed with great blocks of
sandstone. Two polished stone hatchets, broken doubtless in accordance
with some sepulchral rite, had been placed near the skeletons.
Numerous human bones were found in the Cravanche Cave near Belfort,
which probably dates from the close of the Neolithic period,
judging from the total absence of metal and the shape of the flint
and bone implements picked up. Here too the bodies were bent almost
double, the head drooping forward and the knees drawn up nearly
to the chin. Several of these skeletons were completely imbedded
in the stalagmite which had formed in the cave, the head and knees
alone emerging from the solid mass. The position in which they were
originally placed had thus of necessity been maintained.
A similar rite, for rite we must call this mode of burial, was
practised in Italy, and the Chevalier de Rossi speaks of a tomb
of the Neolithic period at Cantalupo, near Rome, in which one of
the bodies wag placed in the crouching attitude, which he says is
familiar to all who have studied ancient tombs. This practice
was still continued in protohistoric times; Schliemann noticed it
in the excavations he superintended at Mykenae, and Homer says that
amongst the Lybians the dead were buried seated.
The necropolis near Constantine contains numerous megalithic
monuments. These are either round or square cromlechs surrounding
sarcophagi, or circular ENCEINTES, in which the dead were laid in a
trench. In the former there are always a great many funeral objects
in the tomb, and the body of the dead is in a crouching posture;
in the latter there are few things beside the corpse itself, and
that is in a recumbent position. Do these peculiarities denote
different races? Do the tombs all date from the same period, or are
these arrangements but fresh indications of the difference everywhere
maintained between social classes? It is difficult to decide, and we
must be content with enumerating facts. We may add, however, that the
crouching position of corpses is constantly met with in Africa
and in North and South America, from Canada to Patagonia.
The funeral rites of which we have spoken necessarily imply burial;
man did not abandon to wild beasts or birds of prey the bodies of
those who had once been like himself. At Aurignac, at Bruniquel,
and in the Frontal Cave, the cave man bad taken the precaution of
closing with the largest stones he could find the entrances to the
last resting-places of those belonging to him. The caves of L'HOMME
MORT, and of Petit-Morin which date from Neolithic times, retain
traces of similar blocking up. There were five entrances to the cave
of Garenne de Verneuil (Marne) in which was a regular ossuary; the
floor was paved and the roof kept up with eleven upright stones. The
objects in the tomb with the dead were a clumsy earthenware vase,
a few flint knives, and some shell necklace beads.
The sides of the almost inaccessible mountains of Peru are pierced, at
a height of several hundred feet, with numerous caves which have nearly
all been artificially enlarged. It was in them that the Peruvians
placed their dead, and the people of the country still call them
TANTAMA MARCA or abodes of desolation. The entrances were concealed
with extreme care, but this care did not save the tombs from violation;
the greed for the treasures supposed to be concealed in the tombs was
too great for respect to the unknown dead to hold curiosity in check.
In other cases, the dead was laid near the hearth which had been
that of his home when living, and his abode during life became his
tomb. The dolmens, CELLA, and GANGRABEN in Germany, and the barrows in
England, appear to bear witness to the prevalence of a similar custom
in those countries; and we find the same idea perpetuated even when
cremation became general. At Alba, in Latium, at Marino, near Albano,
at Vetulonia and Corneto-Tarquinia were discovered urns with doors,
windows, and a roof imitating human dwellings.
Later, other modes of sepulture came into use. In Marne M. Nicaise
made out seven funeral pits resembling in shape, he tells
us, long-necked bottles with flat bottoms. One of these pits at
Tours-sur-Marne contained at least forty skeletons, and among the
bones were found thirty-four polished stone hatchets, fifty knives,
two flint lance-heads and a great many arrows with transverse edges,
a necklace of little round bits of limestone, several fragments of
coarse pottery which had been mixed with grains of silica and baked
in the fire, and lastly three little flasks made of stag-horn hollowed
out in a curious manner and with stoppers of the same material. These
quaint little flasks doubtless contained the coloring matter with which
the dead had painted their bodies when alive. All the objects of which
we have spoken belonged to the Neolithic period; but a flat bronze
necklace bead made by folding a thin slice of metal, a radius, and a
bit of rib bearing green marks resulting from long contact with metal,
appear to fix the date of this pit at the transition period between
the Stone and Bronze ages. If this be so it is quite an exceptional
case of a sepulchral pit dating from this time, for most of those known
are of much later origin. Those for instance of Mont-Beuvray, Bernard
(La Vendee), and Beaugency are not older than Gallo-Roman times.
According to Count Gozzadini, those of Manzabotto in Italy, which
are twenty-seven in number, date from the IVth century after the
foundation of Rome, and are of Etruscan origin. They are constructed
with small pointed pebbles, with no trace of cement, and resemble
in shape a long amphora vase, or perhaps, to be more accurate, the
clapper of a bell. They are from six and a half to thirty-two and a
half feet deep, with an opening varying in diameter from one foot to
nearly two and a half feet.
We have said so much in preceding chapters on monuments erected in
memory of the dead, that but little remains to be added here. Doubtless
there are many distinctions to be noted at different times and in
different countries, but everywhere the aim remains the same, and the
means used for attaining that end are radically the same all the world
over. Take for example the Aymaras, the most ancient race of Bolivia
and Callao; they laid their dead sometimes beneath megalithic monuments
(Fig. 58, p. 178) resembling the dolmens of Europe, sometimes beneath
towers or CHULPAS, which are however probably of more recent date.
Chulpa near Palca.
CHULPAS, generally of square or rectangular form, consist of a mass
of unhewn stones faced outside with blocks of trachyte or basalt,
painted red, yellow, or white. A very low door, always facing east,
as if in honor of the rising sun, gives access to a cist in which the
dead was laid. The CHULPA of our illustration (Fig. 105) is situated
near the village of Palca; it rises from an excavation four feet deep;
its height is about sixteen feet, and the cornice consists of ICHU, a
coarse grass which grows in abundance on the mountains, and which after
being firmly compressed was cut with the help of sharp instruments. The
human bones, which were mixed together in the greatest confusion,
made a heap in the sepulchral chamber more than a foot high.
The mounds of Ohio also cover over sepulchral chambers of a peculiar
construction, being often formed of round pieces of wood, five to
seven feet long by five to six inches in diameter; near the bodies
were placed a few ornaments, chiefly copper ear-rings, shell beads,
and large flint knives. Most of the skeletons lay on the bare earth;
but one exception is mentioned in which the ground was paved with
mussel shells. A remarkable discovery has quite recently been made
at Floyd (Iowa), the account of which in Nature for January 1, 1891,
we will give in the words of Clement Webster: "In making a thorough
exploration of the larger mound ... the remains of five human bodies
were found, the bones even those of the fingers, toes, etc., being,
for the most part in a good state of preservation. First, a saucer
or bowl-shaped excavation has been made, extending down three and
three-quarter feet below the surface of the ground around the mound,
and the bottom of this macadamized with gravel and fragments of
limestone. In the centre of this floor five bodies were placed in a
sitting posture with the feet drawn under them, and apparently facing
the north. First above the bodies was a thin layer of earth and ashes,
among which were found two or three small pieces of fine-grained
charcoal. Nearly all the remaining four feet of earth had been changed
to a red color by the long-continued action of fire." Mr. Webster
goes on to describe the various skeletons and says of one of them,
that of a woman: "The bones in their detail of structure indicated a
person of low grade, the evidence of unusual muscular development being
strongly marked. The skull of this personage was a wonder to behold,
it equalling if not rivalling in some respects and in inferiority
of grade, the famous Neanderthal skull. The forehead, if forehead it
could be called, is very low, lower and more animal-like than in the
Neanderthal specimen.... The question has been raised how was it that
these five bodies were all buried here at the same time, their bodies
being still in the flesh." ... Webster adds that the probability is
that all but one of them had been sacrificed at the death of that one,
who had most likely been a chief.
Dolmen at Auvernier near the Lake of Neuchatel.
We have seen that men began by placing the bodies of their dead in
caves, and only later took to burying them underground when caves were
not to be had. Very often the corpse was placed between large unhewn
stones to keep off from it the weight of the tumulus above. Such were
the last resting-places alike of the men of Solutre and of those of
Merovingian times. In the necropolis of Vilanova, which is supposed to
date from times prior to the foundation of Rome, the tombs enclosed a
chest, the walls of which consisted of slabs of sandstone set on edge
and connected by a conglomerate of small stones. At Marzabotto, the
chests are made of bricks, and placed beneath a heap of pebbles. We
reproduce a chest discovered near the Lake Dwellings of Auvernier in
Switzerland (Fig. 106) and another (Fig. 107) brought to light
by MM. Siret in the south of Spain. These drawings will help us better
than long descriptions to form an idea of this mode of burial.
A stone chest used as a sepulchre.
In other cases the dead body was enclosed in earthenware jars. At
Biskra in Algeria, two of these jars were found together; the one
containing the head, the other the feet of the departed. In some
instances the jar was replaced by a large clumsy earthenware basin,
some six and a half feet long by three feet wide. Such basins are
mentioned as having been found near Athens, but there is nothing
to help us to determine their date. The ancient Iberians used one
large jar only (Fig. 108) in which the dead was placed in a crouching
position, still wearing his favorite ornaments. The vase was closed
with a stone cover and placed in the tomb. We meet with the practice
of a similar mode of interment in historic times. The Chaldeans
placed their dead in earthenware vases; two jars connected at the
neck serving as a coffin. Excavations in Nebuchadnezzar's palace
brought to light bodies bent nearly double and enclosed in urns
not more than three feet in height by about two feet in width. On
the western coast of Malabar, as far as Cape Comorin, we find near
megalithic tombs large jars four feet high by three feet in diameter
filled with human bones. This mode of sepulture was practised at Sfax,
in the Chersonesus of Thracia, and at the foot of the hill on which
Troy was built. The tumulus of Hanai-Tepeh covered over a huge amphora
in which crouched a skeleton, and the wealthy Japanese loved to know
they would rest in huge artistically decorated vases, masterpieces
of native pottery. If we cross the Atlantic, we meet with the same
custom in Peru, Mexico, and on the shores of the Mississippi. At
Teotihuacan, the bodies of children were placed head downwards in
funeral urns, and excavations in the alluvial deposits of the
Mississippi yielded, among immense quantities of pottery, two huge
rectangular basins glued together with clay and containing the body
of a young child. It is indeed interesting to meet with the same
practice in so many different places and to find the genius of many
races expressing itself in the same way in so many diverse inventions,
produced at times so widely separated.
Example of burial in a jar.
It is probable that early man also turned to account the trees he
saw growing around him, using them as coffins for his dead. But the
rapid decay of this fragile case led to its total disappearance. A
few exceptions must, however, be mentioned. In 1840 some dredgers took
from the bed of the Saone, at Apremont, from beneath a bed of gravel
five feet thick, the trunk of a tree which still contained the bones
that had been placed in it. Similar discoveries were made in the Cher,
and in the celebrated cemetery of Hallstadt, near Salzburg. The cairns
of Scania covered over split trunks of oak and birch trees, which had
been hollowed out to receive the dead. At Gristhorpe, near Scarborough,
in England, a coffin was found made of scarcely squared planks roughly
put together; and another very like it was discovered at Hove, in
Sussex, the latter containing a splendid amber cup, evidence of the
wealth of the man who had been buried in this primitive coffin.
The ancient Caledonians sewed up their dead in the skins of oxen before
burying them. The Egyptians also embalmed the ibis, the ox, the cat,
the crocodile, and other animals deified by them, and the bodies of
these creatures were then placed in vast subterranean chambers, where
they have been discovered in the present day in great numbers. The
Guanches of Teneriffe, the last representatives of the Iberians, and
probably the most ancient race of Europe, took out the intestines of
the corpse, dried the body in the air, painted it with a thick varnish,
and finally wrapped it in the skin of a goat. This last custom was
evidently a relic of the original idea of embalming, with a view to
rendering the mummy as nearly as possible indestructible and, to use a
happy expression of Michelet, to compel death to endure (FORCER LA MORT
DE DURER). Our own contemporaries are thus able to look upon the very
features of those who preceded them on the earth some forty centuries
ago; and but yesterday photography reproduced in every detail what
was once Ramses the Great, one of the most glorious kings of history.
Embalming was also practised in America. Recent travellers report
having seen in Upper Peru tombs of the shape of beehives, made of
stones cemented with clay, each tomb containing one mummy or more
in a crouching position (Figs. 109 and 110). This custom was still
practised for many centuries; Garcilasso de la Vega tells us that
the dead Incas were seated in a temple at Cuzco, wearing their royal
ornaments as if they were still alive; their hands were crossed upon
their breasts, and their heads were bending slightly forward.
The facts enumerated above prove that burial was long practised, though
it is impossible to say when it first cattle into use. About the time
of the beginning of the Bronze age, or perhaps even earlier, however, a
remarkable change took place in the ideas of man, and the dead instead
of being buried intact were consumed by fire on the funeral pile.
What can have been the origin of this custom? What race first
practised it? It has long been supposed by many archaeologists that
it was the Aryans from the lofty Hindoo Koosh Mountains who first
introduced into Europe a civilization more advanced than that which
had hitherto obtained there, and taught the people to cremate instead
of bury their dead. This theory was accepted for a considerable time
without question, but of late years a new school, headed by Penka,
has arisen who claim that the reformers came not from the East but
from the North. The Marquis de Saporta had indeed before suggested
that the primitive races who were the contemporaries of the mammoth
and the rhinoceros came originally from the polar regions, where the
remains of a luxuriant vegetation prove that climatic conditions
prevailed in remote times of a very different character to those
of the present day. The lignites of Iceland are made up of tulip,
plantain, and nut-trees, even the vine sometimes occurring. In the
ferruginous sandstones, associated with the carboniferous deposits of
Spitzberg, the beech, the poplar, the magnolia, the plum tree, the
sequoia, and numerous coniferous trees can be made out. The sturdy
sailors who dare the regions of perpetual ice come across masses of
fossilized wood in Banks, Grinnell, and Francis Joseph's Lands, at
88[degree] N. Lat. Among this fossil wood Heer made out the cypress,
the silver pine, the poplar, the birch, and some dicotyledons with
caducous leaves. These were not relics of wood which had drifted where
it was found on floating ice, but of an actual local vegetation,
as proved by trunks still erect in their original positions, buds,
leaves, and flowers in every stage of growth, fruits in every stage of
ripening. The very insects that had lived on honey from the flowers or
on the leaves themselves could be identified. In those remote days,
life, abundant life, similar to that now only found in the temperate
countries farther south, flourished in those polar regions, so long
supposed to have never been anything but lifeless deserts.
All this, plausible as it is, does not, however, appear to be
conclusive on the point under discussion; and though ,we may have to
abandon the idea of the Aryans having introduced cremation, we are
scarcely, I think, in a position to say that races from the North were
the first to practise it. I have dwelt more fully on the question of
the origin of races and the evidence which language seems to give
of a common source in two papers called "Les Premiers Populations
de l'Europe," which appeared in the CORRESPONDENT for October 1 and
November 25, 1889. Whatever may be the final decision on the much
contested points involved in this controversy, one thing is certain
that cremation, involving though it does a complete revolution in
manners and customs, spread with very great rapidity. We meet with
it from Greece to Scotland and Scandinavia, from Etruria to Poland
and the south of Russia, in China as in Yucatan and certain parts of
In the early days of history, cremation was practised all over
Europe. The Greeks attribute its inauguration to Hercules, and the
funeral pile of Patrokles is described in the Iliad. The Pelasgians
and the Proto-Etruscans burned their dead, and we are told of
the incineration of contemporaries of Jair, the third judge of Israel.
On the other hand, the earliest inhabitants of Latium buried their
dead. Visitors, who probably came by way of the valley of the Danube,
introduced the new custom, and for a long tune the two rites were
practised side by side. At Felsina and at Marzabotto we find instances
alike of inhumation and cremation, and at Vilanova only half the
tombs are those of corpses that had been cremated. In 365 of the
tombs excavated in the Certosa, near Bologna, only 115 show signs of
cremation having been practised. At Rome, the two rites were long
both performed, probably, however, by the two distinct peoples who
formed the primitive population of the town of Romulus. We know that
Numa Pompilius forbade the burning of his corpse; Cicero relates that
Marius was buried, and that Sulla, his fortunate rival, was the first
of the Cornelia GENS whose body was committed to the flames. We do
not know how early cremation was introduced in Gaul; we can only say
that Caesar found it generally practised when be made his triumphal
march across the country. The celebrated excavations of Moreau
prove that inhumation and incineration were both practised among
the Gallo-Romans established in the eastern provinces of France. We
may even assert that the two rites were practised long before the
introduction of the use of metals. One thing is certain, the custom
of cremation was but slowly abandoned as Christianity spread, for
Charlemagne, in an edict dated 789, ordered the punishment of death
for those who dared to burn dead bodies.
What we have just said about historic times applies equally to more
remote epochs. Thanks to the learned researches of Dr. Prunieres
we are able to trace for a great length of time the modes of sepulture
adopted in Lozere. The cave men of the eroded limestone districts of
Les Causses took their dead to the caves in which their ancestors
had been laid, and the invaders, who were probably more civilized
than those they dispossessed, placed theirs beneath the dolmens which
they erected in their honor. In the sepulchral caves of Rouquet and
of L'HOMME MORT we find inhumation; beneath the megalithic monuments
dating from the end of the Neolithic period, we meet with the first
traces of cremation, but so far of a very incomplete cremation;
the action of the funeral fire had not been intense, and the bones
were hard and resisted the heat. Noting beneath certain dolmens a
few bones blackened by fire mixed with large quantities unaffected
by it, one is inclined to think with the learned Doctor, that after
practising cremation men had reverted to the old mode of burial. In
the tumuli of the Bronze age, on the other hand, where the date can
be determined with the aid of the ornaments and trinkets scatered
about, the ustion was more complete; the bones are friable and porous,
crumbling into dust when touched, and there is nothing to indicate
that inhumation and cremation were both practised.
It is strange indeed to find that incineration was practised from
Neolithic times in the wild mountains of Lozere. There can be no
doubt on the point, however, and excavations beneath the dolmen
of Marconnieres strikingly confirm the earlier discoveries of
Dr. Prunieres. Beneath a layer of broken stones and a very thin
pavement, was found a mass of human bones in the greatest confusion;
some still retaining their natural color, others blackened and charred
by. fire. Among these bones was picked up an arrow of rock foreign to
the country, three admirably polished lance-heads, and some finely
cut flint-darts. The dolmen contained no metal objects, and there
was no trace of metal on any of the bones.
At the same period the two rites appear to have been practised
simultaneously in Armorica, but there incineration was the dominant
custom. In one hundred and forty-five megalithic monuments supposed to
date from the Neolithic period, seventy-two give proof of incineration
and twenty of inhumation only. The others yielded a few cinders, but
it was impossible to come to any definite conclusion. In many cases,
as we have seen, the megalithic monument was surrounded by a double
or triple ENCEINTE of stones without mortar. Inside these ENCEINTES
were some small circular structures made of stones reddened by the
action of heat. In the lower part of these structures were openings to
admit a current of air to fan the flames. These strange structures,
full of cinders and black greasy earth, bear the significant name of
RUCHES DE CREMATION. Of thirty-nine sepulchres of the Bronze
age twenty-seven gave evidence of incineration, two of inhumation,
whilst ten decided nothing one way or the other. The dolmen of
Mont St.-Michel and that of Tumiac are separated by a short distance
only; they were erected by the same race and probably about the same
period, yet at Mont St.-Michel we find incineration, while inhumation
was practised at Tumiac. How explain this difference in funeral
customs? Does it imply a diversity of race, of caste, of religion,
or of social position, or may it not rather be explained as being
merely the result of those later displacements which upset the most
Whatever may have been the cause of the different modes of burial,
we meet with them in every country.
In Scandinavia, during the Bronze age, cremation and burial were
practised in about equal proportions. Similar facts are noticed in
Germany, but in the North incineration predominates, while in the
West it is inhumation. Beneath the cairns of Caithness in Scotland,
we find some bodies lying at full length, while others are in a bent
position, and large jars of coarse pottery filled with cinders and
calcined bones which had belonged to men of medium height. One of the
largest of these jars is fifteen or sixteen inches high by forty-nine
wide at its largest part. In excavating the barrows of the Orkney
Islands, Petrie noted the practice of both modes of burial;
but were those buried in manners so different contemporaries? This
is what we are not told, and what we have to find out.
At Blendowo in Poland, beneath a cromlech was found an urn filled
with calcined bones, and thirty centimetres lower down a skeleton
was discovered buried in the sand. Near this body was found a coin
of Theodosius, and we wonder in vain whether both the individuals,
whose remains are thus within a common tomb, lived at the same
time. Throughout Prussia and in tire Grand Duchy of Posen skeletons
and jars containing human ashes. are met with in the same tombs.
We must not forget to note, especially, the necropolis of Hallstadt,
which was situated in the heart of the district of Bohemia occupied by
the Boii. The most ancient of the tombs in these vast burial-places
date from about two thousand years before the Christian era, and the
Hallstadtian period, as it is sometimes called, culminated during
the first half of the millennium immediately before the coming of
Christ. Nine hundred and ninety-three tombs have been excavated;
all, to judge by the objects found with the human remains, belonging
to the Bronze age; of these five hundred and twenty-seven contained
buried bodies, and four hundred and fifty-three cremated relics.
This is a larger proportion than in the primitive necropoles of Italy.
In the tombs in which burial was practised, the bodies were laid in
the trench without covering, and the remains of anything in the way
of slabs or coffins or protecting planks are very rare; in those
tombs in which cremation had been the rule, ustion had often been
very incomplete, sometimes the head and. sometimes the feet having
escaped the flames.
Similar facts are noted at Watsch, at San Margarethen, and at Vermo
in Styria, at Rovesche in Southern Carniola, and at Rosegg in the
valley of the Drave. At Watsch, but ten skeletons were found, among
two hundred examples of incineration. In the cremation sepulchres, if
we may so call them, the cinerary urn was protected by large slabs;
while in those where burial was practised, the bodies were simply
confided to the earth as at Hallstadt; but by a singular contrast, the
latter tombs contained much more important relics, the objects with
the dead being more valuable and of finer workmanship. At Rovesche,
the urn was placed in a square chest made of unhewn stones. The buried
bodies lay with the head turned toward the east, an urn was placed at
their feet, and their shrouds were kept in place by bronze fibulae,
while on the fingers were many rings of the same metal.
Lastly, to conclude this gloomy catalogue, excavations in the mounds
of Ohio and Illinois have shown that there too cremation and
inhumation are met with in sepulchres which everything tends to
assign to the same race and the same period. The sepulchral
crypts of Missouri contain several skeletons which had been subjected
to intense heat. The human bones were mixed with the remains of
animals, fragments of charcoal, and pieces of pottery, with sortie
flint weapons. In a neighboring mound excavations revealed no trace
of cremation; the bodies were stretched out upon the ground, and
those who discovered them picked up near them a valuable collection
of flints and of carefully made pottery. There is however nothing to
show whether those who buried and those who burnt their dead belonged
to the same race or lived at the same time. Cremation long survived
among the most savage tribes of Alaska and California, where it is
still practised, and the Indians of Florida preserve the ashes of
their fathers in human skulls. In California, the relations of the
deceased covered their faces with a thick paste of a kind of loam
mixed with the ashes of the dead, and were compelled to wear this
sign of their grief until it fell off naturally.
Although we meet with the burial of the dead either in a recumbent
or a crouching position, everywhere the minor ceremonies connected
with death are innumerable; each people, each race, indeed, having
its own custom, handed down from one generation to another, and
piously preserved intact by each successive family. Feasting was from
the earliest times a feature of the funeral ceremonies. An edict of
Charlemagne forbids eating and drinking on the tombs of the deceased,
and Saint Boniface, the apostle of Germany, complains bitterly that
the priests encouraged by their presence these feasts of death. We meet
with the same kind of thing among the lower classes at the present day,
and the cemeteries of Paris are surrounded with cafes and wine shops,
where too often grief is drowned in wine. The custom of holding these
feasts really comes down from the earliest inhabitants of Europe,
and the savage cave man gorged himself with food upon the tombs of
those belonging to him. At Aurignac, in the cave of L'HOMME MORT,
in the Trou du Frontal, broken bones and fragments of charcoal bear
witness to the repast. Similar traces of feasts are met with beneath
the dolmens and the tumuli. From the Long Barrows have been taken
the skulls and feet of bovidae, and it is probable that the other
parts of the body had been devoured by the assistants, and that
the head and feet were placed in the tomb as an offering either to
the dead or to the divinities who are supposed to have presided at
the death. In the ancient sepulchres of Wiltshire Sir R. Colt Hoare
picked up the bones of boars, stags, sheep, horses, and dogs; which
he too considered were the remains of funeral feasts.
Were feasts the only ceremonies connected with interments? We think
not. The body was often placed in the centre of the sepulchral
chamber, and around it were ranged the wives, servants, and slaves
of the deceased, condemned to follow their chief into the unknown
world to which he had gone. Beneath a dolmen of Algeria was found a
crouching skeleton with two crania lying at his feet, which crania had
doubtless belonged to victims immolated in his honor. The barrows
of Great Britain preserve traces of human sacrifices, and Caesar
says in speaking of the Gauls: "Their funerals are magnificent
and sumptuous. Everything supposed to have been dear to the defunct
during his life was flung upon the funeral pile; even his animals were
sacrificed, and until quite recently his slaves and the dependants
he had loved were burnt with him."
The facts we have been noticing prove that early man cherished
hopes of immortality. All was not ended for him with death; a new
life commences beyond the tomb, marked -- for his ideas could go no
farther -- by joys similar to those he had known on earth, and events
such as had occurred during his life. What else could be the meaning
of the weapons, the tools of his craft, the vases filled with food
placed near the defunct, the ornaments and colors intended for his
adornment, the wives, slaves, and horses flung into the same tomb
or consumed upon the same pile? It is pleasing to find this supreme
hope among our remote ancestors; and clumsily as it was expressed,
it implies a belief in a being superior to man, a protecting divinity
according to some, but according to some few others a malignant
and tyrannical spirit. The proofs so far to hand are not enough to
justify us in seriously asserting that ancestors were worshipped by
prehistoric man. But the subject is too important for us to refrain
from putting before the reader such indications of this worship as
have been collected, and which are necessarily connected with the
moral and material condition of our remote ancestors.
The radius of a mammoth was discovered at Chaleux, occupying a place
of honor on a large sandstone slab near the hearth. The Chaleux Cave
dates from the Reindeer period; at which time the mammoth had long
since been extinct in Belgium, so that there can be no doubt that
the cave man had taken this bone from the alluvial deposits of the
preceding epoch, and this huge relic of an unknown creature had been
the object of his veneration, a lar or protective divinity of his
home. A somewhat similar fact was discovered at Laugerie-Basse and,
by a strange coincidence, certain tribes of North America of the
present clay preserve the bone of a mastodon or of a cetacean in
their buts as a protection to their homes.
From Paleolithic times men were in the habit of cutting celts or
hatchets in chalk, bitumen, and other fragile substances, which were
certainly of no practical use. Thousands of similar objects in harder
rock, but showing no sign of wear or tear, have also been found,
and there is little doubt that they all alike served as amulets. This
superstitious respect for certain objects lasted for many centuries,
and was handed down from one generation to another. The tombs of
the Bronze and Iron ages are often found to contain flint hatchets,
some of them broken intentionally, a proof, as I have already said,
that they were connected with funeral rites of the nature of which
we are ignorant.
We also find votive hatchets beneath dolmens. By the side of some
skeletons at Cissbury lay flint celts. A hatchet one and a quarter
feet long was found in a Lake Station of Switzerland. It was of such
friable rock that it can have been of no use but as a symbol; perhaps,
indeed, it may have been a badge of office. Lastly, Merovingian tombs
contain hundreds of small flint celts, the last pious offerings to
We find hatchets engraved on the megalithic monuments of Brittany,
on the walls of the caves of Marne, and we meet with them again on the
other side of the Atlantic, evidently bearing the same signification,
implying respect for them as. means of protection. De Longperier
has published a description of a Chaldean cylinder, on which was
represented a priest presenting his offering to a hatchet lying on a
throne, and a ring was picked up at Mykenae, on the stone of which
was engraved a double-bladed celt. We find the same idea in many
different mythologies. The word NOUTER (God) is translated in Egyptian
hieroglyphics by a sign resembling a celt, and the hatchet of Odin is
engraved on the rocks of Kivrik. On a number of Gallo-Roman CIPPI, we
find a hatchet beneath which we read the words, DIS MANIBUS, and lower
down the dedication, SUB ASCIA DEDICAVIT. At all times and everywhere
the hatchet appears as the emblem of force, and is the object of the
respect of the people. The tradition of its value and importance is
handed down from ancestors to descendants throughout many generations.
Erratic block from Scania, covered with carvings.
May we give a religious interpretation to the basins and cups hollowed
out on rocks and erratic blocks and on the so-called Roches Moutonnees,
with other monuments that have endured for many centuries (Figs. 111
and 112)? Or must we attribute them merely to passing caprice? Their
number and importance we think forbid the latter idea. We find
such blocks in Switzerland, in England, France, Italy, Portugal,
and on the frozen shores of the Baltic. They are no less numerous
in India, and they figure in the curious pictographs of the two
Americas. There is no doubt that we have here a common idea, and
one it is impossible not to recognize. How. else can we account for
the similarity of arrangement in the cup-shaped sculptures from the
tumuli of Schleswig-Holstein and those on the Indian rocks of Kamaou,
or between those of Algeria and of England?
Engraved rock from Massibert (Lozere).
In Brittany and in Scotland these cup-like sculptures are found on
rocks and menhirs, on the walls of sepulchral chambers, on stones
forming the sides of KISTVAENS, accompanied in many instances with
radiated circles, which do not, however, help us to understand them
better. In Scandinavia they are known as ELFEN STENAVS, or elf stones,
and the inhabitants come and place offerings on them for the LITTLE
PEOPLE. According to a touching tradition, these little people are
souls awaiting the time of their being clothed once more in human
flesh. In Belgium these strangely decorated stones are attributed to
the NUTONS, dwarfs who are very helpful to mortals. In every country
there is some legend sacred to the sculptured stones.
Such are the only facts we have been able to collect respecting the
religious feeling of prehistoric races. They are not sufficient to
authorize any final conclusion on the subject. At every turn we are
compelled to admit our helplessness. But yesterday this past without a
limit was absolutely unknown to us, and to-day we are but beginning to
be able to obtain a glimpse into its secrets. We have been the laborers
of the first hour, it will be for those who come after us to complete
the task we have been able but to begin. May a genuine love of truth
be to them, as we may justly claim it has been to us, the only guide.
WORKS BY MARQUIS DE NADAILLAC.
Prehistoric America. By the Marquis de Nadaillac. Translated, with
the permission of the Author, by Nancy Bell (N. D'Anvers), author
of "History of Art." Edited, with notes, by W. H. Dall. Popular
edition. $2 25
CHIEF CONTENTS. -- Man and the Mastodon -- The Kjokkenmoddings and
Cave Relics -- Mound-Builders -- Pottery Weapons and Ornaments of
the Mound-Builders -- Cliff-Dwellers and Inhabitants of the Pueblos
-- People of Central America -- Central American Ruins -- Peru --
Early Race -- Origin of the American Aborigines, etc., etc.
"The best book on this subject that has yet been published, ... for the
reason that, as a record of facts, it is unusually full, and because it
is the first comprehensive work in which, discarding all the old and
worn-out nostrums about the existence on this continent of an extinct
civilization, we are brought face to face with conclusions that are
based upon a careful comparison of architectural and other prehistoric
remains with the arts and industries, the manners and customs, of
"the only people, except the whites, who, so far as we know, have
ever held the regions in which these remains are found." -- NATION.
The Customs and Monuments of Prehistoric Peoples. By the Marquis de
Nadaillac. Translated, with the permission of the Author, by Nancy Bell
(N. D'Anvers). Fully illustrated. 8vo. $3 00
CHIEF CONTENTS. -- The Stone Age, its Duration, and its Place in Time
-- Food, Cannibalism, Mammals, Fish, Hunting and Fishing, Navigation
-- Weapons, Tools, Pottery; Origin of the Use of Fire, Clothing,
Ornaments; Early Artistic Efforts -- Caves, Kitchen-Middings, Lake
Stations, "Terremares," Crannoges, Burghs, "Nurhags," "Talayoti,"
and "Truddhi" -- Megalithic Monuments -- Industry, Commerce, Social
Organization; Fights, Wounds and Trepanation -- Camps, Fortifications,
Vitrified Forts; Santorin; the Towns upon the Hill of Hissarlik --
Tombs -- Index.
G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS, PUBLISHERS,
NEW YORK AND LONDON.
 -- M. Gaston.
 -- Pliny calls them CERAUNIA GEMMA ("Natural History," book ii.,
ch. 59 book xxxvii., ch. 51).
 -- S. Reinach proves clearly enough that the collections of the
Emperor Augustus were from Capri.
 -- This skeleton was discovered in 1726 by Scheuchzer, a doctor
of OEningen, and by him placed in the Leyden Museum, with the
pompous inscription HOMO DILUVII TESTIS (PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS,
vol. xxxiv.). Cuvier, by scraping away the stone, revealed the true
nature of the fossil.
 -- "Ossium Fossilium Docimasia."
 -- "Mem. Acad. des Inscriptions," 1734, vol. x., p. 163.
 -- ARCHAEOLOGIA, vol. ii., p. 118.
 -- "The Antiquities of Warwickshire," vol. iv., 1656.
 -- ARCHAEOLOGIA, vol. xiii., p. 105.
 -- Castelfranco: REVUE D'ANTHROPOLOGIE, 1887.
 -- ANNALES DES SCIENCES NATURELLES, vol. xvii.,
p. 607. Cartailhac: MATERIAUX, 1884.
 -- "Recherches sur les Ossements Fossiles de la Province de
 -- ATHENAEUM, 16 July, 1859.
 -- "Discours sur les Revolutions du Globe," third edition, p. 13,
Paris, Didot, 1861.
 -- ACAD. DES SCIENCES, 18th and 23d May, 1863.
 -- Lubbock: "On the Evidence of the Antiquity of Man Afforded
by the Physical Structure of the Somme Valley" (NAT. HIST. REVIEW,
vol. ii.). Prestwich: "On the Occurrence of Flint Implements Associated
with the Remains of Extinct Species in Beds of a Late Geological
Period" (PHIL. TRANS., 1860). Evans: "Flint Implements in the Drift"
(ARCH., 1860 -- 62).
 -- ACAD. DES SCIENCES, 1859, 1863.
 -- Cartailhac: "L'Age de Pierre dans les Souvenirs et les
 -- A short time before his tragic end, the noble and patriotic
Gordon sent to Cairo three hatchets or stone wedges found amongst the
Niams-Niams, who said they had fallen from Heaven, and who worshipped
then with superstitious rites (BULL. INSTITUT EGYPTIEN, 1886, No. 14).
 -- "Museo Moscardo," Padova, 1656.
 -- According to M. Pitre de Lisle, the Bretons think that these
stones vibrate at every clap of thunder.
 -- Roulin: ACAD. DES SCIENCES, December 28, 1868.
 -- "Congres d'Anthropologie et d'Archeologie Prehistorique,"
 -- Council of Arles in 452, of Tours in 567, of Nantes in 658,
of Toledo in 681 and 692, and of Leptis in 743.
 -- Baluze: "Capitularia Regum Francorum," vol. i., pp. 518,
 -- Steenstrup, Forchammer, Thomsen, Worsaae, and Nillsson. The
commission appointed by the Copenhagen Academy of Sciences presented
six reports on the subject between 1850 and 1856.
 -- "Die Anfang des Eisens Cultur," Berlin, 1886.
 -- "Archeologie Celtique et Gauloise," p. 46.
 -- Dr. Much: "L'Age de Cuivre en Europe et son Rapport avec la
Civilisation des Indo-Germains," Vienna, 1886. Pulsky: "Die Kupfer
Zeit im Ungarn," Budapest, 1884. Cartailhac: "Ages Prehistoriques
de l'Espagne et du Portugal," p. 211. E. Chantre: MAT., June, 1887;
and Berthelot: JOURNAL DES SAVANTS, September, 1889.
 -- Irenee Cochut: "These presentee a la Faculte de Theologie
Protestante de Montauban."
 -- See my translation of the author's admirable and exhaustive
work on "Prehistoric America," chapters i. and iv. -- Nancy Bell.
 -- ACADEMIE DES SCIENCES, May 23, 1881; "Antiquites du Musee de
Minoussink," Tomsk, 1886 -- 7.
 -- "Les Ages Prehistoriques en Espagne et en Portugal."
 -- "Stone Implements from the Northwestern Provinces of India,"
JOURNAL OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL, Calcutta, 1883.
 -- LITERARY JOURNAL OF MADRAS, vol. xiv.
 -- "L'Age de Pierre et la Classification Prehistorique d'apres
les Sources Egyptiennes," Paris, 1879.
 -- Pitt Rivers: "On the Discovery of Chert Implements in the
Nile Valley," British Association, York, 1881.
 -- Belluci: "L'Eta della Pietra in Tunisia," Roma, 1876,
BOL. DELLA SOC. GEOG. ITALIANA, 1876.
 -- "The Stone Age of South Africa," JOURN. ANTH. INSTITUTE, 1881.
 -- REVUE DES DEUX-MONDES, march 1, 1878.
 -- De Quatrefages: REV. D'ETHNOGRAPHIE, 1883, p. 97, etc.
 -- Sir J. Lubbock: "Prehistoric Times," pp. 483, 549.
 -- ASS. FRANCAISE, le Havre, 1877. DISCOURS D'OUVERTURE.
 -- "Prehistoric America," Paris, New York, and London.
 -- See my translation of "L'Amerique Prehistorique," chap. i.,
"Man and the Mastodon." -- Nancy Bell.
 -- Many interesting details respecting the Cliff Dwellers are
given in De Nadaillac's "L'Amerique Prehistorique," chap. v. --
 -- CONGRES DES NATURALISTES ALLEMANDS, Innsbruck, Sept., 1869,
 -- "Quaternary man is always man in every acceptation of the
word. In every case in which the bones collected have enabled us
to judge, he has ever been found to have the hand and foot proper
to our species, and that double curvature of the spinal column has
been made out, so characteristic that Serres made it the distinctive
attribute of his human kingdom. In every case with him, as with us,
the skull is more fully developed than the face. In the Neanderthal
skull so often quoted as bestial, the cranial capacity is more than
double that ever found in the largest gorilla." De Quatrefages:
"Hommes Fossiles et Hommes Sauvages," p. 60.
 -- In this cave were found the bones of 45 bears. In the Goyet
Cave (which bears the number 3), were found complete sets of the bones
of 12 mammoths, 8 rhinoceroses, 57 bears, 57 horses, 24 hyaenas,
35 reindeer, 6 uruses, 2 lions, with the bones of a great number
of goats, chamois, and boars. Dupont: "L'Homme pendant l'Age de la
Pierre," p. 86.
 -- These birds belonged to the rapaces, passeres, gallinaceous,
wading, and web-footed groups. Every order is represented, and nearly
all the bones were those of edible species, which had certainly served
as food to man.
 -- Richard Andree: "Die Anthropophagie eine Ethnographische
Studie," Leipzig, 1887.
 -- "Les Hommes de Chavaux et d'Engis" BUL. ACAD. ROY. DE BELGIQUE,
vol. xx., 1853; vol. xviii. (new series), 1863; vol. xxii., 1866;
MATERIAUX, 1872. p, 517.
 -- "L'Homme pendant les Ages de la Pierre," p. 225.
 -- "Compte Rendu," p. 363.
 -- "Hist. Nat.," book vii., sec. 2.
 -- Belgrand: "Le Bassin Parisien," vol. i., p. 232.
 -- BULL. SOC. ANTH., 1869, p. 476. -- AC. DES SCIENCES, 1870,
first week, p. 167.
 -- ARCHIVES DU MUSEE NATIONAL DE RIO DE JANEIRO, vol. i., 1876.
 -- See my translation of De Nadaillac's "Prehistoric America,"
pp. 53, 58, and 59." -- N. D'Anvers.
 -- "Geography," book iv.
 -- "Opera," vol. ii., Migne edition, p. 335. Richard, of
Cirencester, says that the Attacotes lived on the shores of the Clyde,
beyond the great wall of Hadrian.
 -- Schweden's "Urgeschichte," p. 341.
 -- The felidae were very numerous in Europe in Quaternary
times. We may mention two species of lions, LEO NOBILIS and LEO
SPELAEUS, the latter often confounded with the DELIS SPELAEUS of
such frequent occurrence in French caves, two species of tigers,
TIGRIS EDWARDSIANA and TIGRIS EUROPAEA, the largest of the Quaternary
felidae, which was some twelve feet long. We also know of seven species
of leopards, six species of cats, from the Serval to a little felis
smaller than our domestic cat; two species of lynx, and lastly the
MACHAIRODUS, a beast of prey of considerable size, characterized by
having exceptionally long upper canines serrated like a saw. Probably
these beasts of prey were not all contemporaries, but succeeded each
other. (Bourguignat: "Histoire des Felidae Fossiles en France dans
les Depots de la Periode Quaternaire," Paris, 1879.)
 -- "Testimony of the Rocks," p. 127, Edinburgh and Boston, 1857.
 -- OSSEMENTS FOSSILES TROUVES A ODESSA. The cave-hyena resembles
that now living at the Cape.
 -- Ducrost and Arcelin: "Stratigraphie de l'Eboulis de Solutre,"
MAT., 1876, p. 403. ARCHIVES DIE MUSEUM D'HIST. NAT. DE LYON, vol. 1.
 -- M. de Baye found a great many similar arrow-heads in the
 -- Nilsson: "The Primitive Inhabitants of Scandinavia."
 -- Captain Edward Johnson, who travelled about in New England
from 1628 to 1632, relates that the children there spent their days
in shooting at the fish that appeared on the surface of the water,
succeeding in catching them with marvellous skill. "A History of New
England," London, 1654.
 -- Reiss and Steubel: "The Necropolis of Ancon in Peru," London
 -- MATERIAUX, 1870, p, 348.
 -- WIADOMOSEI ARCHEOLOGIZNE, No. iv., Warsaw, 1882.
 -- Ch. Rau: "Prehistoric Fishing in Europe and America."
 -- Horace: "Odes," book i., ode iii.
 -- Friedel: "Fuhrer durch die Fischerei Abtheilung."
 -- "A Catalogue of the Antiquities in the Museum of the Royal
 -- PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCOTLAND,
vol. iii. Dr. R. Munro "Ancient Scottish Lake Dwellings or Crannoges,"
 -- Geikie, EDINBURGH NEW PHILOSOPHICAL JOURNAL, vol. xv. De
Lapparent "Traite de Geologie," first edition, p. 518.
 -- "Discoveries in the more Recent Deposits of the Bovey Basin,"
TRANS. DEVONSHIRE ASS., 1883.
 -- "Nordische Oldsager i der kongelige Museum i Kjobenhawn."
 -- "Les Proto-Helvetes," NATURE, 1880, 1st week, p. 151.
 -- "Mem. Soc. d'Emulation d'Abbeville," 1867.
 -- Indra, the all-seer, to whom it is given to pierce the cloud,
personified by Vritra, and "to open the receptacles of the waters with
his far-reaching thunder-bolts," is of course the sun, the worship of
which was one of the earliest and most natural instincts of humanity;
whilst Vritra was in the first instance merely the symbol of the
cloud, intervening between heaven and earth, shutting out from men the
light of the sun, and keeping back the refreshing rain. The gradual
conversion of these natural phenomena into a good and a malignant
power, ever struggling for the mastery, is a forcible illustration
of the way in which myths are evolved. -- Trans.
 -- De Mortillet: "Le Prehistorique," Paris, 1883, p. 133.
 -- "Limon du Plateau du Nord de la France," Paris, 1878. Acheuleen
et Mousterien: REVUE DES QUESTIONS SCIENTIFIQUES, October,
1880. BUL. SOC. ANTH., 1884, 1887.
 -- CHELLEEN, so called from their having been found at Chelles
(Seine-et-Marne), where the remains of the ELEPHAS ANTIQUUS, the most
ancient of the pachyderms now known in Europe, was associated with
 -- De Mortillet: "Musee Prehistorique," pl. xvi. to xix.
 -- M. de Mortillet enumerates 127 polishers found at various
points in thirty departments of France. "Le Prehistorique," first
edition, p. 534.
 -- Piette: ASS. FRANC. POUR L'AVANCEMENT DES SCIENCES, Nantes,
1875, p. 909.
 -- De Mortillet: "Le Prehistorique," p. 544; "Musee
Prehistorique," figs. 431 to 434.
 -- "Musee Prehistorique," fig. 410.
 -- Lagneau: "De l'Uusage des Fleches empoisonnees chez les
Anciens Peuples l'Europe," Ac. des Insc., 2d November, 1877.
 -- "Les Temps Prehistoriques en Belgique," p. 151.
 -- "Reliquiae Aquitanicae," p. 127.
 -- NATURE, 1876, second week, p. 5.
 -- In this cave, in the second ossiferous deposit, were found
four fragments of pottery. De Puydt and Lohest: "L'Homme Contemporain
 -- "La poterie en Belgique a l' age du mammouth," REVUE
 -- AC. DES SCIENCES, Nov. 9, 1885. We must add that at a later
seance M. Cartailhac contested, if not the facts, the conclusions
deducted from them.
 -- But what is the value of categorical assertions of this kind
in presence of the fragments of pottery found at different levels in
Kent's Hole? One of these fragments was so rotten that when placed
in water it formed a black liquid mud as it decomposed.
 -- I have not space to speak here of the curious pottery found
in America. The most ancient specimens, moreover, are of much later
date than the Quaternary epoch. I can only refer those interested in
the subject to my book on "Prehistoric America," published in French by
M. Masson of Paris, and in English in America by Messrs. G. P. Putnam's
 -- "De Architectura," book ii., c. i.
 -- On the subject of tatooing an excellent work may be consulted
by Dr Magitot ("Ass. Franc. pour l'Avancement des Sciences," Alger,
 -- CYPRAEA RUFA, CYPRAEA LURIDA (COMPTES RENDUS ACAD. DES
SCIENCES, vol. lxxxiv., p. 1060).
 -- On this point an excellent work may be consulted by
S. Reinach: "Le Musee de Saint Germain,'' p. 232.
 -- Vaudry: ACAD. DES SCIENCES, August 25, 1890.
 -- A. Bertrand: ACAD. DES INSCRIPTIONS, April 29 and May 6, 1887.
 -- Reinach in his "Catalogue of the Saint-Germain museum"
gives the best description I know of this now celebrated reindeer.
 -- A. Milne Edwards: ACAD. DES SCIENCES, May 8, 1888.
 -- "De Natura Rerum," book v., v. 951, etc.
 -- "El hombre seguramente habitaba las corazas de los Glyptodon
Pero no siempre las colocaba en la posicion que acabo de indicar." --
"La Antiguedad del Hombre en el Plata," vol. ii., p. 532.
 -- "On Some Recent Researches in Cone-Caves in Wales,"
PROC. GEOL., ASSO., vol. ix. "On the Flynnon, Benno, and Gwyu Caves,"
GEOL. MAG., Dec., 1886.
 -- REVUE DES QUESTIONS SCIENTIFIQUES, April, 1887.
 -- "Odyssey," book ix., v. 105 -- 124.
 -- AEschylus: "Prometheus Bound."
 -- A. Maury: "La Vieille Civilisation Scandinave," REVUE DES
DEUX MONDES, September, 1880.
 -- F. de Olivera: "As Racas dos Kjoekkenmoeddings de Mugem,"
 -- REPORT PEABODY MUSEUM, 1882.
 -- REPORT PEABODY MUSEUM, 1882 and 1885.
 -- Brinton: "Notes on the Floridian Peninsula," Philadelphia,
 -- We take many of these details from Dr. Gross' excellent work
on the "Pile Dwellings of Switzerland."
 -- Virchow: "Drei Schadel aus der Schweiz."
 -- REVUE D'ANTHROPOLOGIE, 1887, p. 607.
 -- G. Cotteau: NATURE, 1877, first week, p. 161.
 -- Rutimeyer: "Fauna der Pfahlbauten in der Schweiz."
 -- ANZEIGER FUR SCHWEIZERISCHE ALTERTHUMS KUNDE, April, 1884.
 -- Comte Conestabile: "Sur les Anciennes Immigrations en
Italie." Heilbig: "Beitrage zur Altitalischen Kultur and Kund
Geschichte," i. Band. G. Boissier: REVUE DES DEUX-MONDES, October,
 -- BUL. DI PALETHNOLOGIA ITAL., 1879. The TERPENS of Holland,
though of much more modern date, greatly resemble the TERREMARES.
 -- "Ricerce di Archeologia Preistorica nella Valle della
 -- Wylie, ARCH. BRIT., vol. xxxviii. Wylde, PROC. ROYAL IRISH
ACAD., vol. i., p. 420.
 -- ARCH. BRIT., vol. xxvi., p. 361. PROC. ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY,
vol. vii., p. 155.
 -- "Habitations Lacustres des Temps Anciens et Modernes," p. 170.
 -- R. Munro: "Ancient Scottish Lake Dwellings or Crannoges,
with a Supplementary Chapter on Remains of Lake Dwellings in England,"
 -- "Prehistoric Times." Wilson: "Prehistoric Scotland."
 -- Nicolucci: "Scelse Lavorate, Bronzi e Monumenti di
Terra d'Otranto." Lenormant, REVUE D'ETHNOGRAPHIE, February,
1882 (BUL. SOC. ANTH., 1882 and 1884). S. Reinach: "Esquises
 -- "Les Premiers Ages du Metal dans le Sud-Est de l'Espagne,"
 -- Bateman: "Ten Years' Diggings," Preface, p. 11.
 -- W. MacAdams: "The Great Mound of Cahokia." Am. Ass.,
 -- Pelagaud: "Prehistoire en Syrie."
 -- Moore, POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHLY, New York, March, 1880;
ZEITSCHRIFT FUR ETHNOLOGIE: Berlin, 1887.
 -- "Monuments de Roknia," p. 18.
 -- Haxthausen: "Mem. sur la Russie," vol. ii., p. 204;
A. Bogdanow: "Mat. pour Servir a l'Histoire des Kourganes," Moscow,
1879; Margaret Stokes: "La Disposition des Principaux Dolmens de
l'Irlande," REV. ARCH., July, 1882.
 -- Sir A. de Capell Brooke: "Sketches in Spain and Morocco."
 -- Tissot: "Recherches sur la Geographie Comparee de la
 -- Margaret Stokes: "La Distribution des Principaux Dolmens de
l'Irlande." REVUE ARCH., July, 1882.
 -- Sir W. Wilde: "Ireland, Past and Present." Miss Buckland:
"Cornish and Irish Prehistoric Monuments." ANTH. INST., NOV.,
1879. O'Curry: "Lectures on the Manuscript Materials of Irish History."
 -- BUL. SOC. POL. DU MORBIHAN, April, 1885.
 -- S. Reinach, REV. ARCH., 1888. Wilson: "Megalithic Monuments
of Brittany." Cartailhac: "La France Prehistorique," in which the
measurements are given of the principal monuments of Brittany.
 -- A. Bertrand: "Archeologie Celtique et Gauloise," p. 105.
 -- Iliad, book xxiii., v. 380.
 -- Joshua, chap. iv., v. 13 ET SEQ.
 -- P. du Chatellier, MEM. SOC. D'EMULATION DES COTES-DU-NORD,
 -- Cartailhac: "Les Ages Prehistoriques en Espagne et en
 -- Verreaux, L'ANTHROPOLOGIE, 1890, p. 157.
 -- Haxthausen: "Mem. sur la Russie Mer., Vol. ii.,
p. 204. "Fouilles des Kourganes," par M. Sarnokoasof, REVUE ARCH.,
1879. Much: MITTHEILUNGEN DER ANTH. GESELL. IN WIEN, 1878.
 -- On this point see the excellent work by Maury, "Les Monuments
de la Russie et les Tumulus Tchoudes," and Meynier and Eichtal's
"Tumulus des Anciens Habitants de la Siberie."
 -- REVUE D' ANTH., 1880, p. 655.
 -- MEM. DE LA SOC. ARCH. DE LA PROVINCE DE CONSTANTINE, 1863.
 -- "Monuments Megalithiques de la Tunisie," ANT. AFRIC., July,
1884. Dr. Rouire: "Les Dolmens de l'Enfida," BULL. GEOG. HIST., 1886.
 -- "Heth and Noah," pp. 191 and 192.
 -- "Heth and Moab," p. 249.
 -- "Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh," Calcutta, 1881.
 -- MATERIAUX, 1887, p. 458. M. Pallart ("Mon. Meg. de Mascaro"),
thinks that this dolmen was not erected by man, but that a long slab
of stone has slipped down the slopes of the mountain and rested on
two natural supports. It is not easy to accept this view.
 -- Dr. de Closmadeuc, agreeing, I think, with Henry Martin,
derives the name of DOL VARCHANT from DOL MARCH'-HENT, the table of
the horse of the avenue.
 -- COMPTE RENDU, p. 421.
 -- MAT., 1877, p. 470.
 -- ASS. FRANCAISE, Bordeaux, 1872, p. 725.
 -- REV. D'ANTH., 1881, p. 283.
 -- By permission of the author, the translator adds the
following quotation from Taylor's "Origin of the Aryans," p. 17,
which is referred to by Professor Huxley in his paper on the Aryan
question in the NINETEENTH CENTURY for November, 1890. Taylor says:
"It is now contended that there is no such thing as an Aryan race in
the same sense that there is an Aryan language, and the question of
late so frequently discussed as to the origin of the Aryans can only
mean, if it means anything, a discussion of the ethnic affinities
of those numerous races which have acquired Aryan speech; with the
further question, which is perhaps insoluble, among which of these
races did Aryan speech arise and where was the cradle of that race?"
 -- This poet is one of those whose work is to be found in the
so-called "Black Book of Caermarthen." See also "The Four Ancient
Books of Wales, Containing the Cymric Poems Attributed to the Bards
of the Sixth Century." Edinburgh, 1868.
 -- Foureau, BUL. SOC. GEOG., June 1, 1883.
 -- Munck has just discovered a similar station at Oburg
(Hainault), where similar implements, produced by similar processes
as those at Spiennes, were discovered.
 -- Briart, Cornet, and Houzeau: RAPPORT SUR LES DECOUVERTES
FAITES A SPIENNES EN 1867. Malise: BUL. ACAD. ROYALE DE BELGIQUE.
 -- JOURNAL, ETHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 1818, p. 419.