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Lord Elgin by John George Bourinot

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the element of human ambition and selfishness has abundant room for
operation on the floor of the legislature, and a bold and skilful
cabinet is also able to wield a machinery very potent under a system
of party government. In this respect the House of Representatives may
be less liable to insidious influences than a House of Commons at
critical junctures when individual conscience or independent judgment
appears on the point of asserting itself. The House of Commons may be
made by skilful party management a mere recording or registering body
of an able and determined cabinet. I see less liability to such silent
though potent influences in a system which makes the president and a
house of representatives to a large degree independent of each other,
and leaves his important nominations to office under the control of
the senate, a body which has no analogy whatever with the relatively
weak branch of the Canadian parliament, essentially weak while its
membership depends on the government itself. I admit at once that in
the financial dependence of the provinces on the central federal
authority, in the tenure of the office of the chief magistrates of the
provinces, in the control exercised by the ministry over the highest
legislative body of Canada, that is, highest in point of dignity and
precedence, there are elements of weakness; but at the same time it
must be remembered that, while the influence and power of the Canadian
government may be largely increased by the exercise of its great
patronage in the hypothetical cases I have suggested, its action is
always open to the approval or disapproval of parliament and it has to
meet an opposition face to face. Its acts are open to legislative
criticism, and it may at any moment be forced to retire by public
opinion operating upon the House of Commons.

On the other hand the executive in the United States for four years
may be dominant over congress by skilful management. A strong
executive by means of party wields a power which may be used for
purposes of mere personal ambition, and may by clever management of
the party machine and with the aid of an unscrupulous majority retain
power for a time even when it is not in accord with the true sentiment
of the country; but under a system like that of Canada, where every
defect in the body politic is probed to the bottom in the debates of
parliament, which are given by the public press more fully than is the
practice in the neighbouring republic, the people have a better
opportunity of forming a correct judgment on every matter and giving
an immediate verdict when the proper time comes for an appeal to them,
the sovereign power. Sometimes this judgment is too often influenced
by party prejudices and the real issue is too often obscured by
skilful party management, but this is inevitable under every system of
popular government; and happily, should it come to the worst, there is
always in the country that saving remnant of intelligent, independent
men of whom Matthew Arnold has written, who can come forward and by
their fearless and bold criticism help the people in any crisis when
truth, honour and justice are at stake and the great mass of electors
fail to appreciate the true situation of affairs. But we may have
confidence in the good sense and judgment of the people as a whole
when time is given them to consider the situation of affairs. Should
men in power be unfaithful to their public obligations, they will
eventually be forced by the conditions of public life to yield their
positions to those who merit public confidence. If it should ever
happen in Canada that public opinion has become so low that public men
feel that they can, whenever they choose, divert it to their own
selfish ends by the unscrupulous use of partisan agencies and corrupt
methods, and that the highest motives of public life are forgotten in
a mere scramble for office and power, then thoughtful Canadians might
well despair of the future of their country; but, whatever may be the
blots at times on the surface of the body politic, there is yet no
reason to believe that the public conscience of Canada is weak or
indifferent to character and integrity in active politics. The
instincts of an English people are always in the direction of the pure
administration of justice and the efficient and honest government of
the country, and though it may sometimes happen that unscrupulous
politicians and demagogues will for a while dominate in the party
arena, the time of retribution and purification must come sooner or
later. English methods must prevail in countries governed by an
English people and English institutions.

It is sometimes said that it is vain to expect a high ideal in public
life, that the same principles that apply to social and private life
cannot always be applied to the political arena if party government is
to succeed; but this is the doctrine of the mere party manager, who is
already too influential in Canada as in the United States, and not of
a true patriotic statesman. It is wiser to believe that the nobler the
object the greater the inspiration, and at all events, it is better to
aim high than to sink low. It is all important that the body politic
should be kept pure and that public life should be considered a public
trust. Canada is still young in her political development, and the
fact that her population has been as a rule a steady, fixed
population, free from those dangerous elements which have come into
the United States with such rapidity of late years, has kept her
relatively free from any serious social and political dangers which
have afflicted her neighbours, and to which I believe they themselves,
having inherited English institutions and being imbued with the spirit
of English law, will always in the end rise superior. Great
responsibility, therefore, rests in the first instance upon the people
of Canada, who must select the best and purest among them to serve the
country, and, secondly, upon the men whom the legislature chooses to
discharge the trust of carrying on the government. No system of
government or of laws can of itself make a people virtuous and happy
unless their rulers recognize in the fullest sense their obligations
to the state and exercise their powers with prudence and
unselfishness, and endeavour to elevate and not degrade public opinion
by the insidious acts and methods of the lowest political ethics. A
constitution may be as perfect as human agencies can make it, and yet
be relatively worthless while the large responsibilities and powers
entrusted to the governing body--responsibilities and powers not
embodied in acts of parliament--are forgotten in view of party
triumph, personal ambition, or pecuniary gain. "The laws," says Burke,
"reach but a very little way. Constitute government how you please,
infinitely the greater part of it must depend upon the exercise of the
powers which are left at large to the prudence and uprightness of
ministers of state. Even all the use and potency of the laws depend
upon them. Without them your commonwealth is no better than a scheme
upon paper, and not a living, active, effective organization."


For accounts of the whole career of Lord Elgin see _Letters and
Journals of James, Eighth, Earl of Elgin_, etc., edited by Theodore
Walrond, C.B., with a preface by his brother-in-law, Dean Stanley
(London 2nd. ed., 1873); for China mission, _Narrative of the Earl of
Elgin's Mission to China and Japan_ by Lawrence Oliphant, his private
secretary (Edinburgh, 1869); for the brief Indian administration, _The
Friend of India_ for 1862-63. Consult also article in vol. 8 of
_Encyclopaedia Britannica_, 9th ed.; John Charles Dent's _Canadian
Portrait Gallery_ (Toronto, 1880), vol. 2, which also contains a
portrait; W.J. Rattray's _The Scot in British North America_ (Toronto,
1880) vol. 2, pp. 608-641.

For an historical review of Lord Elgin's administration in Canada, see
J.C. Dent's _The Last Forty Years, or Canada since the Union of 1841_
(Toronto, 1881), chapters XXIII-XXXIV inclusive, with a portrait;
Louis P. Turcotte's _Le Canada Sous l'Union_ (Quebec, 1871), chapters
I-IV, inclusive; Sir Francis Hincks's _Reminiscences of His Public
Life_ (Montreal, 1884) with a portrait of the author; Joseph Pope's
_Memoirs of the Rt. Hon. Sir John A. Macdonald, G.C.B._ (Ottawa and
London, 1894), with portraits of the great statesman, vol. 1, chapters
IV-VI inclusive; Lord Grey's _Colonial Policy of Lord John Russell's
Administration_ (London, 2nd ed., 1853), vol. 1; Sir C.B. Adderley's
_Review of the Colonial Policy of Lord John Russell's Administration,
by Earl Grey, and Subsequent Colonial History_ (London, 1869).

For accounts of the evolution of responsible government in Canada
consult the works by Dent, Turcotte, Rattray, Hincks, Grey and
Adderley, just mentioned; Lord Durham's _Report on the Affairs of
British North America_, submitted to parliament, 1839; Dr. Alpheus
Todd's _Parliamentary Government in The British Colonies_ (2nd ed.
London, 1894); Bourinot's _Manual of the Constitutional History of
Canada_ (Toronto, 1901); his _Canada under British Rule_ (London and
Toronto, 1901), chapters VI-VIII inclusive; _Memoir of the Life of the
Rt. Hon. Lord Sydenham, etc._, by his brother G. Poulett Scrope, M.P.,
(London, 1843), with a portrait of that nobleman; _Life and
Correspondence of Charles Lord Metcalfe_, by J.W. Kaye (London, new
ed., 1858).

For comparisons between the parliamentary government of Great Britain
or Canada, and the congressional system of the United States, see
Walter Bagehot's _English Constitution_ and other political essays
(New York, 1889); Woodrow Wilson's _Congressional Government_ (Boston,
1885); Dr. James Bryce's _American Commonwealth_ (London, 1888);
Bourinot's _Canadian Studies in Comparative Politics_, in _Trans. Roy.
Soc. Can._, vol. VIII, sec. 2 (old ser.), and in separate form
(Montreal, 1891). Other books and essays on the same subject are noted
in a bibliography given in _Trans. Roy. Soc. Can._, vol. XI, old ser.,
sec. 2, as an appendix to an article by Sir J.G. Bourinot on
Parliamentary Government in Canada.

The reader may also profitably consult the interesting series of
sketches (with excellent portraits) of the lives of Sir Francis
Hincks, Sir A. MacNab, Sir L.H. LaFontaine, R. Baldwin, Bishop
Strachan, L.J. Papineau, John Sandfield Macdonald, Antoine A. Dorion,
Sir John A. Macdonald, George Brown, Sir E.P. Tache, P.J.O. Chauveau,
and of other men notable from 1847-1854, in the _Portraits of British
Americans_ (Montreal 1865-67), by J. Fennings Taylor, who was deputy
clerk of the old legislative council, and later of the senate of
Canada, and a contemporary of the eminent men whose careers he briefly
and graphically describes. Consult also Dent's _Canadian Portrait
Gallery_, which has numerous portraits.



Amnesty Act, 91.

Annexation manifesto, 80, 81.

Annexation sentiment, the, caused by lack of prosperity and political
grievances, 191 f.

Archambault, L., 186.

Aylwin, Hon. I.C., 45, 50, 53, 187.


Badgley, Judge, 187.

on public interest in politics, 250, 251;
on the disadvantage of the presidential system, 253, 254.

Bagot, Sir Charles, favourable to French Canadians, 30; 31.

Baldwin, Hon. Robert, 28;
aims of, 31, 45, 50, 51;
forms a government with LaFontaine, 52;
his measure to create the university of Toronto, 93, 94;
resigns office, 103;
death of, 104;
views on the clergy reserves, 160, 162.

Blake, Hon. W.H., 50, 53, 69.

Boulton, John, 123.

Bowen, Judge, 187.

Brown, Hon. George, 110;
editor of _Globe_, 111;
raises the cry of French domination, leads the clear Grits, 112;
enters parliament, 113;
his power, 114;
urges representation by population, 117; 125, 137, 138;
his part in confederation, 225.

Bryce, Rt. Hon. James, on the disadvantages of congressional
government, 255-257.

Buchanan, Mr., his tribute to Lord Elgin, 123, 124.


Cameron, John Hillyard, 50, 112.

Cameron, Malcolm, 50, 53, 110, 113, 117, 126, 134, 163.

Canada Company, 145.

early political conditions in, 17-40;
difficulties connected with responsible government in, 26;
the principles of responsible government, 228;
a comparison of her political system with that of the United States,
241 f.

Canning, Earl, 217.

Caron, Hon. R.E., 43, 53, 109, 113, 126, 187.

Cartier, Georges Etienne, 135, 136, 226.

Cathcart, Lord, succeeds Lord Metcalfe as governor-general, 38.

Cauchon, 126, 164.

Cayley, Hon. W., 140, 163.

Chabot, Hon. J., 126, 141, 164, 186.

Chaderton, 48.

Chauveau, P.J.O., 46, 50, 109, 113, 126, 141, 164.

Christie, David, 110.

Church of England, its claims under the Constitutional Act., 145, 150

Church Presbyterian, its successful contention, 153.

Clergy Reserves, 101, 102, 103, 119, 127;
secularization of, 142;
the history of, 143, f.;
report of select committee on, 147;
Imperial act passed, 158, 159;
its repeal urged, 161;
value of the reserves, 161-162;
full powers granted the provincial legislature to vary or repeal the
act of 1840, 167;
important bill introduced by Sir John A. Macdonald, 168.

Colborne, Sir John,
his action on the land question, 154;
the Colborne patents attacked and upheld, 155, 156.

Company of the West Indies, 175.

Craig, Sir James, 1, 19.


Daly, Dominick, 35.

Day, Judge, 187.

Delagrave, C., 187.

Denslow, Prof., 254.

Derby, Lord, his views of colonial development, 121.

Dessaules, 108.

Dorchester, Lord, 1.

Dorion, A.A., 108, 134.

Dorion, J.B.E., 108.

Doutre, R., 108.

Draper, Hon. Mr.,
forms a ministry, 35;
retires from the ministry, 43.

Draper-Viger ministry,
its weakness 44,
some important measures, 45;
commission appointed by, 64.

Drummond, L.P., 109, 113, 126, 141;
his action on the question of seigniorial tenure, 186.

Dumas, N., 186.

Durham, Lord, 2, 14;
his report, 15, 23, 25;
compared with Elgin, 15;
his views on the land question, 144, 145, 148, 154, 155;
his views on Canada after the rebellion, 191;
his suggestions of remedy, 192, 193.

Duval, Judge, 187.


Educational Reform, 87-89.

Elgin, Lord,
his qualities, 3-4;
conditions in Canada on his arrival, on his departure, birth and
family descent, 5;
his parentage, 6;
his contemporaries at Eton and Oxford, estimate of,
by Gladstone, 7;
by his brother, 7-8;
enters parliament, his political views, 8;
appointed governor of Jamaica, death of his wife, 9;
mediates between the colonial office and the Jamaica legislature,
resigns governorship of Jamaica, returns to England, 13;
accepts governor-generalship of Canada, marriage with Lady Mary
Louisa Lambton, 14;
compared with Lord Durham, 15;
creates a favourable impression, recognizes the principle of
responsible government, 41;
appeals for reimbursement of plague expenses, 48;
visits Upper Canada, 49;
comments on LaFontaine-Baldwin ministry, 52-53;
correspondence with Lord Grey, 55;
hostility to Papinean, 56;
on the rights of French Canadians, 55-56;
his commercial views, 57-60;
his course on Rebellion Losses bill, 71-78;
attacked by mob, 74;
his course sustained by the imperial parliament, 78;
visits Upper Canada, 79;
raised to the British peerage, 80;
his condemnation of annexation manifesto, 81;
refers to causes of depressions and irritations, 82;
urges reciprocity with United States, urges repeal of navigation
laws, 82;
his views on education, 88-89;
his views on increased representation, 118-119;
his views on the Upper House, 120;
visits England, 123;
tribute from United States minister, 123-124;
visits Washington and negotiates reciprocity treaty, 124;
advises repeal of the imperial act of 1840, 164, 165;
his efforts against annexation, 189-190, 194, 195;
his labours for reciprocity, 196;
visits the United States, 197;
receives an address on the eve of his departure, 203;
his reply, 204-205;
his last speech in Quebec, 205-208;
returns to England, 209;
his views on self-defence, 209-212;
accepts a mission to China, 212;
his action during the Indian mutiny, 213;
negotiates the treaty of Tientsin, 214;
visits Japan officially, 214;
negotiates the treaty of Yeddo, 214;
returns to England, 215;
becomes postmaster-general under Palmerston, 215;
becomes Lord Rector of Glasgow University, 215;
returns to China as Ambassador Extraordinary, 215;
becomes governor-general of India, 216;
tour in northern India, 218;
holds Durbar at Agra, 218;
Uahabee outbreak, 218;
illness and death, 219;
views on imperial honours, 222;
on British connection, 229, 231;
views on the power of his office, 231-232;
beneficial results of his policy, 233, 235;
on the disadvantages of the United States political system, 257,


Feudal System, the, in Canada, 172, f.

Free Trade,
protest against, from Canada, 39, 45;
effects of, on Canada, 57-58.

French Canadians,
resent the Union Act, 23, 24;
resent portions of Lord Durham's report, 23;
increase of their influence, 31.


Garneau, 123.

Gavazzi Riots, the, 125.

Gladstone, Rt. Hon. W.E., his opinion of Lord Elgin, 7; 78.

Gore, Lieut.-Governor, 146.

Gourlay, Robert, 147.

Grey, Lord, colonial secretary, 13; 36, 77;
views on clergy reserves, 165.


Haldimand, Governor, 97.

Head, Sir Francis Bond, 1, 22.

Hincks, Sir Francis, appointed inspector-general, 31; 38, 50, 53, 100,
views and qualities of 107,
forms a ministry, 107; 112, 113, 126, 127, 128, 133, 134, 135, 136;
becomes a member of the Liberal--Conservative ministry, 140, 141;
views on the clergy reserves, 163, 165, 166, 196;
appointed governor of Barbadoes and Windward Isles, appointed
governor of British Guiana, 220, 222;
receives Commandership of the Bath, 222;
retirement, 222;
receives knighthood 222;
becomes finance minister, 223;
final retirement, 223;
his character and closing years, 223-224.

Hincks-Morin, ministry formed, 108;
its members, 113;
its chief measures, 114-120;
reconstructed, 125-126;
dissolves, 131;
resigns, 136.

Holmes, 50.

Holton, L.H., 108, 134.

Hopkins, Caleb, 110.

Howe, Joseph,
his assertion of loyalty, 22, 51, 92, 101;
on imperial honours and offices, 221;
appointed lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, 221.

Hudon, Vicar-General, 48.

Hundred Associates, 175.


Immigrants, Irish,
measures to relieve, 46-47;
bring plague to Canada, 47-48.

Imperial Act, authorizes increased representation, 122.


Jamaica, Lord Elgin, governor of, 9-13.

Jameson, Mrs., her comparison of Canada and the United States,

Judah, H., 186.


Labreche, 108.

LaTerriere, 164.

Laflamme, 108.

LaFontaine-Baldwin cabinet, 1842, 31;
resignation of, 35;
the second government, its members, 53;
its importance, 54;
dissolved, 85;
some of its important measures, 85-103.

LaFontaine, Hon. Hippolyte,
and the Union Act, 24;
aims of, 32, 44, 45, 50;
forms a government with Baldwin, 52;
his resolutions, 67-68;
attack upon his house, 76;
resigns office, 104;
becomes chief justice, receives baronetcy, his qualities, 105;
views on the clergy reserves, 162, 164;
conservative views on seigniorial tenure, 185; 187.

Lebel, J.G., 187.

Lelievre, S., 186.

Leslie, Hon. James, 53.

Leslie, John, 110.

Liberal-Conservative Party, the, formed, 137.

Lytton, Lord, his ideal of a governor, 4.


MacDonald, Rt. Hon. Sir John Alexander,
reveals his great political qualities, 43, 44, 50, 110, 114, 118,
his argument on the Representation Bill, 132, 137, 139,140,163;
views on the clergy reserves, 163;
takes charge of the bill for secularization of the reserves, 168;
monuments to his memory, 225-226.

Macdonald, John Sandfield, 50;
his rebuff to Lord Elgin, 127-129, 135.

Mackenzie, William Lyon, 17;
leader of the radicals, 21; 22, 51;
returns to Canada, 91;
his qualities, 91-92; 103, 112, 127.

MacNab, Sir Allan, 31, 50, 51, 68;
attitude on Rebellion Losses Bill, 75; 110, 137, 139;
becomes a member of the Liberal-Conservative ministry, 140;
his coalition ministry, 140; 141, 224.

McDougall, Hon. William, 110.

McGill, 45.

Meredith, Judge, 187.

Merritt, William Hamilton, 50, 97.

Metcalf, Sir Charles,
succeeds Bagot as governor-general, 32;
his defects, 32, 33, 37;
breach with LaFontaine-Baldwin ministry, 34, 35;
created baron, death of, 37.

Mills, Mayor, dies of plague, 48.

Mondelet, Judge, 187.

Montreal, ceases to be the seat of government, 78.

Morin, A.N., 32, 43, 50, 51, 109, 113, 126, 127, 133, 140, 141;
favours secularization of the clergy reserves, 166; 187

Morris, Hon. James, 113, 126.

Morrison, Joseph C., 126.


Navigation laws, 38, 45;
repealed, 83.

Nelson, Wolfred, 22, 50, 91.

Newcastle, Duke of, secretary of state for the colonies, 167.


Ottawa, selected as the seat of government, later as the capital of
the Dominion, 79.


Pakington, Sir John, adverse to the colonial contention on the clergy
reserve question, 165, 167.

Palmerston, Lord, 212, 213.

Papineau, Denis B., 35, 44, 66.

Papineau, Louis Joseph, 17;
aims of, 20, 21; 22;
influence of, 50, 51; 56, 66, 90, 91, 117;
his final defeat, 134.

Peel, Sir Robert, 78.

Price, Hon. J.H., 50, 53, 160, 161.

Postal Reform, 85, 86.

Power, Dr., 48.


Railway development,
under Baldwin and LaFontaine, 99-101;
under Hincks and Morin, 114-117.

Rebellion Losses Bill,
history of, 63-78;
commission appointed by Draper-Viger ministry, 64;
report of commissioners, 65;
LaFontaine's resolutions, 67, 68;
new commission appointed, attacks on the measure, 68;
passage of measure, 70;
Lord Elgin's course, 71 f.;
serious results of, 73, 74; 203.

Reciprocity treaty with United States,
urged by Lord Elgin, 82;
treaty ratified, 142;
signed, 198;
its provisions, 198-200;
beneficial results, 201;
repealed by the United States, 201;
results of the repeal, 202.

Richards, Hon. W.B., 50, 113, 128.

Richelieu, introduces feudal system into Canada, 175.

Richmond, Duke of, 2.

Robinson, Sir John Beverley, 105.

Rolph, Dr. John, 110, 112, 113, 126, 136.

Ross, Mr. Dunbar, 126, 141.

Ross, Hon. John, 113, 126, 141.

Roy, Mr. 48.

Russell, Lord John, 26;
supports Metcalfe, 37; 78.

Ryerson, Rev. Egerton,
defends Sir Charles Metcalfe, 36;
his educational services, 89, 90;
opposes Sydenham's measure, 157.


Saint Real M. Vallieres de, 31.

Seigniorial Tenure, 101, 102, 119, 126, 142;
history of, 171 f.;
originates in the old feudal system, 171-174;
introduced by Richelieu into Canada, 175;
description of the system of tenure, 175 f;
judicial investigation by commission, 186, 187.

Sherwood, Henry,
becomes head of ministry, 43;
defeat of Sherwood cabinet, 50, 68, 159.

Short, Judge, 187.

Sicotte, 126;
elected speaker, 135, 136.

Simcoe, Lieutenant-Governor, 18.

Smith, Henry, 141, 187.

Spence, Hon. R., 140.

Stanley, Lord, 9;
supports Metcalfe, 37.

Strachan, Bishop,
established Trinity college, 95;
refuses compromise on land question, 150, 154, 159;
meets with defeat, 169.

Sullivan, Hon. R.B., 53.

Sydenham, Lord,
appointed governor-general to complete the union and establish
responsible government, 26-29;
qualities of, 29;
death of, 30;
his canal policy, 96-99;
his action on the land question, 156, 157.


Tache, Hon. E.P., 53, 109, 113, 126.

Trinity College, established, 95.

Turcotte, J.G., 186.


Union Act of 1840,
its provisions, 22, 23;
restrictions concerning use of French language removed, 61, 117;
clauses respecting the Upper House repealed, 120.

United States, comparison of their political system with that of
Canada, 241, ff.

University of Toronto, created from King's College, 94.


Vanfelson, Judge, 187.

Varin, J.B., 187.

Viger, Hon. L.M., forms a ministry, 35, 53, 66, 108.


Waldron, Mr., 215.

White, Thos., 139.

Winter, P., 187.

Woodrow, Wilson, on the United States system, 252;
on political irresponsibility, 254, 255.


Young, Hon. John, 113, 126.


[1: He was bitten by a tame fox and died of hydrophobia at Richmond,
in the present county of Carleton, Ontario.]

[2: "Letters and Journals of James, eighth Earl of Elgin, etc." Edited
by Theodore Waldron, C.B. For fuller references to works consulted in
the writing of this short history, see _Bibliographical Notes_ at the
end of this book.]

[3: Lady Elma, who married, in 1864, Thomas John
Howell-Thurlow-Camming Bruce, who was attached to the staff of Lord
Elgin in his later career in China and India, etc., and became Baron
Thurlow on the death of his brother in 1874. See "Debrett's Peerage."]

[4: "The Colonial Policy of Lord John Russell's Administration," by
Earl Grey, London, 1857. See Vol. I, p. 205.]

[5: The "Life and Correspondence of Charles, Lord Metcalfe," by John
W. Kaye, London, 1858.]

[6: "Reminiscences of his public life," by Sir Francis Hincks,
K.C.M.G., C.B., Montreal, 1884]

[7: See "McMullen's History of Canada," Vol. II (2nd Ed.), p. 201.]

[8: These concluding words of Lord Elgin recall a similar expression
of feeling by Sir Etienne Pascal Tache, "That the last gun that would
be fired for British supremacy in America would be fired by a French

[9: Fifty years after these words were written, debates have taken
place in the House of Commons of the Canadian federation in favour of
an imperial Zollverein, which would give preferential treatment to
Canada's products in British markets. The Conservative party, when led
by Sir Charles Tupper, emphatically declared that "no measure of
preference, which falls short of the complete realization of such a
policy, should be considered final or satisfactory." England, however,
still clings to free trade.]

[10: The father of the Hon. Edward Blake, the eminent constitutional
lawyer, who occupied for many years a notable place in Canadian
politics, and is now (1902) a member of the British House of Commons.]

[11: See her "Winter Studies and Summer Rambles in Canada."
London, 1838.]

[12: "I am inclined," wrote Lord Durham, "to view the insurrectionary
movements which did take place as indicative of no deep-rooted
disaffection, and to believe that almost the entire body of the
reformers of this province sought only by constitutional means to
attain those objects for which they had so long peaceably struggled
before the unhappy troubles occasioned by the violence of a few
unprincipled adventurers and heated enthusiasts."]

[13: For a succinct history of this road see "Eighty Years' Progress
or British North America," Toronto, 1863.]

[14: "Portraits of British Americans," Montreal, 1865, vol. 1., pp.
99-100. See Bourinot's "Parliamentary Procedure," p. 573_n_. The last
occasion on which a Canadian speaker exercised this old privilege was
in 1869, and then Mr. Cockburn made only a very brief reference to the
measures of the session.]

[15: It was not until 1874 when Mr. Alexander Mackenzie was first
minister of a Liberal government that simultaneous polling at a
general election was required by law, but it had existed some years
previously in Nova Scotia.]

[16: See "The Last Forty Years, or Canada Since the Union of 1841," by
John Charles Dent, Toronto, 1881, vol. II., p. 309. Mr. White became
Minister of the Interior in Sir John Macdonald's government (1885-88)
but died suddenly in the midst of a most active and useful
administrative career.]

[17: See remarks of Dr. Kingsford in his "History of Canada" (vol.
VII., pp. 266-273), showing how unjust was the clamour raised by the
enemies of the church in New England when a movement was in progress
for the establishment of a colonial episcopate simply for purposes of
ordination and church government.]

[18: A clause of the act of 1791 provided that the sovereign might, if
he thought fit, annex hereditary titles of honour to the right of
being summoned to the legislative council in either province, but no
titles were ever conferred under the authority of this imperial

[19: Thirteen other patents were left unsigned by the
lieutenant-governor and consequently had no legal force.]

[20: "Memoirs of the Life of the Right Honourable Charles Lord
Sydenham, G.C.B.," edited by his brother G. Poulett-Scrope, M.P.;
London, 1843.]

[21: Sir Francis Hincks's "Reminiscences of his Public Life," p. 283.]

[22: See on these points an excellent article on the feudal system of
Canada in the _Queen's Quarterly_ (Kingston, January, 1899) by Dr. W.
Bennett Munro. Also _Droit de banalite_, by the same, in the report of
the Am. Hist Ass., Washington, for 1899, Vol. I.]

[23: "Spencerwood," the governor's private residence.]

[24: See article on Lord Elgin in "Encyclopaedia Britannica" (9th ed.),
Vol. VIII., p. 132.]

[25: In the "North British Review," quoted by Waldron, pp. 458-461.]

[26: Lord Elgin's eldest son (9th Earl) Victor Alexander Brace, who
was born in 1849, at Monklands, near Montreal, was Viceroy of India
1894-9. See Debrett's Peerage, arts. Elgin and Thurton for particulars
of Lord Elgin's family.]

[27: See Mr. Howe's eloquent speeches on the organization of the
empire, in his "Speeches and Public Letters," (Boston, 1859), vol.
II., pp. 175-207.]

[28: See on this subject Todd's "Parliamentary Government in the
British Colonies," pp. 313-329.]

[29: See Todd's "Parliamentary Government in England," vol. II., p.

[30: He was speaker of the House of Representatives from 1895 to

[31: "Congressional Government," pp. 301, 332.]

[32:"The English Constitution," pp. 95, 96.]

[33: In the _International Review_, March, 1877.]

[34: "Congressional Government," p. 94.]

[35: "The American Commonwealth," I., 210 et seq.]

[36: Ibid., pp. 304, 305]

[37: ibid., Chap. 95, vol. III.]

[38: "Commentaries," sec. 869.]

[39: See Story's "Commentaries," sec. 869.]

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