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Legends Of The Gods by E. A. Wallis Budge

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The history of Isis and Osiris given on pp. 248 is taken from the
famous treatise of Plutarch entitled De Iside et Osiride, and forms a
fitting conclusion to this volume of Legends of the Gods. It contains
all the essential facts given in Plutarch's work, and the only things
omitted are his derivations and mythological speculations, which are
really unimportant for the Egyptologist. Egyptian literature is full
of allusions to events which took place in the life of Osiris, and to
his persecution, murder, and resurrection, and numerous texts of all
periods describe the love and devotion of his sister and wife Isis, and
the filial piety of Horus. Nowhere, however, have we in Egyptian a
connected account of the causes which led to the murder by Set of
Osiris, or of the subsequent events which resulted in his becoming the
king of heaven and judge of the dead. However carefully we piece
together the fragments of information which we can extract from native
Egyptian literature, there still remains a series of gaps which can
only be filled by guesswork. Plutarch, as a learned man and a student
of comparative religion and mythology was most anxious to understand
the history of Isis and Osiris, which Greek and Roman scholars talked
about freely, and which none of them comprehended, and he made
enquiries of priests and others, and examined critically such
information as he could obtain, believing and hoping that he would
penetrate the mystery in which these gods were wrapped. As a result of
his labours he collected a number of facts about the form of the Legend
of Isis and Osiris as it was known to the learned men of his day, but
there is no evidence that he had the slightest knowledge of the details
of the original African Legend of these gods as it was known to the
Egyptians, say, under the VIth Dynasty. Moreover, he never realized
that the characteristics and attributes of both Isis and Osiris changed
several times during the long history of Egypt, and that a thousand
years before he lived the Egyptians themselves had forgotten what the
original form of the legend was. They preserved a number of
ceremonies, and performed very carefully all the details of an ancient
ritual at the annual commemoration festival of Osiris which was held in
November and December, but the evidence of the texts makes it quite
clear that the meaning and symbolism of nearly all the details were
unknown alike to priests and people.

An important modification of the cult of Isis and Osiris took place in
the third century before Christ, when the Ptolemies began to
consolidate their rule in Egypt. A form of religion which would be
acceptable both to Egyptians and Greeks had to be provided, and this
was produced by modifying the characteristics of Osiris and calling him
Sarapis, and identifying him with the Greek Pluto. To Isis were added
many of the attributes of the great Greek goddesses, and into her
worship were introduced "mysteries" derived from non-Egyptian cults,
which made it acceptable to the people everywhere. Had a high priest
of Osiris who lived at Abydos under the XVIIIth Dynasty witnessed the
celebration of the great festival of Isis and Osiris in any large town
in the first century before Christ, it is tolerably certain that he
would have regarded it as a lengthy act of worship of strange gods, in
which there appeared, here and there, ceremonies and phrases which
reminded him of the ancient Abydos ritual. When the form of the cult
of Isis and Osiris introduced by the Ptolemies into Egypt extended to
the great cities of Greece and Italy, still further modifications took
place in it, and the characters of Isis and Osiris were still further
changed. By degrees Osiris came to be regarded as the god of death
pure and simple, or as the personification of Death, and he ceased to
be regarded as the great protecting ancestral spirit, and the all-
powerful protecting Father of his people. As the importance of Osiris
declined that of Isis grew, and men came to regard her as the great
Mother-goddess of the world. The priests described from tradition the
great facts of her life according to the Egyptian legends, how she had
been a loving and devoted wife, how she had gone forth after her
husband's murder by Set to seek for his body, how she had found it and
brought it home, how she revivified it by her spells and had union with
Osiris and conceived by him, and how in due course she brought forth
her son, in pain and sorrow and loneliness in the Swamps of the Delta,
and how she reared him and watched over him until he was old enough to
fight and vanquish his father's murderer, and how at length she seated
him in triumph on his father's throne. These things endeared Isis to
the people everywhere, and as she herself had not suffered death like
Osiris, she came to be regarded as the eternal mother of life and of
all living things. She was the creatress of crops, she produced fruit,
vegetables, plants of all kinds and trees, she made cattle prolific,
she brought men and women together and gave them offspring, she was the
authoress of all love, virtue, goodness and happiness. She made the
light to shine, she was the spirit of the Dog-star which heralded the
Nile-flood, she was the source of the power in the beneficent light of
the moon; and finally she took the dead to her bosom and gave them
peace, and introduced them to a life of immortality and happiness
similar to that which she had bestowed upon Osiris.

The message of the cult of Isis as preached by her priests was one of
hope and happiness, and coming to the Greeks and Romans, as it did, at
a time when men were weary of their national cults, and when the
speculations of the philosophers carried no weight with the general
public, the people everywhere welcomed it with the greatest enthusiasm.
From Egypt it was carried to the Islands of Greece and to the mainland,
to Italy, Germany, France, Spain and Portugal, and then crossing the
western end of the Mediterranean it entered North Africa, and with
Carthage as a centre spread east and west along the coast. Wherever
the cult of Isis came men accepted it as something which supplied what
they thought to be lacking in their native cults; rich and poor, gentle
and simple, all welcomed it, and the philosopher as well as the
ignorant man rejoiced in the hope of a future life which it gave to
them. Its Egyptian origin caused it to be regarded with the
profoundest interest, and its priests were most careful to make the
temples of Isis quite different from those of the national gods, and to
decorate them with obelisks, sphinxes, shrines, altars, etc., which
were either imported from temples in Egypt, or were copied from
Egyptian originals. In the temples of Isis services were held at
daybreak and in the early afternoon daily, and everywhere these were
attended by crowds of people. The holy water used in the libations and
for sprinkling the people was Nile water, specially imported from
Egypt, and to the votaries of the goddess it symbolized the seed of the
god Osiris, which germinated and brought forth fruit through the spells
of the goddess Isis. The festivals and processions of Isis were
everywhere most popular, and were enjoyed by learned and unlearned
alike. In fact, the Isis-play which was acted annually in November,
and the festival of the blessing of the ship, which took place in the
spring, were the most important festivals of the year. Curiously
enough, all the oldest gods and goddesses of Egypt passed into absolute
oblivion, with the exception of Osiris (Sarapis), Isis, Anubis the
physician, and Harpokrates, the child of Osiris and Isis, and these,
from being the ancestral spirits of a comparatively obscure African
tribe in early dynastic times, became for several hundreds of years the
principal objects of worship of some of the most cultured and
intellectual nations. The treatise of Plutarch De Iside helps to
explain how this came about, and for those who study the Egyptian
Legend of Isis and Osiris the work has considerable importance.



[FN#49] Kheperu. The verb Kheper means "to make, to form, to produce,
to become, and to roll;" kheperu here means "the things which come into
being through the rollings of the ball of the god Kheper (the roller),"
i.e., the Sun.

[These are] the words which the god Neb-er-tcher spake after he had
come into being:--"I am he who came into being in the form of the god
Khepera, and I am the creator of that which came into being, that is to
say, I am the creator of everything which came into being: now the
things which I created, and which came forth out of my month after that
I had come into being myself were exceedingly many. The sky (or
heaven) had not come into being, the earth did not exist, and the
children of the earth[FN#50], and the creeping, things, had not been
made at that time. I myself raised them up from out of Nu[FN#51], from
a state of helpless inertness. I found no place whereon I could stand.
I worked a charm[FN#52] upon my own heart (or, will), I laid the
foundation [of things] by Maat,[FN#53] and I made everything which had
form. I was [then] one by myself, for I had not emitted from myself
the god Shu, and I had not spit out from myself the goddess Tefnut; and
there existed no other who could work with me. I laid the foundations
[of things] in my own heart, and there came into being multitudes of
created things, which came into being from the created things which
were born from the created things which arose from what they brought
forth. I had union with my closed hand, and I embraced my shadow as a
wife, and I poured seed into my own mouth, and I sent forth from myself
issue in the form of the gods Shu and Tefnut. Saith my father Nu:--My
Eye was covered up behind them (i.e., Shu. and Tefnut), but after two
hen periods had passed from the time when they departed from me, from
being one god I became three gods, and I came into being in the earth.
Then Shu and Tefnut rejoiced from out of the inert watery mass wherein
they I were, and they brought to me my Eye (i.e., the Sun). Now after
these things I gathered together my members, and I wept over them, and
men and women sprang into being from the tears which came forth from my
Eye. And when my Eye came to me, and found that I had made another
[Eye] in place where it was (i.e., the Moon), it was wroth with (or,
raged at) me, whereupon I endowed it (i.e., the second Eye) with [some
of] the splendour which I had made for the first [Eye], and I made it
to occupy its place in my Face, and henceforth it ruled throughout all
this earth."

[FN#50] i.e., serpents and snakes, or perhaps plants.

[FN#51] The primeval watery mass which was the source and origin of
all beings and things.

[FN#52] i.e., he uttered a magical formula.

[FN#53] i.e., by exact and definite rules.

"When there fell on them their moment[FN#54] through plant-like clouds,
I restored what had been taken away from them, and I appeared from out
of the plant-like clouds. I created creeping things of every kind, and
everything which came into being from them. Shu and Tefnut brought
forth [Seb and] Nut; and Seb and Nut brought forth Osiris, and Heru-
khent-an-maati,[FN#55] and Set, and Isis, and Nephthys[FN#56] at one
birth, one after the other, and they produced their multitudinous
offspring in this earth."

[FN#54] i.e., the period of calamity wherein their light was veiled
through plant-like clouds.

[FN#55] i.e., the Blind Horus.

[FN#56] i.e., these five gods were all born at one time.



[These are] the words of the god Neb-er-tcher, who said: "I am the
creator of what hath come into being, and I myself came into being
under the form of the god Khepera, and I came into being in primeval
time. I came into being in the form of Khepera, and I am the creator
of what did come into being, that is to say, I formed myself out of the
primeval matter, and I made and formed myself out of the substance
which existed in primeval time. My name is AUSARES (i.e., Osiris), who
is the primeval matter of primeval matter. I have done my will in
everything in this earth. I have spread myself abroad therein, and I
have made strong my hand. I was ONE by myself, for they (i.e., the
gods) had not been brought forth, and I had emitted from myself neither
Shu nor Tefnut. I brought my own name[FN#57] into my mouth as a word
of power, and I forthwith came into being under the form of things
which are and under the form of Khepera. I came into being from out of
primeval matter, and from the beginning I appeared under the form of
the multitudinous things which exist; nothing whatsoever existed at
that time in this earth, and it was I who made whatsoever was made. I
was ONE: by myself, and there was no other being who worked with me in
that place. I made all the things under the forms of which I appeared
then by means of the Soul-God which I raised into firmness at that time
from out of Nu, from a state of inactivity. I found no place
whatsoever there whereon I could stand, I worked by the power of a
spell by means of my heart, I laid a foundation [for things] before me,
and whatsoever was made, I made. I was ONE by myself, and I laid the
foundation of things [by means of] my heart, and I made the other
things which came into being, and the things of Khepera which were made
were manifold, and their offspring came into existence from the things
to which they gave birth. I it was who emitted Shu, and I it was who
emitted Tefnut, and from being the ONE, god (or, the only god) I became
three gods; the two other gods who came into being on this earth sprang
from me, and Shu and Tefnut rejoiced (or, were raised up) from out of
Nu in which they were. Now behold, they brought my Eye to me after two
hen periods since the time when they went forth from me. I gathered
together my members which had appeared in my own body, and afterwards
I had union with my hand, and my heart (or, will) came unto me from out
of my hand, and the seed fell into my mouth, and I emitted from myself
the gods Shu and Tefnut, and so from being the ONE god (or, the only,
god) I became three gods; thus the two other gods who came into being
on this earth sprang from me, and Shu and Tefnut rejoiced (or, were
raised up) from out of Nu in which they were. My father Nu saith:--
They covered up (or, concealed) my Eye with the plant-like clouds which
were behind them (i.e., Shu and Tefnut) for very many hen periods.
Plants and creeping things [sprang up] from the god REM, through the
tears which I let fall. I cried out to my Eye, and men and women came
into existence. Then I bestowed upon my Eye the uraeus of fire, and it
was wroth with me when another Eye (i.e., the Moon) came and grew up in
its place; its vigorous power fell on the plants, on the plants which I
had placed there, and it set order among them, and it took up its place
in my face, and it doth rule the whole earth. Then Shu and Tefnut
brought forth Osiris, and Heru-khenti-an-maa, and Set, and Isis, and
Nephthys and behold, they have produced offspring, and have created
multitudinous children in this earth, by means of the beings which came
into existence from the creatures which they produced. They invoke my
name, and they overthrow their enemies, and they make words of power
for the overthrowing of Apep, over whose hands and arms AKER keepeth
ward. His hands and arms shall not exist, his feet and leas shall not
exist, and he is chained in one place whilst Ra inflicts upon him the
blows which are decreed for him. He is thrown upon his accursed back,
his face is slit open by reason of the evil which he hath done, and he
shall remain upon his accursed back."

[FN#57] i.e., I uttered my own name from my own mouth as a word of



[Here is the story of Ra,] the god who was self-begotten and self-
created, after he had assumed the sovereignty over men and women, and
gods, and things, the ONE god. Now men and women were speaking words
of complaint, saying:--"Behold, his Majesty (Life, Strength, and Health
to him!) hath grown old, and his bones have become like silver, and
his members have turned into gold and his hair is like unto real lapis-
lazuli." His Majesty heard the words of complaint which men and women
were uttering, and his Majesty (Life, Strength, and Health to him!)
said unto those who were in his train:--"Cry out, and bring to me my
Eye, and Shu, and Tefnut, and Seb, and Nut, and the father-gods, and
the mother-gods who were with me, even when I was in Nu side by side
with my god Nu. Let there be brought along with my Eye his ministers,
and let them be led to me hither secretly, so that men and women may
not perceive them [coming] hither, and may not therefore take to flight
with their hearts. Come thou[FN#58] with them to the Great House, and
let them declare their plans (or, arrangements) fully, for I will go
from Nu into the place wherein I brought about my own existence, and
let those gods be brought unto me there." Now the gods were drawn up
on each side of Ra, and they bowed down before his Majesty until their
heads touched the ground, and the maker of men and women, the king of
those who have knowledge, spake his words in the presence of the Father
of the first-born gods. And the gods spake in the presence of his
Majesty, saying:--"Speak unto us, for we are listening to them" (i.e.,
thy words). Then Ra spake unto Nu, saying:--"O thou first-born god
from whom I came into being, O ye gods of ancient time, my ancestors,
take ye heed to what men and women [are doing]; for behold, those who
were created by my Eye are uttering words of complaint against me.
Tell me what ye would do in the matter, and consider this thing for me,
and seek out [a plan] for me, for I will not slay them until I have
heard what ye shall say to me concerning it."

[FN#58] The god here addressed appears to have been Nu.

Then the Majesty of Nu, to son Ra, spake, saying:--"Thou art the god
who art greater than he who made thee, thou art the sovereign of those
who were created with thee, thy throne is set, and the fear of thee is
great; let thine Eye go against those who have uttered blasphemies
against thee." And the Majesty of Ra, said:--"Behold, they have
betaken themselves to flight into the mountain lands, for their hearts
are afraid because of the words which they have uttered." Then the
gods spake in the presence of his Majesty, saying:--"Let thine Eye go
forth and let it destroy for thee those who revile thee with words of
evil, for there is no eye whatsoever that can go before it and resist
thee and it when it journeyeth in the form of Hathor." Thereupon this
goddess went forth and slew the men and the women who were on the
mountain (or, desert land). And the Majesty of this god said, "Come,
come in peace, O Hathor, for the work is accomplished." Then this
goddess said, "Thou hast made me to live, for when I gained the mastery
over men and women it was sweet to my heart;" and the Majesty of Ra
said, "I myself will be master over them as [their] king, and I will
destroy them." And it came to pass that Sekhet of the offerings waded
about in the night season in their blood, beginning at Suten-
henen.[FN#59] Then the Majesty of Ra, spake [saying], "Cry out, and
let there come to me swift and speedy messengers who shall be able to
run like the wind . . . .;" and straightway messengers of this kind
were brought unto him. And the Majesty of this god spake [saying],
"Let these messengers go to Abu,[FN#60] and bring unto me mandrakes in
great numbers;" and [when] these mandrakes were brought unto him the
Majesty of this god gave them to Sekhet, the goddess who dwelleth in
Annu (Heliopolis) to crush. And behold, when the maidservants were
bruising the grain for [making] beer, these mandrakes were placed in
the vessels which were to hold the beer, and some of the blood of the
men and women [who had been slain]. Now they made seven thousand
vessels of beer. Now when the Majesty of Re, the King of the South and
North, had come with the gods to look at the vessels of beer, and
behold, the daylight had appeared after the slaughter of men and women
by the goddess in their season as she sailed up the river, the Majesty
of Ra said, "It is good, it is good, nevertheless I must protect men
and women against her." And Ra, said, "Let them take up the vases and
carry them to the place where the men and women were slaughtered by
her." Then the Majesty of the King of the South and North in the
three-fold beauty of the night caused to be poured out these vases of
beer which make [men] to lie down (or, sleep), and the meadows of the
Four Heavens[FN#61] were filled with beer (or, water) by reason of the
Souls of the Majesty of this god. And it came to pass that when this
goddess arrived at the dawn of day, she found these [Heavens] flooded
[with beer], and she was pleased thereat; and she drank [of the beer
and blood], and her heart rejoiced, and she became drunk, and she gave
no further attention to men and women. Then said the Majesty of Ra to
this goddess, "Come in peace, come in peace, O Amit,"[FN#62] and
thereupon beautiful women came into being in the city of Amit (or,
Amem). And the Majesty of Ra spake [concerning] this goddess,
[saying], "Let there be made for her vessels of the beer which
produceth sleep at every holy time and season of the year, and they
shall be in number according to the number of my hand-maidens;" and
from that early time until now men have been wont to make on the
occasions of the festival of Hathor vessels of the beer which make them
to sleep in number according to the number of the handmaidens of Ra.
And the Majesty of Ra spake unto this goddess, [saying], "I am smitten
with the pain of the fire of sickness; whence cometh to me [this]
pain?" And the Majesty of Ra said, "I live, but my heart hath become
exceedingly weary[FN#63] with existence with them (i.e., with men); I
have slain [some of] them, but there is a remnant of worthless ones,
for the destruction which I wrought among them was not as great as my
power." Then the gods who were in his following said unto him, "Be not
overcome by thy inactivity, for thy might is in proportion to thy
will." And the Majesty of this god said unto the Majesty of Nu, "My
members are weak for (or, as at) the first time; I will not permit this
to come upon me a second time." And the Majesty of the god Nu said, "O
son Shu, be thou the Eye 'for thy father . . . . . and avenue (?) him,
and 'thou goddess Nut, place him . . . . . ... And the goddess Nut
said, "How can this be then, O my father Nu? Hail," said Nut . . . . .
to the god Nu, and the goddess straightway became [a cow], and she set
the Majesty of Ra upon [her] back . . . . . And when these things had
been done, men and women saw the god Ra, upon the back [of the cow].
Then these men and women said, "Remain with us, and we will overthrow
thine enemies who speak words of blasphemy [against thee.], and
[destroy them]." Then his Majesty [Ra] set out for the Great House,
and [the gods who were in the train of Ra remained] with them (i.e.,
the men); during that time the earth was in darkness. And when the
earth became light [again] and the morning had dawned, the men came
forth with their bows and their [weapons], and they set their arms in
motion to shoot the enemies [of Ra]. Then said the Majesty of this
god, "Your "transgressions of violence are placed behind you, for the
slaughtering of the enemies is above the slaughter [of sacrifice];"
thus came into being the slaughter [of sacrifice]. And the Majesty of
this god said unto Nut, "I have placed myself upon my back in order to
stretch myself out." What then is the meaning of this? It meaneth
that he united (?) himself with Nut. [Thus came into being] . . . . .
Then said the Majesty of this god, "I am departing from them (i.e.,
from men), and he must come after me who would see me;" thus came into
being . . . . . Then the Majesty of this god looked forth from its
interior, saying, "Gather together [men for me], and make ready for me
an abode for multitudes;" thus came into being . . . . . . . And his
Majesty (life, health, and strength be to him!) said, "Let a great
field (sekhet) be produced (hetep);" thereupon Sekhet-hetep came into
being. [And the god said], "I will gather herbs (aarat) therein;"
thereupon Sekhet-aaru came into being. [And the god said], "I will
make it to contain as dwellers things (khet) like stars of all sorts;"
thereupon the stars (akhekha) came into being. Then the goddess Nut
trembled because of the height.

[FN#59] Or, Henen-su, {hbw XaNeS}, i.e., Herakleopolis, Magna.

[FN#60] i.e., Elephantine, or Syene, a place better known by the
Arabic name ASWAN.

[FN#61] i.e., the South, North, West, and East of the sky.

[FN#62] i.e., "the fair and gracious goddess."

[FN#63] Literally, "My heart hath stopped greatly."

And the Majesty of Ra said, "I decree that supports be to bear [the
goddess up];" thereupon the props of heaven (heh) came into being. And
the Majesty of Ra said, "O my son Shu, I pray thee to set thyself under
[my] daughter Nut, and guard thou for me the supports (heh) of the
millions (heh) which are there, and which live in darkness. Take thou
the goddess upon thy head, and act thou as nurse for her;" thereupon
came into being [the custom] of a son nursing a daughter, and [the
custom] of a father carrying a son upon his head.



II. This Chapter shall be said over [a figure of] the cow.--The
supporters [called] Heh-enti shall be by her shoulder. The supporters
[called] Heh-enti shall be at her side, and one cubit and four spans of
hers shall be in colours, and nine stars shall be on her belly, and Set
shall be by her two thighs and shall keep watch before her two legs,
and before her two legs shall be Shu, under her belly, and he shall be
made (i.e., painted) in green qenat colour. His two arms shall be under
the stars, and his name shall be made (i.e., written) in the middle of
them, namely, Shu himself. "A boat with a rudder and a double shrine
shall be therein, and Aten (i.e., the Disk) shall be above it, and Ra
shall be in it, in front of Shu, near his hand, or, as another reading
hath, behind him, near his hand. And the udders of the Cow shall be
made to be between her legs, towards the left side. And on the two
flanks, towards the middle of the legs, shall be done in writing [the
words], "The exterior heaven," and "I am what is in me," and "I will
not permit them to make her to turn." That which is [written] under
the boat which is in front shall read, "Thou shalt not be motionless,
my son;" and the words which are written in an opposite direction shall
read, "Thy support is like life," and "The word is as the word there,"
and "Thy son is with me," and "Life, strength, and health be to thy
nostrils!" And that which is behind Shu, near his shoulder, shall
read, "They keep ward," and that which is behind him, written close to
his feet in an opposite direction, shall read, "Maat," and "They come
in," and "I protect daily." And that which is under the shoulder of
the divine figure which is under the left leg, and is behind it shall
read, "He who sealeth all things." That which is over his head, under
the thighs of the Cow, and that which is by her legs shall read,
"Guardian of his exit." That which is behind the two figures which are
by her two legs, that is to say, over their heads, shall read, "The
Aged One who is adored as he goeth forth," and The Aged One to whom
praise is given when he goeth in." That which is over the head of the
two figures, and is between the two thighs of the Cow, shall read,
"Listener," "Hearer," "Sceptre of the Upper Heaven," and "Star" (?).



III. Then the majesty of this god spake unto Thoth, [saying] "Let a
call go forth for me to the Majesty of the god Seb, saying, 'Come, with
the utmost speed, at once."' And when the Majesty of Seb had come, the
Majesty of this god said unto him, "Let war be made against thy worms
(or, serpents) which are in thee; verily, they shall have fear of me as
long as I have being; but thou knowest their magical powers. Do thou
go to the place where my father Nu is, and say thou unto him, 'Keep
ward over the worms (or, serpents) which are in the earth and water.'
And moreover, thou shalt make a writing for each of the nests of thy
serpents which are there, saying, 'Keep ye guard [lest ye] cause injury
to anything.' They shall know that I am removing myself [from them],
but indeed I shall shine upon them. Since, however, they indeed wish
for a father, thou shalt be a father unto them in this land for ever.
Moreover, let good heed be taken to the men who have my words of power,
and to those whose mouths have knowledge of such things; verily my own
words of power are there, verily it shall not happen that any shall
participate with me in my protection, by reason of the majesty which
hath come into being before me. I will decree them to thy son Osiris,
and their children shall be watched over, the hearts of their princes
shall be obedient (or, ready) by reason of the magical powers of those
who act according to their desire in all the earth through their words
of power which are in their bodies."



IV. And the majesty of this god said, "Call to me the god Thoth," and
one brought the god to him forthwith. And the Majesty of this god said
unto Thoth, "Let us depart to a distance from heaven, from my place,
because I would make light and the god of light (Khu) in the Tuat and
[in] the Land of Caves. Thou shalt write down [the things which are]
in it, and thou shalt punish those who are in it, that is to say, the
workers who have worked iniquity (or, rebellion). Through thee I will
keep away from the servants whom this heart [of mine] loatheth. Thou
shalt be in my place (ast) ASTI, and thou shalt therefore be called, O
Thoth, the 'Asti of Ra.' Moreover, I give thee power to send (hab)
forth . . . . .; thereupon shall come into being the Ibis (habi) bird
of Thoth. I moreover give thee [power] to lift up thine hand before
the two Companies of the gods who are greater than thou, and what thou
doest shall be fairer than [the work of] the god Khen; therefore shall
the divine bird tekni of Thoth come into being. Moreover, I give thee
[Power] to embrace (anh) the two heavens with thy beauties, and with
thy rays of light; therefore shall come into being the Moon-god (Aah)
of Thoth. Moreover, I give thee [power] to drive back (anan) the Ha-
nebu;[FN#64] therefore shall come into being the dog-headed Ape (anan)
of Thoth, and he shall act as governor for me. Moreover, thou art now
in my place in the sight of all those who see thee and who present
offerings to thee, and every being shall ascribe praise unto thee, O
thou who art God."

[FN#64] i.e., the "North-lords," that is to say, the peoples who lived
in the extreme north of the Delta, and on its sea-coasts, and perhaps
in the Islands of the Mediterranean.



V. Whosoever shall recite the words of this composition over himself
shall anoint himself with olive oil and with thick unguent, and he
shall have propitiatory offerings on both his hands of incense, and
behind his two ears shall be pure natron, and sweet-smelling salve
shall be on his lips. He shall be arrayed in a new double tunic, and
his body shall be purified with the water of the nile-flood, and he
shall have upon his feet a pair of sandals made of white [leather], and
a figure of the goddess Maat shall be drawn upon his tongue with green-
coloured ochre. Whensoever Thoth shall wish to recite this composition
on behalf of Ra, he must perform a sevenfold (?) purification for three
days, and priests and [ordinary] men shall do likewise. Whosoever
shall recite the above words shall perform the ceremonies which are to
be performed when this book is being read. And he shall make his place
of standing (?) in a circle (or, at an angle) . . . . . which is beyond
[him], and his two eyes shall be fixed upon himself, all his members
shall be [composed], and his steps shall not carry him away [from the
place]. Whosoever among men shall recite [these] words shall be like
Ra on the day of his birth; and his possessions shall not become fewer,
and his house shall never fall into decay, but shall endure for a
million eternities.

Then the Aged One himself (i.e., Ra) embraced (?) the god Nu, and spake
unto the gods who came forth in the east of the sky, "Ascribe ye praise
to the god, the Aged One, from whom I have come into being. I am he
who made the heavens, and I (set in order [the earth, and created the
gods, and] I was with them for an exceedingly long period; then was
born the year and . . . . . . but my soul is older than it (i.e.,
time). It is the Soul of Shu, it is the Soul of Khnemu (?),[FN#65] it
is the Soul of Heh, it is the Soul of Kek and Kerh (i.e., Night and
Darkness), it is the Soul of Nu and of Ra, it is the Soul of Osiris,
the lord of Tettu, it is the Soul of the Sebak Crocodile-gods and of
the Crocodiles, it is the Soul of every god [who dwelleth] in the
divine Snakes, it is the Soul of Apep in Mount Bakhau (i.e., the Mount
of Sunrise), and it is the Soul of Ra which pervadeth the whole world."

[FN#65] There are mistakes in the text here.

Whosoever sayeth [these words] worketh his own protection by means of
the words of power, "I am the god Hekau (i.e., the divine Word of
power), and [I am] pure in my mouth, and [in] my belly; [I am] Ra from
whom the gods proceeded. I am Ra, the Light-god (Khu)." When thou
sayest [this], stop forth in the evening and in the morning on thine
own behalf if thou wouldst make to fall the enemies of Ra. I am his
Soul, and I am Heka.

Hail, thou lord of eternity, thou creator of everlastingness, who
bringest to nought the gods who came forth from Ra, thou lord of thy
god, thou prince who didst make what made thee, who art beloved by the
fathers of the gods, on whose head are the pure words of power, who
didst create the woman (erpit) that standeth on the south side of thee,
who didst create the goddess who hath her face on her breast, and the
serpent which standeth on his tail, with her eye on his belly, and with
his tail on the earth, to whom Thoth giveth praises, and upon whom the
heavens rest, and to whom Shu stretcheth out his two hands, deliver
thou me from those two great gods who sit in the east of the sky, who
act as wardens of heaven and as wardens of earth, and who make firm the
secret places, and who are called "Aaiu-su," and "Per-f-er-maa-Nu."
Moreover [there shall be) a purifying on the . . . . . day of the month
. . . . . . .. even according to the performance of the ceremonies in
the oldest time.

Whosoever shall recite this Chapter shall have life in Neter-kher
(i.e., Underworld), and the fear of him shall be much greater than it
was formerly [upon earth] . . . . . . . and they shall say, "Thy names
are 'Eternity' and 'Everlastingness.'" They are called, they are
called, "Au-peh-nef-n-aa-em-ta-uat-apu," and "Rekh-kua-[tut]-en-neter-
pui-. . . . . . en en-hra-f-Her-shefu." I am he who hath strengthened
the boat with the company of the gods, and his Shenit, and his Gods, by
means of words of power.


The Chapter of the divine (or, mighty) god, who created himself, who
made the heavens and the earth, and the breath of life, and fire, and
the gods, and men, and beasts, and cattle, and reptiles, and the fowl
of the air, and the fish, who is the king of men and gods, [who
existeth] in one Form, [to whom] periods of one hundred and twenty
years axe as single years, whose names by reason of their multitude are
unknowable, for [even] the gods know them not. Behold, the goddess
Isis lived in the form, of a woman, who had the knowledge of words [of
power]. Her heart turned away in disgust from the millions of men, and
she chose for herself the millions of the gods, but esteemed more
highly the millions of the spirits. Was it not possible to become even
as was Ra in heaven and upon earth, and to make [herself] mistress of
the earth, and a [mighty] goddess--thus she meditated in her heart--by
the knowledge of the Name of the holy god? Behold, Ra entered [heaven]
each day at the head of his mariners, establishing himself upon the
double throne of the two horizons. Now the divine one had become old,
he dribbled at the mouth, and he let his emissions go forth from him
upon the earth, and his spittle fell upon the ground. This Isis
kneaded in her hand,[FN#66] with [some] dust, and she fashioned it in
the form of a sacred serpent, and made it to have the form of a dart,
so that none might be able to escape alive from it, and she left it
lying upon the road whereon the great god travelled, according to his
desire, about the two lands. Then the holy god rose up in the
tabernacle of the gods in the great double house (life, strength,
health!) among those who were in his train, and [as] he journeyed on
his way according to his daily wont, the holy serpent shot its fang
into him, and the living fire was departing from the god's own body,
and the reptile destroyed the dweller among the cedars. And the mighty
god opened his mouth, and the cry of His Majesty (life, strength,
health!) reached unto the heavens, and the company of the gods said,
"What is it?" and his gods said, "What is the matter?" And the god
found [no words] wherewith to answer concerning himself. His jaws
shook, his lips trembled, and the poison took possession of all his
flesh just as Hapi (i.e., the Nile) taketh possession of the land
through which he floweth. Then the great god made firm his heart
(i.e., took courage) and he cried out to those who were in his
following:--"Come ye unto me, O ye who have come into being from my
members,[FN#67] ye gods who have proceeded from me, for I would make
you to know what hath happened. I have been smitten by some deadly
thing, of which my heart hath no knowledge, and which I have neither
seen with my eyes nor made with my hand; and I have no knowledge at all
who hath done this to me. I have never before felt any pain like unto
it, and no pain can be worse than this [is]. I am a Prince, the son of
a Prince, and the divine emanation which was produced from a god. I am
a Great One, the son of a Great One, and my father hath determined for
me my name. I have multitudes of names, and I have multitudes of
forms, and my being existeth in every god. I have been invoked (or,
proclaimed?) by Temu and Heru-Hekennu. My father and my mother uttered
my name, and [they] hid it in my body at my birth so that none of those
who would use against me words of power might succeed in making their
enchantments have dominion over me.[FN#68] I had come forth from my
tabernacle to look upon that which I had made, and was making my way
through the two lands which I had made, when a blow was aimed at me,
but I know not of what kind. Behold, is it fire? Behold, is it water?
My heart is full of burning fire, my limbs are shivering, and my
members have darting pains in them. Let there be brought unto me my
children the gods, who possess words of magic, whose mouths are cunning
[in uttering them], and whose powers reach up to heaven." Then his
children came unto him, and every god was there with his cry of
lamentation; and Isis[FN#69] came with her words of magic, and the
place of her mouth [was filled with] the breath of life, for the words
which she putteth together destroy diseases, and her words make to live
those whose throats are choked (i.e., the dead). And she said, "What
is this, O divine father? What is it? Hath a serpent shot his venom
into thee? Hath a thing which thou hast fashioned lifted up its head
against thee? Verily it shall be overthrown by beneficent words of
power, and I will make it to retreat in the sight of thy rays." The
holy god opened his mouth, [saying], I was going along the road and
passing through the two lands of my country, for my heart wished to
look upon what I had made, when I was bitten by a serpent which I did
not see; behold, is it fire? Behold, is it water? I am colder than
water, I am hotter than fire, all my members sweat, I myself quake,
mine eye is unsteady. I cannot look at the heavens, and water forceth
itself on my face as in the time of the Inundation."[FN#70] And Isis
said unto Ra, "O my divine father, tell me thy name, for he who is able
to pronounce his name liveth." [And Ra said], "I am the maker of the
heavens and the earth, I have knit together the mountains, and I have
created everything which existeth upon them. I am the maker of the
Waters, and I have made Meht-ur to come into being; I have made the
Bull of his Mother, and I have made the joys of love to exist. I am
the maker of heaven, and I have made to be hidden the two gods of the
horizon, and I have placed the souls of the gods within them. I am the
Being who openeth his eyes and the light cometh; I am the Being who
shutteth his eyes and there is darkness. I am the Being who giveth the
command, and the waters of Hapi (the Nile) burst forth, I am the Being
whose name the gods know not. I am the maker of the hours and the
creator of the days. I am the opener (i.e., inaugurator) of the
festivals, and the maker of the floods of water. I am the creator of
the fire of life whereby the works of the houses are caused to come
into being. I am Khepera in the morning, and Ra (at the time of his
culmination (i.e., noon), and Temu in the evening."[FN#71]
Nevertheless the poison was not driven from its course, and the great
god felt no better. Then Isis said unto Ra, "Among the things which
thou hast said unto me thy name hath not been mentioned. O declare
thou it unto me, and the poison shall come forth; for the person who
hath declared his name shall live." Meanwhile the poison burned with
blazing fire and the heat thereof was stronger than that of a blazing
flame. Then the Majesty of Ra, said, "I will allow myself to be
searched through by Isis, and my name shall come forth from my body and
go into hers." Then the divine one hid himself from the gods, and the
throne in the Boat of Millions of Years[FN#72] was empty. And it came
to pass that when it was the time for the heart to come forth [from the
god], she said unto her son Horus, "The great god shall bind himself by
an oath to give his two eyes."[FN#73] Thus was the great god made to
yield up his name, and Isis, the great lady of enchantments, said,
"Flow on, poison, and come forth from Ra; let the Eye of Horus come
forth from the god and shine(?) outside his mouth. I have worked, and
I make the poison to fall on the ground, for the venom hath been
mastered. Verily the name hath been taken away from the great god.
Let Ra live, and let the poison die; and if the poison live then Ra
shall die. And similarly, a certain man, the son of a certain man,
shall live and the poison shall die." These were the words which spake
Isis, the great lady, the mistress of the gods, and she had knowledge
of Ra in his own name. The above words shall be said over an image of
Temu and an image of Heru-Hekennu,[FN#74] and over an image of Isis and
an image of Horus.

[FN#66] Here we have another instance of the important part which the
spittle played in magical ceremonies that were intended to produce evil
effects. The act of spitting, however, was intended sometimes to carry
a curse with it, and sometimes a blessing, for a man spat in the face
of his enemy in order to lay the curse of impurity upon him, and at the
present time, men spit upon money to keep the devils away from it.

[FN#67] The gods were, according to one belief, nothing more than the
various names of Ra, who had taken the forms of the various members of
his body.

[FN#68] Thus the god's own name became his most important talisman.

[FN#69] The position of Isis as the "great enchantress" is well
defined, and several instances of her magical powers are recorded. By
the utterance of her words of power she succeeded in raising her dead
husband Osiris to life, and she enabled him by their means to beget
Horus of her. Nothing could withstand them, because they were of
divine origin, and she had learned them from Thoth, the intelligence of
the greatest of the gods.

[FN#70] Or, "the period of the summer." The season Shemmu, began soon
after the beginning of April and lasted until nearly the end of July.

[FN#71] Khepera, Rd, and Temu were the three principal forms of the
Sun-god according to the theological system of the priests of

[FN#72] The name by which the Boat of Ra is generally known in
Egyptian texts. It was this boat which was stopped in its course when
Thoth descended from the sky to impart to Isis the words of power that
were to raise her dead child Horus to life.

[FN#73] i.e., the fluid of life of the sun, and the fluid of life of
the moon. The sun and the moon were the visible, material symbols of
the Sun god.

[FN#74] The attributes of this god are not well defined. He was a god
of the Eastern Delta, and was associated with the cities where Temu was


XII. In the three hundred and sixty-third year of Ra-Heru-Khuti, who
liveth for ever and forever, His Majesty was in Ta-Kens,[FN#75] and his
soldiers were with him; [the enemy] did not conspire (auu) against
their lord, and the land [is called] Uauatet unto this day. And Ra set
out on an expedition in his boat, and his followers were with him, and
he arrived at Uthes-Heru,[FN#76] [which lay to] the west of this nome,
and to the east of the canal Pakhennu, which is called [ . . . . . . .
to this day]. And Heru-Behutet was in the boat of Ra, and he said
unto his father Ra-Heru-Khuti (i.e., Ra-Harmachis), "I see that the
enemies are conspiring against their lord; let thy fiery serpent gain
the mastery . . . . . over them."

[FN#75] i.e., in Nubia, probably the portion of it which lies round
about the modern Kalabsha. In ancient days Ta-kens appears to have
included a portion of the Nile Valley to the north of Aswan.

XIII. Then the Majesty of Ra Harmachis said unto thy divine KA, "O
Heru-Behutet, O son of Ra, thou exalted one, who didst proceed from me,
overthrow thou the enemies who are before thee straightway." And Heru-
Behutet flew up into the horizon in the form of the great Winged Disk,
for which reason he is called "Great god, lord of heaven," unto this
day. And when he saw the enemies in the heights of heaven he set out
to follow after them in the form of the great Winged Disk, and he
attacked with such terrific force those who opposed him, that they
could neither see with their eyes nor hear with their ears, and each of
them slew his fellow. In a moment of time there was not a single
creature left alive. Then Heru Behutet, shining with very many
colours, came in the form of the great Winged Disk to the Boat of Ra-
Harmachis, and Thoth said unto Ra, "O Lord of the gods, Behutet hath
returned in the form of the great Winged Disk, shining [with many
colours] . . . . . . children;" for this reason he is called Heru-
Behutet unto this day. And Thoth said, "The city Teb shall be called
the city of Heru-Behutet," and thus is it called unto this day. And Ra
embraced the . . . . . of Ra, and said unto Heru-Behutet, "Thou didst
put grapes[FN#77] into the water which cometh forth from it,[FN#78] and
thy heart rejoiced thereat;" and for this reason the water (or, canal)
of Heru-Behutet is called "[Grape-Water]" unto this day, and the . . .
. . . . . . . . unto this day. And Heru-Behutet said, "Advance, O Ra,
and look thou upon thine enemies who are lying under thee on this
land;" thereupon the Majesty of Ra set out on the way, and the goddess
Asthertet ('Ashtoreth?) was with him, and he saw the enemies overthrown
on the ground, each one of them being fettered. Then said Ra to Heru-
Behutet, "There is sweet life in this place," and for this reason the
abode of the palace of Heru-Behutet is called "Sweet Life" unto this
day. And Ra, said unto Thoth, "[Here was the slaughter] of mine
enemies; "and the place is called Teb[FN#79] unto this day. And Thoth
said unto Heru-Behutet, "Thou art a great protector (makaa);" and the
Boat of Heru-Behutet is called Makaa[FN#80] unto this day. Then said
Ra unto the gods who were in his following, "Behold now, let us sail in
our boat upon the water, for our hearts are glad because our enemies
have been overthrown on the earth;" and the water where the great god
sailed is called P-Khen-Ur[FN#81] unto this day. And behold the
enemies [of Ra] rushed into the water, and they took the forms of
[crocodiles and] hippopotami, but nevertheless Ra-Heru-Khuti sailed
over the waters in his boat, and when the crocodiles and the
hippopotami had come nigh unto him, they opened wide their jaws in
order to destroy Ra-Heru-Khuti. And when Heru-Behutet arrived and his
followers who were behind him in the forms of workers in metal, each
having in his hands an iron spear and a chain, according to his name,
they smote the crocodiles and the hippopotami; and there were brought
in there straightway six hundred and fifty-one crocodiles, which had
been slain before the city of Edfu. Then spake Ra-Harmachis unto Heru-
Behutet, "My Image shall be [here] in the land of the South, (which is
a house of victory (or, strength); "and the House of Heru-Behutet is
called Nekht-Het unto this day.

[FN#76] i.e., Apollinopolis, the modern Edfu.

[FN#77] i.e. drops of blood.

[FN#78] i.e., from the city.

[FN#79] i.e., Edfu.

[FN#80] i.e., Great Protector.

[FN#81] i.e., "Great Canal."

XIV. Then the god Thoth spake, after he had looked upon the enemies
lying upon the ground, saying, "Let your hearts rejoice, O ye gods of
heaven! Let your hearts rejoice, O ye gods who are in the earth!
Horus, the Youthful One, cometh in peace, and he hath made manifest on
his journey deeds of very great might, which he hath performed
according to 'the Book of Slaying the Hippopotamus.'" And from that day
figures of Heru-Behutet in metal have existed.

Then Heru-Behutet took upon himself the form of the Winged Disk, and he
placed himself upon the front of the Boat of Ea. And he placed by his
side the goddess Nekhebet[FN#82] and the goddess Uatchet,[FN#83] in the
form of two serpents, that they might make the enemies to quake in
[all] their limbs when they were in the forms of crocodiles and
hippopotami in every place wherein be came in the Land of the South and
in the Land of the North. Then those enemies rose up to make their
escape from before him, and their face was towards the Land of the
South. And their hearts were stricken down through fear of him. And
Heru-Behutet was at the back (or, side) of them in the Boat of Ra, and
there were in his hands a metal lance and a metal chain; and the metal
workers who were with their lord were equipped for fighting with lances
and chains. And Heru-Behutet saw them[FN#84] to the south-east of the
city of Uast (Thebes) some distance away. Then Ra said to Thoth,
"Those enemies shall be smitten with blows that kill;" and Thoth said
to Ra, "[That place] is called the city Tchet-Met unto this day." And
Heru-Behutet made a great overthrow among them, and Ra said, "Stand
still, O Heru-Behutet," and [that place] is called "Het-Ra" to this
day, and the god who dwelleth therein is Heru-Behutet-Ra-Amsu (or,
Min). Then those enemies rose up to make their escape from before him,
and the face of the god was towards the Land of the North, and their
hearts were stricken through fear of him. And Heru-Behutet was at the
back (or, side) of them in the Boat of Ra, and those who were following
him had spears of metal and chains of metal in their hands; and the god
himself was equipped for battle with the weapons of the metal workers
which they had with them. And he passed a whole day before he saw them
to the north-east of the nome of Tentyra (Dendera). Then Ra said unto
Thoth, "The enemies are resting . . . . . . . their lord." And the
Majesty of Ra-Harmachis said to Heru-Behutet, "Thou art my exalted son
who didst proceed from Nut. The courage of the (enemies hath failed in
a moment." And Heru-Behutet made great slaughter among them. And
Thoth said "The Winged Disk shall be called. . . . . in the name of
this Aat;" and is called Heru-Behutet . . . . . its mistress. His name
is to the South in the name of this god, and the acacia and the
sycamore shall be the trees of the sanctuary. Then the enemies turned
aside to flee from before him, and their faces were [towards the North,
and they went] to the swamps of Uatch-ur (i.e., the Mediterranean), and
[their courage failed through fear of him]. And Heru-Behutet was at
the back (or, side) of them in the Boat of Ra, and the metal spear was
in his hands, and those who were in his following were equipped with
the weapons for battle of the metal workers. And the god spent four
days and four nights in the water in pursuit of them, but he did not
see one of the enemies, who fled from before him in the water in the
forms of crocodiles and hippopotami. At length he found them and saw
them. And Ra said unto Horus of Heben, "O Winged Disk, thou great god
and lord of heaven, seize thou them . . . . . .;" and he hurled his
lance after them, and he slew them, and worked a great overthrow of
them. And he brought one hundred and forty-two enemies to the forepart
of the Boat [of Ra], and with them was a male hippopotamus which had
been among those enemies. And he hacked them in pieces with his knife,
and he gave their entrails to those who were in his following, and he
gave their carcases to the gods and goddesses who were in the Boat of
Ra on the river-bank of the city of Heben. Then Ra said unto Thoth,
"See what mighty things Heru-Behutet hath performed in his deeds
against the enemies: verily he hath smitten them! And of the male
hippopotamus he hath opened the mouth, and he hath speared it, and he
hath mounted upon its back." Then said Thoth to Ra, "Horus shall be
called 'Winged Disk, Great God, Smiter of the enemies in the town of
Heben' from this day forward, and he shall be called 'He who standeth
on the back' and 'prophet of this god,' from this day forward." These
are the things which happened in the lands of the city of Heben, in a
region which measured three hundred and forty-two measures on the
south, and on the north, on the west, and on the east.

[FN#82] The goddess Nekhebet was incarnate in a special kind of
serpent, and the centre of her worship was in the city of Nekheb, which
the Greeks called Eileithyiaspolis, and the Arabs Al-Kab.

[FN#83] The centre of the worship of Uatchet, or Uatchit, was at Per-
Uatchet, a city in the Delta.

[FN#84] i.e., the enemies.

XV. Then the enemies rose up before him by the Lake of the North, and
their faces were set towards Uatch-ur[FN#85] which they desired to
reach by sailing; but the god smote their hearts and they turned and
fled in the water, and they directed their course to the water of the
nome of Mertet-Ament, and they gathered themselves together in the
water of Mertet in order to join themselves with the enemies [who
serve] Set and who are in this region. And Heru-Behutet followed them,
being equipped with all his weapons of war to fight against them. And
Heru-Behutet made a journey in the Boat of Ra, together with the great
god who was in his boat with those who were his followers, and he
pursued them on the Lake of the North twice, and passed one day and one
night sailing down the river in pursuit of them before he perceived and
overtook them, for he knew not the place where they were. Then he
arrived at the city of Per-Rehu. And the Majesty of Ra said unto Heru-
Behutet, "What hath happened to the enemies? They have gathered
together themselves in the water to the west (?) of the nome of Mertet
in order to unite themselves with the enemies [who serve] Set, and who
are in this region, at the place where are our staff and sceptre." And
Thoth said unto Ra, "Uast in the nome of Mertet is called Uaseb because
of this unto this day, and the Lake which is in it is called Tempt."
Then Heru-Behutet spake in the presence of his father Ra, saying, "I
beseech thee to set thy boat against them, so that I may be able to
perform against them that which Ra willeth;" and this was done. Then
he made an attack upon them on the Lake which was at the west of this
district, and he perceived them on the bank of the city . . . . . .
which belongeth to the Lake of Mertet. Then Heru-Behutet made an
expedition against them, and his followers were with him, and they were
provided with weapons of all kinds for battle, and he wrought a great
overthrow among them, and he brought in three hundred and eighty-one
enemies, and he slaughtered them in the forepart of the Boat of Ra, and
he gave one of them to each of those who were in his train. Then Set
rose up and came forth, and raged loudly with words of cursing and
abuse because of the things which Heru-behutet had done in respect of
the slaughter of the enemies. And Ra said unto Thoth, "This fiend
Nehaha-hra uttereth words at the top of his voice because of the things
which Heru-Behutet hath done unto him;" and Thoth said unto Ra, "Cries
of this kind shall be called Nehaha-hra unto this day." And Heru-
Behutet did battle with the Enemy for a period of time, and he hurled
his iron lance at him, and he throw him down on the ground in this
region, which is called Pa-Rerehtu unto this day. Then Heru-Behutet
came and brought the Enemy with him, and his spear was in his neck, and
his chain was round his hands and arms, and the weapon of Horus had
fallen on his mouth and had closed it; and he went with him before his
father Ra, who said, "O Horus, thou Winged Disk, twice great (Urui-
Tenten) is the deed of valour which thou hast done, and thou hast
cleansed the district." And Ra, said unto Thoth, "The palace of Heru-
Behutet shall be called, 'Lord of the district which is cleansed'
because of this;" and [thus is it called] unto this day. And the name
of the priest thereof is called Ur-Tenten unto this day. And Ra said
unto Thoth, "Let the enemies and Set be given over to Isis and her son
Horus, and let them work all their heart's desire upon them." And she
and her son Horus set themselves in position with their spears in him
at the time when there was storm (or, disaster) in the district, and
the Lake of the god was called She-En-Aha from that day to this. Then
Horus the son of Isis cut off the head of the Enemy [Set], and the
heads of his fiends in the presence of father Ra and of the great
company of the gods, and he dragged him by his feet through his
district with his spear driven through his head and back. And Ra said
unto Thoth, "Let the son of Osiris drag the being of disaster through
his territory;" and Thoth said, "It shall be called Ateh," and this
hath been the name of the region from that day to this. And Isis, the
divine lady, spake before Ra, saying, "Let the exalted Winged Disk
become the amulet of my son Horus, who hath cut off the head of the
Enemy and the heads of his fiends."

[FN#85] i.e., the Mediterranean.

XVI. Thus Heru-Behutet and Horus, the son of Isis, slaughtered that
evil Enemy, and his fiends, and the inert foes, and came forth with
them to the water on the west side of this district. And Heru-Behutet
was in the form of a man of mighty strength, and he had the face of a
hawk, and his head was crowned with the White Crown and the Red Crown,
and with two plumes and two uraei, and he had the back of a hawk, and
his spear and his chain were in his hands. And Horus, the son of Isis,
transformed himself into a similar shape, even as Heru-Behutet had done
before him. And they slew the enemies all together on the west of Per-
Rehu, on the edge of the stream, and this god hath sailed over the
water wherein the enemies had banded themselves to-ether against him
from that day to this. Now these things took place on the 7th day of
the first mouth of the season Pert. And Thoth said, "This region shall
be called AAT-SHATET," and this hath been the name of the region from
that day unto this; and the Lake which is close by it hath been called
Temt from that day to this, and the 7th day of the first month of the
season Pert hath been called the Festival of Sailing from that day to

Then Set took upon himself the form of a hissing serpent, and he
entered into the earth in this district without being seen. And Ra
said, "Set hath taken upon himself the form of a hissing serpent. Let
Horus, the son of Isis, in the form of a hawk-headed staff, set himself
over the place where he is, so that the serpent may never more appear."
And Thoth said, "Let this district be called Hemhemet[FN#86] by name;"
and thus hath it been called from that day to this. And Horus, the son
of Isis, in the form of a hawk-headed staff, took up his abode there
with his mother Isis; in this manner did these things happen.

[FN#86] This name means "the place of the Roarer," Hemhemti, being a
well-known name of the Evil One. Some texts seem to indicate that
peals of thunder were caused by the fiend Set.

Then the Boat of Ra arrived at the town of Het-Aha; its forepart was
made of palm wood, and the hind part was made of acacia wood; thus the
palm tree and the acacia tree have been sacred trees from that day to
this. Then Heru-Behutet embarked in the Boat of Ra, after he had made
an end of fighting, and sailed; and Ra said unto Thoth, "Let this Boat
be called . . . . . . .;" and thus hath it been called from that day to
this, and these things have been done in commemoration in this place
from that day to this.

And Ra said unto Heru-Behutet, "Behold the fighting of the Smait fiend
and his two-fold strength, and the Smai fiend Set, are upon the water
of the North, and they will sail down stream upon . . . . . ." [And]
Heru-Behutet said, "Whatsoever thou commandest shall take place, O Ra,
Lord of the gods. Grant thou, however, that this thy Boat may pursue
them into every place whithersoever they shall go, and I will do to
them whatsoever pleaseth Ra." And everything was done according to
what he had said. Then this Boat of Ra was brought by the winged Sun-
disk upon the waters of the Lake of Meh,[FN#87] [and] Heru-Behutet took
in his hands his weapons, his darts, and his harpoon, and all the
chains [which he required] for the fight.

[FN#87] It is probable that the Lake of Meh, i.e., the Lake of the
North, was situated in the north-east of the Delta, not far from Lake

And Heru-Behutet looked and saw one [only] of these Sebau[FN#88] fiends
there on the spot, and he was by himself. And he threw one metal dart,
and brought (or, dragged) them along straightway, and he slaughtered
them in the presence of Ra. And he made an end [of them, and there
were no more of the fiends] of Set in this place at [that] moment.

[FN#88] "Sebiu" is a common name for the associates of Seti, and this
fiend is himself called "Seba," a word which means something like

XVII. And Thoth said, "This place shall be called Ast-Ab-Heru"[FN#89]
because Heru-Behutet wrought his desire upon them (i.e., the enemy);
and he passed six days and six nights coming into port on the waters
thereof and did not see one of them. And he saw them fall down in the
watery depths, and he made ready the place of Ast-ab-Heru there. It
was situated on the bank of the water, and the face (i.e., direction)
thereof was full-front towards the South. And all the rites and
ceremonies of Heru-Behutet were performed on the first day of the first
month[FN#90] of the season Akhet, and on the first day of the first
month[FN#91] of the season Pert, and on the twenty-first and twenty-
fourth days of the second month[FN#92] of the season Pert. These are
the festivals in the town of Ast-ab, by the side of the South, in An-
rut-f.[FN#93] And he came into port and went against them, keeping
watch as for a king over the Great God in An-rut-f, in this place, in
order to drive away the Enemy and his Smaiu fiends at his coming by
night from the region of Mertet, to the west of this place.

[FN#89] i.e., place of the desire of Horus.

[FN#90] The month Thoth.

[FN#91] The month Tybi.

[FN#92] The month Mekhir.

[FN#93] A mythological locality originally placed near Herakleopolis.
The name means "the place where nothing grows." Several forms of the
name occur in the older literature, e.g. in the Theban Recension of the
Book of the Dead.

And Heru-Behutet was in the form of a man who possessed great strength,
with the face of a hawk; and he was crowned with the White
Crown,[FN#94] and the Red Crown,[FN#95] and the two plumes, and the
Urerit Crown, and there were two uraei upon his head. His hand grasped
firmly his harpoon to slay the hippopotamus, which was [as hard] as the
khenem[FN#96] stone in its mountain bed.

[FN#94] The Crown of the South.

[FN#95] The Crown of the North.

[FN#96] A kind of jasper (?).

And Ra said unto Thoth, "Indeed [Heru-]Behutet is like a Master-fighter
in the slaughter of his enemies . . . . . ."

And Thoth said unto Ra, "He shall be called 'Neb-Ahau'" (i.e., Master-
fighter); and for this reason he hath been thus called by the priest of
this god unto this day.

And Isis made incantations of every kind in order to drive away the
fiend Ra from An-rut-f, and from the Great God in this place. And
Thoth said [unto Ra], "The priestess of this god shall be called by the
name of 'Nebt-Heka' for this reason."

And Thoth said unto Ra, "Beautiful, beautiful is this place wherein
thou hast taken up thy seat, keeping watch, as for a king, over the
Great God who is in An-rut-f[FN#97] in peace."

[FN#97] i.e., Osiris.

And Thoth said, "This Great House in this place shall therefore be
called 'Ast-Nefert'[FN#98] from this day. It is situated to the
south-west of the city of Nart, and [covereth] a space of four
schoinoi." And Ra Heru-Behutet said unto Thoth, "Hast thou not
searched through this water for the enemy?" And Thoth said, "The water
of the God-house in this place shall be called by the name of 'Heh'
(i.e., sought out)." And Ra said, "Thy ship, O Heru-Behutet, is great
(?) upon Ant-mer (?) . . . . . . And Thoth said, "The name of [thy
ship] shall be called 'Ur', and this stream shall be called 'Ant-mer
(?).'" As concerning (or, now) the place Ab-Bat (?) is situated on the
shore of the water. "Ast-nefert" is the name of the Great house, "Neb-
Aha" [is the name of] the priest . . . . . . . . is the name of the
priestess, "Heh" is the name of the lake . . . . . . . [is the name] of
the water, "Am-her-net" is the name of the holy (?) acacia tree, "Neter
het" is the name of the domain of the god, "Uru" is the name of the
sacred boat, the gods therein are Heru-Behutet, the smiter of the
lands, Horus, the son of Isis [and] Osiris . . . . . . . . his
blacksmiths[FN#99] are to him, and those who are in his following are
to him in his territory, with his metal lance, with his [mace], with
his dagger, and with all his chains (or, fetters) which are in the city
of Heru-Behutet.

[FN#98] i.e., "Beautiful Place."

[FN#99] Or perhaps fighting men who were armed with metal weapons.

[And when he had reached the land of the North with his followers, he
found the enemy.] Now as for the blacksmiths who were over the middle
regions, they made a great slaughter of the enemy, and there were
brought back one hundred and six of them. Now as for the blacksmiths
of the West, they brought back one hundred and six of the enemy. Now
as for the blacksmiths of the East, among whom was Heru-Behutet, he
slew them (i.e., the enemy) in the presence of Ra in the Middle

[FN#100] In the sculptures (Naville, Mythe, pl. 17) Heru-Behutet is
seen standing in a boat spearing a crocodile, and immediately behind d
him in the boat is Ra-Harmachis in his shrine. The Mesentiu of the
West are represented by an armed warrior in a boat, who is spearing a
crocodile, and leads the way for Heru-Behutet. In a boat behind the
great god is a representative of the Mesentiu of the East spearing a

And Ra, said unto Thoth, "My heart [is satisfied] with the works of
these blacksmiths of Heru-Behutet who are in his bodyguard. They shall
dwell in sanctuaries, and libations and purifications and offerings
shall be made to their images, and [there shall be appointed for them]
priests who shall minister by the month, and priests who shall minister
by the hour, in all their God-houses whatsoever, as their reward
because they have slain the enemies of the god."

And Thoth said, "The [Middle] Domains shall be called after the names
of these blacksmiths from this day onwards, and the god who dwelleth
among them, Heru-Behutet, shall be called the 'Lord of Mesent' from
this day onwards, and the domain shall be called 'Mesent of the West'
from this day onwards."

As concerning Mesent of the West, the face (or, front) thereof shall be
towards [the East], towards the place where Ra riseth, and this Mesent
shall be called "Mesent of the East" from this day onwards. As
concerning the double town of Mesent, the work of these blacksmiths of
the East, the face (or, front) thereof shall be towards the South,
towards the city of Behutet, the hiding-place of Heru-Behutet. And
there shall be performed therein all the rites and ceremonies of Heru-
Behutet on the second day of the first month[FN#101] of the season of
Akhet, and on the twenty-fourth day of the fourth month[FN#102] of the
season of Akhet, and on the seventh day of the first month[FN#103] of
the season Pert, and on the twenty-first day of the second
month[FN#104] of the season Pert, from this day onwards. Their stream
shall be called "Asti," the name of their Great House shall be called
"Abet," the [priest (?)] shall be called "Qen-aha," and their domain
shall be called "Kau-Mesent" from this day onwards.

[FN#101] The month Thoth.

[FN#102] The month Choiak.

[FN#103] The month Tybi.

[FN#104] The mouth Mechir.

XVIII. And Ra said unto Heru-Behutet, "These enemies have sailed up
the river, to the country of Setet, to the end of the pillar-house of
Hat, and they have sailed up the river to the east, to the country or
Tchalt (or, Tchart),[FN#105] which is their region of swamps." And
Heru-Behutet said, "Everything which thou hast commanded hath come to
pass, Ra, Lord of the Gods; thou art the lord of commands." And they
untied the Boat of Ra, and they sailed up the river to the east. Then
he looked upon those enemies whereof some of them had fallen into the
sea (or, river), and the others had fallen headlong on the mountains.

[FN#105] Zoan-Tanis.

And Heru-Behutet transformed himself into a lion which had the face of
a man, and which was crowned with the triple crown.[FN#106] His paw
was like unto a flint knife, and he went round and round by the side of
them, and brought back one hundred and forty-two [of the enemy], and be
rent them in pieces with his claws. He tore out their tongues, and
their blood flowed on the ridges of the land in this place; and he made
them the property of those who were in his following [whilst] he was
upon the mountains.

[FN#106] In the sculpture (Naville, Mythe, pl. 18), we see a
representation of this lion, which is standing over the bodies of slain
enemies upon a rectangular pedestal, or block.

And Ra said unto Thoth, "Behold, Heru-Behutet is like unto a lion in
his lair [when] he is on the back of the enemy who have given unto him
their tongues."

And Thoth said, "This domain shall be called 'Khent-abt,' and it shall
[also] be called 'Tchalt' (or, Tchart) from this day onwards. And the
bringing of the tongues from the remote places of Tchalt (or, Tchart)
[shall be commemorated] from this day onwards. And this god shall be
called 'Heru-Behutet, Lord of Mesent,' from this day onwards."

And Ra said unto Heru-Behutet, "Let us sail to the south up the river,
and let us smite the enemies [who are] in the forms of crocodiles and
hippopotami in the face of Egypt."

And Heru-Behutet said, "Thy divine Ka, O Ra, Lord of the gods! Let us
sail up the river against the remainder--one third--of the enemies who
are in the water (or, river)." Then Thoth recited the Chapters of
protecting the Boat [of Ra] and the boats of the blacksmiths, [which he
used] for making tranquil the sea at the moment when a storm was raging
on it.

And Ra said unto Thoth, "Have we not journeyed throughout the whole
land? Shall we not journey cover the whole sea in like manner?" And
Thoth said, "This water shall be called the 'Sea of journeying,' from
this day onward."

And they sailed about over the water during the night, and they did not
see any of those enemies at all.

Then they made a journey forth and arrived in the country of Ta-
sti,[FN#107] at the town of Shas-hertet, and he perceived the most able
of their enemies in the country of Uaua,[FN#108] and they were uttering
treason against Horus their Lord.

[FN#107] Northern Nubia; the name means "Land of the Bow."

[FN#108] A portion of Northern Nubia.

And Heru-Behut changed his form into that of the Winged Disk, [and took
his place] above the bow of the Boat of Ra. And he made the goddess
Nekhebit[FN#109] and the goddess Uatchit[FN#110] to be with him in the
form of serpents, so that they might make the Sebau fiends to quake in
[all] their limbs (or, bodies). Their boldness (i.e., that of the
fiends) subsided through the fear of him, they made no resistance
whatsoever, and they died straightway.

[FN#109] The goddess of the South.

[FN#110] The goddess of the North.

Then the gods who were in the following of the Boat of Heru-khuti said,
"Great, great is that which he hath done among them by means of the two
Serpent Goddesses,[FN#111] for he hath overthrown the enemy by means of
their fear of him."

[FN#111] i.e., Nekhebit and Uatchit.

And Ra Heru-khuti said, "The great one of the two Serpent Goddesses of
Heru-Behutet shall be called 'Ur-Uatchti'[FN#112] from this day

[FN#112] "Great one of the Two Uraei-goddesses;" these goddesses had
their places above the brow of the god, or at the right and left of the
solar disk.

XIX. And Heru-khuti travelled on in his boat, and landed at the city
of Thes-Heru (Apollinopolis Magna). And Thoth said, "The being of
light who hath come forth from the horizon hath smitten the enemy in
the form which he hath made, and he shall be called Being of light who
hath come forth from the horizon from this day onwards."[FN#113]

[FN#113] In the sculpture (Naville, Mythe, pl. 19) we see the god, who
is hawk-headed, and wears the crowns of the South and North, seated in
a shrine set upon a pedestal. In the right hand he holds the sceptre
and in the left the ankh.

And Ra Heru-khuti (Ra Harmachis) said to Thoth, "Thou shalt make this
Winged Disk to be in every place wherein I seat myself (or, dwell), and
in [all] the seats of the gods in the South, and in [all] the seats of
the gods in the Land of the North . . . . . . . in the Country of
Horus, that it may drive away the evil ones from their domains."

Then Thoth made the image of the Winged Disk to be in every sanctuary
and in every temple, where they now are, wherein are all the gods and
all the goddesses from this day onwards. Now through the Winged Disk
which is on the temple-buildings of all the gods and all the goddesses
of the Land of the Lily,[FN#114] and the Land of the Papyrus,[FN#115]
[these buildings] become shrines of Heru-Behutet.

[FN#114] i.e., the North, especially the Delta.

[FN#115] i.e., the South.

As concerning Heru-Behutet, the great god, the lord of heaven, the
president of the Ater of the South,[FN#116] he it is who is made to be
on the right hand. This is Heru-Behutet on whom the goddess Nekhebit
is placed in the form of a serpent (or, uraeus). As concerning Heru-
Behutet, the great god, the lord of heaven, the lord of Mesent, the
president of the Ater of the North,[FN#117] he it is who is made to be
on the left hand. This Heru-Behutet on whom the goddess Uatchit is
placed is in the form of a serpent.

[FN#116] i.e., the southern half of heaven.

[FN#117] i.e., the northern half of heaven.

As concerning Heru-Behutet, the great god, the lord of heaven, the lord
of Mesent, the president of the two Aterti of the South and North, Ra
Heru-khuti set it (i.e., the Winged Disk) in his every place, to
overthrow the enemies in every place wherein they are. And he shall be
called President of the two Aterti of the South and North because of
this from this day onwards.[FN#118]

[FN#118] In the sculpture which illustrates this portion of the text
at Edfu, two Winged Disks are represented. The first has #### on each
side of it. The disk has an uraeus on each side. The second winged
symbol of the god consists of a beetle with outstretched wings, which
holds between his forelegs the solar disk, and between his hind legs
the symbol of the orbit of the sun.


Homage to thee, Osiris, Lord of eternity, King of the gods, whose names
are manifold, whose transformations are sublime, whose form is hidden
in the temples whose Ka is holy, the Governor of Tetut,[FN#119] the
mighty one of possessions (?)in the shrine,[FN#120] the Lord of
praises[FN#121] in the nome of Anetch,[FN#122] President of the tchefa
food in Anu,[FN#123] Lord who art commemorated in [the town of]
Maati,[FN#124] the mysterious (or, hidden) Soul, the Lord of
Qerret,[FN#125] the sublime one in White Wall,[FN#126] the Soul of Ra
[and] his very body, who hast thy dwelling in Henensu,[FN#127] the
beneficent one, who art praised in Nart,[FN#128] who makest to rise up
thy Soul, Lord of the Great House in the city[FN#129] of the Eight
Gods,[FN#130] [who inspirest] great terror in Shas-hetep,[FN#131] Lord
of eternity, Governor of Abtu (Abydos).

[FN#119] More fully Pa-Asar-neb-Tetut, the Busiris of the Greeks;
Busiris = Pa-Asar, "House of Osiris," par excellence. The variant
Tataut also occurs.

[FN#120] An allusion, perhaps, to the town Sekhem, the capital of the
second nome (Letopolites) of Lower Egypt.

[FN#121] i.e., lord whose praises are sung.

[FN#122] Letopolites.

[FN#123] Heliopolis.

[FN#124] i.e., a famous sanctuary in the Letopolite nome where Ptah
was worshipped.

[FN#125] The region of the First Cataract, where the Nile was believed
to rise.

[FN#126] Memphis.

[FN#127] Herakleopolis, the {hbw XaNeS} of Isaiah.

[FN#128] A name of Herakleopolis.

[FN#129] Khemenu or Hermopolis, the city of Thoth.

[FN#130] These gods were: Nu and Nut; Hehu and Hehut; Kekui and
Kekuit; Kerh and Kerhet.

[FN#131] The capital of Set, the eleventh nome of Upper Egypt; the
chief local deity was Khnemu.

Thy seat (or, domain) reacheth far into Ta-tchesert,[FN#132] and thy
name is firmly stablished in the mouth[s] of men. Thou art the two-
fold substance of the Two Lands[FN#133] everywhere (?), and the divine
food (tchef) of the Kau,[FN#134] the Governor of the Companies[FN#135]
of the Gods, and the beneficent (or, perfect) Spirit-soul[FN#136] among
Spirit-souls. The god Nu draweth his waters from thee,[FN#137] and
thou bringest forth the north wind at eventide, and wind from thy
nostrils to the satisfaction of thy heart. Thy heart flourisheth, and
thou bringest forth the splendour of tchef food.

[FN#132] A name of the Other World.

[FN#133] i.e., the two Egypts, Upper and Lower.

[FN#134] The Doubles of the beatified who are fed by Osiris in the
Other World.

[FN#135] Three Companies are distinguished: the gods of Heaven, the
gods of Earth, and the gods of the Other World.

[FN#136] The indestructible, immortal Spirit-soul as opposed to the
Ba-soul or animal-soul.

[FN#137] Here and in other places I have changed the pronoun of the
third person into that of the second to avoid the abrupt changes of the

The height of heaven and the stars [thereof] are obedient unto thee,
and thou makest to be opened the great gates [of the sky]. Thou art
the lord to whom praises are sung in the southern heaven, thou art he
to whom thanks are given in the northern heaven. The stars which never
diminish are under the place of thy face,[FN#138] and thy seats are the
stars which never rest.[FN#139] Offerings appear before thee by the
command of Keb. The Companies of the Gods ascribe praise unto thee,
the Star-gods of the Tuat smell the earth before thee,[FN#140] the
domains [make] bowings [before thee], and the ends of the earth make
supplication to thee [when] they see thee.

[FN#138] i.e., they are under thy inspection and care.

[FN#139] i.e., the stars which never set. The allusion is probably to
certain circumpolar stars.

[FN#140] i.e., do homage.

Those who are among the holy ones are in terror of him, and the Two
Lands, all of them, make acclamations to him when they meet His
Majesty. Thou art a shining Noble at the head of the nobles, permanent
in [thy] high rank, stablished in [thy] sovereignty, the beneficent
Power of the Company of the Gods. Well-pleasing [is thy] face, and
thou art beloved by him that seeth thee. Thou settest the fear of thee
in all lands, and because of their love for thee [men] hold thy name to
be pre-eminent. Every man maketh offerings unto thee, and thou art the
Lord who is commemorated in heaven and upon earth. Manifold are the
cries of acclamation to thee in the Uak[FN#141] festival, and the Two
Lands shout joyously to thee with one accord. Thou art the eldest, the
first of thy brethren, the Prince of the Company of the Gods, and the
stablisher of Truth throughout the Two Lands. Thou settest [thy] son
upon the great throne of his father Keb. Thou art the beloved one of
thy mother Nut, whose valour is most mighty [when] thou overthrowest
the Seba Fiend. Thou hast slaughtered thy enemy, and hast put the fear
of thee into thy Adversary.

[FN#141] One of the chief festivals of Osiris, during which the god
made a periplus.

Thou art the bringer in of the remotest boundaries, and art stable of
heart, and thy two feet are lifted up (?); thou art the heir of Keb and
of the sovereignty of the Two Lands, and he (i.e., Keb) hath seen thy
splendid qualities, and hath commanded thee to guide the lands (i.e.,
the world) by thy hand so long as times [and seasons] endure.

Thou hast made this earth with thy hand, the waters thereof, the winds
thereof, the trees and herbs thereof, the cattle thereof of every kind,
the birds thereof of every kind, the fish thereof of every kind, the
creeping things thereof, and the four-footed beasts thereof. The land
of the desert[FN#142] belongeth by right to the son of Nut, and the Two
Lands have contentment in making him to rise[FN#143] upon the throne of
his father like Ra.

[FN#142] This may also represent the mountainous districts of Egypt,
or even foreign countries in general.

[FN#143] To make him rise like the sun, or to enthrone him.

Thou rollest up into the horizon, thou settest the light above the
darkness, thou illuminest [the Two Lands] with the light from thy two
plumes, thou floodest the Two Lands like the Disk at the beginning of
the dawn. Thy White Crown pierceth the height of heaven saluting the
stars,[FN#144] thou art the guide of every god. Thou art
perfect[FN#145] in command and word. Thou art the favoured one of the
Great Company of the Gods, and thou art the beloved one of the Little
Company of the Gods.

[FN#144] Or, "becoming a brother to the stars," or the Star-gods.

[FN#145] Or, beneficent.

Thy sister [Isis] acted as a protectress to thee. She drove [thy]
enemies away, she averted seasons [of calamity from thee], she recited
the word (or, formula) with the magical power of her mouth, [being]
skilled of tongue and never halting for a word, being perfect in
command and word. Isis the magician avenged her brother. She went
about seeking for him untiringly.

She flew round and round over this earth uttering wailing cries of
grief, and she did not alight on the ground until she had found him.
She made light [to come forth] from her feathers, she made air to come
into being by means of her two wings, and she cried out the death cries
for her brother. She made to rise up the helpless members of him whose
heart was at rest, she drew from him his essence, and she made
therefrom an heir. She suckled the child in solitariness and none knew
where his place was, and he grew in strength. His hand is mighty (or,
victorious) within the house of Keb, and the Company of the Gods
rejoice greatly at the coming of Horus, the son of Osiris, whose heart
is firmly stablished, the triumphant one, the son of Isis, the flesh
and bone of Osiris. The Tchatcha[FN#146] of Truth, and the Company of
the Gods, and Neb-er-tcher[FN#147] himself, and the Lords of Truth,
gather together to him, and assemble therein.[FN#148] Verily those who
defeat iniquity rejoice[FN#149] in the House of Keb to bestow the
divine rank and dignity upon him to whom it belongeth, and the
sovereignty upon him whose it is by right.

[FN#146] Literally, the "Heads," I.e., the divine sovereign Chiefs at
the court of Osiris, who acted as administrators of the god, and even
as task-masters.

[FN#147] "He who is the lord to the end (or, limit) of the world," a
name of Osiris.

[FN#148] i.e., in the House of Keb.

[FN#149] Or perhaps "take their seats in the House of Keb."


The Horus: "Mighty Bull, the form(?) of risings[FN#150], stablished in
sovereignty like Tem." The Golden Horus: "Mighty one of
strength[FN#151], destroyer of the Nine Nations of the Bow."[FN#152]
King of the South and North: "The Lord of the Two Lands, User-Maat-Ra-
setep-en-Ra Son of Ra: Of his body, Ra-meses-meri-Amen, of Amen-
Ra;[FN#153] the Lord of the thrones of the Two Lands, and of the
Company of the Gods, the Lords of Thebes, the beloved one. The
beneficent god, the son of Amen, born of Mut, begotten of Heru-khuti,
the glorious offspring of Neb-tchert,[FN#154] begetting [as] the Bull
of his Mother, [FN#155] king of Egypt, Governor of the deserts, the
Sovereign who hath taken possession of the Nine Nations of the Bow;
[who] on coming forth from the womb ordained mighty things, who gave
commands whilst he was in the egg, the Bull, stable of heart, who hath
sent forth his seed; the king who is a bull, [and] a god who cometh
forth on the day of battle like Menthu,[FN#156] the mighty one of
strength like the son of Nut."[FN#157]

[FN#150] i.e., the image who rises like the sun day by day, or the
image of [many] crowns.

[FN#151] Or, mighty one of the thigh, i.e., he of the mighty thigh.

[FN#152] The nations of Nubia who fought with bows and arrows.

[FN#153] In this version of the protocol of Rameses II. the second
"strong name" of the king is omitted.

[FN#154] i.e., Neb-er-tcher.

[FN#155] Ka-mut-f, the {greek kamh^fic} of the Greeks.

[FN#156] The War-god of Thebes.

[FN#157] i.e., Osiris.

Behold, His Majesty was in the country of Neheru[FN#158] according to
his custom every year, and the chiefs of every land, even as far as the
swamps, came [to pay] homage, bearing offerings to the Souls of His
Majesty; and they brought their gifts, gold, lapis-lazuli, turquoise,
bars of wood of every kind of the Land of the God,[FN#159] on their
backs, and each one surpassed his neighbour.

[FN#158] The "country of the rivers," the {hbw AaRam NaHaRaYim} of
Gen. xxiv. 10, the #### of Syrian writers.

[FN#159] A name including Western Asia and a portion of the East Coast
of Africa.

And the Prince of Bekhten [also] caused his gifts to be brought, and he
set his eldest daughter at the head of them all, and he addressed words
of praise to His Majesty, and prayed to him for his life. And the
maiden was beautiful, and His Majesty considered her to be the most
lovely [woman] in the world, and he wrote down as her title, "Great
Royal Wife, Ra-neferu"; and when His Majesty arrived in Egypt, he did
for her whatsoever was done for the Royal Wife.

On the twenty-second day of the second month of the season of
Shemu,[FN#160] in the fifteenth year [of his reign], behold, His
Majesty was in Thebes, the Mighty [city], the Mistress of cities,
performing the praises of Father Amen, the Lord of the thrones of the
Two Lands, in his beautiful Festival of the Southern Apt,[FN#161] which
was the seat of his heart (i.e., the chosen spot) from primaeval time,
[when] one came to say to His Majesty, "An ambassador of the Prince of
Bekhten hath arrived bearing many gifts for the Royal Wife."

[FN#160] The summer. The Copts called the second month of this season

[FN#161] The modern Temple of Luxor.

And having been brought into the presence of His Majesty with his
gifts, he spake words of adoration to His Majesty, saying, "Praise be
unto thee, O thou Sun (Ra) of the Nine Nations of the Bow, permit us to
live before thee!" And when he had spoken, and had smelt the earth
before His Majesty, he continued his speech before His Majesty, saying,
"I have come unto thee, my King and Lord, on behalf of Bent-Resht, the
younger sister of the Royal Wife Ra-neferu. [Some] disease hath
penetrated into her members, and I beseech Thy Majesty to send a man of
learning to see her."

And His Majesty said, "Bring to me the magicians (or, scribes) of the
House of Life, and the nobles of the palace." And having been brought
into his presence straightway, His Majesty said unto them, "Behold, I
have caused you to be summoned [hither] in order that ye may hear this
matter. Now bring to me [one] of your company whose heart is
wise[FN#162], and whose fingers are deft." And the royal scribe
Tehuti-em-heb came into the presence of His Majesty, and His Majesty
commanded him to depart to Bekhten with that ambassador.

[FN#162] Or, a skilled craftsman.

And when the man of learning had arrived in Bekhten, he found Bent-
Resht in the condition of a woman who is possessed by a spirit, and he
found 12 this spirit to be an evil one, and to be hostile in his
disposition towards him.

And the Prince of Bekhten sent a messenger a second time into the
presence of His Majesty, saying, "O King, my Lord, I pray His (i.e.,
Thy) Majesty to command that a god be brought hither to contend
against the spirit."

Now when the messenger came to His Majesty in the first month[FN#163]
of the season of Shemu, in the twenty-sixth year [of his reign], on the
day which coincided with that of the Festival of Amen, His Majesty was
in the palace (or, temple?) of Thebes. And His Majesty spake a second
time[FN#164] in the presence of Khensu in Thebes, [called] "Nefer-
Hetep," saying, "O my fair Lord, I present myself before thee a second
time on behalf of the daughter of the Prince of Bekhten." Then Khensu,
in Thebes, [called] "Nefer-Hetep", was carried to Khensu, [called] "Pa-
ari-sekher," the great god who driveth away the spirits which attack.
And His Majesty spake before Khensu in Thebes, [called] "Nefer-Hetep,"
saying, "O my fair Lord, if thou wilt give (i.e., turn) thy face to
Khensu, [called] 'Pa-ari-sekher,' the great god who driveth away the
spirits which attack, permit thou that he may depart to Bekhten;" [and
the god] inclined his head with a deep inclination twice. And His
Majesty said, "Let, I pray, thy protective (or, magical) power [go]
with him, so that I may make His Majesty to go to Bekhten to deliver
the daughter of the Prince of Bekhten [from the spirit]."

[FN#163] The month Pakhon of the Copts.

[FN#164] The text makes no mention of the first application to Khensu.

And Khensu in Thebes, [called] "Nefer-Hetep," inclined his head with a
deep inclination twice. And he made [his] protective power to pass
into Khensu, [called] "Pa-ari-sekher-em-Uast," in a fourfold measure.
Then His Majesty commanded that Khensu, [called] "Pa-ari-sekher-em-
Uast," should set out on his journey in a great boat, [accompanied by]
five smaller boats, and chariots, and a large number of horses [which
marched] on the right side and on the left.

And when this god arrived in Bekhten at the end of a period of one year
and five months, the Prince of Bekhten came forth with his soldiers and
his chief[s] before Khensu, [called] "Pa-ari-sekher," and he cast
himself down upon his belly, saying, "Thou hast come to us, and thou
art welcomed by us, by the commands of the King of the South and North,

And when this god had passed over to the place where Bent-Resht was, he
worked upon the daughter of the Prince of Bekhten with his magical
power, and she became better (i.e., was healed) straightway. And this
spirit which had been with her said, in the presence of Khensu,
[called] "Pa-ari-sekher-em-Uast," "Come in peace (i.e., Welcome!), O
great god, who dost drive away the spirits which attack! Bekhten is
thy city, the people thereof, both men and women, are thy (servants,
and I myself am thy servant. I will [now] depart unto the place whence
I came, so that I may cause thy heart to be content about the matter
concerning which thou hast come. I pray that Thy Majesty will command
that a happy day (i.e., a festival, or day of rejoicing) be made with
me, and with the Prince of Bekhten." And this god inclined his head
[in approval] to his priest, saying, "Let the Prince of Bekhten make a
great offering in the (presence of this spirit."

Now whilst Khensu, [called] "Pa-ari-sekher-em-Uast," was arranging
these [things] with the spirit, the Prince of Bekhten and his soldiers
were standing there, and they feared with an exceedingly great fear.
And the Prince of Bekhten made a great offering in the presence of
Khensu, [called] "Pa-ari-sekher-em-Uast," and the spirit of the Prince
of Bekhten, and he made a happy day (i.e., festival) on their behalf,
and [then] the spirit departed in peace unto the place which he loved,
by the command of Khensu, [called] "Pa-ari-sekher-em-Uast." And the
Prince of Bekhten, and every person who was in the country of Bekhten,
rejoiced very greatly, and he took counsel with his heart, saying, "It
hath happened that this god hath been given as a gift to Bekhten, and I
will not permit him to depart to Egypt."

And [when] this god had tarried for three years and nine months in
Bekhten, the Prince of Bekhten, who was lying down asleep on his bed,
saw this god come forth outside his shrine (now he was in the form of a
golden hawk), and he flew up into the heavens and departed to Egypt;
and when the Prince woke up he was trembling. And he said unto the
prophet of Khensu, [called] "Pa-ari-sekher-em-Uast," "This god who
tarried with us hath departed to Egypt; let his chariot also depart to

And the Prince of Bekhten permitted [the image of] the god to set out
for Egypt, and he gave him many great gifts of beautiful things of all
kinds, and a large number of soldiers and horses [went with him]. And
when they had arrived in peace in Thebes, Khensu, [called] "Pa-ari-
sekher-em-Uast," went into the Temple of Khensu in Thebes, [called]
"Nefer-Hetep," and he placed the offerings which the Prince of Bekhten
had given unto him, beautiful things of all kinds, before Khensu in
Thebes, [called] "Nefer-Hetep," and he gave nothing thereof whatsoever
to his [own] temple.

Thus Khensu, [called] "Pa-ari-sekher-em-Uast," arrived in his temple in
peace, on the nineteenth day of the second month[FN#165] of the season
Pert, in the thirty-third year of the [reign of the] King of the South
and North, User-Maat-en-Ra-setep-en-Ra, the giver of life, like Ra, for

[FN#165] The month Mekhir of the Copts; the season Pert is the
Egyptian spring.


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