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Language by Edward Sapir

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Hupa Indians,

I

_Icelandic, Old_,
India, languages of,
Indians, American, languages of,
See also _Algonkin_; _Athabaskan_; _Chimariko_; _Chinook_; _Eskimo_;
_Fox_; _Haida_; _Hokan_; _Hupa_; _Iroquois_; _Karok_; _Kwakiutl_;
_Nahuatl_; _Nass_; _Navaho_; _Nootka_; _Ojibwa_; _Paiute_;
_Sahaptin_; _Salinan_; _Shasta_; _Siouan_; _Sioux_; _Takelma_;
_Tlingit_; _Tsimshian_; _Washo_; _Yana_; _Yokuts_; _Yurok_.
_Indo-Chinese_ languages,
_Indo-European_,
_Indo-Iranian_ languages,
Infixes,
Inflection. See _Inflective languages_.
Inflective languages,
Influence:
cultural, reflected in language,
morphological, of alien language,
phonetic, of alien language,
Inspiratory sounds,
Interjections,
Irish,
_Irish_,
_Iroquois_ (N. Amer.),
Isolating languages,
_Italian_,
"Its," history of,

J

_Japanese_,
Jutes,
Juxtaposing. See _Agglutination_.

K

_Karok_ (N. California),
K. Indians,
_Khmer_. See _Cambodgian_.
Knowledge, source of, as grammatical category,
_Koine_,
_Kwakiutl_ (British Columbia),

L

Labial trills,
Language:
associations in,
associations underlying elements of,
auditory cycle in,
concepts expressed in,
a cultural function,
definition of,
diversity of,
elements of,
emotion expressed in,
feeling-tones in,
grammatical concepts of,
grammatical processes of,
historical aspects of,
imitations of sounds, not evolved from,
influences on, exotic,
interjections, not evolved from,
literature and,
modifications and transfers of typical form of,
an "overlaid" function,
psycho-physical basis of,
race, culture and,
simplification of experience in,
sounds of,
structure of,
thought and,
universality of,
variability of,
volition expressed in,
Larynx,
Lateral sounds,
_Latin_:
attribution,
concord,
infixing,
influence of,
objective _-m_,
order of words,
plurality,
prefixes and suffixes,
reduplicated perfects,
relational concepts expressed,
sentence-word,
sound as word in, single,
structure,
style,
suffixing character,
syntactic nature of sentence,
synthetic character,
verse,
word and element in, analysis of,
_Lettish_,
Leveling, phonetic,
See _Analogical leveling_.
Lips,
action of,
Literature:
compensations in, formal,
language and,
levels in, linguistic,
medium of, language as,
science and,
Literature, determinants of:
linguistic,
metrical,
morphological,
phonetic,
_Lithuanian_,
Localism,
Localization of speech,
_Loucheux_ (N. Amer.),
L. Indians,
Lungs,
Luther, German of,

M

_Malay_,
M. race,
_Malayan_,
_Malayo-Polynesian_ languages,
_Manchu_,
_Manx_,
"Maus, Maeuse" (German), history of,
Mediterranean race,
_Melanesian_ languages,
Meter. See _Verse_.
Milton,
Mixed-relational languages,
complex,
simple,
Modality,
_Mon-Khmer_ (S.E. Asia),
Moore, George,
Morphological features, diffusion of,
Morphology. See _Structure, linguistic_.
"Mouse, mice" (English), history of,
_Munda_ languages (E. India),
Murmuring,
Mutation, vocalic,

N

_Nahuatl_ (Mexico),
Nasal sounds,
"Nasal twang,"
Nasalized stops,
_Nass_ (British Columbia),
Nationality,
_Navaho_ (Arizona, New Mexico),
N. Indians,
Nietzsche,
_Nootka_ (Vancouver Id.),
Nose,
action of,
Noun,
Nouns, classification of,
Number,
See _Plurality_.

O

Object,
See _Personal relations_.
_Ojibwa_ (N, Amer.),
Onomatopoetic theory of origin of speech,
Oral sounds,
Order, word,
composition as related to,
fixed, English tendency,
sentence molded by,
significance of, fundamental,
Organs of speech,
action of,

P

_Paiute_ (N. Amer.),
Palate,
action of soft,
articulations of,
_Pali_ (India),
_Papuan_ languages,
Papuans,
Parts of speech,
Pattern:
formal,
phonetic,
_Persian_,
Person,
Personal relations,
Phonetic adaptation,
Phonetic diffusion,
Phonetic law:
basis of,
direction of,
examples of,
influence of, on morphology,
influence of morphology on,
regularity of,
significance of,
spread of, slow,
See _Leveling, phonetic_; _Pattern, phonetic_.
Phonetic processes,
form caused by, differences of,
parallel drifts in,
Pitch, grammatical use of,
metrical use of,
production of,
significant differences in,
Plains Indians, gesture language of,
"Plattdeutsch,"
Plurality:
classification of concept of, variable,
a concrete relational category,
a derivational or radical concept,
expression of, multiple,
See _Number_.
Poles,
_Polynesian_,
Polynesians,
Polysynthetic languages,
_Portuguese_,
Predicate,
Prefixes,
Prefixing languages,
Preposition,
Psycho-physical aspect of speech,
Pure-relational languages,
complex,
simple,

Q

Qualifying concepts. See _Concepts, derivational_.
Quality:
of speech sounds,
of individual's voice,
Quantity of speech sounds,

R

Race,
language and, lack of correspondence between,
language and, theoretical relation between,
language as correlated with, English,
language, culture and, correspondence between,
language, culture and, independence of,
Radical concepts. See _Concepts_.
Radical element,
Radical word,
"Reading from the lips,"
Reduplication,
Reference, definite and indefinite,
Repetition of stem,
See _Reduplication_.
Repression of impulse,
Rhyme,
Rolled consonants,
_Romance_ languages,
Root,
_Roumanian_,
Rounded vowels,
_Russian_,

S

_Sahaptin_ languages (N. Amer.),
_Salinan_ (S.W. California),
_Sanskrit_ (India),
Sarcee Indians,
_Saxon_:
_Low_,
_Old_,
_Upper_,
Saxons,
_Scandinavian_,
See _Danish_; _Icelandic_; _Swedish_.
Scandinavians,
Scotch,
_Scotch, Lowland_,
_Semitic languages_,
Sentence,
binding words into, methods of,
stress in, influence of,
word-order in,
Sequence. See _Order of words_.
Shakespeare:
art of,
English of,
_Shasta_ (N. California),
_Shilh_ (Morocco),
_Shilluk_ (Nile headwaters),
_Siamese_,
Singing,
_Siouan_ languages (N. Amer.),
_Sioux_ (Dakota),
_Slavic_ languages,
Slavs,
_Somali_ (E. Africa),
_Soudanese_ languages,
Sound-imitative words,
Sounds of speech,
adjustments involved in, muscular,
adjustments involved in certain, inhibition of,
basic importance of,
classification of,
combinations of,
conditioned appearance of,
dynamics of,
illusory feelings in regard to,
"inner" or "ideal" system of,
place in phonetic pattern of,
production of,
values of, psychological,
variability of,
_Spanish_,
Speech. See _Language_.
Spirants,
Splitting of sounds,
Stem,
Stock, linguistic,
Stopped consonants (_or_ stops),
Stress. See _Accent_.
Structure, linguistic,
conservatism of,
differences of,
intuitional forms of,
Structure, linguistic, types of:
classification of, by character of concepts,
by degree of fusion,
by degree of synthesis,
by formal processes,
from threefold standpoint,
into "formal" and "formless,"
classifying, difficulties in,
examples of,
mixed,
reality of,
validity of conceptual, historical test of,
Style,
Subject,
See _Personal relations_.
Subject of discourse,
Suffixes,
Suffixing,
Suffixing languages,
Survivals, morphological,
_Swedish_,
Swinburne,
Swiss, French,
Syllabifying,
Symbolic languages,
Symbolic processes,
Symbolic-fusional,
Symbolic-isolating,
Symons,
Syntactic adhesions,
Syntactic relations:
primary methods of expressing,
transfer of values in,
See _Concepts, relational_; _Concord_; _Order, word_; _Personal
relations_; _Sentence_.
Synthetic tendency,

T

_Takelma_ (S.W. Oregon),
Teeth,
articulations of,
Telegraph code,
Temperament,
Tense,
Teutonic race. See _Baltic race_.
Thinking, types of,
Thought, relation of language to,
Throat,
articulations of,
_Tibetan_,
Time. See _Tense_.
_Tlingit_ (S. Alaska),
T. Indians,
Tongue,
action of,
Transfer, types of linguistic,
Trills,
_Tsimshian_ (British Columbia),
See _Nass_.
_Turkish_,
Types, linguistic, change of,
See _Structure, linguistic_.

U

_Ugro-Finnic_,
"Umlaut." See _Mutation, vocalic_.
United States:
culture in,
race in,
_Ural-Altaic_ languages,
Uvula,

V

Values:
"hesitation,"
morphologic,
phonetic,
variability in, of components of drift,
Variations, linguistic:
dialect,
historical,
individual,
Verb,
syntactic relations expressed in,
Verhaeren,
Verse:
accentual,
linguistic determinants of,
quantitative,
syllabic,
Vocalic change,
See _Mutation, vocalic_.
Voice, production of,
Voiced sounds,
Voiceless:
laterals,
nasals,
sounds,
trills,
vowels,
"Voicelessness," production of,
Volition expressed in speech,
Vowels,

W

Walking, a biological function,
_Washo_ (Nevada),
_Welsh_,
Westermann, D.,
Whisper,
Whitman,
"Whom," use and drift of,
Word,
definition of,
syntactic origin of complex,
"twilight" type of,
types of, formal,
Written language,

Y

_Yana_ (N. California),
_Yiddish_,
_Yokuts_ (S. California),
_Yurok_ (N.W. California),
Y. Indians,

Z

_Zaconic_ dialect of Greek,

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