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Lands of the Slave and the Free by Henry A. Murray

Part 10 out of 10

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mere numbers,--you must also bring into the balance the comparative
state of affluence and independence of the respective parties; for who
can doubt that distress is one of the great causes of crime? Even in the
wealthy State of New York, I find an account of the following outrage,
committed upon a Mr. Lawrence, when serving a summons upon his
aggressor, Mr. Deitz: "He found Mr. Deitz near the house, and handed him
the papers. Deitz took them and read them, when he threw them on the
ground,--seized Lawrence by the throat, calling him a d----d scoundrel,
for coming to serve papers on him. He then called to his family to blow
a horn, when a man, named Hollenbeck, who was at work for Deitz as a
mason, interceded for Lawrence, who managed to get away, and started off
on a run. Deitz followed in pursuit, knocked Lawrence down, and held him
until four men in disguise made their appearance. They then tied his
hands behind him, and took him to a small piece of bush near by,--then
tore off his coat, vest, and cravat, and with a jack-knife cut off his
hair, occasionally cutting his scalp,--and, remarking that they had a
plaster that would heal it up, they tarred his head and body, and poured
tar into his boots. After exhausting all their ingenuity this way, each
cut a stick, and whipped him until they got tired. They then tied his
hands before him, and started him for the house, each of them kicking
him at every step. They made him take the papers back, but took them
away again;--when, after knocking him down again, they left him, and he
succeeded in reaching the residence of George Beckers last evening. His
legs, hands, arms, and face are badly bruised."--If we travel West and
South, we shall doubtless find that morality is far more lax than in
England; but what can you expect where gentlemen, even senators for
States, go out to fight bloody duels with rifles at twenty paces, while
crowds of spectators are looking on?

Where the Americans have the advantage over our population is, first and
foremost, in possessing a boundless extent of territory which gives a
rich return for comparatively little labour, and where, if labour is
wanted, the scarcity of the article insures its commanding a high price.
Compare England for one moment with two of the oldest American States,
and therefore the most thickly populated:--

Square Miles. Inhabitants.

England contains 50,000 17,923,000
New York " 46,000 3,097,000
Pennsylvania " 46,000 2,311,786

We here see, that if we take the most populous States in the Union, the
proportion is nearly 6 to 1 in favour of America; but, if we mass the
whole, we shall find--

Square Miles. Inhabitants.

Great Britain and Ireland contain 120,000 27,400,000
United States 3,500,000 23,192,000

This would bring the proportion of population to extent of territory, in
rough numbers:--

Great Britain and Ireland 228 inhabitants to the square mile.
United States 7 " " "

In other words, Great Britain is 32 times as thickly populated as the
Republic. If these facts are borne in mind, I confess that the
commission of crime in Great Britain appears to me proportionally far
smaller than in the States, notwithstanding all the advantages of the
free and liberal education which is within their reach.

I cannot but think that the general system of training youth in the
Republic has a most prejudicial effect, in many instances, on their
after-life. In their noble zeal for the education of the brain, they
appear to me to lose sight almost entirely of the necessity of
disciplining the mind to that obedience to authority, which lays the
foundation of self-control and respect for the laws of the land.
Nationally speaking, there is scarcely such a thing as a lad in the
whole Union. A boy in the States hardly gets over the novelty of that
portion of his dress which marks the difference of sex, ere his motto
is: "I don't care; I shall do what I best please:" in short, he is made
a man before he ceases to be a boy; he consequently becomes unable to
exercise that restraint which better discipline might have taught him,
and the acts of his after-life are thus more likely to be influenced by
passion and self-will than by reason or reflection. I find in the
lecture from which I have already quoted, the following paragraph,
which, as I consider it illustrative of my last observation, I insert at

"But the most alarming feature in the condition of things, not only in
the city, but elsewhere throughout the country, is the lawlessness of
the youth. The most striking illustration of this which I have seen is
taken from a Cincinnati paper of last January. It seems that in the
course of a few days one hundred applications had been made by parents
in that city to have their own children sent to the House of Refuge.
The particulars of one case, which happened a short time before, are
given:--a boy, twelve years of age, was brought before the Mayor's
Court by his father, who stated that the family were absolutely afraid
the youth would take their lives, and that he had purchased a pistol
for the purpose of shooting the housekeeper. A double-barrelled pistol
was produced in court, which the police-officer had taken from the
boy, who avowed that he had bought it for the purpose stated. The
mayor sent the boy to the House of Refuge."

I now pass on to the question of Liberty in the United States. If by
liberty be understood the will of the greater number ruling the State or
regulating its laws, certainly they have more liberty than England; but
if by liberty be understood that balance of power and adaptation of the
laws to the various interests of the whole community, combined with the
due execution, of them against offenders of whatever class, then I
consider that there is unquestionably more liberty in England, in spite
of the restrictions by which the franchise is limited--nay, rather I
should say, in consequence of those very restrictions; for I believe
they tend to secure the services of more liberal, high-minded, and
independent representatives than any country--however highly educated
its population may be--would return under a system of universal
suffrage. I do not intend to convey in the foregoing observation, any
opinion as to how far it is desirable, or otherwise, to modify the
restrictions at present existing in England; it is obvious they should
keep pace with the growing intelligence of the community, inasmuch as,
if they do not, popular agitation is readily excited, and violent
changes are forced by ignorant passion, going far beyond those which
educated prudence and a sense of justice ought to have brought
forward.--Prevention is better than cure.

Mr. Everett, in a letter dated July 25, 1853, after observing that it
has long been the boast of England that she is the great city of refuge
for the rest of Europe, adds, "it is the prouder boast of the United
States, that they are, and ever have been, an asylum for the rest of the
world, including Great Britain herself:" he then goes on to say, "no
citizen has ever been driven into banishment."--This is bravely said by
an able son of the "Land of Liberty;" but when he penned it, he appears
to have forgotten that there are upwards of three millions of his own
fellow-creatures held in the galling shackles of hopeless slavery by the
citizens of that land of which he makes so proud a boast; and that from
one to two thousand of the wretched victims escape annually to the
British colony adjoining, which is their sole city of refuge on the
whole North American continent. Doubtless Mr. Everett's countrymen do
not sufficiently know this startling point of difference, or they would
hesitate in accepting such a boast. So ignorant are some of his
countrymen of the real truth as regards the citizens of Great Britain,
that a friend of mine was asked by a well-educated and otherwise
intelligent son of the Republic, "Is it really true that all the land in
England belongs to the Queen?"

While on the subject of liberty, it is well to observe one or two
curious ways in which it may be said to be controlled in America. If
any gentleman wished to set up a marked livery for his servants, he
could not do so without being the subject of animadversions in the rowdy
Press, styling him a would-be aristocrat. But perhaps the most
extraordinary vagary is the Yankee notion that service is degrading; the
consequence of which is that you very rarely see a Yankee servant; and
if by chance you find one on a farm, he insists on living and eating
with the overseer. So jealous are they of the appearance of service,
that on many of the railways there was considerable difficulty in
getting the guard, or conductor, to wear a riband on his hat designating
his office, and none of the people attached to the railway station will
put on any livery or uniform by which they can be known. I wonder if it
ever occurs to these sons of the Republic, that in thus acting they are
striking at the very root of their vaunted equal rights of man, and
spreading a broader base of aristocracy than even the Old World can
produce. Servants, of course, there must be in every community, and it
is ridiculous to suppose that American gentlemen ever did, or ever will,
live with their housemaids, cooks, and button-boys; and if this be so,
and that Americans consider such service as degrading, is it not
perfectly clear that the sons of the soil set themselves up as nobles,
and look upon the emigrants--on whom the duties of service chiefly
devolve--in the light of serfs?

I may, while discussing service, as well touch upon the subject of
strikes. The Press in America is very ready to pass strictures on the
low rate of wages in this country, such as the three-ha'penny
shirt-makers, and a host of other ill-paid and hard-worked poor. Every
humane man must regret to see the pressure of competition producing such
disgraceful results; but my American friends, if they look carefully
into their own country, will see that they act in precisely the same
way, as far as they are able; in short, that they get labour as cheap as
they can. Fortunately for the poor emigrant, the want of hands is so
great, that they can insure a decent remuneration for their work; but
the proof that the Anglo-Saxon in America is no better than the rest of
the world in this respect, is to be found in the fact that strikes for
higher wages also take place among them. I remember once reading in the
same paper of the strike of three different interests; one of which was
that indispensable body, the hotel-waiters. The negroes even joined with
the whites, and they gained their point; they knew the true theory of
strikes, and made their move "when the market was rising." The hotels
were increasing their charges, and they merely wanted their share of the

I now propose to consider one of the brightest features in the national
character--Intelligence. Irresistible testimony is borne to their
appreciation of the value of education, not merely by the multitudes of
schools of all kinds, and by the numbers that attend them, but also by
that arrangement of which they may be so justly proud, and which opens
the door to every branch of study to their poorest citizens free of
expense. No praise is too high for such a noble national institution as
the school system of the Republic. How far it may be advisable to bring
all the various classes of the community together at that early age when
habits which affect after-life are so readily acquired, is another
question. Though the roughness of the many may derive advantage from
contact with the polish of the few, it appears to me more than probable
that the polish of the few will be influenced far more considerably by
the roughness of the many. I cannot, therefore, but imagine that the
universal admixture of all classes of society in early infancy must
operate prejudicially to that advancement in the refinements of
civilization which tends to give a superior tone to the society of every
country. It must not, however, be imagined that the intelligence
obtained at these schools is confined to those subjects which are
requisite for making dollars and cents. People of this country, judging
of the Republicans by the general accounts given of them through the
Press, can have little idea of the extent to which the old standard
works of the mother-country are read; but there is an intelligent
portion of our own nation to be found among the booksellers, who can
enlighten them on this point. I have been told by several of them, not
only that old editions of our best authors are rapidly being bought up
by citizens of the United States, but that in making their purchases
they exhibit an intimate acquaintance with them far greater than they
find generally among Englishmen, and which proves how thoroughly they
are appreciated by them.

Then again, with reference to their own country; it is impossible for
any one to travel among them without being struck with the universal
intelligence they possess as to its constitution, its politics, its
laws, and all general subjects connected with its prosperity or its
requirements; and if they do not always convey their information in the
most classical language, at all events they convey it in clear and
unmistakeable terms. The Constitution of their country is regularly
taught at their schools; and doubtless it is owing to this early insight
into the latent springs by which the machinery of Government is worked,
that their future appetite for more minute details becomes whetted. I
question very much if every boy, on leaving a high school in the United
States, does not know far more of the institutions of his country than
nine-tenths of the members of the British House of Commons do of theirs.
At the same time it should not be forgotten, that the complications
which have grown up with a nationality of centuries render the study far
more difficult in this country, than it possibly can, be in the giant
Republic of yesterday. And in the same way taxation in England, of which
30,000,000l. is due as interest on debt before the State receives one
farthing for its disbursements, is one of the most intricate questions
to be understood even by enlarged minds; whereas in the United States,
scarcely any taxation exists, and the little that does, creates a
surplus revenue which they often appear at a loss to know how to get rid

Doubtless, the intelligence of the community sometimes exhibits itself
in a 'cuteness which I am not prepared to defend. A clear apprehension
of their immediate material interests has produced repudiation of
legitimate obligations; but those days are, nationally speaking, I hope,
gone by, and many of their merchants stand as high in the estimation of
the commercial world as it is possible to desire. At the same time, it
is equally true that the spirit of commercial gambling has risen to a
point in the States far above what it ever has in this country,--except,
perhaps, during the Railway epidemic; and the number of failures is
lamentably great.

With their intelligence they combine an enterprise that knows no
national parallel. This quality, aided by their law of limited
liability, has doubtless tended to urge forward many works and schemes
from which the Union is deriving, and has derived, great wealth and
advantage; at the same time it has opened the door for the unscrupulous
and the shrewd to come in and play high stakes with small capital--in
playing which reckless game, while some become millionaires others
become bankrupts. This latter state is a matter of comparative
unimportance in a country like the Republic, where the field is so
great, and a livelihood easily attainable until some opening occurs,
when they are as ready to rush into it again as if they had been foaled
at Niagara, and had sucked in the impetuosity of its cataract.

There is one shape that their enterprise takes which it would indeed be
well for us to imitate, and that is early rising. I quite blush for my
country when I think what a "Castle of Indolence" we are in that
respect, especially those who have not the slightest excuse for it. On
what principle the classes of society in England who are masters of
their own time, turn night into day, waste millions yearly in oil and
wax, and sleep away the most fresh and healthy hours of the morning, for
no other visible purpose but to enable themselves to pass the night in
the most stuffy and unhealthy atmosphere, is beyond my comprehension.
One thing is certain: it has a tendency to enervate both body and mind,
and were it not for the revivifying effects produced by a winter
residence in the country, where gentlemen take to field sports, and
ladies to razeed dresses, sensible shoes, and constitutional walks, the
mortality among our "upper ten thousand" would, I believe, be frightful.
In America, the "boys" get up so early, that it is said they frequently
"catch the birds by their tails as they are going to roost;" and it is
no doubt owing to this that they are so 'cute. Talk about "catching a
weasel asleep," let me see any of my metropolitan drone friends who can
catch a Yankee boy asleep!

It is not, however, merely to early rising that they owe their
'cuteness. A total absence of idleness, and the fact of being constantly
thrown on their own resources in cases of minor difficulty, aid
materially in sharpening their wits. You may see these latter influences
operating in the difference between soldiers and sailors, when placed in
situations where they have to shift for themselves. Some of their
anecdotes bearing upon 'cuteness are amusing enough. I will give one as
an illustration.--Owing to some unknown cause, there was a great dearth
of eggs in one of the New England States, and they consequently rose
considerably in price. It immediately occurred to a farmer's wife, that,
if she could in any way increase the produce of her hens, it would be a
source of great gain to her; she accordingly fitted the bottom of each
laying hen's bed with a spring, and fixed a basin underneath, capable of
holding two eggs. In due time, the hens laid; but as each hen, after
laying, missed the warmth of the precious deposit, she got up to look if
it was all right. To her astonishment, no egg was to be seen. "Bless my
soul!" says the hen, "well, I declare I thought I had laid an egg. I
suppose I must be mistaken;" and down she went to fulfil her duties
again. Once more she rose to verify her success. No egg was there.
"Well, I vow," quoth Mrs. Hen, "they must be playing me some trick: I'll
have one more shot, and, if I don't succeed, I shall give it up." Again
she returned to her labours, and the two eggs that had passed into the
basin below supporting the base of her bed, success crowned her efforts,
and she exclaimed, "Well, I have done it this time at all events!" The
'cute wife kept her counsel, and said nothing, either to the hens or to
her neighbours, and thus realized a comfortable little bag of
dollars.--I give the anecdote as narrated to me, and I must confess I
never saw the operation, or heard the remarks of the outwitted hens. I
insert it lest in these days of agricultural distress (?) any farmer's
wife be disposed to make a trial of a similar experiment.[CO]

I proceed to consider the energy of the Republicans, a quality in which
they may challenge comparison with the world. No enterprise is too great
for them to undertake, and no hardship too severe for them to endure.
A Yankee will start off with his household gods, and seek a new home in
the wilderness, with less fuss than a Cockney would make about packing
up a basket of grub to go and pic-nic in Richmond Park. It is the spirit
of adventure that has enabled them to cover a whole continent in the
incredible manner which the map of the United States shows. The great
drawback to this phase of their energy is the total absence it exhibits
of those ties of home to which we so fondly cling in the old country. If
we were a nation of Yankees, I feel persuaded that in five years we
should not have ten millions of inhabitants. No Yankee can exist without
elbow-room, except it be the more degraded and rowdy portion of the
community, who find a more congenial atmosphere in those sinks of vice
inseparable from large towns. This migratory spirit has caused them to
exhibit their energy and enterprise in those countless miles of rail and
telegraph, which bring the citizens of the most distant States into easy
communication with Washington and the Eastern cities. The difficulty of
procuring labour is no doubt one cause of the very inefficient way in
which many of these works are performed; and it also disables them for
executing gigantic works with the speed and certainty that such
operations are completed in England. The miniature Crystal Palace at New
York afforded a convincing proof of what I have stated; for although it
was little more than a quarter of the size of the one in Hyde Park, they
were utterly foiled in their endeavours to prepare it in time. In
revenge for that failure, the Press tried to console the natives by
enlarging on the superior attraction of hippodromes, ice-saloons, and
penny shows, with which it was surrounded, and contrasting them with the
"gloomy grandeur" of the palace in London. Gloomy grandeur is, I
suppose, the Yankee way of expressing the finest park in any city in the

Among other remarks on Americans, I have heard many of my countrymen
say, "Look how they run after lords!"--It is quite true; a live lord is
a comparative novelty, and they run after him in the same way as people
in England run after an Indian prince, or any pretentious Oriental: it
is an Anglo-Saxon mania. Not very long ago, a friend of mine found a
Syrian swaggering about town, _feted_ everywhere, as though he were the
greatest man of the day; and who should the Syrian nabob turn out to be,
but a man he had employed as a servant in the East, and whom he had been
obliged to get bastinadoed for petty theft. In England we run after we
know not whom; in America, if a lord be run after, there is at all
events a strong presumption in favour of his being at least a gentleman.
We toady our Indian swells, and they toady their English swells; and I
trust, for our sake, that in so doing they have a decided advantage over

I have also heard some of my countrymen observe, as to their
hospitality, "Oh! it's very well; but if you went there as often as I
do, you would see how soon their hospitality wears off." Who on earth
ever heard such an unreasonable remark! Because a man, in the fulness of
hospitality, dedicates his time, his money, and his convenience to
welcome a stranger, of whose character and of whose sociability he knows
nothing whatever, is he therefore bound to be saddled with that
acquaintance as often as the traveller chooses to visit the American
Continent? Is not the very idea preposterous? No man in the world is
more ready to welcome the stranger than the American; but if the
stranger revisit the same places, the courtesy and hospitality he
receives must, in justice, depend upon the impression which his company
has left on those upon whom he inflicted it. No doubt the scanty number
of travellers enables Americans to exercise more universal hospitality
than they could do if the country were filled with strangers in the same
way as Great Britain is. The increased travelling of late years has
necessarily made a marked difference on that point among ourselves, and
doubtless it may hereafter act upon the United States; but the man who
does not admit hospitality to be a most distinctive feature of the
Republic, at the present time, must indeed be rotten in the brain or the

With regard to the political character of the Union, it is very much in
the same state as that of England. The two original parties were Whig
and Democrat, the former being synonymous with the Tory party in this
country--i.e., an honest body of men, who, in their earnest endeavours
to keep the coach straight, put the drag on so often that the horses get
restive sometimes, and start off at score when they feel the wheel
clogged. The Democrats are more nearly represented by a compound of
Whig and Radical--i.e., a body of men who, in their energetic
exertions to make the coach go, don't trouble themselves much about the
road, and look upon the drag as a piece of antiquated humbug. Sometimes
this carelessness also leads to the team-bolting; but in the States
there is so much open country that they may run away for miles without
an upset; whereas in England, when this difficulty occurs, the ribands
are generally handed over to the Jarvey of the opposite party. This old
state of affairs is entirely changed in both hemispheres; each party is
more or less broken up, and in neither country is there at present any
distinct body sufficiently numerous to form a strong government.

In consequence of these disruptions, it may be imagined how difficult it
would be to give any accurate description of the different pieces of
crockery that constitute the political "service." Formerly, the two
cries of "Protection to Home Manufacture" and "Free Trade" were the
distinct rallying points. At present there are Slaveholders, Slavery
Extension, Free-soil, Abolitionist, Annexationist, and Heaven alone
knows how many more parties, on the question of Slavery alone, into
which the Democratic or dominant party is divided, independent of those
other general political divisions which must necessarily exist in so
large and varied a community. From the foregoing you will observe that,
to say a man is a Democrat conveys no distinct idea of his politics
except that he is not a Whig; and the Whigs also have their divisions on
the Slave question.

But there is a party lately come into the field, and called the
Know-nothings, which requires a special notice. Their ostensible
principles have been published in the leading journals of this country,
and carry a certain degree of reason upon the face of them, the leading
features being that they are a secret society banded together for the
purpose of opposing the priestly influence of the Humanists in political
matters: for prolonging the period requisite to obtain the rights of
citizenship; and for the support of the native-born American in
opposition to all other candidates for any public situation that may be
contested. Such is the substance of their manifesto. Their opponents say
that they are sheer humbugs, and brought into life by a few old
political hacks for their own selfish ends. Owing to the factions in
the old Whig and Democratic parties, their opponents believe they may
succeed for a year or two, but they prophesy their speedy and total
disruption. Time will show--I am no prophet. There is one point in their
charter, however, that I cannot believe will ever succeed--viz.,
naturalization or citizenship. Congress would be loth to pass any law
that might tend to turn the stream of emigration into another channel,
such as Australia or Canada; and individual States would be equally loth
to pass such a local law for the same reason, inasmuch as if they did,
the emigrants would move on to those States where they obtained most
speedily the rights of citizens. The crusade against the Romanists is
also so opposed to the spirit of a constitution which professes the
principle of the equal rights of man, that it is more than probable they
may ere long divide upon the unsolvable question of how to draw the line
of demarcation between the influence of the priest and the opinion of
his flock. As far, therefore, as I am capable of judging, I do not
believe they have a sufficiently broad and distinct basis to stand upon,
and I think also that the fact of their being a secret society will
rather hasten their end than otherwise.

The last point I shall allude to is the future prospects of the
Republic; a question which doubtless is veiled in much obscurity. The
black cloud of the South hangs perpetually over their heads, ever from
time to time threatening to burst upon them. In the Free States many
feel strongly the degradation of being forced to aid in the capture of
the fugitive slave; and the aversion to the repulsive task is increasing
rather than decreasing. The citizens have on many occasions risen in
masses against those who were executing the law, and the military have
been brought into collision with them in defending the authorities. The
dread of breaking up the Union alone prevents that clause being struck
out from the Constitution, by which they are compelled not merely to
restore but to hunt up the fugitive. The "Freesoilers" also feel
indignant at seeing their nation turning virgin soil into a land of
Slavery; the Nebraska Bill has strengthened that feeling considerably.
The Abolitionists are subject to constant fits of rabidity which
increase intensity with each successive attack. Thousands and thousands
of Northerns, who writhe under the feeling that their star-spangled
banner is crossed with the stripes of the slave, turn back to the
history of their country, and recalling to mind the glorious deeds that
their ancestors have accomplished under that flag, their hearts
respond--"The Union for ever!"

But perhaps the strongest feeling in the Republic which tends to keep
things quiet, is that the intelligence of the community of the North,
who are opposed both to slavery and to the fugitive law, foresee that if
those objects are only to be obtained at the price of separation from
the South, greater evils would probably accrue than those they are
anxious to remove. However peaceably a separation might be made in
appearance, it could never take place without the most bitter feelings
of animosity. Junius describes the intensity of the feeling, by saying,
"He hated me as much as if he had once been my friend;" and so it would
assuredly prove. Squabbles would breed quarrels, and quarrels would grow
into wars; the comparative harmony of a continent would be broken up,
and standing armies and fleets become as necessary in the New World as
they unfortunately are in the Old. If the South are determined to
perpetuate Slavery, the only way it will ever cease to stain the Union
is by the force of public opinion, and by the immigration of the white
man gradually driving the negro southwards from State to State. As his
value decreases, breeding for the market will gradually cease; and he
may eventually die out if the millennium does not interfere with the

Another, possible cause for division in the Union may come from
California, in which State a feeble cry has already been heard of--"a
Western Republic." The facility of intercourse afforded by railroads
seems likely to stop the swelling of that cry; but if California did
separate, it would not be attended with those evils which a disruption
of the Southern States would inevitably produce. The only other chance
of a division in the Republic which I can conceive possible is, in the
event of a long war with any great maritime power, for ends which only
affected one particular portion of the States; in which case the
irresistible influence of the all mighty dollar might come into powerful
action. The wealth of America is her commerce; whatever checks that,
checks the pulsations of her vitality; and unless her honour was
thoroughly compromised in the struggle, neither North nor South would be
disposed to prolong a ruinous struggle for the sole benefit of the
other. The prospects of such a contingency may, I trust, be deemed
visionary. France is not likely to come in contact with the Union; and
the only other maritime nation is Great Britain, whose interests are so
identified with peace, that it is hardly possible she should encourage
any other than the most friendly relations. Neither party could gain
anything by a war, and both parties would inevitably suffer immensely;
and although I fear there is but too strong evidence, that many ignoble
minds in the Republic make blustering speeches, and strive to excite
hostile feelings, the real intelligence and wealth of the States
repudiate the unworthy sentiment, and deprecate any acts that could
possibly lead to a collision between the two countries. Besides all
which, there is that strong affinity between _L. s. d._ and dollars and
cents, whereby so strong an influence is exercised over that commercial
body which constitutes no unimportant portion of the wealth and
intelligence of both nations.

If the views I have taken be correct, it is indeed impossible to
foreshadow the future of the United States; centuries must elapse ere it
can become sufficiently peopled to test the adaptation of its present
form of government to a thickly populated country; in the meantime,
there seems scarcely a limit to her increase in wealth and prosperity.
Her present gigantic stride among the nations of the world appears but
an invisible atom, if compared with the boundless resources she
encircles within her borders, not the least important of which is that
mass of energy and intelligence she is, year by year, sowing broadcast
throughout the length and breadth of the land, the Church and the School
ever following in the train, and reproducing those elements to which she
owes her present proud position.

My task is now done. I have endeavoured, in the preceding pages, to
convey some general idea of the places I visited, and of the objects
which appeared to me most worthy of notice. I have touched but lightly
on Cuba, and I have not dwelt at any great length on the prosperous and
rising colony of Canada. My remarks have been chiefly on the United
States, which, differing in so many points from, the country of her
birth, and occupying so conspicuous a place among the nations, presented
the most extended field for observation and comment. I have on all
occasions stated plainly the impressions produced upon my mind. I have
freely remarked upon all those topics which, being public, I conceive to
be the legitimate field for a traveller's criticism; where I have
praised, or where I have condemned, I have equally endeavoured to
explain my reasons. I have called attention to facts and opinions
connected with my own country, where I thought similar points in the
Republic might help to throw light upon them. Lastly, I have endeavoured
to explain the various causes by which hostile feelings towards this
country are engendered and spread abroad among a certain portion of the
community; and I have stated my firm conviction, that the majority of
the highest order of intelligence and character entertain a sincere
desire to perpetuate our present friendly relations.

In conclusion, I would observe, that the opinions and feelings of a
nation should not be hastily drawn from the writings of a passing
traveller, or from the casual leaders of a Free Press. Man is ever prone
to find fault with his neighbour, because the so doing involves a latent
claim to superior intelligence in himself; but a man may condemn many
things in a nation, while holding the nation itself in high esteem. The
world is a large society,--a traveller is but one of the company, who
converses through the Press; and as, in the smaller circles,
conversation would die or freeze if nothing were stated but what could
be mathematically proved, so would volumes of travels come to an
untimely end, if they never passed beyond the dull boundary of facts. In
both cases, opinions are the life of conversation; because, as no two
people agree, they provoke discussion, through the openings of which, as
truth oozes out, wise men catch it, leaving the refuse to the

The late Lord Holland, who was equally remarkable for his kindness and
his intelligence, is said to have observed, "I never met a man so great
a fool, but what I could learn something from him." Reader, I am bound
to confess his Lordship never met me; but I cannot take my leave without
expressing a hope, that you will not be less fortunate than that
amiable Peer.

And now, farewell, thou Giant Republic! I have long since left thy
shores; but I have brought with me, and fondly cherish, the recollection
of the many pleasant days I spent within thy borders, and of all those
friends whose unceasing hospitality and kindness tracked my path without
intermission. I care not for the Filibusteros and Russian sympathizers;
I know that the heart of the intelligence of thy people beats with
friendly pulsations, to which that of my own countrymen readily
responds. All we should, and I trust all we do, mutually desire, is, to
encourage an honourable and increasing rivalry in arts, science,
commerce, and good-will. He who would disturb our amicable relations, be
he Briton or American, is unworthy of the name of a man; for he is a foe
to Liberty--Humanity--and Christianity.


[Footnote CK: The _New York Herald_ is edited by two renegade British
subjects, one of whom was, I am told, formerly a writer in a scurrilous
publication in this country.]

[Footnote CL: It has been cited as an example of their fondness for
grand-sounding titles, that while, by the Census of Great Britain, there
were only 2,328 physicians to 15,163 surgeons, in the United States
there were 40,564 physicians to only 191 surgeons.]

[Footnote CM: _Vide_ chapter entitled "America's Press and England's

[Footnote CN: One of the few cases in which perhaps there is an
advantage in the masses voting, is where a question of public advantage
is brought forward, to which many and powerful local interests or
monopolies are opposed. Take, for instance, the supply of London with
good water, which the most utter dunderhead must admit to be most
desirable; yet the influence of vested interests is so strong that its
two millions of inhabitants seem destined to be poisoned for centuries,
and the lanes and courts will, in all probability, continue as arid as
the desert during the same period.--London, look at New York and blush!]

[Footnote CO: While on the subject of eggs, I would ask my reader, did
you ever, while eating the said article, find your patience sorely tried
as each mouthful was being taken from its shell, and dipped carefully
into the salt? If you have ever felt the inconvenience of this tedious
process, let me suggest to you a simple remedy. After opening the egg,
and taking out one spoonful, put in enough salt for the whole, and then
on the top thereof pour a few drops of water; the saline liquid will
pervade the whole nutritious substance, and thus render unnecessary
those annoying transits above named, which make an egg as great a
nuisance at the breakfast-table as a bore in society. Who first took out
a patent for this dodge I cannot say, but I suppose it must have been a
New Englander.]



_Extent of Telegraph in the United Kingdom._

Miles. Miles of Wire.
5,070 Under ground 5,000
Above ground 20,700

1,740 Under ground 6,180
Above ground 4,076

400 Under ground 2,740
Above ground --

1,000[CP] Under ground 2,755
Above ground 3,218

88 Under ground 176
Above ground --
---- ----
Total 8,298 Total 44,845

Of the foregoing, 534 miles are submarine, employing 1100 miles of wire.
The cost of putting up a telegraph was originally 105l. per mile for
two wires. Experience now enables it to be done for 50l., and that in
a far more durable and efficient manner than is practised in the United
States. The cost of laying down a submarine telegraph is stated to be
about 230l. per mile for six wires, and 110l. for single wires.

One feature in which the telegraphs of Great Britain differ materially
from those of America and all other countries, is, the great extent of
underground lines. There are nearly 17,000 miles of wire placed
underground in England, the cost of which is six times greater than that
of overground lines; but it has the inestimable advantage of being never
interrupted by changes of weather or by accidents, while the cost of its
maintenance is extremely small. This fact must be borne in mind, when
we come to consider the relative expense of the transmission of messages
in England and the States.

In the foregoing lines we have shown, that England possesses, miles of
line, 8,298; miles of wire, 44,845; the United States possesses, miles
of lines, 16,735; miles of wire, 23,281.

We thus see, that the telegraph in the United States extends over more
than twice as much ground as the British lines; while on the other hand
the system of telegraph in England is so much more fully developed, that
nearly double the quantity of wire is in actual use. On the English
lines, which are in the hands of three companies only, from 25,000 to
30,000 miles are worked on Cook and Wheatstone's system; 10,000 on the
magnetic system--without batteries;--3000 on Bain's chemical
principle--which is rapidly extending;--and the remainder on Morse's

The price of the transmission of messages is less in America than in
England, especially if we regard the distance of transmission. In
America a message is limited to ten words; in England to twenty words;
and the message is delivered free within a certain distance from the

In both countries the names and addresses of the sender and receiver are
sent free of charge. The average cost of transmission from London to
every station in Great Britain is 13/10 of a penny per word per 100
miles. The average cost from Washington to all the principal towns in
America is about 6/10 of a penny per word per 100 miles. The ordinary
scale of charges for twenty words in England is 1s. for fifty miles
and under; 2s. 6d. between fifty miles and 100 miles; all distances
beyond that, 5s. with a few exceptions, where there is great
competition. Having received the foregoing statement from a most
competent authority, its accuracy may be confidently relied upon.

In conclusion, I would observe that the competition which is gradually
growing up in this country must eventually compel a reduction of the
present charges; but even before that desirable opposition arrives, the
companies would, in my humble opinion, exercise a wise and profitable
discretion by modifying their present system of charges. Originally the
addresses of both parties were included in the number of words allowed;
that absurdity is now given up, but one scarcely less ridiculous still
remains--viz., twenty words being the shortest message upon which their
charges are based. A merchant in New York can send a message to New
Orleans, a distance of 2000 miles, and transact important business in
ten words--say "Buy me a thousand bales of cotton--ship to Liverpool;"
but if I want to telegraph from Windsor to London a distance of twenty
miles, "Send me my portmanteau," I must pay for twenty words. Surely
telegraph companies would show a sound discretion by lowering the scale
to ten words, and charging two-thirds of the present price for twenty.
Opposition would soon compel such a manifestly useful change; but,
independent of all coercion, I believe those companies that strive the
most to meet the reasonable demands of the public will always show the
best balance-sheet at the end of the year.--Thirteenpence is more than
one shilling.


_A short Sketch of the Progress of Fire-arms._

The first clear notice which we have of rifles is in the year 1498,
nearly 120 years after the invention of gunpowder was known to Europe.
The Chinese, I believe, claim the invention 3000 years before the
Creation. The first rifle-maker was one Zugler, in Germany, and his
original object appears to have been merely to make the balls more
ragged, so as to inflict more serious wounds; a result produced before
that time by biting and hacking the balls. This appears clearly to have
been the intention, inasmuch as the cuts were made perfectly straight in
the first instance. The accurate dates of the introduction of the
various twists I have not been able to ascertain.

I can find no mention of breech-loading arms before the reign of Henry
VIII., since which time they have been constantly used in China and
other parts of the East. In 1839, they were, I understand, extensively
used in Norway. A breech-loading carbine, lately brought across to this
country from America as the invention of Mr. Sharpe, was patented by a
Mr. Melville, of London, as far back as 1838. I understand Mr. Sharpe's
carbine was tried at Woolwich not long ago, and found to clog, owing to
the expansion of the metal from consecutive firing. Nor has any
breech-loading weapon hitherto introduced been able to make its way into
extensive practical use, although the Americans have constantly used
them in their navy for some years past. To return to ancient
times.--There is a matchlock in the Tower of London with one barrel and
a revolving breech cylinder which was made in the fifteenth century, and
there is a pistol on a similar plan, and dating from Henry VIII., which
may be seen in the Rotunda at Woolwich. The cylinders of both of these
weapons were worked by hand.

The old matchlock, invented in 1471, gave way to a substitute scarcely
less clumsy, and known by the initiated as the wheel-lock, the ignition
taking place by the motion of the steel wheel against a fixed flint
placed in the midst of the priming. This crude idea originated in 1530,
and reigned undisputed until the invention of the common old flint and
steel, about the year 1692, when this latter became lord paramount,
which it still remains with some infatuated old gentlemen, in spite of
the beautiful discovery of the application of fulminating powder, as a
means of producing the discharge.

Mr. Forsyth patented this invention in 1807, but, whether from prejudice
or want of perfection in its application, no general use was made of the
copper cap until it was introduced among sportsmen by Mr. Egg, in 1818,
and subsequently Mr. J. Manton patented his percussion tubes for a
similar purpose. The use of the copper cap in the army dates 1842, or
nearly a quarter of a century after its manifest advantages had been
apparent to the rest of the community.

Previous to this invention it was impossible to make revolving weapons
practically available for general use.

The public are indebted to Mr. Jones for the ingenious mechanism by
which continuous pressure on the trigger causes both the revolution of
the barrels and the discharge of the piece; this patent goes back to
1829-1830. Colonel Colt first endeavoured to make a number of barrels
revolve by raising the hammer, but the weight of the barrels suggested a
return to the old rotatory cylinder, for which he took out a patent in
1835; and in 1836 he took out another patent for obtaining the rotatory
motion by drawing back the trigger, and he subsequently introduced the
addition of a lever ramrod fixed on to the barrel. Col. Colt came to the
conclusion that the hammer-revolving cylinder was the more useful
article, inasmuch as it enabled the person using it to take a more
steady aim than with the other, which, revolving and firing by the
action of the trigger, the moment of explosion could not be depended
upon. To Col. Colt belongs the honour of so combining obsolete and
modern inventions, and superadding such improvements of his own, as to
produce the first practical and really serviceable weapon.

Since then Messrs. Dean and Adams, in 1852, revived the old invention of
the trigger-revolving cylinder, which has the advantage of only
requiring one hand to fire, but which is immeasurably inferior where
accuracy of aim is wanted. Mr. Tranter, in 1853, patented a new
invention, which, by employing a double trigger, combines the advantages
of Colt and avoids the drawbacks of Dean and Adams. By a side-wind he
has also adapted that invaluable application of Colt's--a fixed lever
ramrod. Many other patents are springing up daily, too numerous to
mention, and too similar to admit of easy definition.

To return to rifles.--It is well known that the ordinary rifle in use
until late years was the seven-grooved, with a spherical ball, and the
two-grooved, with a zone bullet; the latter an invention known as the
Brunswick rifle; and imported from Berlin about 1836. It was upon this
weapon Mr. Lancaster proceeded to make some very ingenious experiments,
widening the grooves gradually until at last they met, and an elliptic
bore rifle was produced, for which he obtained a patent in July, 1850;
but upon investigation it would be proved that Mr. Lancaster's patent
was invalid, inasmuch as the elliptical bore rifle is of so ancient a
date that it is mentioned in _Scloppetaria_--a work printed in 1808--as
even then obsolete; the details, methods, and instruments for their
fabrication are fully described therein; and I have seen a rifle of this
kind, made by "Dumazin, a Paris," which is at least a century old; it is
now in the possession of the Duke of Athole. Mr. Lancaster is entitled
to the credit of bringing into practical use what others had thrown on
one side as valueless.

From rifles I turn to balls, in which the chief feature of improvement
is the introduction of the conical shape. The question of a conical ball
with a saucer base is fully discussed in _Scloppetaria_, but no
practical result seems to have been before the public until Monsieur
Delvigue, in 1828, employed a solid conical ball, which, resting on the
breech clear of the powder, he expanded by several blows with the ramrod
sufficiently to make it take the grooves. Colonel Thouvenin introduced a
steel spire into the breech, upon which the ball being forced, it
expanded more readily. This spire is called the "tige." Colonel Tamisier
cut three rings into the cylindrical surface of the bullet, to
facilitate the expansion and improve its flight. These three
combinations constitute the _Carabine a Tige_ now in general use in the
French army. Captain Minie--in, I believe, 1850--dispensed with the
tige, and employed a conical hollow in the ball; into which, introducing
an iron cup, the explosion of the powder produced the expansion
requisite. As Captain Minie has made no change in the rifle, except
removing a tige which was only lately introduced, it is certainly an
extraordinary Irishism to call his conical ball a Minie rifle; it was
partially adopted in England as early as 1851. Why his invention has not
been taken up in France, I cannot say.

Miraculous to remark, the British Government for once appear to have
appreciated a useful invention, and various experiments with the Minie
ball were carried on with an energy so unusual as to be startling. It
being discovered that the iron cup had various disadvantages, besides
being a compound article, a tornado of inventions rushed in upon the
Government with every variety of modification. The successful competitor
of this countless host was Mr. Pritchett, who, while dispensing with the
cup entirely, produced the most satisfactory results with a simple
conical bullet imperceptibly saucered out in the base, and which is now
the generally adopted bullet in Her Majesty's service. The reader will
recognise in Mr. Pritchett's bullet a small modification of the conical
ball alluded to in _Scloppetaria_ nearly fifty years ago.

Through the kindness of a friend, I have been able to get some
information as to the vexed question of the Minie ball, which militates
against some of the claims of the French captain, if invention be one.
The character of the friend through whom I have been put in
correspondence with the gentleman named below, I feel to be a sufficient
guarantee for the truthfulness of the statements which I here subjoin.


Mr. Stanton, a proprietor of collieries at Newcastle-on-Tyne, conceived
the idea that if a bullet were made to receive the projectile force in
the interior of the bullet, but beyond the centre of gravity, it would
continue its flight without deviation. Having satisfied himself of the
truth of this theory, he sent the mould to the Board of Ordnance on the
20th of January, 1797, and received a reply the following month, stating
that upon trial it was found to be less accurate in its flight and less
powerful in its penetration than the round bullet then in use. They also
informed Mr. Stanton that there were some conical balls in the
repository which had been deposited there by the late Lieutenant-General
Parker, and which, having more solidity, were superior to those sent by
Mr. Stanton, thus proving that the idea of a conical expanding ball is
of very ancient date. The mould sent to the Ordnance by Mr. Stanton was
taken from a wooden model, of which the accompanying is an exact
diagram, and which is in the possession of Mr. Stanton, solicitor, at
Newcastle, the son of the originator. Evidence is afforded that Mr. Boyd
a banker, and Mr. Stanton, sen., both tried the ball with very different
success to that obtained at Woolwich; but this need excite no
astonishment, as every sportsman is aware of the wonderful difference in
the accuracy with which smooth-bored fire-arms carry balls, and for
which no satisfactory reason has ever been advanced. Mr. Kell was
subsequently present when his friend Mr. Stanton, jun., had balls made
on his father's principle for a pair of Wogden's pistols thirty years
ago; the result is reported as satisfactory.

In 1829, Mr. Kell conceived the idea of applying the principle to
rifles, for which purpose he had a mould made by Mr. Thomas Bulcraig.
Mr. Kell altered the original ball in two points; he made the sides
stronger, and he formed the front of the ball conoidical instead of
hemispherical. I have the ball made from that mould now lying before me,
and it is precisely the same as the Minie ball without the iron cup,
which we have shown in the preceding pages is totally unnecessary. This
ball has been constantly in use by Mr. Kell and others until the present
day; it is the first application of a conical expanding ball to rifles
that I can find on record, and whatever credit is due to the person who
transferred the expanding ball from a smooth bore wherein it was
useless, to a rifle wherein it is now proved to be invaluable, belongs,
as far as I can trace the application back, to Mr. Kell, A.D. 1829.

In 1830, Mr. Kell employed Mr. Greener, then a gunmaker at Newcastle, to
make him a mould for a double pea rifle, and he left in Mr. Greener's
hands one of the balls made for the Wogden pistol, and one of those made
by Mr. Bulcraig, to assist him in so doing. It appears that Mr. Greener
must have been satisfied with the success attending Mr. Kell's
application of the conical ball to a rifle, for some years after, in
August, 1836, he applied to the Ordnance for permission to have a trial
of the conical ball made; this was granted, and the experiment was
conducted under Major Walcott of the Royal Artillery, on the sands near
Tynemouth Castle, the firing party consisting of a company of the 60th
Rifles. Mr. Greener having failed to bring a target, to test the
superior penetrating power of his balls, the ordinary Artillery target
was used. Mr. Greener's ball had a conical plug of lead in the hollow,
for the purpose of producing the expansion when driven home by the force
of the powder. After firing several rounds at two hundred yards, only
one ball of Mr. Greener's, which had struck the target, was found to
have the plug driven home, the others had all lost their plugs. The same
effect was produced when firing into a sand-bank. A trial was then made
at 350 yards; the spherical balls and the conical balls both went home
to the target, but only one of the latter penetrated.

The objections pointed out to the conical ball were: the frequent loss
of the plug, by which its weight was diminished; the inconvenience of
having a hall composed of two separate parts; the difficulty of loading
if the plug was not placed accurately in the centre; and the danger of
the plug losing its place in consequence of being put in loosely,
especially when carried about for any length of time in a
cartridge.--Mr. Greener loaded the rifles during the trial with the ball
and powder separate, not in cartridge.--The advantage admitted was,
merely, rapidity of loading if the plug was fairly placed: no
superiority of range appears to have been produced over the rifles used
by the 60th Regiment. Mr. Greener solicited another trial, but after
the report of Major Walcott, the Select Committee considering the ball
"useless and chimerical," no further trial was accorded. The conical
ball question was thus once more doomed to oblivion.

In process of time the fabulous ranges of the "_Carabine a Tige_" were
heard of, and when it was ascertained that the French riflemen potted
the gunners on the ramparts of Rome with such rapidity that they could
not stand to their guns before a rifle nearly a mile distant, the cone
shape once more turned up, and Captain Minie came forward as the
champion of the old expanding ball. The toscin of war was sounded in the
East; the public were crying aloud for British arms to be put upon an
equality with those of foreign armies; the veterans who had earned their
laurels under poor old "Brown Bess" stuck faithfully to her in her
death-struggle, and dropped a tear over the triumph of new-fangled

In the middle of last century Lieutenant-General Parker's ball was
thrown aside; at the end of the century, Mr. Stanton's shared the same
fate; Mr. Greener's followed in 1836 with equal ill success; Captain
Minie's had a short reign, and was in turn superseded by the more solid
and superior ball now in use, and for which the country is indebted to
the experimental perseverance of Mr. Pritchett; and if ever things
obtain their right names, the weapon of the British army will be called
the Pritchett ball and not the Minie rifle; but as the world persists in
calling the Missouri the Mississippi, I suppose the British public will
behave equally shabbily by Mr. Pritchett. The reader will judge for
himself of the respective credit due to the various persons through
whose ingenuity we have at length succeeded in obtaining the present
efficient ball, the wounds from which are more frightful than pen can

There is, however, one lesson which we should learn from the great
opposition there has been to the introduction of the conical ball, and
that is, the advantage of remodelling the department to which such
inventions are referred. The foregoing remarks appear to me conclusive
evidence that the testing of fire-arms should not be left to age and
experience alone. Prejudice is all but inseparable from age--young and
fresh blood is a powerful auxiliary. What I would suggest is, that there
should be a special examination to qualify officers of the engineers and
artillery to sit in judgment on so important a subject as arms and
missiles; and I would then propose that two officers of the former
corps, and five of the latter, be selected from those below the rank of
field-officer, to form a separate and junior Board, and that each Board
should send in its own report. The method of selection which I would
suggest is by ballot or vote of those Officers of the same rank in their
respective corps; for I feel sure that those who live most together are
the best acquainted with one another's talents. If two Boards are
objectionable, form one Board, of which one-half shall be of the junior
rank; and if they be equally divided in opinion, let the higher
authority appoint an umpire and order a second trial.

Remember how long the now all-but-forgotten "Brown Bess" kept the field
against the adversary which has since proved her immeasurable superior;
and let the future prove that past experience has not been entirely
thrown away. Trials may be troublesome, but officers are paid for taking
trouble; and the ingenuity of inventors will always be quickened in
proportion to the conviction that their inventions will receive a full
and unprejudiced trial; and that, if their first shot at the target of
Success be an outside ringer, they will not be denied a chance of
throwing another in the Bull's-eye.

Since the foregoing remarks went to press, it appears that the Pritchett
ball has been found wanting, both in England and in the Crimea; its
flight is said to be irregular, and the deposit of lead in the barrel so
great that after thirty rounds the charge cannot be got down. If this be
so, it is only one more proof of the necessity for some improvement in
the Board appointed to judge of and superintend warlike missiles.

When Mr. Pritchett had perfected his ball, it was tried in the
three-groove rifle, for which it was intended, with the most
satisfactory results, and was fired an indefinite number of times
without the slightest difficulty. It appears, however, that this
successful trial was not sufficient to satisfy the new-born zeal of the
authorities. Accordingly, a conclave of gunmakers was consulted previous
to the order for manufacturing being sent to Enfield; but with a depth
of wisdom far beyond human penetration, they never asked the opinion of
Mr. Pritchett, who had made the rifle which had carried the ball so

The wise men decided that it would be an improvement if the grooves were
deepened--a strange decision, when all the experience of the day tends
to prove that the shallower the groove the better. Down went the order;
the improved rifles were made as fast as possible, and in the month of
March they went to the seat of war. May is hardly passed by, and the sad
fact discovered in the Crimea is echoed back on our shores, that after
thirty rounds the soldiers may right about face or trust to cold steel.
I think my youngest boy--if I had one--would have suggested testing the
improvement before indulging the army with the weapon. Perhaps the
authorities went on the principle that a rifle is a rifle, and a ball is
a ball, and therefore that it must be all right. It might as well be
said a chancellor is a chancellor, and a black dose is a black dose;
therefore, because an able Aesculapius had prescribed a draught which
had proved eminently useful to bilious Benjamin, it must agree equally
well with lymphatic William.--Never mind, my dear John Bull, sixpence
more in the pound Income-tax will remedy the little oversight.

Three years have elapsed since these observations were penned, and
behold a giant competitor has entered the field, threatening utter
annihilation to the three-groove (or Enfield) rifle and the Pritchett
ball. Mr. Whitworth (whose mechanical powers have realized an accuracy
almost fabulous), after a long course of experiments made at the
Government's expence, has produced a rifle with an hexagonal box and
ball, the correctness of which, at 1100 yards, has proved nearly equal
to that of the Enfield at 500 yards, and possessing a penetrating power
of wonderful superiority; the Enfield rifle ball scarcely penetrated 13
half-inch Elm planks. Whitworth's hexagonal ball penetrated 33, and
buried itself in the solid block of wood behind. It remains to be seen
whether this formidable weapon can be made at such a price as to render
it available for military purposes. The hexagonal bore is not a new
invention, some of the Russians having used it in the late Baltic
campaign; but it is doubtless Mr. Whitworth's wonderful accuracy of
construction that is destined to give it celebrity, by arming it with a
power and correctness it wanted before.[CQ] An explosive ball has also
been introduced by Colonel Jacob of Eastern celebrity, which from its
greater flight will prove, when perfected, a more deadly arm than the
old spherical explosive ball invented and forgotten years ago. With the
daily improvements in science, we may soon expect to see Colonel Jacob's
in general use, unless the same principle applied to Whitworth's
hexagonal ball should be found preferable.

* * * * *

To those who are amateurs of the rifle, I would recommend a pamphlet,
written by Chapman, and published in New York; it is chiefly intended
for those who delight in the infantine or octogenarian amusement of
peppering a target, but it also contains many points of interest. Among
other subjects discussed are the following:--The quantity of twist
requisite in a rifle barrel--the gaining twist, as opposed to Mr.
Greener, and the decreasing twist--the size of ball best suited to
different distances--the swedge, by which a ball, being cast rather
larger than requisite, is compressed into a more solid mass--the powder
to use, decreasing in size of the grain in proportion to the diminishing
length of barrel--the loading muzzle, by which the lips of the grooves
are preserved as sharp as a razor, &c. The pamphlet can easily be
procured through Messrs. Appleton, of New York and London.




[Footnote CP: The miles of distance may not be quite exact, but the
miles of wire may be depended upon.]

[Footnote CQ: The trial between the Enfield and the Whitworth rifles
cannot be yet considered conclusive, as there was a difference in the
bore of the rifles, and also Mr. Whitworth used a different kind of ball
for penetration to that used for long range.]

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