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Journal of an Expedition into the Interior of Tropical Australia by Thomas Mitchell

Part 5 out of 7

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involucri squamis lineari-oblongis albis apice viridipunctatis.]

2D SEPTEMBER.--We recrossed the perfectly level plain formerly mentioned.
We found, on reaching the Claude, that our bridge, then made, had been
much damaged by a flood. The little river was still running, and it was
cheering to learn thus, that rain had fallen at its sources, beyond
which, I had still much to do. We lost no time in repairing our bridge,
so that all things were got across safely. We ascended the undulating
downs along our old track, and where many curious specimens of trees in
flint, lay mixed with the rich black mould. I observed that no entire
sections of trunks were cylindrical, all appearing to have been
compressed so as to present a diameter of two to one. Yuranigh brought me
one specimen which he said was "pine;" (Callitris), which so far
confirmed what has hitherto been observed of the coniferous character of
Australian fossil woods; but, from the appearance of other specimens, I
am not at all convinced that these fossils are all of that description. I
left these beautiful regions with feelings of regret, that the direct
route to the gulf, could not be carried through them. I was rather at a
loss for names of reference to these parts. I had given the name of
Claude to the river; and it occurred to me, that the scenery of the
Mantuan bard, which this painter has so finely illustrated with pastoral
subjects, deserved a congenial name; and that this country might,
therefore, be distinguished by that of the Mantuan Downs and Plains.
About half-way through our former stage, I found water in ponds which had
been formerly dry; and there we encamped, our animals being almost
exhausted. It is one redeeming quality of brigalow scrub, that water is
to be found within its recesses, at times when all other channels or
sources are dry; the soil in which it grows being stiff, retentive, and
usually bare of vegetation. Thermometer at sunrise, 28 deg.; at noon, 73 deg.; at
4 P.M., 78 deg.; at 9, 47 deg.;--with wet bulb, 42 deg..

3D SEPTEMBER.--Another morning worthy of "Eden in her earliest hour." The
thermometer 31 deg. at day-break, with a little dew. The notes of the magpie
or GYMNORHINA, resounded through the shady brigalow, and the rich browns
and reddish greens of that prolific bush contrasted with its dense grey
shades, were very beautiful. We found the Nogoa much in the same state as
when we left it. No flood had come down the channel of that river. The
tracks of the feet of many natives were visible along the old route, and
bushes had been burnt all along the line; but it is remarkable that in no
case had they injured or defaced the letters and numerals marked on trees
at the various camps, nor disturbed our temporary bridges. We cut our way
through a scrub of brigalow, thus passing camps XLVIII., XLVII., and
XLVI., encamping at a short distance from the latter of these places.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 31 deg.; at noon, 74 deg.; at 4 P. M., 75 deg.; at 9, 52 deg.;
with wet bulb, 40 deg..

4TH SEPTEMBER.--The surrounding grass, and also the reeds in the lake,
had been very extensively burnt along our former tracks, and a green crop
was springing to the great gratification and refreshment of our cattle.
Formerly this splendid valley appeared to be uninhabited, but this day,
proofs were not wanting that it was too charming a spot of earth to be
left so. In proceeding over an open part of the plains bordering the
river, we perceived a line of about twelve or fourteen natives before
they had observed us. Through my glass, I saw they were painted red about
the face, and that there were females amongst them. They halted on seeing
us, but some soon began to run, while two very courageously and
judiciously took up a position on each side of a reedy swamp, evidently
with the intention of covering the retreat of the rest. The men who ran
had taken on their backs the heavy loads of the gins, and it was rather
curious to see long-bearded figures stooping under such loads. Such an
instance of civility, I had never before witnessed in the Australian
natives towards their females; for these men appeared to carry also some
of the uncouth-shaped loads like mummies. The two acting as a rear guard
behaved as if they thought we had not the faculty of sight as well as
themselves, and evidently believed that by standing perfectly still, and
stooping slowly to a level with the dry grass, when we passed nearest to
them, they could deceive us into the idea that they were stumps of burnt
trees. After we had passed, they were seen to enter the brigalow, and
make ahead of us; by which movement I learnt that part of the tribe was
still before us. Some time afterwards, we overtook that portion when
crossing an open interval of the woods; they made for the scrub on seeing
us. Meanwhile columns of smoke ascended in various directions before us,
and two natives beyond the river, were seen to set up a great blaze
there. To the westward of the beautifully broken rocky woody range beyond
Lake Salvator, a dense smoke also arose, and continued until evening;
thus adding much sublimity to the effect of a gorgeous sunset, which
poured its beams through the smoke between the rocky pinnacles, as I sat
drawing the scene at my camp by the lake, two miles northward of XLV.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 26 deg.; at noon, 67 deg.; at 4 P.M., 65 deg.; at 9, 39 deg.;--
with wet bulb, 32 deg..

5TH SEPTEMBER.--The cooler air reminded us that we had returned to a more
elevated region than that on the Belyando. This morning heavy clouds of
cumulostratus promised more rain, and gave a cool day for the last effort
of the jaded animals, which the driver doubted could not be driven much
farther. I cut off all the roundabouts and steep pulls, where this could
be done, by laying logs across such gullies as we were obliged to cross.
We thus saw more of the river and its romantic scenery, which well
deserved the name of a painter. No natives, nor columns of smoke, were
seen this day; and I concluded that they concentrated the tribe
yesterday, and had departed this morning. We finally took up a very snug
position near the pyramids, in the very gorge of the mountain valley by
which we had approached this country; camp XLVI. being within sight, and
the swamp with the spring, at the foot of this hill on which we now
encamped, as a camp of occupation during my intended absence, on an
excursion with horses only, to the north-west. The genial influence of
spring had already induced many plants to show their colours, which had
formerly been passed by us unnoticed. In the sandy soil, grew the purple-
flowered CRYPTANDRA PROPINQUA; and a species of CALYTRIX; these two
forming small shrubs, the latter from four to six feet high. A very
handsome new BORONIA, with large white and red downy flowers, here first
appeared in the open forest.[*] The rocks were partly covered with a
small white-flowered shrub, which proved to be a new species of
LEPTOSPERMUM allied to L. PUBESCENS, but perfectly distinct.[**] At the
foot of them, was found the AOTUS MOLLIS, a little hoary bush, with
yellow black flowers; a santalaceous plant like CHORETRUM, forming a tree
fifteen or twenty feet high: the CALLITRIS GLAUCA or CUPRESSUS GLAUCA of
ALL. CUNN. (in Hook. Herb.). A small tree, about twenty-five feet high,
proved to be a new species of Acacia, or possibly a variety of A.
CUNNINGHAMII, but handsomer, with larger phyllodia, longer spikes of
flowers, and everywhere clothed with a soft velvety pubescence.[***]
Thermometer, at sunrise, 33 deg.; at noon, 68 deg.; at 4 P. M., 64 deg.; at 9, 40 deg.;--
with wet bulb, 31 deg..

[* B. ERIANTHA (Lindl. MS.); foliis pinnatis cum impari 1-3-jugis,
foliolis glaberrimis linearibus retusis emarginatisque laevibus,
pedunculis solitariis unifloris axillaribus foliis brevioribus, sepalis
triangularibus glabris, petalis tomentosis, staminibus 8.]

[** L. SERICATUM (Lindl. MS.); foliis obovatis linearibus planis obtusis
aveniis impunctatis utrinque sericeis, calycibus tomentosis dentibus
acutis persistentibus.]

[*** A. LONGISPICATA (Benth. MS.) pube brevi mollissima vestita, ramulis
elevato-angulatis, phyllodiis amplis falcatis utrinque angustatis
subcoriaceis tenuiter striato-multinervibus nervis 3-5 validioribus,
spicis elongato-cylindricis densis, calyce dentato corolla 2-3-plo
breviore, ovario villoso.]

Chapter VII.


6TH AND 7TH SEPTEMBER.--It being necessary to rest and refresh the horses
for a few days before setting out with the freshest of them, all being
leg-weary, I determined to halt here four clear days; and during these
two, I completed my maps, and took a few rough sketches of scenery within
a few miles of the camp. The whole of the grass had been assiduously
burnt by the natives, and a young crop was coming up. This rendered the
spot more eligible for our camp, both because the young grass was highly
relished by the cattle, and because no dry grass remained to be set fire
to, which, in the case of any hostility on the part of the natives, is
usually the first thing they do. Thermometer, at sunrise, 33 deg.; at noon,
68 deg.; at 4 P.M., 64 deg.; at 9, 40 deg.;--with wet bulb, 31 deg..

8TH AND 9TH SEPTEMBER.--I employed my time these two days in writing a
despatch to the governor of New South Wales, giving a detailed account of
my proceedings and discoveries down to the present time; that in the
event of any misfortune befalling me or the very small party now to
accompany me, this despatch should be forthcoming, as I intended to leave
it at this depot camp. On the 8th, heavy clouds gathered over us, and a
fine heavy shower fell, a circumstance most auspicious for our intended
ride; but it was of brief duration; and, although the sky continued
overcast even until the evening of the 9th, no rain fell, in sufficient
quantity to fill the water-courses. It was, however, enough to produce
dew for some mornings to come. Thermometer, at sunrise of the 8th, 53 deg.;
at noon, 55 deg.; at 4 P. M., 57 deg.; at 9, 50 deg.;--with wet bulb, 46 deg.; and at
sunrise of the 9th, 39 deg.; at noon, 77 deg.; at 4 P.M., 70 deg.; at 9, 52 deg.;--with
wet bulb, 45 deg..

10TH SEPTEMBER.--I set out on a fine clear morning, with two men and
Yuranigh mounted, and leading two pack-horses carrying my sextant, false
horizon, and a month's provisions. Returning, still up the valley, along
our old track to Camp XLIII., I there struck off to the S.W., following
up a similar valley, which came down from that side. This valley led very
straight towards Mount Pluto, the nearest of the three volcanic cones,
which I had already intersected from various points. The other two I had
named Mount Hutton and Mount Playfair. These three hills formed an
obtuse-angled triangle, whereof the longest side was to the north-west,
and, therefore, I expected that there the elevated land might be found to
form an angle somewhat corresponding with the directions of the two
shorter sides; in which case, it was probable that, to the westward of
such an angle in the range, I might find what had been so long the object
of these researches, viz., a river flowing to the Gulf of Carpentaria. We
reached Mount Pluto, at the distance given by my former observations as
far as could be ascertained by the mode of measurement I employed then;
which was by counting my horse's paces. On ascending the mountain on
foot, I found a deep chasm still between me and the western summit, which
was not only the highest, but the only part clear of bushes. A thick and
very thorny scrub had already so impeded my ascent, that the best portion
of the afternoon was gone, before I could return to the horses; and I
resolved, therefore, to continue my ride, and to defer the ascent and
observation of angles from the summit, until my return from the unknown
western country, which we were about to explore; the search for water
that night being an object of too much importance to be longer deferred.
We, accordingly, passed on by the southward and westward of the mountain,
following a watercourse, which led first N. W., then north, and next E.
of N.; to where it at length joined one from the west, up which I turned,
and continued the search for water until darkness obliged us to halt.
During that search for water, my horse fell with me into a deep hole, so
concealed and covered with long grass, that we both wholly disappeared
from those following; and yet, strange to say, without either of us being
in the least hurt. We encamped where there was, at least, good grass;
but--no water.

11TH SEPTEMBER.--Within 400 yards of the spot where we had slept, we
found a small pond. The water was of that rich brown tint so well known
to those with whom water is most precious, and to whom, after long
custom, clear water seems, like some wines, to want body. Here we had
breakfast, and we took also a bagful of water[*] with us. This timely
supply relieved me from the necessity for following up the windings of
some water-course; and I could proceed in a straight direction, westward.
We passed, at first, through rather thick scrub, until, at length, I
perceived a sharp pic before me, which I ascended. It consisted of trap
rock, as did also the range to which it belonged, being rather a lateral
feature thereof. Mount Hutton, Mount Pluto, and Mount Playfair, were all
visible from it, as were also Mounts Owen and Faraday. The connections
extended westward; for to the W.N.W. the broken cliffs at the head of the
Salvator and the Claude, were not very distant, and these I was careful
to avoid. A range immediately westward of this cone, was higher than it,
and extended from Mount Playfair. To cross that range at its lowest part,
which bore 26 deg. W. of S., was our next object. We found the range covered
with brigalow and other still more impervious scrubs. On the crest, the
rock consisted of clay ironstone. The centigrade thermometer stood, at
noon, at 30 deg. 5' equal to 87 deg., of Fahrenheit; the height above the sea we
made 2032 feet. Beyond this crest, we encountered a scrub of matted
vines, which hung down like ropes, and pulled some of us off our horses,
when it happened that any of these ropes were not observed in time in
riding through the thicket. A very dense forest of young Callitris trees
next impeded us, and were more formidable than even the vines. The day
was passed in forcing our way through these various scrubs, the ground
declining by a gentle slope only. We next found firmer soil underfoot,
that where the Callitris scrub grew having been sandy, and we saw at
length, with a feeling of relief, that only brigalow scrub was before us;
we ascended gravelly hills, came upon a dry water-course, and then on a
chain of ponds. Near one of these ponds, sate an old woman, beside a
fire, of course, although the weather was very warm; and a large net,
used for taking emus, hung on a brigalow bush close by. The men were
absent, looking for food, as we partly conjectured, for little could
Yuranigh make out of what she said, besides the names of some rivers, to
which I could point with the hand. I was surprised to find that here, the
name for water was "Narran," the name for it in the district of the
Balonne being "Nadyeen," whereas the word for water amongst the tribes of
the Darling is Kalli. That the "Narran" river and swamp are named from
this language of tribes now dwelling much further northward, seems
obvious; and, as the natives on the Darling know little of the "Narran"
or its swamp, it may be inferred that there the migration of native
tribes has been progressive from south to north; the highest known land
in Australia being also to the southward of the Darling. The chain of
ponds, according to the old woman, was named "Cunno," and ran into the
"Warreg" which, as she pointed, was evidently the name of the river we
had formerly traced downwards from near Mount P. P. King. I left the
"Cunno," and plunged into the brigalow to the northward, thus crossing a
slightly elevated range, where we found a little water-course falling
N.N.W. By following this downwards, we found water in it, as twilight
grew obscure, and gladly halted beside it for the night, in latitude 25 deg.

[* A thick flour-bag covered outside with melted mutton-fat.]

12TH SEPTEMBER.--At 7 A.M. the thermometer was 59 deg.; our height then above
the sea has been ascertained to have been 1787 feet. Continuing to follow
down the brigalow creek, we found that it joined a chain of ponds running
N.E., and these we traced in the contrary direction, or upwards, as far
as seemed desirable. We struck off from that water-course, first to the
N.W., then to the W., arriving soon at a steep low ridge of clay
ironstone, which was covered thick with brigalow. We crossed that low
ridge, and, at a distance of about a mile and a half beyond, met another
acclivity still more abrupt and stony. This we also ascended, and found
upon it a "malga" scrub: the "malga" being a tree having hard spiky dry
branches, which project like fixed bayonets, to receive the charge of
ourselves, horses, and flour-bags; but all which formidable array we
nevertheless successfully broke through, and arrived at the head of a
rocky gully, falling N.W. Down this, however, we attempted in vain to
pass, and in backing out we again faced the "malga," until, seeing a flat
on the right, I entered it, and there fell in with the water-course
again. It led us many miles, generally in a N.W. direction, and contained
some fine ponds, and entered, at length, a little river, whose banks were
thickly set with large yarra trees. The general course of this river was
W.N.W., until it was joined by one coming from the N., and at the
junction there was a deep broad pond of clear water. At this we watered
our horses, and passed on to encamp under some rocky hills, three
quarters of a mile to the N.N.W. of that junction, in latitude 24 deg. 52'
50" S. The temperature at noon this day, on the highest part of the ridge
we crossed, was 84 deg.; the height there above the sea, 1954 feet; and at 3
P.M., in channel of water-course, the thermometer stood at 89 deg.; the
height there above the sea being 1778 feet.

13TH SEPTEMBER.--At 7 A.M. the thermometer stood at 38 deg.; the height above
the sea was found to be 1659 feet. I verily believed that THIS river
would run to Carpentaria, and I called it the Nive, at least as a
conventional name until the native name could be ascertained, in
commemoration of Lord Wellington's action on the river of that name; and,
to the tributary from the north, I gave the name of Nivelle. Pursuing the
united channel downwards, we traversed fine open grassy plains. The air
was fragrant from the many flowers then springing up, especially where
the natives had burnt the grass. Among them were MORGANIA GLABRA;
EREMOPHILA MITCHELLII; a singular little POLYGONUM with the aspect of a
TILLOEA; two very distinct little FRANKENIAS[*], and a new scabrous
HALORAGIS with pinnatifid leaves.[**] The extensive burning by the
natives, a work of considerable labour, and performed in dry warm
weather, left tracts in the open forest, which had become green as an
emerald with the young crop of grass. These plains were thickly imprinted
with the feet of kangaroos, and the work is undertaken by the natives to
attract these animals to such places. How natural must be the aversion of
the natives to the intrusion of another race of men with cattle: people
who recognise no right in the aborigines to either the grass they have
thus worked from infancy, nor to the kangaroos they have hunted with
their fathers. No, nor yet to the emus they kill FOR their fathers ONLY;
these birds being reserved, or held sacred, for the sole use of the old
men and women!

[* F. SCABRA (Lindl. MS.); undique scabro-tomentosa, foliis linearibus
margine revolutis non ciliatis, floribus solitariis pentameris, calycibus
patentim pilosis. F. SERPYLLIFOLIA (Lindl. MS.); tomentosa hispida,
foliis oblongis planis longe ciliatis, floribus solitariis subcapitatis
pentameris, calycibus patentim hispidis.]

[** H. ASPERA (Lindl. MS.) caule angulato foliis fructuque scabris,
foliis alternis oppositisque linearibus acutis apice pinnatifidis,
floribus distanter spicatis monoicis pendulis, stigmatibus plumosis,
fructu subgloboso.]

The river pursued a course to the southward of west for nine miles, but
it turned afterwards southward, eastward, and even to the northward of E.
After tracing it thus twenty-two miles, without seeing any water in its
bed (which was broad, but every where choked with sand), we were obliged
to encamp, and endure this privation after a very warm and laborious day.
Where the natives obtained water themselves, quite puzzled Yuranigh, for
we passed by spacious encampments of theirs, and tracts they had set fire
to, where trees still lay smoking.

14TH SEPTEMBER.--The temperature at 7 this morning was 72 deg. of Fahrenheit;
the height above the sea, of the river bed, as subsequently determined by
Captain King, 1470 feet. With the earliest light, I had laid down my
survey of this river, by which the course appeared to have turned towards
the S.E. This not being what was desired, I took a direct northerly
course through the scrub, towards a hill on the left bank, whence I had
seen, on our way down, a rocky gap to the N.W. in a brigalow range. After
a ride of eight miles, by which we cut off the grand curve in the river's
course, we arrived at this hill. I hoped to have found water near the
spot, in a sharp turn in the river which I had not examined, and near
which, on the day before, I had seen two emus, under a bank covered with
brigalow scrub. Nor was I disappointed, for after finding traces of a
recent current into the river-bed at that point, I discovered, at less
than a hundred yards up, a fine pond of precious OPAL--I mean not
crystal, but that fine bluey liquid which I found always so cool and
refreshing when it lay on clay in the shady recesses of brigalow scrubs,
a beverage much more grateful to our taste than the common "crystal
spring." Here, then, we watered our impatient horses, and enjoyed a wash
and breakfast--the men (two old soldiers) being D'ACCORD in one sentiment
of gratitude to a bountiful Providence for this water. Like "a giant
refreshed with wine," we next set out for the gap to the north-west, and
passed through an open brigalow scrub, ascending very gradually, during a
ride of three miles, to where I at length could discover that the fall
was in the other direction. At this point, I observed the barometer,
which indicated our height above the sea to be 1812 feet. Fahrenheit's
thermometer stood then (5 P.M.) at 86 deg.. The dry channel of a water-course
had afforded us an opening through the scrub, and had also guided us to
the highest part of the ground. The fresh prints of the feet of three men
in the smooth bare sand, told us that the same natives whose track
Yuranigh had seen in the river we traced yesterday, were now going in the
same direction as ourselves, and just before us; for the smell of their
burning fire-sticks, and even small portions of burning embers which had
dropped, made this evident. The higher ground was flat, and on it the
rosewood acacia grew amongst the brigalow. The rocky gap (in a ridge) was
still distant at least three miles; the sun nearly set, and not a blade
of grass visible amongst the brigalow bushes. But what was all this to
the romantic uncertainty as to what lay beyond! With eager steps we
followed a slight channel downwards; found that it descended more rapidly
than the one by which we had ascended; that it also increased, and we
were guided by it into a little valley, verdant with young grass, while
yet the red sky over a departed sun shone reflected from several broad
ponds of water. This seemed to us a charming spot, so opportunely and
unexpectedly found, and we alighted on a fine grassy flat by the margin
of a small lagoon, where stood a most graceful group of bushes for
shelter or shade. After sunset, the sky was overcast with very heavy
clouds; the air was sultry, and we expected rain.

15TH SEPTEMBER.--As soon as daylight appeared I hastened towards the gap,
and ascended a naked rock on the west side of it. I there beheld downs
and plains extending westward beyond the reach of vision, bounded on the
S. W. by woods and low ranges, and on the N. E. by higher ranges; the
whole of these open downs declining to the N. W., in which direction a
line of trees marked the course of a river traceable to the remotest
verge of the horizon. There I found then, at last, the realization of my
long cherished hopes, an interior river falling to the N. W. in the heart
of an open country extending also in that direction. Ulloa's delight at
the first view of the Pacific could not have surpassed mine on this
occasion, nor could the fervour with which he was impressed at the moment
have exceeded my sense of gratitude, for being allowed to make such a
discovery. From that rock, the scene was so extensive as to leave no room
for doubt as to the course of the river, which, thus and there revealed
to me alone, seemed like a reward direct from Heaven for perseverance,
and as a compensation for the many sacrifices I had made, in order to
solve the question as to the interior rivers of Tropical Australia. To an
European, the prospect of an open country has a double charm in regions
for the most part covered with primaeval forests, calling up pleasing
reminiscences of the past, brighter prospects for the future--inspiring a
sense of freedom, especially when viewed from the back of a good horse:--

"A steed! a steed! of matchless speede, A sword of metal keene--All else
to noble minds is drosse, All else on earth is meane!" --OLD SONG.

I hastened back to my little party (distant a mile and a half from the
gap), and immediately made them mount to follow me down the watercourse,
which, as I had seen from the rock, would lead us into the open country.
The little chain of ponds led westward, until the boundless downs
appeared through the woods; a scene most refreshing to us, on emerging
from so many thick scrubs. Our little river, after crossing much open
plain, fell into another coming from E.S.E., and columns of smoke far in
the N.W. showed that there was water, by showing there were inhabitants.
The grass on these downs was of the richest sort, chiefly PANICUM
LOEVINODE, and I was not sorry to recognise amongst it, SALSOLOE, and the
ACACIA PENDULA, amongst the shrubs. As we followed the river downwards,
the open downs appeared on the W.N.W. horizon as if interminable. This
river, unlike that I had called the Nive, had no sand in its bed, which
consisted of firm clay, and contained deep hollows, and the beds of long
reaches, then, however, all dry, while abundance of large UNIO shells lay
upon the banks, and proved that the drought was not of common occurrence.
The general course of the river I found to be about W.N.W. true. We
continued to follow it through its windings all day, which I certainly
should not have done, but for the sake of water, as our progress
downwards was thus much retarded. Towards evening, Corporal Graham
discovered water in a small tributary coming from the S.E., while
Yuranigh found some also in the main channel, where that tributary fell
into it. We encamped on Graham's ponds, as this was called, and turned
our horses loose on the wide plain, up to the knees in grass half dry,
half green, that they might be the more fit "for the field to-morrow."
The sky had been lowering all day, and the heat was intense; but during
the night, the air was delicious for sleeping in, under heaven's canopy
and protection.

16TH SEPTEMBER.--The "gorgeous curtains of the East" over grandly formed
clouds harmonised well with my sentiments on awaking, again to trace, as
if I had been the earliest man, the various features of these fine
regions of earth. At 7 A.M. the temperature was 63 deg.; and (from
observations registered then) the height above the sea has been found to
be 1216 feet. Throughout the day we travelled over fine downs and plains
covered with the finest grass, having the river on our right. Beyond it,
we saw hills, which seemed to be of greater height in proportion as we
descended with the river. Some were much broken, and appeared to present
precipices on the other side. A broad valley extended westward from
between the farthest of these broken ranges, which range seemed to be an
offshoot from one further eastward. On examining the river, below the
supposed junction of a tributary from the east, I found its character
altered, forming ponds amongst brigalow trees. Water was, however,
scarce. We fortunately watered our horses about 3 P.M., at the only hole
we had seen that day, a small muddy puddle. The ACACIA PENDULA formed a
belt outside the brigalow, between the river and the open plains, and
many birds and plants reminded us of the Darling; the rose cockatoo and
crested-pigeon, amongst the former; SALSOLOE and SOLANUM amongst the
latter. At length, we saw before us, to the westward, bold precipitous
hills, extending also to the southward of west. A thunder storm came over
us, and night advancing, we halted without seeing more, for that day, of
the interesting country before us, and having only water enough for our
own use, the product of the shower. No pond was found for the horses,
although we had searched for one, many miles in the bed of the river.
Still, the remains of mussel shells on the banks bore testimony that
water was seldom so scarce in this river, flowing as it did through the
finest and most extensive pastoral region I had ever seen.

17TH SEPTEMBER.--The temperature at seven this morning was 57 deg.; our
height above the sea 1112 feet. "Like the gay birds that" awoke us from
"repose" we were "content," but certainly not "careless of tomorrow's
fare;" for unless we found water to-day, "to-morrow" had found us unable
either to proceed or return! Trusting wholly to Providence, however, we
went forward, and found a pond in the river bed, not distant more than
two miles from where we had slept. In making a cut next through a
brigalow scrub, towards where I hoped to hit the river, in a nearly
westerly direction, I came out upon open downs, and turned again into a
brigalow scrub on my right. After travelling a good many miles, N.W.,
through this scrub, we arrived on the verge of a plain of dead brigalow;
and still pursuing the same course, we came out, at length, upon open
downs extending far to the northward. I continued to ride in that
direction to a clear hill, and from it I obtained a view of a range of
flat-topped hills, that seemed to extend W.N.W.; the most westerly
portion of these being the steep-sided mass seen before us yesterday.
They now lay far to the northward, and the intervening country was partly
low and woody, and partly consisted of the downs we were upon. But where
was the river? Yarra trees and other indications of one appeared nearest
to us in an easterly direction, at the foot of some well-formed hollows
on that side the downs. Towards that point I therefore shaped my course,
and there found the river--no longer a chain of dry ponds in brigalow
scrub, but a channel shaded by lofty yarra trees, with open grassy banks,
and containing long reaches full of water. White cockatoos shrieked above
us; ducks floated, or flew about, and columns of smoke began to ascend
from the woods before us. This was now, indeed, a river, and I lost no
time in following it downwards. The direction was west; then north-west,
tolerably straight. Water was abundant in its bed; the breadth was
considerable, and the channel was well-marked by bold lofty banks. I
remarked the salt-bush of the Bogan plains, growing here, on sand-islands
of this river. The grass surpassed any I had ever seen in the colony in
quality and abundance. The slow flying pelican appeared over our heads,
and we came to a long broad reach covered with ducks, where the channel
had all the appearance of a river of the first magnitude. The old mussle
shells (UNIO) lay in heaps, like cart-loads, all along the banks, but
still we saw none of the natives. Flames, however, arose from the woods
beyond the opposite bank, at once in many directions, as if by magic, as
we advanced. At 3 P.M. Fahrenheit's thermometer in the shade stood at
90 deg.. Towards evening, we saw part of the bed dry, and found it
continuously so, as night came on. The sun had set, while I still
anxiously explored the dry recesses of the channel in search of water,
without much hopes of success, when a wild yell arose from the woods back
from the channel, which assured us that water was near. Towards that
quarter we turned, and Yuranigh soon found a fine pond in a small ana-
branch, upon which we immediately halted, and took up our abode there for
the night. It may seem strange that so small a number could act thus
unmolested by the native tribes, but our safety consisted chiefly in the
rapidity of our movements, and their terror of strangers wholly unknown,
perhaps unheard of, arriving on the backs of huge animals, or centaurs
whose tramp they had only heard at nightfall. Like Burns's "Auld Nick,"

----"rustling through the boortrees comin' Wi' eerie sought!"

our passage was too rapid to admit of any design for attack or annoyance
being concocted, much less, carried into effect; next night we hoped to
sleep thirty miles off, where our coming would be equally unexpected by
natives. Latitude, 24 deg. 34' 30" S.

18TH SEPTEMBER.--At 7 A.M. the temperature of the air was 72 deg.; the height
of the spot above the sea, 995 feet. Keeping along the river bank for
some miles, I found its general course to be about N.W.; and seeing clear
downs beyond the right bank, I crossed, and proceeded towards the highest
clear hill on the horizon. There I obtained a distant view of the ranges
intersected yesterday, and of their prolongations. That to the northward
of the river, whose general direction to the point already fixed had been
22 deg. W. of N., there formed an angle, and continued, as far as I could
judge by the eye, nearly northward. The range to the southward of the
river also turned off, extending nearly to the southward. These two
limits of the vast valley, thus receding from the river so as to leave it
ample room to turn and wind on either side, amidst its accompanying
woods, through grassy downs of great extent, obliged me to explore its
course with closer attention. From another clear hill on these downs, to
which I next proceeded, I thought I perceived the line of another river
coming from ranges in the N.E., and expecting it would join that whose
course we had thus far explored, I proceeded in a nearly N.W. direction
over open downs towards the line of trees. I found therein a fine pond of
water, the soil of the downs consisting of stiff clay. MESEMBRYANTHEMUM
and various SALSOLOE appeared in some parts. My horses being rather
jaded, I halted rather early here, and laid down my journey, protracting
also the angles I had observed of the points of distant ranges. Latitude,
24 deg. 27' 27" S. I found by the barometer that we were already much lower
than the rivers Salvator and Claude, and the upper part, at least, of the
Belyando; while we were still remote from the channel we were pursuing.

19TH SEPTEMBER.--The thermometer at 7 A.M. stood at 57 deg.. The height of
these ponds above the sea was 861 feet. Young, I think, has said, that a
situation might be imagined between earth and heaven, where a man should
hear nothing but the thoughts of the Almighty; but such a sublime
position seems almost attained by him who is the first permitted to
traverse extensive portions of earth, as yet unoccupied by man; to
witness in solitude and silence regions well adapted to his use, brings a
man into more immediate converse with the Author both of his being, and
of all other combinations of matter than any other imaginable position he
can attain. With nothing but nature around him; his few wants supplied
almost miraculously; living on from day to day, just as he falls in with
water; his existence is felt to be in the hands of Providence alone; and
this feeling pervades even the minds of the least susceptible, in
journeys like these. Those splendid plains where, without a horse, man
seems a helpless animal, are avoided, and are said to be shunned and
disliked by the aboriginal man of the woods. Even their lonely
inhabitant, the emu, seems to need both wings and feet, that he may
venture across them. We travelled nearly west over plains; then through a
brigalow scrub, two miles in breadth; emerging from which, on a perfectly
level plain of very rich soil, we turned rather to the southward of west,
to where the distant line of river-trees seemed most accessible. Bushes
of ACACIA PENDULA skirted this plain; and, passing through them, we
crossed a track of nearly half a mile wide of soft sand, evidently a
concomitant feature of the river. We next traversed a belt of firm blue
clay, on which a salsolaceous bush appeared to be the chief vegetation;
and, between it and the river, was another belt of sand a mile broad, on
which grew a scrub of rosewood acacia. The river there ran in four
separate channels, amongst various trees; brigalow and yarra being both
amongst them. I crossed these channels, and continued westward that I
might ascend a hill on the downs beyond. From that eminence, no hill was
visible on any part of the horizon, which everywhere presented only downs
and woods. Far in the S.W. a hollow admitted of a very distant view,
which terminated in downs beyond a woody valley. The course of our river
appeared to be N.W., as seen by Yuranigh, from a tree we found here. In
that direction I therefore proceeded; recrossing the river, where, in a
general breadth of about 400 yards, it formed five channels. The grass
was more verdant here, and the ponds in these small separate channels
seemed likely to contain water. We continued N. W. across fine clear
downs, where we found the heat so intense, (Centigrade thermometer, 37 deg.,
or 99 deg. of Fahrenheit,) that I halted two hours under the shade of a small
clump of trees. When we continued our ride in the afternoon, three emus
that had been feeding on the downs came inquisitively forward; curiosity,
apparently inspiring them with more courage than even the human
inhabitants. Unfortunately for these birds, our bacon had become so
impalatable that a change of diet was very desirable, and Graham,
therefore, met them half-way on his horse; the quadruped inspiring more
confidence in the bird. It was curious to witness the first meeting of
the large indigenous bird and large exotic quadruped--such strange
objects to each other! on the wide plains where either of them could

----"overtake the south wind."

One of the emus was easily shot from the horse's side, and, that evening
being the Saturday night of a very laborious week, we were not slow in
seeking out a shady spot by the side of a pond in the river bed. There my
men had a feast, with the exception of Yuranigh; who, although unable to
eat our salt bacon, religiously abstained from eating emu flesh, although
he skinned the bird and cut it up, SECUNDUM ARTEM, for the use of the
white men. The channel of the river was still divided here, amongst
brigalow bushes. We only reached it by twilight. Thermometer, at 6 P.M.,
86 deg.. Height above the sea, 758 feet.

20TH SEPTEMBER.--At 7 A.M. the thermometer was 78 deg.. Water appearing to be
more constant now in the river, I ventured to pursue its general course
in straighter lines, across the fine open downs, which lay to the
eastward of it. Beyond these I perceived lines of wood as belonging to
another river; and, on advancing in that direction, I first encountered a
great breadth of brigalow scrub; next, we entered a rosewood scrub,
redolent with blossom; then an open forest, in which we found the deep
well-formed channel of a river coming from the eastward. The bottom was
rocky, and bore marks of a recent current. This river also spread into
branches: we crossed three, and then again entered upon open downs. Next
we crossed a well-defined line of deep ponds, with yarra trees, and
coming from E.N.E. over the downs; and three miles further on, we crossed
another coming from N.E., on which, finding a good lagoon, I encamped
early, that the men might have time to cook for themselves some of the
emu, and that the horses might also have some sufficient rest. Latitude,
24 deg. 12' 42" S. Thermometer, at 1 P.M., 86 deg.. Height above the sea, 724

21ST SEPTEMBER.--Thermometer at 6 A.M., 63 deg.. I found that the various
tributaries to the river channel had imparted to it a greater tendency
westward; but we fell in with it again six miles to the westward of where
we had passed the night. Its character was the same--a concatenation of
ponds amongst brigalow; but these seemed better filled with water,
apparently from the more decided slopes and firmer soil of the adjacent
country. The course next turned considerably to the southward of west,
while one ana-branch separating from it, ran about westward. I found an
open plain between these, across which I travelled; until, again meeting
the southern branch, we crossed it where it seemed to turn more to the
northward. The day was warm, and I halted two hours under the shade of
some trees, where I laid down our journey on paper, and found we were
making great progress towards Carpentaria, across a very open country. We
were no longer in doubt about finding water, although in the heart of
Australia, surrounded by an unbroken horizon. On proceeding, we passed
some large huts near the river, which were of a more substantial
construction, and also on a better plan than those usually set up by the
aborigines of the south. A frame like a lean-to roof had first been
erected; rafters had next been laid upon that; and, thereupon thin square
portions of bark were laid, like tiles. A fine pond of water being near,
we there spancelled our horses and lay down for the night. At 5 P.M. the
thermometer was at 82 deg.. Height above the sea, 707 feet.

22D SEPTEMBER.--Thermometer, at 6 A.M., 58 deg.. This was no sandybedded
river like others we had discovered. The bed still consisted of firm
clay, and now the rich vegetation on the banks presented so much novelty,
that, without the means of carrying an herbarium, I was nevertheless
tempted to select a bouquet of flowers for Dr. Lindley, and carry them
amongst my folded maps. The very herbage at this camp was curious. One
plant supplied an excellent dish of vegetables. There were others
resembling parsley, and having the taste of water-cresses with white
turnip-like roots. Here grew also a dwarf or tropical CAPPARIS. Among the
grasses was a tawny ERIANTHUS, apparently the same as that formerly seen
on the banks of the Bogan, and the curious DANTHONIA PECTINATA, gathered
in Australia Felix in 1836. There was also amongst the grasses a
PAPPOPHORUM, which was perhaps the P. GRACILE, formerly collected in the
tropical part of New Holland by Dr. Brown; and a very remarkable new
species of the same curious genus, with an open narrow panicle, and
little branches not unlike those of a young oat.[*] The river again
formed a goodly continuous channel. Its most splendid feature, the wide
open plains, continued along its banks, and I set out on this, as we had
indeed on all other mornings since we made the discovery, intensely
interested in the direction of its course. We had not prolonged our
journey very far across the plains, keeping the trees of the river we had
left visible on our right, when another line of river trees appeared over
the downs on our left. Thus it seemed we were between two rivers, with
their junction before us, for the ground declined in that direction. And
so we found it. At about seven miles from where we had slept, we arrived
at the broad channel of the first river we had traced down, whose
impetuous floods had left the trees half bent to the earth, and clogged
with drift matter; not on any narrow space, but across a deep section of
400 yards. The rocks in the channel were washed quite bare, and crystal
water lay in ponds amongst these rocks. A high gravelly bank, crowned
with brigalow, formed the western margin, but no brigalow could withstand
the impetuous currents, that evidently, at some seasons, swept down
there. It was quite refreshing to see all clear and green, over so broad
a water-worn space. The junction with the northern river took place just
below, and I continued my journey, not a little curious to see what sort
of a river would be formed by these channels when united. I found the
direction of the course to be about N.W., both running nearly parallel.
About three miles on I approached the united channel, and found the
broad, deep, and placid waters of a river as large as the Murray. Pelican
and ducks floated upon it, and mussle-shells of extraordinary size lay in
such quantities, where the natives had been in the habit of eating them,
as to resemble snow covering the ground. But even that reach seemed
diminutive when compared with the vast body of water whereof traces had,
at another season, been left there; these affording evidence that,
although wide, they had still been impetuous in their course. Verdure
alone shone now, over the wide extent to which the waters sometimes rose.
Beyond that channel lay the almost boundless plains, the whole together
forming the finest region I had ever seen in Australia. Two kinds of
grass grew on these plains; one of them a brome grass, possessing the
remarkable property of shooting up green from the old stalk.

[* P. AVENACEUM (Lindl. MS.); aristis 9 inaequalibus scabris infra medium
plumosis, panicula pilosa angusta interrupta ramulis inferioribus demum
refractis, spiculis 3-floris, glumis pubescentibus multistriatis, paleis
villosis, foliis......]

The bees were also new to Yuranigh, who drew my attention to their
extreme smallness; not much exceeding in size a knat or mosquito.
Nevertheless, he could cut out their honey from hollow trees, and thus
occasionally procure for us a pleasant lunch, of a waxy compound, found
with the honey, which, in appearance and taste much resembled fine
gingerbread. The honey itself was slightly acid, but clear and fine

I hoped the deep reach would have been continuous, as it looked
navigable, even for steamers, but it continued so only for a few miles,
beyond which the channel contained ponds only. I finally alighted beside
one of these ponds, which was so large, indeed, that the colonists would
have called it a lagoon; this one being high above the river channel, on
a verdant plain. As yet, we had not seen a single inhabitant of this El
Dorado of Australia. At 2 P.M. thermometer 88 deg.. Height above the sea 712

23D SEPTEMBER.--At 7 A.M. thermometer 59 deg.. Latitude 24 deg. 2' S. New flowers
perfumed the dry bed of this river, and these showed, in their forms and
structure, that nature even in variety is infinite. I regretted I could
not collect specimens. Our only care now, was the duration of our
provisions. Water was less a subject of anxiety with me now, than it had
been at any period of the journey. We had made the Emu eke out our little
stock, and my men (two old soldiers) were willing to undergo any
privation that might enable me to prolong my ride. This day completed
half the month, but I was determined to follow the course of this
interesting river at least four days longer. The back of one of our pack
horses had become so sore, that he would no longer endure a load; we
threw away the pack saddle, and divided his load, so as to distribute it
in portions, on some of the saddle horses and the other pack animal. The
course of the river towards the west, and our limited time, obliged me to
stride over as much of the general direction as possible. I crossed the
river, and travelled across open downs. I saw the tops of its Yarra trees
on my left. At about four miles, we crossed what seemed a large river,
but which must have been only an ana-branch from the main stream. We next
traversed a fine open down of six miles; the soil, a firm blue clay with
gravel, and on this grew two varieties of grass which I had seen nowhere
else. The valley I next approached, contained the channel of a river
flowing towards our river; a tributary, which evidently bore impetuous
floods into it, sometimes. This also ran in three channels. I called it
the Alice.

As this new river was likely to turn the main stream off to the westward
or south, I travelled west by compass over vast downs, finely variegated
with a few loose trees like a park, but extending on all sides to the
horizon. Where I looked for the main channel, I saw rising ground of this
kind; and meeting with another small river, with a stoney bed and water
in it, I bivouacqued, for the day was very hot; the thermometer, at 3
P.M., 90 deg. in the shade. The pond here was much frequented by pigeons, and
a new sort of elegant form and plumage, was so numerous that five were
killed at two shots. The head was jet-black, the neck milkwhite, the
wings fawn-colour, having lower feathers of purple. I had no means of
preserving a specimen, but I took a drawing of one.[*] Height above the
sea here, 826 feet.

[* By which I find it has been named GEOPHAPS HISTRIONIEA.]

24TH SEPTEMBER.--I continued to seek the river across extensive downs, in
many parts of which dead brigalow stumps remained, apparently as if the
decay of that species of scrub gave place to open ground. I turned now to
the S.W., and became anxious to see the river again. At length we came
upon a creek, which I followed down, first to the S.W. and next
southerly, until it was time to alight, when we established our bivouac
by a large lagoon in its bed, in latitude 24 deg. 3' 30" S. Thermometer, at 3
P.M. 98 deg.. Height above the sea, 688 feet.

25TH SEPTEMBER.--At 6 A.M. the thermometer stood at 73 deg.. We ought to have
been retrogressive yesterday, according to the time calculated on for our
stock of provisions; but we could not leave the river without tracing it
to the furthest accesible point. We still continued, therefore, to follow
the water-course which had brought us thus far, expecting at every turn
to find its junction with the river, whose course had obviously turned
more than usual to the southward. We fell in with a larger tributary from
the N. W.; after which junction, the tributary took a more westerly
direction than the minor channel which brought us to it. We thus came
upon a large lagoon, beside which were the huts of a very numerous tribe
of natives, who appeared to have been there very recently, as some of the
fires were still burning. Well beaten paths, and large permanent huts,
were seen beyond that encampment; and it was plain that we had entered
the home of a numerous tribe. I should have gladly avoided them at that
time, had not a sight of the river been indispensable, and the course of
the creek we were upon, the only certain guide to it. Level plains
extended along its banks, and I had been disappointed by the appearance
of lofty Yarra trees, which grew on the banks of large lagoons. On
approaching one of these, loud shrieks of many women and children, and
the angry voices of men, apprised me that we had, at length, overtaken
the tribe; and, unfortunately, had come upon them by surprise. "AYA
MINYA!" was vociferated repeatedly, and was understood to mean, "What do
you want!" (What seek ye in the land of Macgregor!) I steadily adhered to
my new plan of tactics towards the aborigines, and took not the slightest
notice of them, but steadily rode forward, according to my compass
bearing. On looking back for my men, I saw one beckoning me to return. He
had observed two natives, with spears and clubs, hide themselves behind a
bush in the direction in which I was advancing. On my halting, they stole
away, and, when a little further on, I perceived an old white-haired
woman before me, on seeing whom I turned slightly to one side, that we
might not frighten her or provoke the tribe. The whole party seemed to
have been amusing themselves in the water during the noon-day heat, which
was excessive; and the cool shades around the lagoon looked most
luxuriant. Our position, on the contrary, was anything but enviable. With
jaded horses scarcely able to lift a leg, amongst so many natives, whose
language was incomprehensible, even to Yuranigh. I asked him whether we
might not come to a parley with them, and see if they could understand
him. His answer was brief; and, without turning even his head once to
look at them:--"You go on!" which advice, quite according with my own
notions, founded on experience, I willingly went on. Even there, in the
heart of the interior, on a river utterly unheard of by white men, an
iron tomahawk glittered on high in the hand of a chief, having a very
long handle to it. The anxious care of the females to carry off their
children seemed the most agreeable feature in the scene, and they had a
mode of carrying them on the haunch, which was different from anything I
had seen. Some had been digging in the mud for worms, others searching
for freshwater muscles; and if the whole could have been witnessed
unperceived, such a scene of domestic life amongst the aborigines had
been worth a little more risk. The strong men assumed a strange attitude,
which seemed very expressive of surprise; having the right knee bent, the
left leg forward, the right arm dropping, but grasping clubs; the left
arm raised, and the fingers spread out. "Aya, aya, minya!" they
continually shouted; and well might they ask what we wanted! Hoping they
would believe us to be Centaurs, and include the two old pack-horses in
counting our numbers, I had not the slightest desire to let them know us
more particularly; and so travelled on, glad, at length, to hear their
"Aya minyas" grow fainter, and that we were leaving them behind. About
five miles further south, the perfume from the liliaceous banks of the
river was the first indication of its vicinity. We found it full 400
yards broad, presenting its usual characteristics,--several separate
channels and ponds of water; there, according to the barometer, the
height above the sea was only 633 feet; the temperature at 3 P. M., in
the shade, 99 deg. of Fahrenheit. We watered our horses, crossed, and plunged
into the brigalow beyond, where I meant to steal a march upon the noisy
tribe; who, by that time, probably were sending to call in their hunting
parties, that they might follow our track. Their mode of killing a
kangaroo may best exemplify their tactics towards strangers; whose path
in the same manner could be followed by day, and sat down beside at
night, to be again tracked in the morning, until the object of pursuit
could be overtaken. The brigalow beyond the river grew on a rising ground
of sharpedged red gravel, and, from a small opening, I saw the course of
the river running nearly northward. Here, then, I turned towards the east
to travel home by ascending the left bank, with the intention to cut off
the great sweep which the river described, as we had found on tracing it
down; and, in hopes we should so intercept any tributaries it might
receive from that side. At dusk, I met with one containing a fine lagoon,
and near this I fixed my bivouac. Yuranigh most firmly objected to our
sitting down close by the water, saying we might there be too easily
speared by the wild natives who were then, probably, on our track; but he
did not object to my bivouac on the more open plain adjacent, one man
keeping a good look-out. I called these, Yuranigh's ponds. Latitude, 24 deg.
19' 2" S.

26TH SEPTEMBER.--At 6 A. M. the thermometer stood at 61 deg.. My horse was
quite leg-weary, and I was very loath to force him on, but one day's
journey further was indispensable. We traversed open plains and passed
through patches of brigalow of an open kind of scrub. The surface was
grassy, but very gravelly; indeed it was, in many places, so devoid of
mould as to resemble a newly Macadamized road,--the fragments being much
of that size, and in general of a reddish colour, consisting, for the
most part, of a red siliceous compound. In a ride of twenty-six miles, we
saw no country much better, and I was obliged to conclude that the left
bank was by no means so good as the country on the right, or to the
northward of the river. We arrived, however, by nightfall, at a goodly
water-course, in which we providentially found a pond, and encamped;
resolved there to rest our horses next day, (being Sunday,) and most
thankful to Him to whom the day was dedicated. Latitude 24 deg. 12' 37" S.
Thermometer, at 6 P.M., 92 deg..

27TH SEPTEMBER.--Thermometer, at 6 A. M., 68 deg.. On laying down my work on
paper, I found we had made a most favourable cut on the way homewards,
our old bivouac of the 21st inst., being about due east from us, and
distant not quite fifteen miles; the great tributary from the S.E.
passing between, upon which we could depend for a supply of water, if it
should be required.

It would appear that the finer the climate, and the fewer man's wants,
the more he sinks towards the condition of the lower animals. Where the
natives had passed the night, no huts, even of bushes, had been set up; a
few tufts of dry grass only, marked the spot where, beside a small fire,
each person had sat folded up, like the capital letter N; but with the
head reclining on the knees, and the whole person resting on the feet and
thigh-joints, clasped together by the hands grasping each ankle. Their
occupation during the day was only wallowing in a muddy hole, in no
respect cleaner than swine. They have no idea of any necessity for
washing themselves between their birth and the grave, while groping in
mud for worms, with hands that have always an unpleasant fishy taint that
clings strangely to whatever they touch. The child of civilization that
would stain even a shoe or a stocking with one spot of that mud, would
probably be whipt by the nurse: savage children are not subject to that
sort of restraint. Whether school discipline may have any thing to do
with the difference so remarkable between the animal spirits of children
of civilised parents and those of savages, I shall make no remark; but
that the buoyancy of spirit and cheerfulness of the youth amongst the
savages of Australia, seem to render them agreeable companions to the men
on their hunting excursions, almost as soon as they can run about. If the
naturalist looks a savage in the mouth, he finds ivory teeth, a clean
tongue, and sweet breath; but in the mouth of a white specimen of
similar, or indeed less, age, it is ten to one but he would discover only
impurity and decay, however clean the shoes and stockings worn, or
however fine the flour of which his or her food had consisted. What,
then, is civilization in the economy of the human animal? one is led to
inquire. A little reflection affords a satisfactory answer. Cultivated
man despises the perishable substance, and pursues the immortal shadow.
Animal gratification is transient and dull, compared to the acquisition
of knowledge--the gratification of mind--the raptures of the poet, or the
delight of the enthusiast, however imaginary. It is true that, amongst
civilized men, substance is still represented by the yellow ore, and that
the votaries of beauty "bend in silken slavery;" but are not beauty or
gold as dust in the balance, substantial though they be, when weighed in
lofty minds against glory or immortality? When the shadow he pursues is
worth more, and is more enduring than the substance, well might it be
said that "Man is but a shadow, and life a dream." Such were my
reflections on this day of rest, in the heart of a desert, while
protected from the sun's rays by a blanket, and in some uncertainty how
long these dreams under it would continue undisturbed.

"The mind is its own place, and in itself Can make a heaven of hell: a
hell of heaven!"

Thermometer, at 6 P. M., 90 deg..

28TH SEPTEMBER.--Thermometer, at 6 A. M., 63 deg.. The horses were much
refreshed by that day's repose, and we this morning continued our journey
in an easterly direction, over downs and through open scrubs, meeting no
impediment from brigalow. We crossed the various branches of a
considerable tributary coming from E.S.E., the only water seen this day,
besides the great river; which we met with, exactly where, according to
its general course, it was to be looked for. We crossed it, and encamped
on the right bank of the northern river, at the place where I had
previously crossed.

This day I had discovered, from the highest parts of the downs, a range
to the S. W., and was able to intersect some of the principal hills, and
so determine its place and direction. I named the most westerly feature,
Mount Gray; the lofty central mass, the Gowen Range, and a bold summit
forming the eastern portion, Mount Koenig. I had now obtained data
sufficient to enable me to determine the extent of the lower basin of the
river, by laying down the position and direction of the nearest ranges.
The last-mentioned appeared flat-topped, and presented yellow cliffs like
sandstone. At 6 P.M., the temperature was 81 deg..

29TH SEPTEMBER.--At 6 A.M., the thermometer was 59 deg.. Re-crossing the
river, I travelled, in a straight line, towards my camp of 19th
September: thus, performing in one, the journeys of two former days. We
crossed the main channel we had previously traced down, thus identifying
it. The country was, in general, open; the downs well covered with grass,
and redolent with the rich perfume of lilies and strange flowers, which
grew all over them amongst the grass. We arrived at the spot I sought,
and there encamped. Our provisions were nearly out; the sun having
reduced the men's sugar, and melted the bacon, which had been boiled
before we set out. This was an unfortunate blunder. Bacon, in such warm
weather, should be carried uncooked, and our's might have then been very
good. The men jocosely remarked, that, although we had out-manoeuvred the
natives, the weather had been so hot that, nevertheless, we could not
"save our bacon." Thermometer, at 5 P.M., 83 deg..

30TH SEPTEMBER.--Thermometer, at 7 A.M., 67 deg.. I found, by my map, that I
might very much shorten the homeward route to next camp (that of 18th
September), by travelling towards it in a straight line across the downs.
We accordingly set out on the bearing of 51/2 deg. S. of E., and hit the spot
exactly at a distance of eighteen miles; arriving early, so as to afford
some good rest to our horses. We crossed open downs chiefly, passed
through a narrow belt of brigalow (about a mile wide), and twice crossed
a tributary to the river, which tributary we thus discovered. The water-
course on which we had again encamped, arose in open downs of fine firm
clay, and it was pleasant to see a great river thus supplied by the
waters collected only amongst the swelling undulations and valleys of the
country through which it passed, like the rivers of Europe. The river we
had discovered, seemed, in this respect, essentially different from
others in Australia, which usually arise in mountains, and appear to be
rather designed to convey water into regions where it is wanting, than to
carry off any surplus from the surfaces over which they run.

1ST OCTOBER.--Our track back across the downs, brought again into view
the Northern range, and I now named the prominent mountain at its
salient, Mount Northampton, in honour of the noble marquis at the head of
the Royal Society. The range to the southward also appeared above the
trees of the valley, and I gave the name of Mount Inniskillen to the
salient mountain, which appeared so remarkable a feature to us on first
advancing into that region, from the eastward. We again reached the river
this day, after traversing the wide plains. Its woods still resounded
with the plaintive cooing of a dove, which I had not seen elsewhere. At a
distance, the sound resembled the distant cooy of female natives, and we
at first took it for their voices until we ascertained whence these notes
came. I had arrived at a fine reach of the river, and while watering the
horses, preparatory to leaving its banks, (to make a short cut on our
former route,) when a pair of these birds appeared on a bough over head,
so near that I could take a drawing, by which I have since ascertained
the bird to have been GEOPELIA CUNEATA.

But the river we were about to leave required a name, for no natives
could be made to understand our questions, even had they been more
willing than they were to communicate at all. It seemed to me, to deserve
a great name, being of much importance, as leading from temperate into
tropical regions, where water was the essential requisite,--a river
leading to India; the "nacimiento de la especeria," or REGION WHERE
SPICES GREW: the grand goal, in short, of explorers by sea and land, from
Columbus downwards. This river seemed to me typical of God's providence,
in conveying living waters into a dry parched land, and thus affording
access to open and extensive pastoral regions, likely to be soon peopled
by civilised inhabitants. It was with sentiments of devotion, zeal, and
loyalty, that I therefore gave to this river the name of my gracious
sovereign, Queen Victoria. There seemed to be much novelty in the plants
along its banks. The shells of the fresh-water mussle (UNIO), which lay
about the old fires of the natives, exceeded in size any we had seen
elsewhere. I measured one, and found it six inches long, and three and a
half broad. On the plains near this spot, grew a beautiful little ACACIA,
resembling A. PENDULA, but a distinct species, according to Mr.
Bentham.[*] We crossed the open downs and our former route, hastening to
make the tributary river before night. We reached the channel by sunset;
the moon was nearly full, and we continued to search in the bed for
water, until we again fell in with our former track, near the place where
we had watered our horses on the morning of the 17th September. On
hastening to the pond, we found the intense heat of the last twelve days
had dried it up, and we were obliged to encamp without water; a most
unpleasant privation after a ride of thirty miles, under an almost
vertical sun. The river must receive a great addition below this branch
from the Northampton ranges, entering probably about that great bend we
had this day cut off; leaving the deep reaches formerly seen there, on
our left, or to the northward. An uncommon drought had not only dried up
the waters of this river, but killed much of the brigalow scrub so
effectually, that the dead trunks alone remained on vast tracts, thus
becoming open downs.

[* A. VICTORIAE (Benth. MS.) glabra, glauca, ramulis teretibus,
phyllodiis linearibus subfalcatis obtusis basi angustatis crassis
enervibus, glandula prope basin immersa, pedunculis glaberrimis
gracilibus racemosis capitulo parvo 12-20-floro multoties longioribus.]

2D OCTOBER.--At 6 A.M. the thermometer gave a temperature of 59 deg.. The
height above the sea was 1081 feet. In tracing back our old track, I sent
Corporal Graham to examine a part of the river channel likely to contain
water, and the report of his pistol some time after in the woods,
welcomer than sweetest music to our ears just then, guided us to the
spot, where he had found a small pond containing enough for all our
wants. For the men, having no more tea or sugar, a good drink was all
that was required; the poor fellows prepared my tea not the less
assiduously, although I could have had but little comfort in drinking it
under such circumstances, without endeavouring to share what was almost
indivisible. We this day performed a long journey, reaching our former
bivouac, of the 16th September, on Graham's creek, at an early hour.
Three emus were seen feeding close by; but, although several attempts
were made to get near them, with a horse stalking, we could not kill any
of them.

3D OCTOBER.--Soon after we had quitted our bivouac, the emus were again
seen on the plains. I could not deny the men the opportunity thus
afforded them of obtaining some food; for, although they concealed their
hunger from me, I knew they were living on bread and water. Graham
succeeded in wounding one of the birds, which, nevertheless, escaped. He
then chased a female followed by about a dozen young ones, towards us,
when we caught three. It had occurred to me this morning, to mark and
number the bivouacs we had occupied thus far, for the purpose of future
reference, when any other party might proceed, or be sent again, into
this country. I had, therefore, cut the number 73 on a tree at this
bivouac of 3d October, under the initials N.S.W. We pursued a straight
course over the downs, east by compass, until we joined our old route
along the water-course, from our camp near the gap, and this brought us
back, at an early hour to that spot, where I marked a tree with the
figures 72.

4TH OCTOBER.--We recrossed the brigalow range, (where the temperature, at
9 A.M., was 79 deg.,) and alighted by the pond at the junction of the Nivelle
and Nive; near where we had passed the night of the 12th September. This
day we again saw the CALLITRIS; a tree so characteristic of sandy soils,
but of which we had not observed a single specimen in the extensive
country beyond. Marked 71 on a tree.

5TH OCTOBER.--Soon after we left our bivouac, I saw in the grass before
me, a large snake. This was rather a novelty to us, being almost the
first we had seen in these northern regions of Australia. I dismounted,
and went forward to strike it with a piece of wood. Yuranigh did the
same, both missed it, when it unexpectedly turned upon us, took a
position on higher ground beside a large tree, then descended with head
erect, moving nimbly towards the horses, and the rest of the party. The
deadly reptile glided straight to the forefeet of my horse, touched the
fetlock with his head, but did not bite; then passed to the hind legs and
did the same, fortunately the horse stood quietly. The snake darted
thence towards one of the men, who was about to throw a stick at him, and
was next in the act of pursuing Yuranigh, when Graham gave him a charge
of small shot, which crippled his movements until he could be despatched.
This snake was of a brown colour, red spotted on the belly, about six
feet long, and five inches in circumference. I had never before known any
Australian snake to attack a party, but we had certainly brought the
attack on ourselves. We made a good cut on our former circuitous route
when tracing down the river Nive, and arrived at our former bivouac at an
early hour. This was fortunate, as all the ponds, formerly full of good
water, had, in the interim, dried up; and I proceeded to cross the
scrubby range, by pursuing a straight direction towards Mount Pluto. But
some magnetic influence so deranged my compass, that, on reaching the
crest of the range, I found that mountain bore nearly east instead of N.
E. N. I saw three of my fixed points, however, by which, with my pocket
sextant, I could ascertain our true position, which proved to be very
wide of my intended course. It was, like many other accidental
frustrations of my plans in this journey, an aberration that did us good,
for we had thereby avoided the bad scrub formerly passed through, and
also a rocky part of the range. We next descended into a valley in which,
after following down a dry watercourse two miles, we found a fine pond of
water, exactly as the sun was setting. This day I had shot a curious
bird, somewhat resembling a small turkey, in a tree. The feathers were
black; the head was bare and red. This fowl was apparently of the
galinaceous tribe. The flesh was delicious, and afforded a most timely
dinner to the party. A numerous body of natives had followed our former
track across the rocky ranges we traversed this day, as appeared by their
foot-marks, and Yuranigh also discovered, in the same manner, that three
natives had this morning preceded us on our return; nevertheless we saw
none of these denizens of the woods.

6TH OCTOBER.--Thermometer, at 6 A. M., 48 deg.. Height above the sea, 696
feet. This day we hoped to rejoin the party at the camp of the Pyramids;
but the journey was long, and it included an ascent of Mount Pluto, from
which I had still to observe some important angles. I marked this
bivouac, with 70 cut on a tree, the two last being, respectively marked,
71 and 72, as already stated; these numbers continuing the series from
LXIX, my lowest camp on the Belyando.

The scrub is thick about these volcanic ranges, but on the downs and
plains of Central Australia, that impediment disappears. My men and
myself were in rags from passing through these scrubs, and we rejoiced at
the prospect of rejoining, this day, our countrymen at the Pyramids. I
found a fine open forest between the ponds where we had formerly passed
the night, and Mount Pluto; and we crossed several water-courses, the
grass on their banks being green and young, because the old grass had
been burnt off by the natives. These water-courses form the highest
sources of the Salvator. We were at no very considerable elevation above
the sea where we had slept (696 feet), yet we found the air on the
mountains much cooler than that of the interior plains. There was much
Callitris in the woods passed through this day; and the soil, although
well covered with grass, was sandy. I ascended Mount Pluto by the N. W.
side, where the loose fragments of trap, on a very steep slope, obstruct
the growth of a thorny scrub, covering other parts of the mountain sides.
The view from the summit was very favourable for my purpose, and I passed
an hour and a half in taking angles on all distant points. Mount Owen and
Mount Kilsyth were both visible; Buckland's Table-land in the East, and
some of the recently discovered ranges in the west, were just visible
across the trap-rock range, which connected Mount Playfair with Mount
Hutton; which range almost shut out the view to the westward. In the S.
W., some very remarkable features appeared to terminate westward, in
abrupt cliffs over a low country, into which the Maran (as far as known),
the Warrego, and the Nive, seem to carry their waters. What that country
is, was a most interesting point, which I was very reluctant to leave
still a mystery. No volcanic hills appeared to the westward of this trio,
which thus seem to mark the place where the upheaving forces have most
affected the interior structure of Australia. The temperature on Mount
Pluto, at noon, was 90 deg.; and the elevation above the sea, 2420 feet.

On descending to where I had left the horses, we mounted, and struck into
the old outward track; but we had difficulty in following it, although it
was not above a month old. We saw many kangaroos to the eastward of Mount
Pluto, but could not get a shot at any. I had seen much smoke in the
direction of our camp, and was anxious about the safety of the party left
there. We reached it before sunset, and were received with loud cheers.
All were well, the natives had not come near, the cattle were in high
condition. Mr. Stephenson had a fine collection of insects, and some
curious plants. My man Brown had contrived to eke out the provisions so
as to have enough to take us back to Mr. Kennedy. The grass looked green
and luxuriant about the camp, and the spot proved a most refreshing home
both to us and to our jaded horses, on whose backs we had almost
constantly been for nearly a month. The party had collected specimens of
Benth.; HIBBERTIA CANESCENS; these had been found on the rocky ground
near the camp, some on the sides, and even near the summits of the
pyramids. On the sandy flats at the foot of these hills, were gathered,
AJUGA AUSTRALIS; DAMPIERA ADPRESSA, a gay, though, almost leafless herb,
with blue flowers nestling in grey wool; three miles below the camp a
species of VIGNA, closely allied to V. CAPENSIS Walp., was found; and
among the larger forest trees was a Eucalyptus, allied to, but probably
distinct from, the E. SIDEROXYLON A. Cunn.

The LABICHEA DIGITATA was now in fruit; the JACKSONIA SCOPARIA formed a
shrub, ten or twelve feet high, occupying sandy places, and having much
resemblance to the common broom of Europe. The ACACIA CUNNINGHAMII grew
about the same height; the GREVILLEA LONGISTYLA was seen on the
sandstone, forming a shrub seven or eight feet high; and there also grew
the pretty ZIERIA FRAZERI[*]; the DODONOEA MOLLIS was a small shrub six
feet high, whereof the fruit was now ripe; the LEUCOPOGON CUSPIDATUS,
also small. A PIMELEA near P. LINIFOLIA formed a shrub, only two feet
high, growing on the rocks; the HOVEA LANCEOLATA, grew ten feet high in
similar situations; the LEPTOSPERMUM SERICATUM was still abundant on the
sandstone rocks, and amongst these also grew the POMAX HIRTA, a plant six
inches high.

[* Z. FRASERI (Hook. MS.); ramulis junioribus puberulis, foliis
impunctatis brevissime petiolatis, foliolis lanceolatis acutis marginibus
leviter revolutis subtus pallidis pubescenti-sericeis, pedunculis
trifloris folio brevioribus.--Very distinct from all other ZIERIOE.
Detected by Fraser on Mount Lindsay.]

At the base of these mountains, a slight variety of ACACIA VISCIDULA
formed a bush twelve feet high; a variety of BORONIA BIPINNATA formed a
small upright shrub, with flowers larger than usual; and much finer
specimens were now also found, of the white and red flowered BORONIA
ERIANTHA; the DODONOEA PEDUNCULARIS was loaded with its fruit; the
SCHIDIOMYRTUS TENELLUS, or a new species nearly allied to it, formed a
shrub six feet high. A variety of AOTUS MOLLIS, with rather less downy
leaves and rather smaller calyxes; the ACACIA LONGISPICATA, with its
silvery leaves and long spikes of yellow blossoms, acquired a stature of
twelve feet, at the foot of the rocks; and small specimens of the
beautiful LINSCHOTENIA DISCOLOR, which we had also observed, in a finer
state, near Mount Pluto. The LABICHEA DIGITATA was abundant in sheltered
ravines amongst the rocks; and, also, the DODONOEA ACEROSA, loaded with
its four-winged reddish fruit, formed a shrub there four feet high. On
the flats at the base of these ranges, grew the stiff, hard leaved,
glutinous TRIODIA PUNGENS, with fine erect panicles of purple and green
flowers (the first occasion this, on which I had seen this plant in
flower). The BRUNONIA SERICEA continued to appear; also a minute species
of ALTERNANTHERA. The DIANELLA STRUMOSA formed a coarse, sedgy herbage,
relieved by its large panicles of blue flowers; and a fine species of
Dogbane near TABERNOEMONTANA, and probably not distinct from that genus,
according to Sir William Hooker. A shrub, five feet high, which proved to
be a new species of ACACIA, also grew at the foot of the precipices[*]; a
new and very distinct species of LOGANIA[**]; a new RUTIDOSIS, a tall
herbaceous perennial[***]; a fine, new, long leaved GREVILLEA, with
yellow flowers.[****] A woolly-leaved KERAUDRENIA, with inconspicuous
flowers[*****]; and, in the open forest, a pretty species of Comesperm,
about five feet high, with rosy flowers, and smooth or downy stems; it
was allied to C. RETUSA.[******]

[* A. UNCIFERA (Benth. MS.) molliter velutino-pubescens, ramulis
subteretibus, stipulis subulatis caducissimis, phyllodiis
falcatoellipticis v. oblique oblongis utrinque acutis uncinato-mucronatis
minute 1-2- glandulosis, racemis polycephalis phyllodio paullo
longioribus, capitulis multifloris tomentosis.--Near A. CALEYI and A.
VESTITA. Phyllodia from an inch and a half to two inches long, half an
inch broad, resembling much in shape those of A. MYRTIFOLIA.]

[** L. CORDIFOLIA (Hook. MS.); herbacea erecta estipulata glabra, foliis
cordato-acuminatis sessilibus 3-5-nerviis, racemis corymbosis axillaribus
terminalibusque in paniculam contractam terminalem foliosam magis minusve

[*** R. ARACHNOIDEA (Hook. MS.); elata, arachnoideo-tomentosa, foliis
remotis lanceolatis acuminatis calloso-cuspidatis, panicula laxa, ramis
longis polycephalis, capitulis aggregatis, involucris ovatis.--A widely
distinct species from the only hitherto described species of this genus
(R. HELICHRYSOIDES), both in the leaves and flower-heads.]

[**** G. JUNCIFOLIA (Hook. MS.); ramis angulatis pubescenti-sericeis,
foliis rigidis angustissime linearibus elongatis semiteretibus acutis
glabris marginibus revolutis, racemis ovatis multifloris, pedicellis
perianthiisque sericeis, ovariis sessilibus longissime albosericeis,
stylis glabris, folliculis oblique ovatis sericeo-tomentosis.]

[***** K. ? INTEGRIFOLIA (Hook. MS.); foliis oblongo-lanceolatis
apiculatis subtus pannoso-tomentosis marginibus costa nervisque
glandulosis.--In this the styles are connected at the apex, free below.
The capsule is deeply 5-lobed. The anthers are remarkably curved
outwards, like a horse-shoe, which is not the case in true KERAUDRENIA.
W. I. H.]

[****** C. SYLVESTRIS (Lindl. MS.); erecta a basi divisa, caulibus
pubescentibus glabrisve, foliis oblongis mucronatis, racemis corymbosis
terminalibus, bracteis deciduis, corollae lobo medio integerrimo.]

On the rocky slopes, or crests, were found, also, various new plants
which have been since described, viz. A small shrub, with leaves from
three to four inches long, found to be a new species of CONOSPERMUM[*]; a
small shrubby species of LABICHEA[**]; an inconspicuous shrub, two feet
high, was a new species of MICRANTHEUM, allied to M. ERICOIDES,
Desf.[***]; a downy DODONOEA, very near D. PEDUNCULARIS, but with thinner
truncated leaves, and more glutinous fruit[****]; and, on the edge of the
mountain, grew a curious new Acacia, resembling a pine tree[*****], but
with the stature of a shrub, and a GREVILLEA, forming a shrub seven or
eight feet high.[*]

[* C. SPHACELATUM (Hook. MS); foliis linearibus subfalcatis
sphacelatoapiculatis molliter incano-pubescentibus inferne longe
attenuatis uninerviis paniculis pedunculatis corymbosis, floribus
bracteisque sericeis.]

[** L. RUPESTRIS (Benth. MS.) glabra vel vix in partibus novellis
puberula, foliis sessilibus plerisque trifoliolatis, foliolis lineari-
oblongis spinosomucronatis coriaceis marginatis terminali lateralibus bis
pluriesve longiore, antheris subaequalibus conformibus.]

[*** M. TRIANDRUM (Hook. MS.); foliis cuneatis solitariis, floribus
masculis triandris.]

[**** D. PUBESCENS (Lindl. MS.); minutissime pubescens, viscosa, foliis
brevibus apice triangularibus tridentatis truncatisque, capsulis
tetrapteris pedunculatis alis rotundatis.]

[***** A. PINIFOLIA (Benth. MS.) glabra ramulis teretibus, phyllodiis
erectosubincurvis longe lineari-filiformibus nervo utrinque prominenti
subtetragonis breviter pungenti-mucronatis, pedunculis solitariis
brevissimis, capitulis multifloris, sepalis spathulatis liberis v. vix
basi cohaerentibus.--Very near A. PUGIONIFORMIS, but the phyllodia are
five, six, or more inches long, being longer even than in A. CALAMIFOLIA.
It differs from the latter species in the inflorescence and calyx.]

[****** G. LONGISTYLA (Hook. MS.); ramis pubescentibus, foliis longissime
linearibus acutis basi attenuatis margine subrevolutis supra glabris
subtus albo-tomentosis, racemis oblongo-ovatis, perianthiis glandulosis,
ovariis semiglobosis stipitatis sericeo-hirsutissimis, stylo longissimo
glabro.--Leaves a span and more long; flowers rather large, apparently

Chapter VIII.


7TH AND 8TH OCTOBER.--THESE two days were devoted to the completion of my
maps of the late tour, and of drawings of two of the birds seen on the
Victoria. Our horses required a day or two's rest, and I had enough to do
in my tent, although the heat was intense.

9TH OCTOBER.--Once more I rode into the lower country a few miles, to
take a sketch of another remarkable hill. In the afternoon I examined the
sandstone caverns in the hill opposite to our camp; some very curious
organic remains having been found there by one of the party during my
absence. I found that these occurred on the lower side of sandstone
strata, and that they had become denuded by the decomposition of
sandstone underneath. We were to leave this camp next morning. The men
were on very reduced rations, and I was apprehensive that we might be
disappointed in our search for water in many places where we had before
encamped and found it. In the afternoon, the sky became suddenly
overcast, distant thunder was heard; and the southern portion of the
heavens, over the country to which we were about to return, was evidently
discharging some heavy rain there. At twilight, the rain commenced to
fall heavily at our camp, and continued to do so during four hours. Such
a supply came most opportunely for us, and, although I could not be so
vain as to suppose that the thunder rolled only for our benefit alone, I
felt as thankful as though it had. This day I saw on the cavernous hill
the woolly ACTINOTUS HELIANTHI, one of the most singular of umbelliferous
plants; and, on descending to the base, a white variety of the COMESPERMA
SYLVESTRIS, with smooth branches: unlike the kind observed in September,
it did not grow above one foot high. A small shrub grew on the rocks, a
pretty little Calytrix, near C. MICROPHYLLA A Cunn. (from Port Essington
and Melville Island); but the branches, with their leaves, are more
stout, and the bracts more obtuse. Sir W. Hooker supposes it to be a new
species. We here found this day a woolly-leaved plant, with long
branching panicles of brilliantly blue flowers, which Professor de Vriese
has ascertained to be a new genus of the natural order of Goodeniads, and
which he calls LINSCHOTENIA DISCOLOR.[*] Thermometer, meter, at sunrise,
60 deg.; at noon, 94 deg.; at 4 P. M., 76 deg.; at 9, 64 deg.;--with wet bulb, 64 deg..

[* LINSCHOTENIA DE VRIESE. Calyx superus, limbo obsoleto. Corollae
quinquefidae tubo hine fisso, lobis majoribus margine utroque auriculato-
crispis, alatisve, duobus minoribus lanceolatis, interne appendice
proprio cuculliformi instructis. Antherae imberbes, cohaerentes.
Filamenta libera, quandoque subflexuosa. Ovarium uniovulatum; stylus
inflexus; stigmatis indusium ore nudum; semen in nuce solitarium.

Genus dicatum Jano Huigenio Linschotenio, geographo, navarcho,
itineratori seculi XVI., qui historiae naturalis, imprimis vero
geographiae et rei nauticae progressui eximie profuit. Linschotenia
Dampierae proxime habitu et plurimis cum floris, tum habitus
characteribus, paracolla cuculliforme ab omnibus Goodeniacearum generibus
huc usque cognitis, diversa.

L. DISCOLOR, suffruticosa, erecta, albo-lineata, foliis alternis,
petiolatis, oblongis, acutis, integris, planis, superne pallide
viridibus, glaberrimis, inferne densissime albo-lanatis. Inflorescentia
spicata, ramosa, griseo-lanata, floribus subsessilibus, basi
bracteolatis, corollis quinquelobis, lilacinis, extus griseo-barbatis;
paracorollis nigrescentibus.

Legit anno 1846, Praefectus militaris nobil. T. L. Mitchell in Nova-
Hollandia subtropica.

Planta elegantissima, inter Scaevolas persimilis habitu SC. REINWARDTII
de Vriese in LEHM. PL. PREISS. videtur esse suffruticosa. Caulis est
teres. Folia sunt alterna, fere 7 cent. longa et 11/2 cent. lata,
petiolata, petiolo ad insertionem quodammodo crassiore, fere 1/2 cent.
longo, integerrima, utrinque acuta, nervo medio crassiore, subtus lanata,
fere alutacea, albissima; superne viridia, opaca; bracteae lineari-
lanceolatae, utraque superficie lanatae, acutae; rhachis elongata, fere
10-15 cent. longa, inferne albo-lanata, sursum griseo-lanata. Pedunculi
communes 5-10 cent. longi, patentes, alterni, griseo-tomentosi. Flores
alterni, sessiles, bracteolati, bracteolis suboppositis; calyces villosi,
limbis obsoletis; corollae persistentis lobis marginibus inflexis,
externe medio calycis instar hirsutis, interne glaberrimis: cucullis
corollae badiis, convexis, uno latere hiantibus, interiori mediaeque
loborum parti affixis; filamenta libera, filiformia, antherae his
continuae, glabrae. Stigma capitatum, indusio imberbe.--DE VRIESE.]

10TH OCTOBER.--We commenced our retreat with cattle and horses in fine
condition, and with water in every crevice of the rocks. That in the
reedy swamp near the pyramids, had a sulphureous taste, and nausea and
weak-stomach were complained of by some of the men. I certainly did not
think the swamp a very desirable neighbour, with the thermometer
sometimes above 100 deg., and therefore I was more desirous to retire from
it. As the party returned along their former track, I went to the summit
of Mount Faraday, and observed a number of useful angles for my map. Mr.
Stephenson was with me, and found some new plants and insects, while I
ascertained the height, by the barometer, to be 2523 feet above the sea.
form of AJUGA AUSTRALIS, and a little PILOTHECA, with narrow,
closepressed leaves.[*] The mountain is volcanic, the broken side of the
crater being towards the N.W. Some compact basalt appeared near the
summit. On reaching the Warrego in the evening, we found the party had
arrived there at 3 P. M., the distance travelled comprising two former
days' journeys. They had also found water close to the camp, where none
had been when they had been there before. Many beautiful shrubs were now
beginning to bloom. The BURSARIA INCANA was now covered with its panicles
of white flowers; the OZOTHAMNUS DIOSMOEFOLIUS, a shrub four feet high,
was loaded with small bulbs of snow white flowers; a downy variety of
LOTUS AUSTRALIS, with pink flowers[*], was common on the open ground; the
ACACIA PODALYRIOEFOLIA was now forming its fruit; in the open forest we
found a beautiful little GOMPHOLOBIUM[***]; the HAKEA PURPUREA, a spiny-
leaved, hard shrub, with numerous crimson leaves[****], and the EUPHORBIA
EREMOPHILA, an inconspicuous species of SPURGE.[*****] Mr. Stephenson and
I had been so busy collecting these on our way back, that we only reached
the camp at sunset. Thermometer, at sunrise, 58 deg.; at noon, 75 deg.; at 4 P.
M., 82; at 9, 62 deg.;--with wet bulb, 59 deg..

[* P. CILIATA (Hook. MS.); ramulis pilosis, foliis erectis subimbricatis
linearibus obtusis ciliatis dorso convexis glandulosis superne planis
nudis, petalis ovali-ellipticis obtusis marginibus extus
albopubescentibus.--Allied to P. AUSTRALIS, but different in the leaves,
which are here ciliated at the margin, very glandulous on the back; and
in the flowers, which are smaller, the petals more obtuse, and having a
broad, white line of pubescence round the margin at the back.]

[** L. AUSTRALIS var. PUBESCENS, ramis pedunculisque pilis mollibus
patentibus vestitis. G. B.]

[*** G. FOLIOLOSUM (Benth. MS.) foliis impari-pinnatis, foliolis 15-25
obovato-truncatis obcordatisve glabris, petiolis ramulisque pilosulis,
racemis terminalibus subcorymbosis laxis paucifloris. Fruticulus
ramosissimus foliolis confertis vix lineam longis.]

[**** H. PURPUREA (Hook. MS.) foliis tereti-filiformibus rigidis trifidis
segmentis simplicibus furcatisve mucronatis glabris, floribus purpureis
pedicellisque glabris, capsulis obovatis acutis lignosis stipitatis

[***** E. EREMOPHILA (All. Cunn. in Hook. Herb.); fruticosa, ramulis
fastigiatis foliisque parvis linearibus dentato-scrratis glabris,
capsulis globosotriangularibus laevibus glabris.--Collected by Allan
Cunningham in Dirk Hartog's island.]

11TH OCTOBER.--Following the chord of the arc described by our journeys
of 30th June, and 1st July, on tracing down the Warrego, I made the
furthest of the two camps, by a straight line of nine miles, passing
through a fine open forest country. The pond, which formerly supplied us
here, was now quite dry, but one much larger in a rocky bed was found a
few hundred yards further up the river. Thermometer, at sunrise, 54 deg.; at
noon, 80 deg.; at 4 P. M. 88 deg.; at 9, 57 deg.;--with wet bulb, 52 deg..

12TH OCTOBER.--This day we also turned two former days' journeys into
one, and arrived at Camp XXXVIII. by 2 P. M., the ponds at the
intermediate camp (XXXIX.) being dry. Nevertheless, the recent rains had
left some water in rocky hollows, at which we could water our horses on
the way. By the river side this morning, we found a variety of the
HELIPTERUM ANTHEMOIDES, D.C., with the leaves pubescent and the scales of
the involucre paler. The silky grass, IMPERATA ARUNDINACEA, occurred in
the swampy flat we crossed before we encamped. Soon after we set out in
the morning, an old man was seen coming along the valley towards us,
without at first seeing the party. When he did, which was not until he
had come very near, he uttered a sort of scream, "OOEY!", and ran up
amongst some rocks beyond the water-course, nor would he stop, when
repeatedly called to by Yuranigh. He carried a firestick, a small bag on
his back, and some bomarengs under his left arm. His hair was grey but
very bushy, and he looked fat. The poor fellow was dreadfully frightened,
which I much regretted, for I might otherwise have obtained from him some
information about the ultimate course of the Warrego, etc. We found water
in one of the rocky ponds near our former encampment, but others in which
some had formerly been found, were dry, and I was not without some doubt
about finding water, on our way back to join Mr. Kennedy. Thermometer, at
sunrise, 42 deg.; at noon, 87 deg.; at 4 P. M., 96 deg.; at 9, 78 deg.;--with wet bulb,
60 deg..

13TH OCTOBER.--The night was uncommonly hot, thermometer 79 deg. here, where
in June last it had been as low as 7 deg.. The sky had been clouded, but the
morning cleared up, and we enjoyed a cool breeze in passing amongst the
sandstone gullies. On arriving at the foot of Mount Owen the day became
very sultry, and there was a haziness in the air. On Mount Owen Mr.
Stephenson found a new species of VIGNA with yellow flowers[*], and the
SWAINSONIA PHACOIDES, conspicuous with its pink flowers. We took up our
old ground over the gullies, and I went in quest of water. The ponds
formerly here, had dried up, but Yuranigh found a deep one in the solid
rock, containing enough for months. It was inaccessible to horses, but
with a bucket we watered both these and the bullocks. The mercurial
column was low, the sky became overcast, and a slight shower raised our
hopes that at length rain might fall in sufficient quantity to relieve us
from the difficulty about water, in returning towards Mr. Kennedy's camp.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 63 deg.; at noon, 79 deg.; at 4 P. M., 76 deg.; at 9, 64 deg.;--
with wet bulb, 59 deg..

[* V. LANCEOLATA (Benth. MS.) glabra volubilis, foliolis lanceolatis
reticulatis integris v. basi hastato-lobatis, pedunculis folio multo
longioribus apice paucifloris, calyce glabro campanulato dentibus tubo
brevioribus, carina rostrata acuta.--Flowers smaller than in V. VILLOSA,
but of the same form.]

14TH OCTOBER.--During the night several smart showers fell, and at
daybreak the sky seemed set for rain. When we set off it rained rather
heavily. I took a new direction, and got into a gully which led to our
former track of 17th June. Crossing it, I passed into the bed of the
Maranoa, and followed it down with the carts, until we arrived at the
large pond in solid rock, to which I had sent the bullocks on the 18th
June. Here we encamped, and I marked a tree with the number 74, as it
might be necessary on future occasions to refer to where a permanent
supply of water may be found in that part of the country. Thermometer, at
sunrise, 60 deg.; at noon, 71 deg.; at 4 P. M., 66 deg.; at 9, 52 deg.;--with wet bulb,
48 deg..

15TH OCTOBER.--Last evening the wind blew keenly, and the night was cold,
the temperature very different from that experienced of late. The morning
presented a thick haze and drizzling rain, this kind of weather being
rather favourable for crossing the loose sandy surface, which the men
dreaded, remembering how it had before affected their eyes. I at first
endeavoured to travel this day along the river bank, but I found its
course so tortuous, and the country on its banks so hilly and rocky, that
I left it, and proceeded in a direction that would intersect the former
track. We thus passed through a fine open forest, fell in with our old
track at a convenient point, and found water still in the pond at the
camp of 15th June, where we therefore again set up our tents. The sky had
cleared up, and the air was pleasantly cool, with a fine breeze blowing
from S.E. On the river bank, we observed this day the native bramble, or
Australian form of RUBUS PARVIFOLIUS, L. A small nondescript animal ran
before Mr. Stephenson and myself this morning. It started from a little
bush at the foot of a tree, had large ears, a short black tail, ran like
a hare, and left a similar track. It was about the size of a small
rabbit. The death of our dogs on the Bogan, under the intense heat and
drought, had been a very serious loss to us, as we found on many
occasions like this; and where kangaroos, of apparently rare species,
escaped from us from our having no dogs. We were, also, from want of such
dogs, much more exposed to attacks of the natives. Evening again cloudy.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 45 deg.; at noon, 64 deg.; at 4 P.M., 67 deg.; at 9, 57 deg.;--
with wet bulb, 50 deg..

16TH OCTOBER.--A clear cool morning, with a fine refreshing breeze from
east, succeeded the cloudy weather of yesterday. I crossed the little
river, and travelled straight towards Camp XXXVII. On the higher ground
grew a heath-like bush, (ERIOSTEMON RHOMBEUM,) three or four feet high.
At a distance of only nine miles, we came upon the little river beside
that camp, and fell into the old track a mile on beyond it; and, early in
the day, we arrived at a chain of ponds, half-way to the next camp at
Possession Creek. The ponds where I went to encamp were dry; but, on
following the water-course downwards, I came to its junction with the
Maranoa, at half a mile from the camp, and found a large basin of water
at that point. Here, the NOTELOEA PUNCTATA was no longer a low trailing
bush, but a shrub ten or twelve feet high, with the appearance of a
European PHILLYREA. On the wet ground at the river bank, grew an entire-
leaved variety (?) of PLANTAGO VARIA. The wild carrot, DAUCUS BRACHIATUS,
with an annual wiry root, was also seen in the rich ground near the
river. Yuranigh found more of the native tobacco, which the men eagerly
asked for some of. This was a variety of the southern NICOTIANA
SUAVEOLENS, with white flowers, and smoother leaves. Thermometer, at
sunrise, 37 deg.; at noon, 70 deg.; at 4 P.M., 76 deg.; at 9, 51 deg.;--with wet bulb,
42 deg.. Height above the sea, 1315 feet. (Camp 75.)

17TH OCTOBER.--The thermometer stood as low as the freezing point this
morning, and the day was cooled by a wind from the N. E. In crossing
Possession Creck, we saw nothing of the formerly belligerent natives.
From Camp XXXIII, I took a direct course to Camp XXXII, where we arrived
early. No water remaining in the adjacent ponds, I followed the dry
channel down to its junction, and found the Maranoa full of water; this
point being three quarters of a mile from our camp. We had this day
passed over a fine open forest country, in which were also groves of the
ACACIA PENDULA. The vegetation, in general, seemed drooping, from the
want of rain; but the whole was available for grazing purposes. We saw,
this day, plants of PYCNOSORUS GLOBOSUS, in the dry forest land; and the
spreading bush, about eight feet high. The HOVEA LEIOCARPA, and
CONVOLVULUS ERUBESCENS, were also found; with a new MYRIOGYNE[*], and a
small shrub, three feet high, with narrow, blunt, glaueous leaves,
tasting like rum. A small fruit, with the fragrance of an orange, proved
to be a new species of TRIPHASIA.[**]

[* M. RACEMOSA (Hook. MS.) radice perenni fusiformi superne multicipiti,
caulibus decumbentibus, foliis lineari-cuneatis grosse serratis
punctatis, capitulis in racemis subnudis terminalibus.--Very different
from any described MYRIOGYNE, in the terminal racemed capitula.]

[** T. GLAUCA (Lindl. MS.); spinosa, foliis coriaceis integerrimis
crenatisque linearibus glaucis obtusis retusisque, floribus trimeris
dodecandris 2-3nis brevi-pedicellatis.]

It is much to be regretted, that the specimens gathered here of the
brigalow, should have been so imperfect that they could not be described.
If an Acacia, Mr. Bentham says, it is different from any he knows.

The vicinity of the river here affords security for a supply of water, in
seasons like the present, when any contained in the smaller channels may
be dried up. In the afternoon we lost a horse, which fell from a
precipitous part of the bank, at the junction of the creek with the
river. One man was leading four, when one horse kicked another, which,
falling perpendicularly, from a height of about forty feet, was so much
hurt as to be unable to rise. The folly, or rather obstinacy of the man,
leading so many together, on the verge of a precipice, was contrary to
particular orders previously given, and which ought to have been enforced
by Graham, who was in charge. Thermometer, at sunrise, 32 deg.; at noon, 78 deg.;
at 4 P.M., 79 deg.; at 9, 60 deg.;--with wet bulb, 45 deg..

18TH OCTOBER.--The horse, still unable to get on his legs, and apparently
dying, was shot, and buried in the sand of the bed of the creek. This
loss, when we were so near our depot camp, was much to be regretted, as
we should have otherwise taken back every bullock and horse, after an
absence, from that camp, of four months and fifteen days. We saw not a
single native about the woods or the river, and were, therefore, the more
anxious to know how Mr. Kennedy and the natives had agreed at the depot
camp, now within a day's ride of us. We continued to follow our former
track to Camp XXXI, and it may be remarked, to their credit, that the
aborigines had not attempted to deface any of these marked trees. It
might have occurred, even to them, that such marks were preparatory to
the advent of more white men into their country. The fine, deep reaches
in the river, looked still full and unfailing; and a short journey to-
morrow would take us to the camp of the rest of the party. We this day
found a little jasmine in flower, of which Mr. Stephenson had formerly
collected the seeds. It was white, not more than a foot high, with
solitary white flowers, emitting a delightful fragrance, and it grew in
the light sandy forest land.[*] A tree loaded with pods, which the
natives eat, has been determined by Sir William Hooker to be the
picked up a singular little annual plant, belonging to the genus PIMELEA,
with hairy, loose spikes of minute green flowers[**]; and by the river we

[* J. SUAVISSIMUM (Lindl. MS.); herbaceum, ramis angulatis, foliis
sessilibus simplicibus alternis oppositisque lineari-lanceolatis,
pedunculis solitariis unifloris supra medium bibracteatis foliis
longioribus, sepalis subulatis, corollae laciniis 5-7 acutissimis.]

[** P. TRICHOSTACHYA (Lindl. MS.); annua, foliis alternis linearibus
pilis paucis adpressis, spicis laxis terminalibus villosissimis.]

The morrow was looked forward to with impatience. Four months and a half
had the main body of the party been stationary; and that was a long time
to look back upon, with the expectation that it had remained undisturbed,
although isolated in a country still claimed and possessed by savages.
Thermometer, at sunrise, 38 deg.; at noon, 83 deg.; at 4 P.M., 86 deg.; at 9, 64 deg.;--
with wet bulb, 48 deg..

19TH OCTOBER.--The party was early in motion along the old track. Leaving
the intermediate camp to the left, we struck across the country so as to
hit the track again within a few miles of the depot camp. Old tracks of
cattle, when the earth had been soft, and the print of A SHOE, were the
first traces of the white man's existence we met with; nor did we see any
thing more conclusive, until the tents on the cliffs overhanging the
river were visible through the trees. We saw men, also, and even
recognised some of them, before our party was observed; nor did they see
us advancing, with a flag on the cart, until Brown sounded the bugle.
Immediately all were in motion, Mr. Kennedy coming forward to the cliffs,
while the whole party received us with cheers, to which my men heartily
responded. Mr. Kennedy ran down the cliffs to meet me, and was the first
to give me the gratifying intelligence that the whole party were well;
that the cattle and sheep were safe and fat; and, that the aborigines had
never molested them. A good stock-yard had been set up; a storehouse had
also been built; a garden had been fenced in, and contained lettuce,
radishes, melons, cucumbers. Indeed, the whole establishment evinced the
good effects of order and discipline. Drysdale, the storekeeper, had
collected many birds and plants, and had also been careful of the stores.
The orphan from the Bogan, little Dicky, had grown very much, and seemed
a very intelligent boy; and the little intercourse Mr. Kennedy had had
with the aborigines, limited as it was, by my instructions to him, was
curiously characteristic of the tact and originality of this singular
race. On one occasion, when on being informed that natives were near, he
had hastened to meet them, taking little Dicky with him, he found
remaining only a female and her mother, a remarkably old woman, who had
before concealed herself among the reeds. The daughter on his approach
sung a beautiful song, rapidly running through the whole gammut. Then
bowing her head, she presented the back of it to him, and placing her
stone-tomahawk in his hand, she bade him strike. Mr. Kennedy threw the
tomahawk on the ground; and seeing the grey head amongst the reeds, he
prevailed on the mother to come out. She was hideous in person, which was
much more AFFREUX from the excessive rage with which she seemed to
denounce the white men;--her fiend-like eyes flashing fire, as if
prophetic of the advent of another race, and the certain failure of her

The daughter seemed, at first, to treat lightly the ire of her aged
parent, playfully patting with her finger her mother's fearfully
protruding lip. Mr. Kennedy endeavoured to ascertain, through Dicky, the
downward course of the river, and she seemed to express, and to point
also, that the river passed southerly into the Balonne, which river she
named, and even the Culgoa: she seemed to say the name of that locality
was "Mundi." Neither of these females had any covering, but the younger
wore, by way of ornament, a page of last year's Nautical Almanac,
suspended by a cord from her neck. The mother continuing implacable, the
daughter, with a graceful expression of respect for her, and courtesy to
the stranger, waved her arm for him to retire, which gesture Mr. Kennedy
and Dicky immediately obeyed. At another interview, a scheme to decoy
Dicky away was tried, as related thus in Mr. Kennedy's journal:--"Sunday,
26th July. Prayers were read at 11 A.M., after which, having been told by
Drysdale that the natives were still near the camp, and that there was a
native amongst them who could make himself more intelligible to Dicky
than the rest, I had started down the river to see them to collect what
information I could, and then induce them to go farther from the camp. I
had not gone far before the cooys from the tents made me aware that the
natives were by this time in sight. I therefore returned, and the first
object that caught my eye was the bait--a gin, dancing before some
admiring spectators; and behind her was a fine, lusty native advancing by
great strides, as he considered the graceful movements of his gin were
gaining as fast upon the hearts of the white men. On going up to him
Dicky put the usual questions as to the name of the river, and its
general course. His reply to the first was not very satisfactory, but our
impression was that he called it Balun. With respect to its course, he
plainly said that it joined the Balonne; repeatedly pointing in the
direction of that river and then following with his hand, the various
windings of this branch; repeating the while some word implying 'walk,
walk,' and ending with 'Balonne.' He knew the names of the mountains
Bindango and Bindyego. After this conversation he took some fat, which he
appeared to have brought for the purpose, and anointed Dicky by chewing
it, and then spitting upon his head and face. He next whispered to him,
and (as Dicky says) invited him to join them. I then motioned to the men,
who were looking on at a short distance, to go to the camp; and as they
obeyed, I made the same signs to the native to move in the opposite
direction, which he at length did with evident reluctance and
disappointment, throwing away his green bough, and continually looking
back as he retired. I desired Dicky to tell him never to come near our
tents, and that no white man should go to his camp."

It seems that one family only inhabits these parts, as only three huts at
most were to be seen in any part of the country, either up or down the
river; a very fortunate circumstance for our party, obliged to remain so
long at one spot, after such a formal notice had been given to quit it,
as our visitors of the 30th of May gave during my absence. Mr. Drysdale,
the store-keeper, had collected an herbarium during the long sojourn of
the party at that camp, which included many new plants. In August, plants
had begun to blossom; and in September various novelties had been found
in flower. In August, he gathered EURYBIA SUBSPICATA, Hook. EURYBIOPSIS
MACRORHIZA; or a species allied to it. ACACIA DECORA; GOODENIA
BIPINNATA, with smaller flowers than usual, and most of the leaves simply
pinnate. A cruciferous plant, probably new; two new species of EURYBIA
species of violet, with small, densely-spiked flowers (was covered with
wild bees in search of its honey). A species of BRUNONIA, apparently the
same as the B. SIMPLEX of the north bank of the Darling, but taller and
less hairy. A NYSSANTHES, apparently undescribed; SWAINSONA
DECOMPOSITA, a hard-leaved, sedgy plant; a fine LEUCOPOGON, with
unilateral flowers; and another species with yellowish blossoms, both
perhaps new. A pretty little grass belonging to the genus PAPPOPHORUM,
with a blackish green colour.[*] A magnificent new ACACIA, with leaves
nearly a foot long.[**] A minute annual CALANDRINIA.[***] An ERODIUM,
closely resembling the European E. LITTOREUM, Arn. and Benth., from Isle
of St. Lucie; it was also found by A. Cunningham in the swamps of the
Lachlan. A new PROSTANTHERA, with indented glandular viscid leaves.[****]
A beautiful ever-lasting plant belonging to the genus HELIPTERES.[*****]
A new LEPTOCYAMUS, with slender, trailing, hairy stems.[******] SIDA
VIRGATA (Hook. MS.)[*******] SIDA FILIFORMIS (A. Cunn.).[********] A new
DODONOEA in the way of the D. CUNEATA of the colony, with long, slender
flower stalks.[*********]

[* P. VIRENS (Lindl. MS.); pumilum, caespitosum, aristis 9 plumosis
rigidis apice nudis, spica composita laxa tenui villosa, glumis pilosis,
paleis sericeo-pilosis, foliis tactu scabris vaginis pilosis juxta
ligulam villosis.]

[** A. MACRADENIA (Benth. MS.); glabra, ramulis angulatis, phyllodiis
elongatis subfalcatis acutiusculis basi longe angustatis marginatis
crassiusculis uninervibus penniveniis nitidis glandula magna prope basin,
racemis brevibus polycephalis flexuosis subpaniculatis, capitulis
multifloris, calyce breviter dentato apice corollaque aureo-hispidulis,
ovario tomentoso.--Near A. FALCIFORMIS D. C. Phyllodia eight to ten
inches, or near a foot long, from six to ten lines broad.]

[*** C. PUSILLA (Lindl. MS.); foliis equitantibus subacinaciformibus
radicalibus, caulibus simplicibus racemosis v. unifloris, floribus longe
pedunculatis infimis divaricatis, floribus minutis 8-andris.]

[**** P. EUPHRASIOIDES (Benth. MS.) tota viscoso-villosa, foliis
linearioblongis pinnatifido-dentatis ad axillas subfasciculatis, floribus
paucisaxillaribus breviter pedicellatis, calycis labiis integris,
antherarum calcare longiore loculum superante.--The foliage and flowers
look at first sight very much like those of some of the AUSTRALIAN
EUPHRASIOE. The leaves are about three lines long.]

[***** H. GLUTINOSA (Hook. MS.); piloso-glandulosa, viscosa, foliis
angustolinearibus cuspidato-acuminatissimis, capitulis solitariis.--Young
buds rich rose-colour: full blown capitula pure white, the involucre
having a slight tinge of purple.]

[****** L. LATIFOLIUS (Benth. MS.); molliter villosus, foliolis
membranaceis oblique obovatis ovalibusque utrinque adpresse pubescentibus
villosisve, calycibus subsessilibus villosis.]

[******* S. FILIFORMIS (All. Cunn. MS.); tota stellato-tomentosa, ramis
patentissimis elongatis, foliis brevissime petiolatis cordato-ovatis
crenato-serratis, pedunculis axillaribus unifloris gracillimis folio
triplo longioribus, calyce 5-fido petalis duplo breviore.]

[******** S. VIRGATA (Hook. MS.); ramis elongatis virgatis stellato-
tomentosis, foliis brevissime petiolatis lineari-oblongis serratis supra
pubescentivelutinis subtus calyceque 5-fido stellato-pannosis
fulvescentibus, stipulis acicularibus rigidis spinescentibus, pedunculis
axillaribus unifloris folio brevioribus, petalis (flavis) calyce duplo

[********* D. PEDUNCULARIS (Lindl. MS.); viscosa, glabra, foliis rigidis
elongatis spathulatis acutis tridentatis integrisque lobo medio majore,
pedicellis 1-3-filiformibus, capsulis tetrapteris viscosis alis coriaceis

In September, were gathered in water-holes on the ranges, RANUNCULUS
SESSILIFLORUS, Br. in De Cand.; and near the camp the hard-leaved XEROTES
yellow flowers, on the banks of the river S. W. of the camp. A broader
with shining leaves and white flowers; CASSIA ZYGOPHYLLA. A variety of
SIDA PISIFORMIS, A. Cunn., with closer leaves and a browner pubescence;
HELICHRYSUM? near H. ODORUM D. C., but with the leaves downy on both
sides. PIMELEA COLORANS, a plant found by A. Cunningham along the river
Macquarie. STACKHOUSIA MURICATA, Lindl., which is, perhaps, not distinct
from S. SPATULATA, Sieb. A PODOLEPIS, resembling P. RUGATA Labill.
herbaceous plant. RANUNCULUS PLEBEIUS, very like an English buttercup. A
Br.), a species also found near Port Jackson. VIGNA LANCEOLATA; XEROTES
LONGIFOLIA, a very common, hard-leaved plant. ANTHERICUM BULBOSUM, R. Br.
GERANIUM PARVIFLORUM? or one nearly allied to it: exactly the same
species is found in Van Diemen's Land. HELIPTERUM ANTHEMOIDES? D. C., but
apparently new. A new and fine species of MENTHA.[*] A new, round-leaved
species of PROSTANTHERA.[**] A new species of SWAINSONA[***]; PLEURANDRA
CISTOIDEA (Hook. MS.).[****] A new TRICHINIUM, with conical flower-
heads.[*****] A species of HIBISCUS, with purple flowers.[******] A new
species of DAVIESIA, with spiny, shaggy leaves.[*******] Thermometer, at
sunrise, 46 deg.; at noon, 81 deg.; at 4 P.M., 75 deg.; at 9, 50 deg.;--with wet bulb,
47 deg..

[* M. GRANDIFLORA (Benth. MS.); molliter pubescens, caulibus erectis,
foliis petiolatis ovatis acutiusculis dentatis planis verticillatis laxis
sexfloris, calycis dentibus lanceolato-subulatis intus vix pilosis,
corolla calyce subduplo longiore, staminibus exsertis.--Near M. AUSTRALIS
Br., but the leaves broader and flowers larger.]

[** P. RINGENS (Benth. MS.); ramulis puberulis, foliis petiolatis
rhombeoorbiculatis integerrimis utrinque opacis glandulosis, calycis
glandulosi glabri labiis integris, corollae labio superiore subgaleato,
antherarum calcaribus loculo brevioribus.--Foliage nearly that of P.
RHOMBEA. Flowers much larger.]

[*** S. PHACOIDES (Benth. MS.); decumbens molliter pubescens, foliolis
13- 15-linearibus cuneatisve, pedunculis folio longioribus apice
paucifloris, legumine brevissime stipitato villoso.--A low plant with
much the habit of several PHACAS or ASTRAGALI. Flower yellow, smaller

[**** P. CISTOIDEA (Hook. MS.); pilis stellatis brevibus rigidis asperis,
foliis angusto-linearibus obtusis marginibus revolutis, floribus in ramos
breves solitariis, staminibus sub-12 unilateralibus, filamentis infra
medium inaequaliter connexis antheras longitudine aequantibus, ovario
parvo globoso lanato.]

[***** T. CONICUM (Lindl. MS.); hirto-pubescens, caule basi diviso, ramis
ascendentibus subsimplicibus, foliis lineari-lanceolatis acutis, spica
conica, bracteis unincrviis mucronatis glabris, rachi tomentosa.]

[****** H. STURTII (Hook. MS.); suffruticosus ubique subtus praecipue
dense stellatim tomentosus, foliis petiolatis oblongo-ovatis ellipticisve
obtusis grosse crenato-serratis, pedunculis axillaribus unifloris
solitariis folio brevioribus, involucro monophyllo ..... turbinato 6-8-
fido calycem 5-fidum aequante, capsulis hispidissimis.--This species was
also found by Capt. Sturt in the south interior. The flowers are purple,
sometimes yellowish in drying. The involucre is very remarkable,
monophyllous, broad at top and 6 or 8-cleft, almost wholly concealing the
calyx.--W. J. H.]

[******* D. FILIPES (Benth. MS.); ramis hirsutis inermibus, foliis
ovalioblongis sublanceolatisve apice spinoso-mucronatis planis
pubescentibus, pedicellis filiformibus folio demum longioribus in
pedunculo brevissimo solitariis geminisve.]

20TH OCTOBER.--It was necessary to halt here a day or two, that the
blacksmith might have time to repair the light carts, and shoe the
horses. I took a ride this day with Mr. Kennedy to a hill some miles
eastward of the camp, in which he had found some remarkable fossils. The
hill consisted of a red ferruguinous sandstone, in parts of which were
imbedded univalve and bivalve shells, pieces of water-worn or burnt wood,
and what seemed fragments of bone. To some of the portions of wood, young
shells adhered, but others bore, evidently, marks of fire; showing the
black scarified parts, and those left untouched or unscarified, very
plainly. Other portions of woods had their ends waterworn, and were full
of long cracks, such as appear in wood long exposed to the sun. These
specimens were, in general, silicified: but the outer parts came off in
soft flakes resembling rotten bark, being equally pliant, although they
felt gritty, like sand, between the teeth. This hill was rather isolated,
but portions of tabular masses, forming the range of St. George's Pass,
and in contact with the volcanic hill of Mount Kennedy which forms a
nucleus to these cliffy ranges, being about 9 miles N. E. of this hill,
to which, from its contents, I gave the name of Mount Sowerby. The
weeping GEIJERA PENDULA again occurred in abundance near Mount Sowerby;
the CAPPARIS LASIANTHA was climbing up the rocks there, and amongst the
grasses we observed a species of the genus LAPPAGO, perhaps not distinct
from the Indian L. BIFLORA. Thermometer, at sunrise, 39 deg.; at noon, 56 deg.; 4
P.M., 87 deg.; at 9, 67 deg.; with wet bulb, 52 deg..

21ST OCTOBER.--I took a ride with Mr. Kennedy to the summit to which I
had attached his name, having occasion to take a back angle from it on
Mount Owen, and one or two other points. I could there show him many of
the distant summits to the northward of the country, I was about to lay
down on my map. We rode over a fine tract of forest land, extending from
the camp to the foot of the mountain, a distance of about twelve miles.
On the high range grew a profusion of a beautiful little PTEROSTYLIS,
quite new, but in the way of P. RUFA[*], a single specimen of a new
KENNEDYA was gathered there.[**] On the plains we found a curious new
form of the genus DANTHONIA, much resembling wheat in ear[***], and a new
JASMINE, with a rich perfume, resembling I. LINEARE, but with short
axillary corymbs of flowers. This species has been named by Dr. Lindley
after myself.[****] We found also the SOLANUM VIOLACEUM with its violet
flowers and orange spines. A fine wiry herbage was formed by the
smallflowered species of CENTAURY, the DIANELLA RARA, R. Br. and SALVIA
PLEBEIA. Thermometer, at sunrise, 48 deg.; at noon, 85 deg.; at 4, P.M., 84 deg.; at
9, 65 deg. with wet bulb, 52 deg..

[* P. MITCHELLII (Lindl. MS.); foliis omnibus radicalibus stellatis,
vaginis scapi multiflori 3 remotis, scpalis setaceo-acuminatis, labelli
lamina ovato-lineari obtusa canaliculata supra pilis (luteis) articulatis

[** K. PROCURRENS (Benth. MS.); foliolis 3 ellipticis ovatisve
mucronulatis utrinque hirtellis subtus reticulatis, stipulis subcordato-
lanceolatis acutissimis striatis, pedunculis versus apicem plurifloris
petiolo multo longioribus, floribus subnutantibus.--Flowers considerably
smaller than in K. PROSTRATA, and petals narrower.]

[*** D. TRITICOIDES (Lindl. MS.); culmo ramoso stricto, foliis glabris
margine spinoso-scabris basi planis apice involutis, spica cylindracea
disticha secunda, spiculis subtrifloris flore summo mutico abortiente,
paleae inferioris dorso lanatae arista recta gluma mucronata multinervi

[**** J. MITCHELLII; foliis ternatis glabris; foliolis linearibus
linearilanceolatisque, ramis teretibus, corymbis axillaribus
subsessilibus foliis multo brevioribus, calycibus pubescentibus
subtruncatis 5-dentatis, corollae limbo 5-fido acuto.]

22D OCTOBER.--The information Mr. Kennedy had gathered from the natives,
about the final course of the river; his surveys thereof, which, even on
foot, he had extended sixteen miles (eight miles each way from the camp),
and the fact, that the fish of the Balonne, Cod, or GRISTES PEELII had,
at length been caught in it, all led to the conclusion that this river
was no other than the tributary which on the 24th, of April I at first
followed up, and afterwards halted and wrote back to Mr. Kennedy about.
By following this down, the probability that we should find water seemed
greater, than by returning along our old track, where we had left behind
some ponds so small that we could not hope to find any water remaining,
especially at two of the camps between us and Bindango, I therefore
determined to follow this river downward, and to survey its course. We
left the depot camp this morning, and to avoid some overhanging cliffs on
the river, we travelled first over an open tract. The camp we left,
namely, XXIX, or "MOONDI," or the "second depot camp," will be found a
valuable cattle-station or sheep-station, by the first squatter coming
this way. The runs about it are very extensive; the natives few and
inoffensive, and the stock-yard etc., left there, renders it very
complete. I must not omit, however, to mention, that the water had become
slightly brackish, but not so as to be unpalatable, or even, indeed,
perceptible, except to persons unused to it. The large reach had fallen
two feet since the party first occupied that station. In other reaches
lower down, that we passed during this day's journey, the water was
perfectly sweet. I proceeded about thirteen miles with the light party,
and encamped at the junction of a little river from the N. W. formerly
crossed by me (on my ride of 23d May). A new poppy was found on the flats
by the river, near PAPAVER DUBIUM; but the leaves, when dry, became
darkgreen not pale; the aculei are too numerous and stout, pectant not
depressed, and the flowers very small. The teams and drays did not arrive
as expected, and the men with me had not brought any provisions with
them. We saw natives in the woods before we encamped, and parts of the
grass on fire. A beautifully worked net, laid carefully under a piece of
bark, having two curiously carved stakes attached to it, was found by Mr.
Kennedy, who made deep impressions of his boots in the soil near it, that
the natives might see that white men had been there, and had left the net
untouched. Thermometer, at sunrise, 47 deg.; at noon, 81 deg.; at 4 P.M., 85 deg.; at
9, 70 deg.; with wet bulb, 56 deg.. Height above the sea, 1185 feet (Camp 76).

23RD OCTOBER.--We were obliged to halt, and await the arrival of the
drays, which only took place at 1/2 past 11, A.M. The cattle were found to
be so fat and fresh, that the drivers could not get them along faster.
Mr. Stephenson obtained a specimen of the dove observed by me on the
Victoria. (GEOPALIA CUNEATA). I had heard the note in the woods, and
directed his attention to it. The SWANSONIA CORONILLOEFOLIA adorned the
rich flats with its crimson pear-shaped blossoms, and the CROTALARIA
DISSITIFLORA, was also in flower, but smaller than usual; more rigid,
with a denser silky pubescence, and smaller, shorter leaflets. The SIDA
(Abutilon) FRAZERI (Hook. M S.)[*] and also the CLEMATIS STENOPHYLLA[**],
were found on this part of the river. Thermometer, at sunrise, 48 deg.; at

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