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Jailed for Freedom by Doris Stevens

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MRS. LUCY G. BRANHAM, Baltimore, Md., mother of Miss Lucy
Branham, widow of Dr. John W. Branham who lost his life fighting
a yellow fever epidemic in Ga. Arrested watchfire demonstration
Jan., 1919; sentenced to 3 days in District Jail.

MRS. JOHN WINTERS BRANNAN, New York City, daughter of the late
Charles A. Dana, founder and editor N. Y. Sun., trusted counselor
of President Lincoln; wife of Dr. Brannan. Pres. Board of
Trustees Bellevue Hos-

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pital; member executive committee N.W.P., state chairman New York
Branch. Did brilliant state suffrage work as officer of Woman's
Political Union in N. Y. Arrested picketing July 14, 1917,
sentenced to 60 days in Occoquan; pardoned by President after
serving 3 days. Again arrested picketing Nov. 10, 1917, sentenced
to 45 days.

JENNIE BRONENBERG, Philadelphia, Pa. Student Wharton School,
Univ. of Pa. Arrested Feb., 1919, sentenced to 5 days in District
Jail.

MRS. MARY E. BROWN, Wilmington, Del., state press chairman,
N.W.P. Father member First Del. regiment; mother field nurse,
Civil War. Descendant Captain David Porter, of Battleship Essex,
War of 1812. Arrested watchfire demonstration Jan. 13, 1919,
sentenced to 5 days in District Jail.

LOUISE BRYANT, New York City, formerly of Portland Ore., author,
poet and journalist, wife of John Reed. Correspondent for Phila.
Public Ledger in Petrograd for six months during Russian
revolution. Arrested Watchfire demonstration Feb., 1919,
sentenced to 5 days in District Jail.

Lucy BURNS, New York City, graduate Vassar College, student of
Yale Univ. and Univ. of Bonn, Germany. High School teacher.
Joined English militant suffrage movement 1909, where she met
Alice Paul, with whom she joined in establishing first permanent
suffrage headquarters in Washington in Jan., 1913; helped
organize parade of March 3, 1913; vice chairman and member of
executive committee Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage [later
the N.W.P.], for a time editor of The Suffragist. Leader of most
of the picket demonstrations and served more time in jail than
any other suffragist in America. Arrested picketing June, 1917,
sentenced to 3 days; arrested Sept., 1917, sentenced to 60 days;
arrested Nov. 10, 1917, sentenced to six months; in January,
1919, arrested watchfire demonstrations for which she served one
3 day and two 5 day sentences. She also served 4 prison terms in
England.

MRS. HENRY BUTTERWORTH, New York City, comes of an old Huguenot
family. Active in civic and suffrage work in N. Y. for past 20
years. Charter member National Society of Craftsmen. Arrested
picketing Nov., 1917, sentenced to 30 days in Occoquan.

MRS. LUCILLE A. CALME9, Princeton, Ia. Great-granddaughter of
George Fowler, founder of New Harmony, Ind. Government worker
during World War. Arrested watchfire demonstration Jan. 13, 1919,
sentenced to 5 days in District Jail.

ELEANOR CALNAN, Methuen, Mass. Congressional district chairman of
Mass. Branch N.W.P. Arrested picketing July 14, 1917, sentenced
to 60 days in Occoquan, pardoned by President after 3 days;
arrested Sept., 1917, sentenced to 60 days in Occoquan. Arrested
in Boston, Feb., 1919, for participation in Boston demonstration
at home coming of President; sentenced to 8 days in Charles St.
Jail.

MRS. AGNES CHASE, Washington, D. C., formerly of Ill.; engaged in
scientific research work for U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Arrested
Lafayette Sq. meeting August, 1918, sentenced to 10 days.
Arrested watchfire demonstration Jan., 1919, sentenced to 5 days.

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MRS. PALYS L. CHEVRIER, New York City, arrested watchfire
demonstration Jan., 1919, sentenced to 5 days. Member "Prison
Special" which toured country in Feb., 1919.

MRS. HELEN CHISASKI, Bridgeport, Conn., munition worker and
member of Machinists' Union. Arrested watchfire demonstration
Jan. 13, 1919; sentenced to 5 days in jail.

MRS. WILLIAM CHISHOLM, Huntington, Pa., now deceased; arrested
picketing Sept. 4, 1917, sentenced to 60 days in Occoquan.

JOSEPHINE COLLINS, Framingham, Mass., owns and manages the
village store at Framingham Center. She encountered serious
opposition from some of her customers on account of her militant
activities; one of first members N.W.P.; arrested in Boston Feb.,
1919, for taking part in welcome to the President; sentenced to 8
days in Charles St. Jail.

MRS. SARAH TARLETON COLVIN, St. Paul, Minn., member famous
Tarleton family of Alabama, wife of Dr. A. R. Colvin, Major in
the Army, and Acting Surgical Chief at Fort McHenry during World
War; graduate nurse Johns Hopkins training school, Red Cross
nurse in this country during war; Minnesota state chairman N.W.P.
Member "Prison Special." Arrested watchfire demonstrations Jan.,
190; sentenced to 2 terms of 5 days each.

BETTY CONNOLLY, West Newton, Mass., household assistant, arrested
in Boston, Feb., 1919, demonstration of welcome to President
Wilson; sentenced to 8 days in Charles St. Jail.

MRS. ALICE M. COSU, New Orleans, La., vice chairman La. state
branch N.W.P. Arrested picketing Nov., 1917, and sentenced to 30
days in Occoquan workhouse.

CORA CRAWFORD, Philadelphia, Pa., business woman. Marched in 1913
suffrage parade in Washington. Arrested watchfire demonstration
Jan., 1919; sentenced to 5 days in District Jail.

GERTRUDE CROCKER, Washington, D. C., formerly of Ill., educated
at Vassar College and Univ. of Chicago. National Treasurer N.W.P.
1916; government worker, 1917. Served 3 jail sentences: 30 days
for picketing in 1917, 10 days for assisting Lafayette Sq.
meeting 1918, and 5 days for participating watchfire 1919.

RUTH CROCKER, Washington, D. C., formerly of Ill., sister of
Gertrude Crocker. Came to Washington for suffrage, later
government worker. Served 30 days at Occoquan for picketing in
1917 and 3 days in District Jail for watchfire demonstration
Jan., 1919.

Miss L. J. C. DANIELS, Grafton, Vt., and Boston. Arrested
picketing Nov. 10, 1917, sentenced to 15 days. Took part in
Capitol picketing Nov., 1918; arrested watchfire demonstration
Jan. 9, 1919, sentenced to 5 days in District Jail. Arrested in
Boston for participation in welcome demonstration to President,
sentenced to 8 days in Charles St. Jail.

DOROTHY DAY, New York City, member of the "Masses" [now the
"Liberator"] staff. Arrested picketing Nov. 10, 1917, sentenced
to 30 days in Occoquan workhouse.

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EDNA DIXON, Washington, D. C., daughter of physician; teacher in
public schools. Arrested picketing Aug., 1917, sentenced to SO
days in Occoquan workhouse.

LAVINIA L. DOCK, Fayetteville, Pa., associated with the founders
of American Red Cross nursing service; secretary of American
Federation of Nurses and member of International Council of
Nurses. Assisted in relief work during Johnstown flood and during
Fla. yellow fever epidemic; army nurse during Spanish-American
War, author of "The History of Nursing," "The Tuberculosis
Nurse," and a number of other text books on nursing. One of early
workers of Henry St. Settlement in N. Y., and founder of visiting
nurse movement in N. Y. On staff of American Journal of Nursing.
One of first six pickets to serve prison sentence of 3 days in
June, 1917. Later that summer she served 25 days in Occoquan; and
in Nov. 15 days.

MRS. MARY CARROLL DOWELL, Philadelphia, Pa., wife of William F.
Dowell, magazine editor and writer with whom she has been
associated in business. Active club and suffrage worker in Pa.
and N. J., state officer Pa. branch N.W.P. Arrested watchfire
demonstration Jan. 20, 1919, and served 5 days in District Jail.

MARY DUBROW, Passaic, N. J.; student Univ. of N. Y.; teacher in
N. J. until she joined suffrage ranks as organizer and speaker.
Arrested watchfire demonstration Jan. 6, 1919, sentenced to 10
days.

JULIA EMORY, Baltimore, Md.; daughter of late state senator, D.
H. Emory. Gave up work for Trade Union League to work for
suffrage in 1917. Sentenced to 30 days in Occoquan for picketing
Nov., 1917. After her release became organizer N.W.P. Aug., 1918,
arrested and sentenced td 10 days Lafayette Sq. meeting. Jan. 7,
1919, sentenced to 10 days, and later in that month to 5 days for
watchfire demonstrations. Led Capitol picket Oct. and Nov., 1919,
and suffered many injuries at hands of police.

MRS. EDMUND C. EVANs, Ardmore, Pa., one of three Winsor sisters
who served prison terms for suffrage. Member of prominent Quaker
family. Arrested watchfire demonstration Jan., 1919, and
sentenced to 5 days in District Jail.

Lucy EWING, Chicago, Ill., daughter of Judge Adlai Ewing, niece
of James Ewing, minister to Belgium under Cleveland; niece also
of Adlai Stevenson, Vice-President under Cleveland. Officer Ill.
Branch N.W.P. Arrested picketing Aug. 17, 1917, sentenced to 30
days in Occoquan workhouse.

MRS. ESTELLA EYLWARD, New Orleans, La. Business woman. Came to
Washington to take part in final watchfire demonstration Feb.,
1919; arrested and sentenced to 5 days in District Jail.

MARY GERTRUDE FENDALL, Baltimore, Md., graduate of Bryn Mawr
College; campaigned for N.W.P. in West 1916; national treasurer
of organization June, 1917, to December, 1919. Arrested and
sentenced to 3 days, Jan., 1819, for applauding in court.

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ELLA FINDEISEN, Lawrence, Mass. Arrested picketing Nov. 10, 1917,
sentenced to 30 days at Occoquan.

KATHARINE FISHER, Washington, D. C., native of Mass. Great-
greatgranddaughter of Artemas Ward, ranking Major General in
Revolutionary War. Teacher, social worker and later employee of
U. S. War Risk Bureau. Written prose and verse on suffrage and
feminist topics. Arrested picketing Sept. 13, 1917, sentenced to
30 days 'at Occoquan workhouse.

MRS. ROSE GRATZ FISHSTEIN, Philadelphia, Pa., native of Russia.
Came to America at 15. Had been imprisoned for revolutionary
activities in Russia and fled to this country following release
on bail. Operator in shirt factory; later union organizer;
factory inspector for N. Y. State Factory Commission. Feb. 9,
1919 arrested watchfire demonstration and sentenced to 5 days in
District Jail.

ROSE FISHSTEIN, Philadelphia, Pa., sister-in-law of Mrs. Rose G.
Fishstein, born in Russia, educated in N. Y. and Phila. Student
of Temple Univ., business woman. Arrested watchfire
demonstration, Feb., 1919, sentenced to 5 days in District Jail.

CATHERINE M. FLANAGAN, Hartford, Conn., state and national
organizer for N.W.P.; formerly secretary for Conn. Woman Suffrage
Association. Father came to this country as Irish exile because
of his efforts in movement for Irish freedom. Arrested picketing
August, 1917, sentenced to 30 days in Occoquan workhouse.

MARTHA FOLEY, Dorchester, Mass., active worker in Mass. labor
movement. Arrested in demonstration at homecoming of President in
Boston, Feb., 1919; sentenced to 8 days in Charles St. Jail.

MRS. T. W. FORBES, Baltimore, Md., officer of Just Government
League of Md.; arrested watchfire demonstration Feb. 9, 1919,
sentenced to 5 days in District Jail.

JANET FOTHERINGHAM, Buffalo, N. Y., teacher of physical culture.
Arrested picketing July 14, 1917, sentenced to 60 days in
workhouse, but pardoned by President after 3 days.

MARGARET FOTHERINGHAM, Buffalo, N. Y., Red Cross dietician,
stationed at military hospital at Waynesville, N. C., during war.
Later dietician at Walter Reid Military Hospital, Washington, D.
C. Arrested picketing Aug., 1917, sentenced to 60 days.

FRANCIS FOWLER, Brookline, Mass., sentenced to 8 days in Charles
St. Jail for participation in demonstration of welcome to
President, Boston, Feb., 1919.

MRS. MATILDA HALL GARDNER, Washington, D. C., formerly of
Chicago, daughter of late Frederick Hall, for many years editor
of Chicago Tribune, and wife of Gilson Gardner, Washington
representative of Scripps papers. Educated Chicago, Paris and
Brussels. Associated with Alice Paul and Lucy Burns when they
came to Washington to begin agitation for federal suffrage and
member of national executive committee of N.W.P. since 1914.
Arrested July 14, 1917, sentenced to 60 days in Occoquan; Jan.
13, 1919, sentenced to 5 days in District Jail.

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ANNA GINSBERG, New York City; served 5 days in District jail for
watchfire demonstration Feb., 1919.

REBA GOMROROV, Philadelphia, Pa.; born in Kiev, Russia. Educated
in U. S. public schools; social worker; assistant secretary and
visitor for Juvenile Aid Society of Phila. President Office
Workers' Association; secretary of Penn. Industrial Section for
Suffrage; member N.W.P., Trade Union League. Sentenced to 5 days
in District Jail Jan., 1919, for watchfire demonstration.

ALICE GRAM, Portland, Ore., graduate Univ. of Ore., came to
Washington to take part in picket Nov. 10, 1917. Arrested and
sentenced to 30 days in Occoquan workhouse. Following release
assistant in press dept. N.W.P.

BETTY GRAM, Portland, Ore., graduate Univ. of Ore. Abandoned
stage career to take part in picket demonstration of Nov. 10,
1917. Worker in Juvenile courts of Portland. Sentenced to 30 days
in Occoquan workhouse; later arrested in Boston demonstration of
Feb., 1919, and sentenced to 8 days in Charles St. Jail. Business
manager of The Suffragist and national organizer for N.W.P.

NATALIE GRAT, Col. Springs, Col., daughter of treasurer Col.
Branch N. W. P. Arrested picketing Aug. 17, 1917, sentenced to 30
days in Occoquan workhouse.

MRS. FRANCIS GREEN, New York City, one of second group of women
to serve prison sentences for suffrage in this country. Served 3
days in District Jail following picket demonstration of July 4,
1917.

GLADYS GREINER, Baltimore, Md., daughter of John E. Greiner ,
engineering expert, member of Stevens Railway Commission to
Russia in 1917. Graduate of Forest Glen Seminary, Md.; did
settlement work in mountain districts of Ky.; has held tennis and
golf championships of Md., and for 3 years devoted all time to
suffrage. Arrested picketing July 4, 1917, sentenced to 3 days in
District Jail; arrested Oct. 20, 1917, sentenced to 30 days in
District Jail; arrested Lafayette Sq. meeting Aug., 1918,
sentenced to 15 days in District Jail. Recently taken up work in
labor movement.

MRS. J. IRVING GROSS. Boston, Mass., charter member of Mass.
Branch N.W.P. Father and husband both fought in Civil War.
Arrested 5 times Lafayette Sq. meetings Aug., 1918, and sentenced
to 15 days in District Jail. Arrested in Boston demonstration on
Common following landing of President and sentenced to 8 days in
Charles St. Jail.

ANNA GWINTER, New York City, arrested for picketing Nov. 10,
1917, and sentenced to 30 days in Occoquan workhouse.

ELIZABETH HAMILTON, New York City, arrested for picketing Nov.
10, 1917, and sentenced to 30 days in Occoquan workhouse.

ERNESTINE HARA, New York City, young Roumanian, arrested for
picketing Sept., 1917, and sentenced to 30 days in Occoquan
workhouse.

REBECCA HARRISON Joplin, Mo., arrested final watchfire
demonstration Feb. 10, 1919; sentenced to 5 days in District
Jail.

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MRS. H. O. HAVEMEYER, New York City; widow of late H. O.
Havemeyer; leader of suffrage movement for many years; one of its
most eloquent speakers, and generous contributor to its funds;
active in Liberty Loan campaigns, in the Land Army movement of N.
Y. State, and in working for military rank for nurses. As member
of "Prison Special" spoke for suffrage in the large cities.
Arrested Feb. 10, 1919, for taking part in final watchfire
demonstration; sentenced to 5 days in District Jail.

KATE HEFFELFINGER, Shamokin, Pa.; art student; sentenced to 6
months in District Jail for picketing Oct. 15, 1917; another
month later added for previous offense. Aug., 1918, sentenced to
15 days for participating in Lafayette Sq. meeting; Jan., 1919,
sentenced to 5 days for participation in watchfire demonstration.

MRS. JESSICA HENDERSON, Boston, Mass., wife of prominent
Bostonian, one of liberal leaders of Boston; identified with many
reform movements. Mother of 6 children, one of whom, Wilma, aged
18, was arrested with her mother, spent night in house of
detention, and was released as minor. Sentenced to 8 days in
Charles St. Jail Feb., 1919, for participation in Boston
demonstration of welcome to President.

MINNIE HENNESY, Hartford, Conn.; business woman, having supported
herself all her life; arrested for picketing Oct. 6, 1917, and
sentence suspended. Rearrested Oct. 8, 1917, and sentenced to 6
months.

ANNE HERKIMER, Baltimore, Md., Child Labor inspector for U. S.
Children's Bureau. Arrested Feb., 1919, and sentenced to 5 days
in District Jail for participating watchfire demonstration.

ELSIE HILL, Norwalk, Conn.; daughter of late Ebenezer J. Hill, 21
years Congressman from Conn.; graduate Vassar College and student
abroad. Taught French in District of Columbia High School. Lately
devoted all her time to suffrage. Member of executive committee
of Congressional Union 1914-1915; President D.C. Branch College
Equal Suffrage League, and later national organizer for N.W.P.
Aug., 1918, sentenced to 15 days in District Jail for speaking at
Lafayette Sq. meeting. Feb., 1919, sentenced to 8 days in Boston
for participation in welcome demonstration to President.

MRS. GEORGE HILL, Boston, Mass.; sentenced to 8 days in Boston,
Feb., 1919, for participation in welcome to President.

MRS. FLORENCE BAYARD HILLES, Newcastle, Del.; daughter of late
Thomas Bayard, first American ambassador to Great Britain and
secretary of state under Cleveland. Munitions worker during World
War. After the war engaged in reconstruction work in France.
Chairman Del. Branch N.W.P. and member of national executive
committee. Arrested picketing July 14, 1917, sentenced to 60 days
in Occoquan workhouse; pardoned by President after 3 days.

MRS. J. A. H. HOPKINS (ALLISON TURNBULL), Morristown, N. J.,
state chairman N.W.P., member executive committee N.W.P. 1917,
and president and officer of various women's clubs. Her husband
was leader Progressive Party and later supported President
Wilson, serving on Democratic National Campaign Committee in
1916. At present Chairman Committee of

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48. Mrs. Hopkins arrested July 14, 1917, for picketing, sentenced
to 60 days in workhouse; pardoned by President after 3 days.

MRS. L. H. HORNBBY, New York City, formerly of Ill., one of first
women aviators in this country. Arrested for picketing Nov. 10,
1917; sentenced to 30 days in District Jail.

ELIZABETH HOFF, Des Moines, Ia.; came to Washington to work for
war department during war; later with Red Cross. Sentenced to 5
days in jail, Jan., 1919, for watchfire demonstration.

EUNICE HUFF, Des Moines, Ia.; sister of Elizabeth; also engaged
in war work in Washington. Sentenced to 3 days in jail Jan.,
1919, for applauding suffrage prisoners in court.

HAZEL HUNSINs, Billings, Mont.; graduate Vassar College; later
instructor in Chemistry, Univ. of Mo. Joined suffrage movement as
organizer for N.W.P. Later investigator for War Labor Board.
Active in all picketing campaigns. Aug. 1918, sentenced to 15
days for participation in Lafayette Sq. meeting.

JULIA HURLBUT, Morristown, N. J., vice chairman N. J. Branch
N.W.P. In 1916 assisted in Washington state campaign. Arrested
picketing July 14, 1917, sentenced to 60 days in Occoquan
workhouse; pardoned by President after 3 days. Engaged in war
work in France during war.

MARY INGRAM, Philadelphia, Pa.; graduate Bryn Mawr College; Pa.
chairman of N.W.P.; secretary of National Progressive League
1912. Has held offices of vice president of Pa. Women's Trade
Union League, director of Bureau of Municipal Research of Phila-,
member of board of corporators of Woman's Medical College of Pa.,
where she was former student. For several years manager woman's
department of Bonbright and Co., investment brokers. Arrested for
picketing July 14, 1917; sentenced to 60 days in Occoquan,
pardoned by President after 3 days.

MRS. MARK JACKSON, Baltimore, Md., arrested picketing Aug., 1917,
sentenced to 30 days.

PAULA JAKOBI, New York City; playwright, author of "Chinese
Lily." Once matron of Framingham reformatory for purpose of
studying prison conditions. Arrested picketing Nov. 10, 1917, and
sentenced to 30 days in Occoquan workhouse.

MAUD JAMISON, Norfolk, Va.; came to Washington in 1916 as
volunteer worker of N.W.P. Later became assistant in treasurer's
department. Had been school teacher and business woman before
joining N.W.P. Took active part in picketing from the beginning;
one of first group arrested, June, 1917; served 3 days in
District Jail; later served 30 days in District Jail; Oct., 1917,
sentenced to 7 months. Released by Government after 44 days.
Jan., 1919, served 5 days in jail for participation in watchfire
demonstration.

MRS. PEGGY BAIRD JOHNS; New York City, formerly of St. Louis,
newspaper woman and magazine writer. Sentenced to 30 days in
Occoquan workhouse Aug., 1917; and 30 days in Nov., 1917, for
picketing.

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WILLIE GRACE JOHNSON, Shreveport, La., state officer, N.W.P. and
prominent in civic work. Successful business woman. Arrested in
final watchfire demonstration Feb., 1919. Sentenced to 5 days in
District Jail.

AMY JUENGLING, Buffalo, N. Y.; of Swiss and German ancestry.
Graduated with honors from Univ. of N. Y. Has lived in Porto Rico
and North Carolina, in latter state doing educational work among
mountaineers. At present engaged in Americanization work. Nov.,
1917, sentenced to 30 days in Occoquan workhouse for picketing.

ELIZABETH GREEN KALB, Houston, Texas; graduate Rice Institute,
1916; student Univ. Chicago, 1916. Won Carnegie Peace Prize in
Texas state intercollegiate oratory contest in 1915. In 1918
became active worker for N.W.P., taking part in Capitol picket.
Arrested watchfire demonstration Jan., 1919, sentenced to 5 days
in District Jail. In charge of literature and library dept. of
N.W.P. at national headquarters.

RHODA KELLOGG, Minneapolis, Minn.; graduate Univ. of Minn. and
Pres. of Univ. Equal Suffrage Club. Sentenced to ~?4 hours for
applauding suffrage prisoners in Court Jan., 1919, sentenced to 5
days in District Jail for participation in watchfire
demonstration same month.

MRS. FREDERICK W. KENDALL, Hamburg, N. Y.; wife of one of editors
of Buffalo Express; writer, public speaker and club leader.
Arrested for picketing, Aug., 1917, and sentenced to 30 days in
Occoquan workhouse.

MARIE ERNST KENNEDY, Philadelphia, Pa.; formerly state chairman
N.W.P. Arrested Feb., 1919, in watchfire demonstration, sentenced
to 5 days in jail.

MRS. MARGARET WOOD KESSLER, Denver, Col.; vice president Woman's
Progressive Club of Col. Sept., 1917, sentenced to 30 days in
Occoquan for picketing.

ALICE KIMBALL, New York City. Has been engaged in Y.W.C.A. work,
and as librarian in N. Y. Public Library, and later as labor
investigator. Sentenced to 15 days in District Jail for taking
part in Lafayette Sq. meeting Aug. 10, 1918.

MRS. BEATRICE KINKEAD, Montclair, N. J., active member of N.W.P.
in N. J. Joined picket of July 14, 1917. Sentenced to 60 days in
Occoquan, but pardoned by President after 3 days.

MRS. RQBY E. KOENIG, Hartford, Conn. Took part in Lafayette Sq.
meeting of Aug., 1918, and suffered sprained arm from rough
treatment by police. Arrested and sentenced to 15 days in
District Jail.

HATTIE KRUGER, Buffalo, N. Y. Trained nurse; ran for Congress on
Socialist ticket in 1918. Worker in Lighthouse Settlement,
Philadelphia, and for time probation officer of Juvenile Court of
Buffalo. Nov. 10, 1917, sentenced to 30 days in Occoquan
workhouse for picketing.

DR. ANNA KUHN, Baltimore, Md., physician. Arrested picketing Nov.
10, 1917, sentenced to 30 days.

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MRS. LAWRENCE LEWIS, Philadelphia, Pa., maternal ancestor of
family which took possession 1660 land grant in Conn. from King,
paternal ancestor Michael Hillegas who came Phila. 1727, a
founder of Phila. Academy Fine Arts, Assembly, etc. Son of
Hillegas was first U. S. treasurer; sister of Dr. Howard A.
Kelly, well-known surgeon, formerly professor Johns Hopkins
Hospital, author of many medical books; sister of Mrs. R. R. P.
Bradford, founder and Pres. of Lighthouse Settlement, Phila.;
member executive committee of N.W.P. since 1913; chairman of
finance 1918; national treasurer, 1919; chairman ratification
committee 1920; active in state suffrage work many years; served
3 days in jail for picketing July, 1917; arrested Nov. 10, 1917,
sentenced to 60 days; arrested Lafayette Sq. meeting, Aug., 1918,
sentenced to 15 days; arrested watchfire demonstration Jan.,
1919, sentenced to 5 days in jail.

KATHARINE LINCOLN, New York City, formerly of Philadelphia. Was
working for Traveler's Aid when she came to picket Nov. 10, 1917.
Sentenced to 30 days in Occoquan workhouse. Worked for N.W.P. for
several months; later campaigned for Anne Martin, candidate for
U. S. Senate from Nev. `

DR. SARAH H. LOCKREY, Philadelphia, Pa.; graduate Woman's Medical
College of Pa. Served as interne Woman's Hospital in Phila., and
later head of gynecological clinic of same hospital. Surgeon on
West Phila. Hospital for Women and Children. Received degree of
Fellow of American College of Surgery 1914. Chairman of her
Congressional District for the N.W.P. Aug., 1918, sentenced to 15
days in District Jail for taking part in Lafayette Sq. meeting.

ELIZABETH MCSHANE, Philadelphia, Pa., graduate Vassar College;
principal of school near Indianapolis, later business woman.
Assisted in Pa. health survey, working with the American Medical
Association. Aug., 1918, sentenced to 15 days in jail for
participation in Lafayette Sq. meeting. Jan., 1919, served 5 days
for participating in watchfire demonstration. Member of "Prison
Special" 1919.

MRS. ANNIE J. MAGEE, Wilmington, Del., one of first Del.
supporters of N.W.P. Took part in many pickets. Arrested
watchfire demonstration Jan., 1919, and sentenced to 5 days in
District Jail.

MRS. EFFIE B. MAIN, Topeka, Kan., arrested for taking part in
Lafayette Sq. meeting Aug. 10, 1918; sentenced to 10 days in
District Jail.

MAUD MALONE, New York City, librarian in N. Y. Lifelong
suffragist; arrested for picketing, Sept. 4, 1917, and served
sentence of 60 days at Occoquan workhouse.

ANNE MARTIN, Reno, Nev.; graduate Leland Stanford Univ.; studied
in English Univs. Professor of history in Univ. of Nev. As Pres.
of Nev. Woman's Civic League led successful fight for state
suffrage in 1914. Served as legislative chairman for
Congressional Union, and N.W.P. and member of executive
committee. When N.W.P. was formed, in 1916, elected its chairman.
When it combined with Congressional Union, she became vice
chairman. In 1918 ran on independent ticket for U. S. Senate.
July 14, 1917, sentenced to 60 days at Occoquan workhouse for
picketing. Pardoned by President after 3 days.

{365}

MRS. LOUISE PARKER MAYO, Framingham, Mass., of Quaker descent.
Taught school for five years before marriage to William 1. Mayo,
grandson of Chief Justice Isaac Parker of Mass. Mother of 7
children. Arrested for picketing July 14, 1917; sentenced to 60
days in Occoquan workhouse; pardoned by President after 3 days.

NELL MERCER, Norfolk, Va.; member of Norfolk Branch, N.W.P.
Business woman. Feb., 1919, sentenced to 5 days in District Jail
for participation in final watchfire demonstration.

VIDA MILHOLLAND, New York City; daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John E.
Milholland and sister of Inez Milholland Boissevain. Student at
Vassar where won athletic championships and dramatic honors.
Studied singing here and abroad, but on death of sister gave up
career of promise to devote herself to suffrage work. July 4,
1917 arrested and served 3 days in District Jail for picketing.
In 1919 toured the country with "Prison Special," singing at all
meetings.

MRS. BERTHA MOLLER, Minneapolis, Minn., campaigned for state
suffrage before joining N.W.P. Interested in industrial problems.
Of Swedish descent, one of ancestors served on staff of Gustavus-
Adolphus, and 2 uncles are now members of Swedish parliament. She
served 2 ,jail sentences, one of 24 hours for applauding
suffragists in court, and another of 5 days for participation in
watchfire demonstration, Jan., 1919.

MARTHA W. MOORE, Philadelphia, Pa., of Quaker ancestry, student
at Swarthmore College; charter member of Congressional Union; has
devoted herself to social service work, Children's Aid,
Traveler's Aid, etc. Arrested and sentenced to 5 days in District
Jail Jan., 1919, for participation in watchfire demonstration.

MRS. AGNES H. MOREY, Brookline, Mass., comes of line of Colonial
ancestors who lived in Concord. Following picket of Nov. 10,
1917, sentenced to 30 days at District Jail and Occoquan.
Chairman of Mass. Branch N.W.P., of which she was one of
founders, and member of National Advisory Council N.W.P. Member
of "Suffrage Special" of 1916, and a gifted speaker and
organizer.

KATHARINE A. MOREY, Brookline, Mass., daughter of Mrs. A. H.
Morey; also officer State Branch N.W.P. Organizer election
campaign 1916 in Kansas and has many times assisted at national
headquarters. One of first group pickets sentenced, served 3
days, June, 1917; Feb., 1919, arrested in Boston demonstration of
welcome to President and sentenced to 8 days in Charles St. Jail.

MILDRED MORRIS, Denver, Col., well-known newspaper woman of
Denver. Came to Washington for Bureau of Public Information
during war. Later investigator for War Labor Board. Now
Washington correspondent International News Service. In Jan.,
1919, served 5 day sentence in District Jail for lighting
watchfire.

MRS. PHOEBE C. MUNNECKE, Detroit, Mich.; assisted with meetings
and demonstrations in Washington winter of 1918-19. Jan., 1919,
arrested for lighting watchfire, sentenced to 10 days in jail.
Later sentenced to 3 days in jail for applauding suffrage
prisoners in court.

{366}

GERTRUDE MURPHY, Minneapolis, Minn., superintendent of music in
Minn. public schools. Jan.; 1919, served 24-hour sentence for
applauding suffragists in court. Later served 5 days in District
Jail for participation in watchfire demonstration.

MRS. MARY A. NOLAN, Jacksonville, Fla., born in Va.; descended
from family of Duffy, Cavan, Ireland. Educated at convent of Mont
CIO Chantal in W. Va. As young woman was teacher and leader in
Southern library movement. Suffrage pioneer; prominent in
Confederate organizations of South. In 1917 joined N.W.P., came
to Washington to picket. Arrested Nov. 10, 1917, sentenced to 6
days in District Jail, but sent to Occoquan workhouse. January,
1919, arrested many times in watchfire demonstrations; sentenced
to 24 hours in jail. Oldest suffrage prisoner.

MRS. MARGARET OAKES, Idaho; arrested Lafayette Sq. meeting Aug.,
1918, and sentenced to 10 days in District Jail.

ALICE PAUL, Moorestown, N. J. English Quaker ancestor imprisoned
for Quaker beliefs died in English prison; born of Quaker
parentage and brought up in this small Quaker town. Received her
A.B. degree from Swarthmore College, and her M.A. and Ph.D. from
Univ. of Pa. Graduate of N. Y. School of Philanthropy, and
studied at Universities of London and Birmingham, specializing in
economics and sociology. While in England took part in militant
campaign under Mrs. Pankhurst. On return to America, she was
appointed chairman in 1913 of the Congressional Committee of the
National American Woman Suffrage Association. Founded
Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage; made chairman. When this
became an independent organization reappointed chairman. When it
merged with the N.W.P. in 1917, she was chosen chairman of the
combined organizations, and has continued in this office to the
present date. Has served 6 prison terms for suffrage, 3 in
England and 3 in United States. In Oct., 1919, she was sentenced
to 7 months for picketing and served 5 weeks before released on
account of hunger strike. While in jail suffered the severest
treatment inflicted upon any suffrage prisoner. In Aug., 1918,
sentenced to 10 days for participation in Lafayette Sq. meeting.
In Jan., 1919, sentenced to 5 days for lighting a watchfire.

BERRY POTTIER, Boston, Mass., of French descent; art student;
participated in Boston demonstration at home-coming of President,
and sentenced to 8 days in Charles St. Jail.

EDNA M. PURTELLE, Hartford, Conn., sentenced to 5 days in
District Jail for participation in Lafayette Sq. meeting Aug.,
1918.

MRS. R. B. QUAY, Salt Lake City, Utah; arrested in Nov. 10, 1917,
picket; sentenced to 30 days in District Jail, but sent to
Occoquan workhouse.

MRS. BETSY REYNEAU, Detroit, Mich., wife of Paul Reyneau;
portrait painter. Arrested picketing July 14, 1917. Sentenced to
60 days in Occoquan, but pardoned by the President after 3 days.

MRS. C. T. ROBERTSON, Salt Lake City, Utah; active worker for
reforms affecting women. Arrested in Nov. 10, 1917, picket;
sentenced to 30 days in District Jail, but sent to Occoquan
workhouse.

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MRS. GEORGE E. ROEWER, Belmont, Mass., graduate of Radcliffe,
active suffragist since college days; wife of well known attorney
of Boston and granddaughter of prominent figures in German
Revolution of 1848 who were exiled to the United States.
Sentenced to 8 days in Boston Charles St. Jail following
participation in welcome demonstration to the President, Feb.
1919.

MRS. JOHN ROGERS, JR., New York City, wife of Dr. John Rogers,
Jr., celebrated thyroid expert, is a descendant of Roger Sherman,
signer of the Declaration of Independence. A pioneer worker for
state suffrage before taking up national work. Before entering
suffrage movement active in improving conditions in New York
public schools. Chairman Advisory Council of the N.W.P., and one
of the most forceful speakers in the suffrage ranks. In 1916 and
1919 as member of "Suffrage Special" and "Prison Special" toured
the country speaking for suffrage. July 14, 1917, sentenced to 60
days in Occoquan workhouse for picketing, but was pardoned by the
President after 3 days.

MARGUERITE ROSSETTE, Baltimore, Md., young artist, and niece of
Dr. Joshua Rossette, well known social worker. Took part in
N.W.P. demonstrations, served 5 days in District Jail for
participation in final watchfire demonstration, Feb., 1919.

MRS. ELISE T. RUSSIAN, Detroit, Mich., born in Constantinople of
Armenian parentage. Educated in this country. Taught school in
Mass. until marriage. State officer N.W.P. Sentenced to 5 days in
District Jail for participation in Jan., 1919, watchfire
demonstration; and 8 days in Boston in the Charles St. Jail for
participation in welcome demonstration to President in Feb.,
1919.

NINA SAMARODIN, born in Kiev, Russia, graduate of Kiev
University. In 1914 came to America on visit, but entered
industrial fight, becoming, first, worker and then union
organizer. Teacher Rand School of Social Science, New York.
Sentenced to 30 days in Occoquan for picketing September, 1917.

MRS. PHOEBE PERSONS SCOTT, Morristown, New Jersey, graduate of
Smith College where she specialized in biology and botany. Did
settlement work at New York Henry St. Settlement. Worked for
state suffrage before joining N.W.P. and becoming one of its
officers. Sentenced to 30 days in District Jail for picketing
Nov. 10, 1917, but sent to Occoquan workhouse.

RUTH SCOTT, Bridgeport, Conn., munitions worker. Sentenced to 5
days in District Jail for participation in watchfire
demonstration Jan., 1919.

BELLE SHEINBERG, New York City; of Russian descent; student of
New York Univ., who left her studies to picket in Washington Nov.
10, 1917. Sentenced to 30 days in Occoquan workhouse.

MRS. LUCILLE SHIELDS, Amarillo, Texas. Picketed regularly during
1917. July 4, 1917, served 3 days in District Jail for picketing;
served 5 days Jan. 13, 1919, for participation in watchfire
demonstration. Soon after release sentenced to 3 days for
applauding suffrage prisoners in Court.

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MRS. MARTHA REED SHOEMAKER, Philadelphia, Pa., graduate of Vassar
College. Served 5 days in District Jail for participation in
final watchfire demonstration of Feb. 9, 1919.

MRS. MARY SHORT, Minneapolis, Minn., state officer N.W.P.
Sentenced to 30 days in Occoquan workhouse for picketing November
10, 1917.

MRS. LOIS WARREN SHAW, Manchester, N. H., student of Vassar and
Radcliffe, mother of six children. Wife of V. P. and General
Manager McElwain Shoe Co., N. H., chairman N.W.P. Sentenced to 8
days in Charles St. Jail after participation in Boston
demonstration to welcome President Feb., 1919.

RUTH SMALL, Boston, Mass., participant in several state suffrage
campaigns before taking up national work. In charge of Boston
headquarters of N.W.P. for a time. For taking part in Boston
demonstration on the return of the President in Feb., 1919,
sentenced to 8 days in Charles St. Jail.

DR. CAROLINE E. SPENCER, Colorado Springs, Col., formerly of
Philadelphia. Secretary Col. Branch, N.W.P. Graduate Woman's
Medical College of Pa. October 20, 1917, arrested for picketing
and sentenced to 7 months' impl1sonment. For participating in
watchfire demonstration Jan. 13, 1919, sentenced to 5 days in
District Jail.

MRS. KATE STAFFORD, Oklahoma City, Okla., active worker for
reforms affecting women and children in her own state. Mother of
six children. Picketed Nov. 10, 1917, and was sentenced to 30
days in District Jail.

DORIS STEVENS, Omaha, Neb., now resident New York City. Graduate
of Oberlin College; social worker and teacher; organized and
spoke for state suffrage campaigns in Ohio and Michigan; ,joined
Congressional Union in 1913. Organized first Convention of women
voters at Panama Pacific Exposition in 1915; managed 1916
election campaign in Cal. for N.W.P. Has acted successively as
executive secretary, organizer, legislative chairman, political
chairman, and executive committee member of N.W.P. Arrested for
picketing July 14, 1917; sentenced to 60 days in Occoquan
workhouse; pardoned by President after 3 days. Arrested N. Y.
Mar., 1919, picket demonstration Metropolitan Opera House, but
not sentenced.

ELIZABETH STUYVESANT, New York City, formerly of Cincinnati;
dancer by profession; active in settlement work and in campaign
for birth-control. July 4, 1917, arrested for picketing and
sentenced to 3 days in District Jail.

ELSIE UNTERMAN, Chicago, Ill., social worker who took week's
vacation in January, 1919, to come to Washington to picket. She
served 3 days in District Jail for applauding suffragists in
court.

MABEL VERNON, Wilmington, Del., Secretary N.W.P., graduate
Swarthmore College. Fellow student with Alice Paul. Gave up
position as high school teacher when Congressional Union was
founded to become organizer and speaker. With remarkable gifts as
a speaker, has addressed large meetings in every part of the
country. As brilliant organizer has had charge of many important
organization tasks of N.W.P. Organized

{369}

the transcontinental trip of voting envoys to the President.
Campaigned in Nev. 1914 and 1916. Became national organization
chairman N.W.P. Organized the Washington picket line for several
months. One of the first six women to serve prison sentence for
suffrage in District Jail. For picketing June, 1917, served 3
days.

MRS. ELSIE VERVANE, Bridgeport, Conn., munitions worker and
President of Woman's Machinist Union of Bridgeport. In Jan.,
1919, came to Washington with group of union women and took part
in watchfire demonstration; arrested and served 5 days in
District Jail.

IRIS CALDERHEAD [now wife of John Brisben Walker], Marysville,
Kansas, now resident of Denver, Colo., daughter of former-
Representative Calderhead of Kansas. Graduate of Univ. of Kansas
and student at Bryn Mawr. Abandoned school teaching to work for
suffrage; became organizer and speaker for N.W.P. July 4, 1917,
arrested for picketing and served 3 days in District Jail.

MRS. ROBERT WALKER, Baltimore, Md., officer Md. Branch N.W.P. A
Quaker and graduate of Swarthmore College; wife of a captain in
the late war and mother of 3 children. Arrested July 14, 1917,
for picketing and sentenced to 60 days in Occoquan workhouse.
Pardoned by President after 3 days.

BERTHA WALLERSTEIN, New York City, student of Barnard College;
served 5 days in District Jail Jan., 1919, for watchfire
demonstration.

MRS. BERTHA WALMSLEY, Kansas City, Mo., holding government
position at time arrested for applauding suffragists in court;
served 3 days in District Jail.

MRS. WILLIAM UPTON WATSON, Chicago, Ill., treasurer state branch,
N.W.P. Sentenced to 30 days Occoquan workhouse for picketing Aug.
17, 1917. Aug., 1918, sentenced to 5 days for participation in
Lafayette Sq. meeting.

MRS. C. WEAVER, Bridgeport, Conn., worked during war in munitions
factory. Came to Washington for watchfire demonstration of Jan.
13, 1919; arrested and sentenced to 5 days in District Jail.

EVA WEAVER, Bridgeport, Conn., daughter of Mrs. C. Weaver, also
worked in munitions factory; arrested with mother Jan. 13, 1919,
and served 5 days in District Jail.

MRS. HELENA HILL WEED, Norwalk, Conn., graduate of Vassar and
Montana School of Mines. One of few qualified women geologists of
country. Daughter of late Congressman Ebenezer Hill. At one time
vice-president general of D.A.R. Prominent member of
Congressional Union and N.W.P. from early days. One of first
pickets arrested, July 4, 1917; served 3 days in District Jail.
Aug., 1918, arrested for participation in Lafayette Sq. meeting;
sentenced to 15 days. Jan., 1918, sentenced to 24 hours for
applauding in court.

CORA A. WEEK, New York City, of Norse descent; parents Wisconsin
pioneers; studied art in Boston; became member Art Student's
League

{370}

of New York; helped organize Oliver Merson Atelier in Paris;
exhibited Paris Salon. Arrested for picketing Nov. 10, 1917;
sentenced to 30 days in District Jail. Member of "Prison Special"
1919.

CAMILLA WHITCOMB, Worcester, Mass., chairman 4th Congressional
District Mass. N.W.P. Nov. 10, 1917, sentenced to 30 days in jail
for picketing.

SUE WHITE, Jackson, Tenn., state chairman N.W.P.; recently edited
The Suffragist; organizer and research chairman. Belongs to
prominent pioneer families of Tenn. and Ky. and is descendant of
Marshall and Jefferson families of Va. Court and convention
reporter for ten years; 1918 appointed by Governor Secretary of
Tenn. State Commission for the Blind. Identified with U.D.C. and
D.A.R., the Federation of Women's Clubs and Parent Teachers'
Association. Has done much to organize suffrage sentiment in her
state. Feb. 9, 1919, arrested and served 5 days in District Jail
for participating in final watchfire demonstration.

MARGARET FAY WHITTEMORE, Detroit, Mich. Her grandmother, a
Quaker, started suffrage work in Michigan. Daughter of one of
leading patent attorneys of country. N.W.P. organizer since 1914.
Imprisoned 3 days for picketing July 4, 1917. Jan., 1919, served
24 hours in jail for applauding in court.

MRS. HARVEY W. WILEY, Washington, D. C., daughter of General
Kelton, and wife of Dr. Harvey Wiley, food expert and ex-director
of the pure food department of U. S. Government. Member of
national advisory council of N.W.P. Has done lobbying, political
work and picketing for N.W.P. Nov. 10, 1917, sentenced to 15 days
in District Jail; appealed her case; later sustained by higher
court.

Ross WINSLOW, New York City, born in Poland and brought to this
country when child. Began work at age of 11 in Philadelphia; for
many years worked in hosiery factory in Pittsburg; later employed
in shop in Philadelphia. Recently has won success as an actress.
Has brilliant gifts; 1916 spoke throughout West in suffrage
campaign of N.W.P. Oct. 15, 1917, sentenced to 7 months in
District Jail for picketing.

MARY WINSOR, Haverford, Pa.; comes of family of pioneer Quaker
descent. Educated at Drexel Institute of Philadelphia, at Bryn
Mawr and abroad. At request of American Academy of Political and
Social Science made survey of English suffrage movement. Founder
and Pres. of Pa. Limited Suffrage Society. Sept., 1917, sentenced
to 60 days at Occoquan workhouse for picketing. Later sentenced
to 10 days for participation in Lafayette Sq. meeting. Has worked
and spoken for suffrage in many parts of the country. Member
"Prison Special" Feb., 1919.

ELLEN WINSOR, Haverford, Pa., sister of Mary Winsor and of Mrs.
Edmund C. Evans, both of whom served prison sentences. Jan.,
1919, sentenced to 5 days in District Jail for participation in
watchfire demonstration.

MRS. KATE WINSTON, Chevy Chase, Md., wife of Prof. A. P. Winston,
formerly Professor of economics at Univ. of Col. and at Univ. of
Tokio. Jan., 1919, arrested and sentenced to 5 days in District
Jail for participation in watchfire demonstration.

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CLARA WOLD, Portland, Ore., newspaper writer. Of Norwegian
parentage; her family closely related to Henrik Ibsen. Graduate
of Univ. of Ore. Took part in Lafayette Sq. meeting of Aug.,
1918; sentenced to 15 days. Jan., 1919, arrested for
participation in watchfire demonstration and sentenced to 5 days.
For several months acted as editor of The Suffragist.

JOY YOUNG, New York City, formerly of Washington, D. C., wife of
Merrill Rogers. Former assistant on The Suffragist and later
organizer for N.W.P. in various parts of the country. Served 3
days in District Jail for picketing July 4, 1917.

MATILDA YOUNG, Washington, D. C., sister of Joy Young; has
devoted all her time to suffrage for several years. Youngest
picket arrested, being 19 years old when she first served a
prison term. For picketing Nov. 10, 1917, sentenced to 15 days in
District Jail; served two terms in jail in Jan., 1919; 5 days for
watchfire demonstration; 3 days for applauding suffrage prisoners
in court.

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Appendix 5

Directors of National Campaign

Executive Committees Listed by Years

CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEE

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 1913

Miss Alice Paul, N. J., Chairman
Miss Lucy Burns, N. Y., Vice-chairman
Mrs. Mary R. Beard, N. Y.
Miss Crystal Eastman, N. Y.
Mrs. Lawrence Lewis, Pa.

CONGRESSIONAL UNION FOR WOMAN SUFFRAGE

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 1914

Miss Alice Paul, N. J., Chairman
Miss Lucy Burns, N. Y., Vice-chairman
Mrs. Mary R. Beard, N. Y.
Mrs. O. H. P. Belmont, N. Y.
Miss Crystal Eastman, N. Y.
Mrs. Gilson Gardner, D. C.
Miss Elsie Hill, Conn.
Mrs. William Kent, Cal.
Mrs. Lawrence Lewis, Pa.

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 1916

Miss Alice Paul, N. J., Chairman
Miss Lucy Burns, N. Y., Vice-chairman
Mrs. Mary R. Beard, N. Y.
Mrs. O. H. P. Belmont, N. Y.
Miss Crystal Eastman, N. Y.
Mrs. Gilson Gardner, D. C.
Miss Elsie Hill, Conn.
Mrs. Donald R. Hooker, Md.
Mrs. William Kent, Cal.
Mrs. Lawrence Lewis, Pa.

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 1916

Miss Alice Paul, N. J., Chairman
Miss Lucy Burns, N. Y., Vice-chairman

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Mrs. O. H. P. Belmont, N. Y.
Mrs. John Winters Brannan, N. Y.
Mrs. Gilson Gardner, D. C.
Mrs. Donald R. Hooker, Md.
Mrs. William Kent, Cal.
Mrs. Lawrence Lewis, Pa.
Miss Anne Martin, Nevada
Mrs. Harriot Stanton Blatch, N. Y.

WOMAN'S PARTY (Formed June, 1916)

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE

Miss Anne Martin, Nev., Chairman
Mrs. Phoebe Hearst, Cal., 1st Vice-chairman
Judge Mary M. Bartelme, Ill., 2nd Vice-chairman
Miss Mabel Vernon, Nev., Secretary
Miss Alice Paul, N. J., ex-officio

NATIONAL WOMAN'S PARTY

(After Amalgamation of Congressional Union and Woman's Party)

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 1917

Miss Alice Paul, N. J., Chairman
Miss Anne Martin, Nev., Vice-chairman
Miss Mabel Vernon, Del., Secretary
Miss Gertrude L. Crocker, Ill., Treasurer
Mrs. Abby Scott Baker, D. C.
Mrs. O. H. P. Belmont, N. Y.
Mrs. John Winters Brannan, N. Y.
Miss Lucy Burns, N. Y.
Mrs. Gilson Gardner, D. C.
Mrs. Florence Bayard Hilles, Del.
Mrs. Donald R. Hooker, Md.
Mrs. J. A. H. Hopkins, N. J.
Mrs. William Kent, Cal.
Mrs. Lawrence Lewis, Pa.
Miss Doris Stevens, N. Y.
Miss Maud Younger, Cal.

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 1915

Miss Alice Paul, N. J., Chairman
Miss Anne Martin, Nev., Vice-chairman
Miss Mabel Vernon, Del., Secretary
Miss Mary Gertrude Fendall, Md., Treasurer
Mrs. Abby Scott Baker, D. C.
Mrs. O. H. P. Belmont, N. Y.
Mrs. John Winters Brannan, N. Y.
Miss Lucy Burns, N. Y.
Mrs. Gilson Gardner, D.C.
Mrs. Thomas N. Hepburn, Conn.
Mrs. Florence Bayard Hilles, Del.

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Mrs. Donald R. Hooker, Md.
Mrs. Lawrence Lewis, Pa.
Miss Doris Stevens, N. Y.
Miss Maud Younger, Cal.

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 1919-1990

Miss Alice Paul, N. J., Chairman
Miss Mabel Vernon, Del., Secretary
Miss Mary Gertrude Fendall, Md., Treasurer
Mrs. Abby Scott Baker, D.C.
Mrs. O. H. P. Belmont, N.Y.
Mrs. John Winters Brannan, N.Y.
Miss Lucy Burns, N. Y.
Mrs. Gilson Gardner, D. C.
Mrs. Thomas N. Hepburn, Conn.
Mrs. Florence Bayard Hilles, Del.
Mrs. Donald R. Hooker, Md.
Mrs. Henry G. Leach, N. Y.
Mrs. Lawrence Lewis, Pa.
Miss Doris Stevens. N. Y.
Mrs. Richard Wainwright, D. C.
Miss Maud Younger, Cal.

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Appendix 6

Concerning Political Prisoners

Definitions

James Bryce:[1]

"Perhaps we may say that whenever the moral judgment of the
community at large does not brand an offence as sordid and
degrading, and does not feel the offence to be one which destroys
its respect for the personal character of the prisoner, it may
there be held that prison treatment ought to be different from
that awarded to ordinary criminals."

George Sigerson:[2]

"Men may differ, in thought and deed, on many questions without
moral guilt. Forms of government and measures relating to the
welfare and organization of society have been, in all ages and
countries, questions on which men have entertained divergent
convictions, and asserted their sincerity by conflicting action,
often at grave personal sacrifice and the loss of life. On the
other hand, all people are agreed in condemning certain acts,
stigmatized as crimes, which offend against the well-being of the
individual or the community.

"Hence, civilized states distinguish between actions concerning
which good men may reasonably differ, and actions

[1]James Bryce made this distinction in 1889 between the two
kinds of offenders. Letter Introductory to "Political Prisoners
at Home and Abroad," Sigerson.

[2]"Political Prisoners at Home and Abroad."

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which all good men condemn. The latter, if permitted to prevail,
would disintegrate and destroy the social life of mankind; the
former, if successful, would simply reorganize it, on a different
basis . . . . The objects may, in one generation, be branded as
crimes, whilst in the next those who fail to make them triumph
and suffered as malefactors are exalted as patriot martyrs, and
their principles incorporated amongst the foundation principles
of the country's constitution.

"Attempts to effect changes by methods beyond the conventions
which have the sanction of the majority of a community, may be
rash and blameworthy sometimes, but they are not necessarily
dishonorable, and may even occasionally be obligatory on
conscience."

As to the incumbency upon a government to differentiate in
punishments inflicted upon these two classes of offenders, he
further says: "When a Government exercises its punitive power, it
should, in awarding sentence, distinguish between the two classes
of offenders. To confound in a common degradation those who
violate the moral law by acts which all men condemn, and those
who offend against the established order of society by acts of
which many men approve, and for objects which may sometime be
accepted as integral parts of established order, is manifestly
wrong in principle. It places a Government morally in the wrong
in the eyes of masses of the population, a thing to be sedulously
guarded against."

George Clemenceau:[1]

"Theoretically a crime committed in the interest of the criminal
is a common law crime, while an offense committed in the public
interest is a political crime." He says further, "That an act
isolated from the circumstances under which it was committed . .
. may have the appearance of a common

[1]Clemenceau in a speech before the French Chamber of Deputies,
May 16th, 1876, advocating amnesty for those who participated in
the Commune of 1871. From the Annals de la Chambre des Deputies,
1876, v. 2, pp. 44-48.

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law crime . . : while viewed in connection with the circumstances
under which it is committed (in connection with a movement) . . .
it may take on a political character."

Maurice Parmelee:[1]

"Common crimes are acts contrary to the law committed in the
interest of the individual criminal or of those personally
related to the criminal. Political crimes are acts contrary to
the law committed against an existing government or form of
government in the interest of another government or form of
government . . . . .

"Furthermore, there are other offenses against the law which are
not common crimes, and yet are not political crimes in the usual
criminological sense . . . .

"Among these crimes, which are broader than the ordinary
political crimes, are offenses in defense of the right to freedom
of thought and belief, in defense of the right to express one's
self in words in free speech, . . . and many illegal acts
committed by conscientious objectors to the payment of taxes or
to military service, the offenses of laborers in strikes and
other labor disturbances, the violations of law committed by
those who are trying to bring about changes in the relations
between the sexes, etc.

"Common crimes are almost invariably anti-social in their nature,
while offenses which are directly or indirectly political are
usually social in their intent, and are frequently beneficial to
society in their ultimate effect. We are, therefore, justified in
calling them social crimes, as contrasted with the anti-social
common crimes . . . . ."

[1]"Criminology" by Maurice Parmelee, Chap. XXVIII. Author also
of "Poverty and Social Progress," "The Science of Human
Behavior," "The Principles of Anthropology and Sociology in their
relation to Criminal Procedure." During the late war Dr. Parmelee
was a Representative of the U. S. War Trade Board stationed at
the American Embassy, London; economic advisor to the State
Department, and Chairman of the Allied Rationing Committee which
administered the German Blockade.

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TREATMENT ACCORDED POLITICAL PRISONFRS ABROAD

It is interesting to note what other countries have done toward
handling intelligently the problem of political offenders.

Russia was probably the first country in modern history to
recognize political prisoners as a class,[1] although the
treatment of different groups and individuals varied widely.

First of all, the political offender was recognized as a
“political" not by law, but by custom. When sure of a verdict of
guilty, either through damaging evidence or a packed jury, the
offender was tried. When it was impossible to commit him to trial
because there were no proofs against him, "Administrative Exile"
was resorted to. These judgments or Administrative orders to
exile were pronounced in secret on political offenders; one
member of the family of the defendant was admitted to the trial
under the law of 1881. Those exiled by Administrative order were
transported in cars, but stopped en route at the etapes,
political prisoners along with common law convicts. Since 1866
politicals condemned by the courts to hard labor or to exile,
journeyed on foot with common law convicts.[1]

There were no hospitals for political exiles; doctors and `
surgeons among the exiled helped their sick comrades.

Families were permitted to follow the loved ones into exile, if
they chose. For example, wives were allowed to stay at Lower
Kara, and visit their husbands in the prison in Middle Kara twice
a week and to bring them books.

When criminal convicts were freed in Siberia after serving a
given sentence at hard labor, they received an allotment of land
and agricultural implements for purposes of sustenance, and after
two years the government troubled no more about

[1]Siberia received its first exiles [non-conformists] in the
17th Century.

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them. They became settlers in some province of Southern Siberia.
With political exiles it was quite different. When they had
finished a seven, ten, or twelve year sentence, they were not
liberated but transferred to the tundras within the Arctic
Circle.

Fancy a young girl student exiled to a village numbering a
hundred houses, with the government allowance of 8 to 10
shillings a month to live on. Occupations were closed to her, and
there was no opportunity to learn a trade. She was forbidden to
leave the town even for a few hours. The villagers were for the
most part in fear of being suspected if seen to greet politicals
in the street.

"Without dress, without shoes, living in the nastiest huts,
without any occupation, they [the exiles were mostly dying from
consumption," said the Golos of February 2, 1881. They lived in
constant fear of starvation. And the Government allowance was
withdrawn if it became known that an exile received any monetary
assistance from family or friends.

Those politicals condemned to hard labor in Siberia worked mostly
in gold mines for three months out of twelve, during which period
meat was added to their diet. Otherwise black bread was the main
food of the diet.

When held in prisons awaiting trial or convicted and awaiting
transfer into exile, politicals did no work whatever. Their only
occupation was reading. Common criminals had to work in prison as
well as in Siberia.

In the fortress of Sts. Peter and Paul,[1] Kropotkin was lodged
in a cell big enough to shelter a big fortress gun (25 feet on
the diagonal). The walls and floor were lined with felt to
prevent communication with others. "The silence in these felt-
covered cells is that of a grave," wrote Kropotkin . . . . "Here
I wrote my two volumes on The Glacial Period." Here

[1]In the Trubeskoi bastion, one building in the fortress.

{380}

he also prepared maps and drawings. This privilege was
only granted, to him, however, after a strong movement amongst
influential circles compelled it from the Czar.[1] The Geo-
graphical Society for whom he was writing his thesis also made
many pleas on his behalf. He was allowed to buy tobacco,
writing paper and to have books-but no extra food.

Kropotkin says that political prisoners were not subjected
to corporal punishment, through official fear of bloodshed.
But he must mean by corporal punishment actual beatings, for
he says also, "The black holes, the chains, the riveting to bar
rows are usual punishments." And some politicals were al-
leged to have been put in oubliettes in the Alexis Ravelin[2]
which must have been the worst feature of all the tortures.
This meant immurement alive in cells, in a remote spot where
no contact with others was possible, and where the prisoner
would often be chained or riveted for years.

More recently there was some mitigation of the worst fea-
tures of the prison regime and some additional privileges were
extended to politicals.

All this applied to old Russia. There is no documentary
proof available yet, as to how Soviet Russia treats its offenders
against the present government. The Constitution of the Rus-
sian Socialist Federated Soviet Republic' does not provide a
status for political prisoners, but it does provide for their re
lease. It specifically deals with amnesty which is proof of
the importance with which it regards the question of political
offenders. It says: "The All-Russian Central Executive Com
mittee deal with questions of state such as . . . the right to
declare individual and general amnesty.[4]

France has had perhaps the most enlightened attitude of
all the nations toward political offenders. She absolutely

[1]Set Memoirs of a Revolutionist, Kropotkin.
[2]Another section of Sts. Peter and Paul Fortress.
[3]Adopted by the 5th All-Russian Congress of Soviets, July 10,
1918. Reprinted from The Nation, January 4, 1919.
[4]Article 3, Chapter 9 . . . 49 q.

{381}

guarantees special treatment, by special regulations, and does
not leave it to the discretion of 'changing governments.

On August 7, 1884; Thiers, in a ministerial circular, laid down
the fundamental principles upon which France has acted. The only
obligation upon the defendant, according to this circular, was to
prove the political nature of the offense, "that it should be
demonstrated and incontestable that they have acted under the
influence of their opinions."[1] Theirs advocated superior diet
for political prisoners and no work.

His edict was followed by special regulations issued for
politicals under the Empire, February 9th, 1867, through M.
Pietri, Prefect of the Seine. These regulations, illustrative of
the care France exercised at an early date over her politicals,
defined the housing conditions, diet, intercourse with comrades
inside the prison and with family and friends from the outside.
Their privacy was carefully guarded. No curious visitor was
allowed to see a political unless the latter so desired.

Kropotkin wrote[2] of his incarceration in Clairvaux prison in
1888, to which he and twenty-two others were transferred from
Lyons after being prosecuted for belonging to the International
Workingmen's Association: "In France, it is generally understood
that for political prisoners the loss of liberty and the forced
inactivity are in themselves so hard that there is no need to
inflict additional hardships."

In Clairvaux he and his comrades were given quarters in spacious
rooms, not in cells. Kropotkin and Emile Gautier, the French
anarchist, were given a separate room for literary work and the
Academy of Sciences offered them the use of its library.

There was no intercourse with common law prisoners. The
politicals were allowed to wear their own clothes, to smoke, to
buy food and wine from the prison canteen or have it brought

[1]Sigerson, Political prisoners at Home and Abroad, p. 89.
[2]Memoirs of a Revolutionist, Kropotkin.

{382}

in; they were free of compulsory work, but might, if they chose,
do light work for which they were paid. Kropotkin mentions the
extreme cleanliness of the prison and the "excellent quality" of
the prison food.

Their windows looked down upon a little garden and also commanded
a beautiful view of the surrounding country. They played nine-
pins in the yard and made a vegetable and flower garden on the
surface of the building's wall. For other forms of recreation,
they were allowed to organize themselves into classes. This
particular group received from Kropotkin lessons in cosmography,
geometry, physics, languages and bookbinding. Kropotkin's wife
was allowed to visit him daily and to walk with him in the prison
gardens.

Sebastian Faure, the great French teacher and orator, was
sentenced to prison after the anarchist terrorism in 1894 and
while there was allowed to write his "La Douleur Universelle"

Paul La Fargue, son-in-law of Karl Marx, wrote his famous "The
Right to be Lazy" in Sainte Pelagie prison.

France has continued this policy to date. Jean Grave, once a
shoemaker and now a celebrated anarchist, was condemned to six
months in La Sante prison for an offensive article in his paper,
Les Temps Nouveaux. Such is the liberty allowed a political that
while serving this sentence he was given paper and materials with
which to write another objectionable article, called "La Societe
Mourante et 1'Anarchie," for the publication of which he received
another six months.

It is interesting to note the comparatively light sentences
political offenders get in France. And then there is an
established practice of amnesty. They rarely finish out their
terms. Agitation for their release extends from the extreme
revolutionary left to the members of the Chamber of Deputies,
frequently backed by the liberal press.

Italy also distinguishes between political and common law

{383}

offenders. The former are entitled to all the privileges of
custodia honesta[1] which means they are allowed to wear their
own clothes, work or not, as they choose; if they do work, one
half their earnings is given to them. Their only penal obligation
is silence during work, meals, school and prayers. A friend of
Sr. Serrati, the ex-editor of the Italian journal Il Proletario,
tells me that Serrati was a political prisoner during the late
war; that he was sentenced to three and a half years, but was
released at the end of six months, through pressure from the
outside. But while there, he was allowed to write an article a
day for Avanti, of which paper he was then an editor.

Even before the Franco-Prussian War German principalities
recognized political offenders as such. The practice continued
after the federation of German states through the Empire and up
to the overthrow of Kaiser Wilhelm. Politicals were held in
"honorable custody" in fortresses where they were deprived only
of their liberty.

For revolutionary activities in Saxony in 1849, Bakunin[2] was
arrested, taken to a Cavalry Barracks and later to Koeriigstein
Fortress, where politicals were held. Here he was allowed to walk
twice daily under guard. He was allowed to receive books, he
could converse with his fellow prisoners and could write and
receive numerous letters. In a letter to a friend $ he wrote that
he was occupied in the study of mathematics and English, and that
he was "enjoying Shakespeare." And .. : . "they treat me with
extraordinary humanness."

Another letter to the same friend a month later said he was
writing a defense of his political views in "a comfortable room,"
with "cigars and food brought in from a nearby inn."

[1]Sigerson, pp. 154-5.
[2]The Life of Michael Bakunin-Eine Biographie von Dr. Max
Nettlau. (Privately printed by the author. Fifty copies
reproduced by the autocopyist, Longhaus.)
[3]To Adolph R- (the last name illegible) October 15, 1849.

{384}

The death sentence was pronounced against him in 1850 but
commuted to imprisonment for life. The same year he was
extradited to Austria where the offense was committed, then to
Russia and on to Siberia in 1855, whence he escaped in 1860 in an
American ship.

In 1869 Bebell[1] received a sentence of three weeks in Leipzig
(contrast with Alice Paul's seven months' sentence) "for the
propagation of ideas dangerous to the state." Later for high
treason based upon Social-Democratic agitation he was sentenced
to two years in a fortress. For lese majeste he served nine
months in Hubertusburg-a fortress prison (in 1871). Here
politicals were allowed to pay for the cleaning of their cells,
to receive food from a nearby inn, and were allowed to eat
together in the corridors. They were only locked in for part of
the time, and the rest of the time were allowed to walk in the
garden. They were permitted lights until ten at night; books; and
could receive and answer mail every day. Bebel received
permission to share cell quarters with the elder Lielr knecht
(Wilhelm), then serving time for his internationalism. He says
that political prisoners were often allowed a six weeks' leave of
absence between sentences; when finishing one and beginning a
second.

According to Sigerson, politicals in Austria also were absolved
from wearing prison clothes, might buy their own food and choose
their work. I am told the same regime prevailed in Hungary under
Franz Joseph.

The new constitution of the German Republic adopted at Weimar
July 31, 1919, provides that[2] "The President of the Republic
shall exercise for the. government the right of pardon .. . . .
Government amnesties require a national law."

In the Scandinavian countries there is no provision for special
consideration of ~ political prisoners, although a proposed

[1]My Life, August Bebel.
[2]Article 49.

{385}

change in Sweden's penal laws now pending includes special
treatment for them, and in Denmark, although politicals are not
recognized apart from other prisoners, the people have just won
an amnesty for all prisoners convicted of political offense as I
write. Neither Switzerland nor Spain makes separate provision for
politicals, although there are many prisoners confined in their
prisons for political offenses, especially in Spain, where there
are nearly always actually thousands in Monjuich. Portugal also
subjects political offenders to the same regime as criminals.

Concerning Turkey and Bulgaria, I appealed to George
Andreytchine, a Bulgarian revolutionist who as protege of King
Ferdinand was educated at Sofia and Constantinople, knowing his
knowledge on this point would be authentic. He writes: "Turkey,
which is the most backward of all modern states, recognized the
status of political prisoners before 1895, or shortly after the
Armenian massacres. Thousands of Bulgarian, Greek, Armenian and
Arabian insurgents, caught with Arms in their hands, conspiring
and actually in open rebellion against the Ottoman Empire, were
sentenced to exile or hard labor, but were never confined in the
same prisons with ordinary criminals and felons. They were put in
more hygienical prisons where they were allowed to read and write
and to breathe fresh air. Among some of my friends who were
exiled to Turkish Africa for rebellion was a young scholar, Paul
Shateff, by name, who while there wrote a remarkable monograph on
the ethnology and ethnography of the Arabian Tribes in which he
incidentally tells of the special treatment given him and his
fellow exiles as political prisoners.

"There is something to be said for the political wisdom of the
Sultans. Amnesty is an established practice, usually at the
birthday of the Sultan or the coming to power of a new Sultan, or
on Ramadan[1], a national holiday.

{386}

"In 1908 when the young Turks assumed control of the government,
all political prisoners were released and cared for by the state.
My friend Paul Shateff was sent at state expense to Bruxelles to
finish his studies.

"Bulgaria, another one of those `backward countries,' established
the political regime even earlier than Turkey. Politicals are
allowed to read, to write books or articles for publication, to
receive food from outside, and are periodically released on
amnesty."

And now we come to England. In general England, too, give's
political offenders much lighter sentences than does America,
but, except in isolated cases, she treats them no better. She
does not recognize them as political prisoners. If they are
distinguished prisoners like Dr. Jamison, who was permitted to
serve the sentence imposed upon him for leading an armed raid
into the Transvaal in 1895, in a luxuriously furnished suite, to
provide himself with books, a piano, and such food as he chose,
and to receive his friends, special dispensation is allowed; or
like William Cobbett, who was imprisoned for writing an alleged
treasonable article in his journal, The Register, in 1809; or
Leigh Hunt for maligning the Prince Regent who, he believed,
broke his promise to the Irish cause; Daniel O'Connell and six
associates in 1844 for "seditious activity"; John Mitchell, who
in 1848 was sent to Bermuda and then to Van Dieman's Land.[2]
These British prisoners, while not proclaimed as politicals, did
receive special privileges.[3]

More recently Bertrand Russell, the distinguished man of letters
who served sixty-one days in lieu of payment of fine for

[1]The month (the ninth in the Mohammedan year) in which the
first part of the Koran is said to have been received.
[2]English penal colony in Tasmania.
[3]For details of their handsome treatment see Sigerson, pp. 19-
20,

{387}

writing a pamphlet intended to arouse public indignation against
the treatment of a certain conscientious objector, received
special privileges. In England the matter of treatment rests
largely with the will of the Prime Minister, who dictates the
policy to the Home Secretary, who in turn directs the Chairman of
the Board of Directors of Prisons. The Home Secretary may,
however, of his own accord issue an order for special privileges
if he so desires, or if there is a strong demand for such an
order. Many government commissions and many distinguished British
statesmen have recommended complete recognition and guarantee of
the status of political prisoners, but the matter has been left
to common law custom and precedent, and the character of the
prime minister. In the case of Ireland the policy agreed upon is
carried out by the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.

It is difficult to generalize about England's treatment of Irish
political offenders. From the earliest nationalist activities she
has treated them practically all as common criminals, or worse,
if such a thing is possible. She has either filled English
prisons, or, as in the sixties, put them in convict ships and
sent them to Bermuda and Australia for life sentences along with
common convicts where they performed the hardest labor.. Irish
prisoners have fought with signal and persistent courage for the
rights due political offenders. Lately, after militant
demonstrations within the prisons and after deaths resulting from
concerted hunger striking protests, some additional privileges
have been extended. But these can be and are withheld at will.
There is no guarantee of them.

As early as 1885 Canadian nationalists who had taken part in an
insurrection in Upper Canada on behalf of self-government and who
were sent to Van Dieman's Land in convict ships, entered a
vigorous protest to Lord Russell, the Home Secre-

{388}

tary, against not receiving the treatment due political
prisoners.

England has to her credit, then, some flexibility about extending
privileges to politicals. We have none. England has to her credit
lighter sentences-Irish cases excepted. No country, not excluding
imperial Germany, has ever given such cruelly long sentences to
political offenders as did America during the late war.

I have incorporated this discussion in such a book for two
reasons: first, because it seemed to me important that you should
know what a tremendous contribution the suffrage prisoners made
toward this enlightened reform. They were the first in America to
make a sustained demand to establish this precedent which others
will consummate. They kept up the demand to the end of the prison
episode, reinforcing it by the hunger strike protest. The other
reason for including this discussion here is that it seems to me
imperative that America recognize without further delay the
status of political offenders. As early as 1872 the International
Prison Congress meeting in London recommended a distinction in
the treatment of common law criminals and politicals, and the
resolution was agreed upon by the representatives of all the
Powers of Europe and America with the tacit concurrence of
British and Irish officials. And still we are behind Turkey in
adopting an enlightened policy. We have neither regulation,
statute nor precedent. Nor have we the custom of official
flexibility.

Note-The most conspicuous political prisoner from the point of
view of actual power the United States has ever held in custody
was Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States,
during the rebellion of the South against the Union. He was
imprisoned in Fortress Monroe and subjected to the most cruel and
humiliating treatment conceivable. For details of his
imprisonment see the graphic account given in "Jefferson Davis--A
Memoir" by his wife, Vol. II, pp. 653-95.

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