Part 4 out of 4
believed that they took refuge with friendly Indians, and lived with
them until they lost their lives in war or had adopted the ways of their
VALUE OF THE EFFORTS OF THE ENGLISH AND THE FRENCH. Raleigh had
failed to carry out his great plan to plant a new England in America,
but he had awakened in his countrymen an interest in America, and made
known the advantages of its soil and climate. The French had apparently
made no greater headway. Cartier's colony on the St. Lawrence had broken
up, and the Spaniards had driven the French colony from Florida. The
history of Coligny's colony at Fort Caroline, Cartier's at Quebec,
Gilbert's on the coast of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and Raleigh's at
Roanoke, had shown how useless were attempts to settle in America which
were not strongly supported by friends or by the home government. These
attempts to plant colonies in America were not, however, as bad failures
as they appeared. Both nations had learned much about the country and
about the preparations needed for permanent settlements.
WHAT THE SPANISH HAD ACCOMPLISHED. In 1600 Spain seemed to have
achieved much more than either of her rivals. The map of that time shows
Spain in possession of vast territories in North and South America. The
English had a small tract, Virginia, in which they had some interest but
no colonists. The French regarded the St. Lawrence valley as theirs by
right of discovery, but they could point to no settlements to clinch
The Spaniards, on the other hand, counted more than two hundred cities
and towns which they had planted in their territories. About two hundred
thousand Spaniards, farmers, miners, traders, soldiers, and nobles, had
either migrated from Spain to America or had been born there of
emigrants since Columbus's discovery. Five million Indians had come
under their rule, and most of them were living as civilized men, and
called themselves Christians. One hundred and forty thousand negro
slaves had been carried from Africa to the plantations and mines in
[Illustration: Regions in the New World and the East claimed by
the Countries of Europe after a century of exploration.]
The City of Mexico, the largest in all America, was much like the cities
of Spain. Well-built houses of wood, stone, and mason-work abounded.
Churches, monasteries, a university, higher schools for boys and girls,
four hospitals, of which one was for Indians, and public buildings,
similar to those in the cities of old Spain, already existed. Spanish
life and Spanish culture had spread over a large area in the New World,
and the most remarkable fact was that the Old World civilization had
been bestowed on the Indian population. As Roman culture went into Spain
and Gaul, so Spanish culture went into a New Spain in a new world.
THE PROSPECTS OF THE SPANISH COLONIES. But the outlook for Spain in
America was not wholly bright. Her struggle with her Dutch subjects and
the war with England, which grew out of that quarrel, left her
completely worn out. She no longer had the people to spare for American
settlements. These ceased to grow as they once had. Negroes and Indians
outnumbered the Spaniards in most of them. The three races mingled
together and intermarried until a new people, the Spanish American,
differing in color and blood from either of the old races, was formed.
THE LATER STORY OF COLONIZATION. Spain's rivals--the Dutch, the
English, and the French--were just reaching the height of their power.
They had settled their most serious religious differences. Their
merchants were eagerly looking about for commercial opportunities. A
considerable population in each of them, but more especially in England,
was discontented and ready to try its fortunes in a new world. The
Spaniards had passed by the best parts of North America as worthless.
The people and the unoccupied land were both ready for the formation of
colonies on a larger scale. In many ways a greater story of American
colonization remains to be told. This will be the story of the Dutch,
the French, and the English colonization of North America.
1. Why had the English people not taken more interest in America
before Drake's time? What finally, made the English sea-captains
turn to American adventure and exploration?
2. What did Gilbert attempt to do? How many reasons can you find for
3. Why was Raleigh specially fitted to begin the task of planting
English colonies in America? What part of North America did his men
select for a settlement? Why did it seem a suitable place? What name
was given to the country?
4. Why did Raleigh fail to help his colony at Roanoke? What did
White think had happened to them? Why didn't he go in search
5. Why had the French and the English been unsuccessful in their
efforts to settle North America? Had they really gained anything
from all their efforts?
6. What had Spain accomplished since the voyage by Columbus? Why
were the prospects of Spain not so bright as they had been? What
rivals were ready to begin colonies in America?
1. How much territory was Queen Elizabeth willing to give Gilbert
for his plan in North America? Was there this much (twelve hundred
miles) of the Atlantic coast of North America unclaimed by the
French and the Spaniards?
2. Find Roanoke Island on the map.
3. Name the regions in the New World and the East claimed by the
English, French, Portuguese, and Spaniards after a century of
discovery and exploration (1492-1600). What parts of North America
were still unknown? With the use of some map of the world to-day
make a list of the colonies of the same countries now.
1. Prepare a list of the men who took the chief part in discovering
the New World, and give for each the name of the region he found.
2. What had the Greeks learned to do, the knowledge of which they
carried into Italy? What more had the Romans learned to do, the
knowledge of which they carried into Spain and Gaul and Britain?
What more had the Spaniards, the French, and the English learned to
do, the knowledge of which they either were already, as in the case
of Spain, carrying into Spanish America, or, in the case of England
and France, were prepared to carry into North America?
REFERENCES FOR TEACHERS
The following references are given in the hope that they will be helpful
to the teacher. The list is by no means exhaustive, but enough are given
so that one or more books for each subject should be found in any fairly
equipped school or public library. Some of these books may be assigned
to the brighter or more ambitious members of the class for home
readings. Extracts from others may be read to the class directly. Still
others will furnish the teacher a variety of stories or fuller
statements of fact upon matters treated briefly in the text. A
Bibliography of History for Schools and Libraries by Andrews, Gambrill
and Tail (Longmans, 1911), will give many more references and further
information regarding those that are given here.
A. ANCIENT TIMES. THE GREEK PEOPLE. (For use with chapters ii, iii,
_(a) Histories of the Greeks_.
Holm, History of the Greeks, 4 volumes, is the most trustworthy
history of the Greeks. Bury, A History of Greece, 2 volumes;
Botsford, History of the Ancient World; Goodspeed, History of the
Ancient World; Myers, Ancient History; Wolfson, Essentials in
Ancient History; and West, Ancient World, have brief accounts of
_(b) Versions of some famous old Greek stories_, especially the
story of Hercules and his Labors, the Search for the Golden Fleece,
the Trojan War, and the Wanderings of Ulysses.
A. J. Church, Stories from Homer; C. M. Gayley, Classical Myths; H.
A. Guerber, Myths of Greece and Rome; and the same author's The
Story of the Greeks; Haaren and Poland, Famous Men of Greece; C. H.
and S. B. Harding, Stories of Greek Gods, Heroes and Men; Charles
Kingsley, Heroes, or Greek Fairy Tales. Hawthorne, in Tanglewood
Tales, has retold the story of the Search for the Golden Fleece in a
specially interesting manner. Bryant's translation of the Odyssey is
one of the best known versions of that story and may generally be
found in public libraries.
_(c) Short Biographies of some Greek Heroes_. Short accounts of the
lives of such heroes as Miltiades, Themistocles, Socrates,
Alexander, and Demosthenes will be found in Cox, Lives of Greek
Statesmen; Haaren and Poland, Famous Men of Greece; Jennie Hall, Men
of Old Greece; Harding, Stories of Greek Gods, Heroes and Men; E.M.
Tappan, The Story of the Greek People; and Plutarch's Lives. There
are several abridged editions of the latter, but those by C.E.
Byles, Greek Lives from Plutarch, and Edwin Ginn, Plutarch's Lives,
are best adapted to the use of schools.
_(d) Various features of Greek Life_, as the home, the schools,
food, clothing, occupations, amusements, or government have been
described in the books on Greek Life.
Among these are Bl�mner, Home Life of the Ancient Greeks (translated
by Alice Zimmern); C.B. Gulick, The Life of the Ancient Greeks;
Mahaffy, Social Life in Greece; and T.G. Tucker, Life in
_(e) Descriptions of Athens and Alexandria_. Descriptions of these
great centers of Greek civilization will be found in any history of
Greece; that in Gulick, Life of the Ancient Greeks, ch. 2, or
Tucker, Life in Ancient Athens, for Athens, and in Draper,
Intellectual Development of Europe, 1. pp. 187-204, for Alexandria,
will serve the purpose.
_(f)_ A description of the battle of Marathon, abridged from the
History of the World by Herodotus, will be found in F.M. Fling's
Source Book of Greek History. This little book gives many incidents
in Greek History as the Greek writers told them.
_(g)_ A description of the materials, methods of building,
decoration of public buildings, and the uses of the temples,
theaters, gymnasia, and stadia in Fowler and Wheeler's Greek
Archaeology, ch. 2; and Tarbell's History of Greek Art.
_(h)_ Some may wish to read the careful statement in Holm's History
of the Greeks, Vol. I, pp. 103-121, on the Truth about the Old Greek
Legends, or the same author's account, Vol. I, pp. 272-295, of
Emigration to the Colonies in the Olden Day.
B. ANCIENT TIMES. THE ROMAN PEOPLE. (For use with chapters v, vi,
vii, viii and ix.)
_(a) Histories of the Romans_.
Either Botsford, History of Rome; Pelham, Outlines of Roman History;
How and Leigh, History of Rome; or Schuckburgh, History of Rome;
though the last two do not cover the entire period of Roman history.
Duruy, History of Rome, 8 volumes, is attractive in style and
supplied with a great variety of pictures and other
Botsford, History of the Ancient World; Goodspeed, History of the
Ancient World; Myers, Ancient History; Wolfson, Essentials in
Ancient History; and West, Ancient World, give short accounts of the
chief events in Roman history.
_(b) Versions of famous old Roman stories_, especially the
wanderings of Aeneas, the Story of Romulus and Remus, of the Sabine
Women, Horatius at the Bridge, and Cincinnatus.
A.J. Church, Stories from Virgil; C.M. Gayley, Classical Myths; H.A.
Guerber, Myths of Greece and Rome; the same author's Story of the
Romans; Haaren and Poland, Famous Men of Rome; and Harding, City of
Seven Hills. Macaulay, Lays of Ancient Rome, gives the story of
Horatius at the Bridge, together with several other stories from
early Roman history.
_(c) Versions of the German myths about Odin (Wodan), Thor, Freya,
and Tyr (Tiw)._ C.M. Gayley. Classical Myths; Guerber, Myths of
Northern Lands; Haaren and Poland, Famous Men of the Middle Ages;
Mary E. Litchfield, The Nine Worlds; H.W. Mabie, Norse Stories; Eva
March Tappan, European Hero Stories; Alice Zimmern, Gods and Heroes
of the North.
_(d) The Story of Hermann_ (or the struggle between the Romans and
Germans) is told by Arthur Gilman, Magna Charta Stories, pp.
139-155; and by Maude B. Dutton, Little Stories of Germany.
_(e) Short Biographies of some famous Romans_. Short accounts of the
lives of Romulus, the Gracchi, Caesar, Cicero, and Constantine are
given in Haaren and Poland, Famous Men of Rome; Harding, The City of
Seven Hills; and several of them in Plutarch's Lives. A simple
account of the Life of Hannibal, the Carthaginian enemy of Rome,
will also be found in these books.
_(f) Interesting phases of Roman Life_: for example, the Roman boy,
country life in Italy, the Roman house, traveling, amusements, etc.
See W.W. Fowler, Social Life at Rome in the Age of Cicero; H.W.
Johnston, The Private Life of the Romans; S.B. Platner, Topography
and Monuments of Ancient Rome; T.G. Tucker, Life in the Roman World
of Nero and St. Paul. Many phases of Roman life are described in
F.M. Crawford's Ave Roma.
_(g)_ For descriptions of incidents in Roman history and phases of
Roman life as the Greek and Roman writers told them, see Botsford,
Story of Rome, and Munro, Source Book of Roman History.
C. THE MIDDLE AGES. (For use with chapters x, xi, xii, and xiii.)
_(a) Histories of the people of Europe in the Middle Ages_. G.B.
Adams, Growth of the French Nation; U.R. Burke, A History of Spain
from the Earliest Times to the Death of Ferdinand the Catholic;
J.R. Green, Short History of the English People; E.F. Henderson, A
Short History of German; H.D. Sedgwick, A Short History of Italy.
_(b) Collection of stories adapted to children of the grades_: The
Story of Beowulf, King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table,
the Treasure of the Niebelungs, and of Roland. These stories have
all been written many times, and any librarian can give the reader
copies of them as told by several writers. The following is a
partial list only:
A.J. Church, Heroes and Romances; E.G. Crommelin, Famous Legends
Adapted for Children; H.A. Guerber, Legends of the Middle Ages;
Louise Maitland, Heroes of Chivalry; and Eva March Tappan, European
Hero Stories; James Baldwin, The Story of Roland; Frances N. Greene,
Legends of King Arthur and His Court; Florence Holbrook, Northland
Heroes (Beowulf); Sidney Lanier, The Boy's King Arthur; Stevens and
Allen, King Arthur Stories from Malory.
_(c) Famous Men of the Middle Ages_; for example, Charlemagne, King
Alfred, Rollo the Viking, William the Conqueror, Frederick
Barbarossa, Richard the Lion-Hearted, King John, Saint Louis of
France, Marco Polo, and Gutenberg.
See A.F. Blaisdell, Stories from English History; Louise Creighton,
Stories from English History; Maude B. Dutton, Little Stories of
Germany; H.A. Guerber, The Story of the English; Haaren and Poland,
Famous Men of the Middle Ages; Harding, The Story of the Middle
Ages; S.B. Harding and W.F. Harding, The Story of England;
M.F. Lansing, Barbarian and Noble; A.M. Mowry, First Steps in the
History of England; L.N. Pitman, Stories of Old France; Eva March
Tappan, European Hero Stories; H.P. Warren, Stories from English
History; Bates and Coman, English History as told by the Poets.
Edward Atherton, The Adventures of Marco Polo, the Great Traveler,
is a convenient modernized version of Polo's own story of his
travels. Marco Polo's description of Japan and Java has been
reprinted in Old South Leaflets, Vol. II, No. 32.
_(d) Viking Tales_. The interesting stories of the Northern
discoveries and explorations have been told many times. Jennie Hall,
Viking Tales, includes the story of Eric the Red, Leif the Lucky,
and the attempt to settle in Vinland (Wineland).
_(e) The Trial of Criminals in the Middle Ages--Ordeals_. Other
kinds of Ordeals than those described in this book will be obtained
in Ogg, Source Book of Mediaeval History, pp. 196-202; Pennsylvania
Translations and Reprints, Vol. IV, No. 4. pp. 7-16; or in Thatcher
and McNeal, Source Book, pp. 401-412. See Emerton, Introduction to
the Middle Ages, pp. 79-81, for excellent explanation of mediaeval
methods of trial.
_(f) Famous accounts of how the People of England won the Magna
Use either Cheyney, Readings in English History, pp. 179-181;
Kendall, Source Book of English History, pp. 72-78; Robinson,
Readings in European History, Vol. I, pp. 231-333; or Ogg, Source
Book of Mediaeval History, pp. 297-303.
_(g) Simple descriptions of Mediaeval Life_. Maude B. Dutton, Little
Stories of Germany; for example, the chapters on How a Page became a
Knight, and A Mediaeval Town. S.B. Harding, The Story of the Middle
Ages, especially the chapters describing life in castle, life in
village, and life in monastery. Eva March Tappan, European Hero
Stories, especially the topic, Life in Middle Ages, p. 118, the
Crusades, p. 136, and Winning the Magna Charta, p. 111.
D. THE BEGINNINGS OF MODERN TIMES. The Discovery of America. (For
use with chapters xiv to xxi inclusive.)
_(a) Histories of American Discoveries and Explorations_. E.G.
Bourne, Spain in America; Fiske, Discovery of America, 2 volumes;
and Parkman, Pioneers of France in the New World.
_(b) Short, easy biographies of famous explorers_. (Da Gama,
Columbus, Magellan, De Soto, Coronado, Cartier, Drake, and Raleigh.)
Foote and Skinner, Explorers and Founders of America; W.F. Gordy,
Stories of American Explorers; W.E. Griffis, The Romance of
Discovery; Haaren and Poland, Famous Men of Modern Times; Higginson,
Young Folks' Book of American Explorers; Jeannette B. Hodgdon, A
First Course in American History, Book I; W.H. Johnson, The World's
Discoverers, 2 volumes; Lawyer, The Story of Columbus and Magellan;
Lummis, The Spanish Pioneers; Mara L. Pratt, America's Story for
America's Children, Book 2; Gertrude V.D. Southworth, Builders of
our Country, Book I; Rosa V. Winterburn, The Spanish in the
_(c) Stories of explorations as told by the explorers themselves_.
Columbus' own account of his discovery of America is in Hart, Source
Readers in American History, No. 1, pp. 4-7. Early accounts of John
Cabot's discovery and of Drake's Voyage in Hart, Source Readers, No.
1, pp. 7-10, 23-25. The Death and Burial of De Soto as described by
one of his followers, in Hart, Source Readers, pp. 16-19. The Old
South Leaflets, No. 20, Coronado; Nos. 29 and 31, Columbus; No. 31,
the Voyages to Vinland; No. 35, Cort�s' Account of the City of
Mexico; No. 36, The Death of De Soto; Nos. 37 and 115, the Voyages
of the Cabots; No. 89, The Founding of St. Augustine; No. 92, The
First Voyage to Roanoke; No. 102, Columbus' Account of Cuba; No.
116, Sir Francis Drake on the Coast of California; No. 118,
Gilbert's Expedition; No. 119, Raleigh's Colony at Roanoke.
_(d) The Stories of Indian Life in Spanish America,_ of Cort�s,
Coronado, and the Seven Cities of Cibola, and of the Missions. (See
Rosa V. Winterburn, The Spanish in the Southwest.)
Alexander the Great,
end of trade route,
Alva, in Netherlands,
discovered by Columbus,
origin of name,
Bayeux tapestry (ba-yu),
Beggars of the Sea,
carried to Italy,
name changed to England,
Cambridge, University of,
Cannae, battle of,
Cape of Good Hope,
Cartier, Jacques (kar'tya),
Charles V of Germany (Charles I of Spain),
see Seven Cities
Colorado, Canyon of,
Compass, origin of,
educated men of,
taken by Turks,
Consuls, at Rome,
conquest of Mexico,
De Soto, Fernando,
Drake, Sir Francis,
adventures in America,
voyage around world,
attack on Spain,
Duke, origin of word,
Dutch, war for independence,
search for sea routes,
inhabited by Britons,
conquered by Romans,
in Middle Ages,
war with Spain,
English explorations and colonies,
English language, origin,
Eric the Red,
origin of name,
St. Augustine in,
in Middle Ages,
colonies in America,
Francis I, King,
Friday, origin of name,
Gama, Vasco da,
early emigrants from,
Gracchi, Tiberius and Caius,
manner of living in,
conquered by Rome,
and the Renaissance,
Hayti, see Espa�ola,
Henry, Prince, the Navigator,
Henry II, of England,
Henry VIII, of England,
House of Commons,
House of Lords,
origin of name,
and De Soto,
Isabella, Queen of Spain,
Isabella, town in Espa�ola,
Romans masters of,
John, King of England,
Jury, origin of,
Las Casas (ca'sas),
learned by the Gauls,
in Middle Ages,
Loyola, Ignatius (lo-yo'la)
Madeira Islands (madei'ra),
Magellan, Strait of,
Mary, Queen of England,
Menendez, Pedro (ma-nen'dath)
Mexico, conquest of,
Michel Angelo (mi'kel-an'je-lo),
Mississippi River, discovery of,
Modern Times, defined,
Montezuma, King of Aztecs,
in battle against the Armada,
Netherlands, revolt of,
Notre Dame (no'tr'dam)
Oxford, University of,
Parliament, English, origin of,
Paul, the Apostle,
Peru, conquest of,
Pizarro, Francisco (pi-zar'ro),
conquest of Peru,
Ponce de Leon (pon'tha da la-on),
Pope, the Bishop of Rome,
and the New World,
Potato, found by Magellan,
Raleigh, Sir Walter,
Richard, the Lionhearted,
see Latin, early,
contact with Greeks,
wars in Italy,
early manner of living,
war with Carthage,
conquer Gaul and Britain,
Senators, at Rome,
Seven Cities of Cibola,
of English navy,
Sidney, Sir Philip,
Simon de Montfort,
Spain, early settlements in,
claim to New World,
war with Netherlands,
war with England,
Thursday, origin of name,
Towns, in Middle Ages,
Trebia, battle of,
Trial by battle,
Venus of Melos,
Veto, at Rome,
origin of name,
Wednesday, origin of name,
William the Conqueror,
William of Orange,
Writing, art of,