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Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development by Francis Galton

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the appearance of lying on the screen, the frame being so adjusted
that the distance from the thin piece of glass to the transparency
and to the glass-screen _g_ is the same. I thus obtain beautiful
fiducial lines, which I can vary from extreme faintness to extreme
brilliancy, by turning the gas lower or higher, according to the
brightness of the image of the portrait, which itself depends on the
density of the transparency that I am engaged upon. This arrangement
seems as good as can be. It affords a gauge of the density of the
negative, and enables me to regulate the burners behind it, until
the image of the portrait on _g_ is adjusted to a standard degree of

For convenience in enlarging or reducing, I take care that the
intersection of the vertical fiducial line with that which passes
through the pupils of the eyes shall correspond to the optical axis
of the camera. Then, as I enlarge or reduce, that point in the image
remains fixed. The uppermost horizontal fiducial line continues to
intersect the pupils, and the vertical one continues to divide the
face symmetrically. The mouth has alone to be watched. When the
mouth is adjusted to the lower fiducial line, the scale is exact. It
is a great help having to attend to no more than one varying element.
The only inconvenience is that the image does not lie in the best
position on the plate when the point between the eyes occupies its
centre. This is easily remedied by using a larger back with a
suitable inner frame. I have a more elaborate contrivance in my
apparatus to produce the same result, which I need not stop to

For success and speed in making composites, the apparatus should be
solidly made, chiefly of metal, and all the adjustments ought to
work smoothly and accurately. Good composites cannot be made without
very careful adjustment in scale and position. An off-hand way of
working produces nothing but failures.

I will first exhibit a very simple but instructive composite effect.
I drew on a square card a circle of about 2-1/2 inches in diameter,
and two cross lines through its centre, cutting one another at right
angles. Round each of the four points, 90 deg. apart, where the cross
cuts the circle, I drew small circles of the size of wafers and
gummed upon each a disc of different tint. Finally I made a single
black dot half-way between two of the arms of the cross. I then made
a composite of the four positions of the card, as it was placed
successively with each of its sides downwards. The result is a
photograph having a sharply-defined cross surrounded by four discs
of precisely uniform tint, and between each pair of arms of the
cross there is a very faint dot. This photograph shows many things.
The fact of its being a composite is shown by the four faint dots.
The equality of the successive periods of exposure is shown by the
equal tint of the four dots. The accuracy of adjustment is shown by
the sharpness of the cross being as great in the composite as in the
original card. We see the smallness of the effect produced by any
trait, such as the dot, when it appears in the same place in only
one of the components: if this effect be so small in a series of
only four components, it would certainly be imperceptible in a much
larger series. Thirdly, the uniformity of resulting tint in the
composite wafer is quite irrespective of the order of exposure. Let
us call the four component wafers A, B, C, D, respectively, and the
four composite wafers 1, 2, 3, 4; then we see, by the diagram, that
the order of exposure has differed in each case, yet the result is
identical. Therefore the order of exposure has no effect on the

|Composite.|Successive places of the Components.|
| 1 2 | A B | D A | C D | B C |
| 4 3 | D C | C B | B A | A D |

In 1 it has been A, D, C, B,
" 2 " B, A, D, C,
" 3 " C, B, A, D,
" 4 " D, C, B, A,

I will next show a series consisting of two portraits considerably
unlike to one another, and yet not so very discordant as to refuse
to conform, and of two intermediate composites. In making one of the
composites I gave two-thirds of the total time of exposure to the
first portrait, and one-third to the second portrait. In making the
other composite, I did the converse. It will be seen how good is the
result in both cases, and how the likeness of the longest exposed
portrait always predominates.

The next is a series of four composites. The first consists of 57
hospital patients suffering under one or other of the many forms of
consumption. I may say that, with the aid of Dr. Mahomed, I am
endeavouring to utilise this process to elicit the physiognomy of
disease. The composite I now show is what I call a hotch-pot
composite; its use is to form a standard whence deviations towards
any particular sub-type may be conveniently gauged. It will be
observed that the face is strongly marked, and that it is quite
idealised. I claim for composite portraiture, that it affords a
method of obtaining _pictorial averages_, which effects
simultaneously for every point in a picture what a method of numerical
averages would do for each point in the picture separately. It
gives, in short, the average tint of every unit of area in the
picture, measured from the fiducial lines as co-ordinates. Now every
statistician knows, by experience, that numerical averages usually
begin to agree pretty fairly when we deal with even twenty or thirty
cases. Therefore we should expect to find that any groups of twenty
or thirty men of the same class would yield composites bearing a
considerable likeness to one another. In proof that this is the case,
I exhibit three other composites: the one is made from the first 28
portraits of the 57, the second from the last 27, and the third is
made from 36 portraits taken indiscriminately out of the 57. It will
be observed that all the four composites are closely alike.

I will now show a few typical portraits I selected out of 82 male
portraits of a different series of consumptive male patients; they
were those that had more or less of a particular wan look, that I
wished to elicit. The selected cases were about 18 in number, and
from these I took 12, rejecting about six as having some marked
peculiarity that did not conform well with the remaining 12. The
result is a very striking face, thoroughly ideal and artistic, and
singularly beautiful. It is, indeed, most notable how beautiful all
composites are. Individual peculiarities are all irregularities, and
the composite is always regular.

I show a composite of 15 female faces, also of consumptive patients,
that gives somewhat the same aspect of the disease; also two others
of only 6 in each, that have in consequence less of an ideal look,
but which are still typical. I have here several other typical faces
in my collection of composites; they are all serviceable as
illustrations of this memoir, but, medically speaking, they are only
provisional results.

I am indebted to Lieutenant Leonard Darwin, R.E., for an interesting
series of negatives of officers and privates of the Royal Engineers.
Here is a composite of 12 officers; here is one of 30 privates. I
then thought it better to select from the latter the men that came
from the southern counties, and to again make a further selection of
11 from these, on the principle already explained. Here is the
result. It is very interesting to note the stamp of culture and
refinement on the composite officer, and the honest and vigorous but
more homely features of the privates. The combination of these two,
officers and privates together, gives a very effective physiognomy.

Let it be borne in mind that existing cartes-de-visite are almost
certain to be useless. Among dozens of them it is hard to find three
that fulfil the conditions of similarity of aspect and of shade. The
negatives have to be made on purpose. I use a repeating back and a
quarter plate, and get two good-sized heads on each plate, and of a
scale that never gives less than four-tenths of an inch between the
pupils of the eyes and the mouth. It is only the head that can be
used, as more distant parts, even the ears, become blurred hopelessly.

It will be asked, of what use can all this be to ordinary
photographers, even granting that it may be of scientific value in
ethnological research, in inquiries into the physiognomy of disease,
and for other special purposes? I think it can be turned to most
interesting account in the production of family likenesses. The most
unartistic productions of amateur photography do quite as well for
making composites as those of the best professional workers, because
their blemishes vanish in the blended result. All that amateurs have
to do is to take negatives of the various members of their families
in precisely the same aspect (I recommend either perfect full-face
or perfect profile), and under precisely the same conditions of
light and shade, and to send them to a firm provided with proper
instrumental appliances to make composites from them. The result is
sure to be artistic in expression and flatteringly handsome, and
would be very interesting to the members of the family. Young and old,
and persons of both sexes can be combined into one ideal face. I can
well imagine a fashion setting in to have these pictures.

Professional skill might be exercised very effectively in retouching
composites. It would be easy to obliterate the ghosts of stray
features that are always present when the composite is made from
only a few portraits, and it would not be difficult to tone down any
irregularity in the features themselves, due to some obtrusive
peculiarity in one of the components. A higher order of artistic
skill might be well bestowed upon the composites that have been made
out of a large number of components. Here the irregularities
disappear, the features are perfectly regular and idealised, but the
result is dim. It is like a pencil drawing, where many attempts have
been made to obtain the desired effect; such a drawing is smudged
and ineffective; but the artist, under its guidance, draws his final
work with clear bold touches, and then he rubs out the smudge. On
precisely the same principle the faint but beautifully idealised
features of these composites are, I believe, capable of forming the
basis of a very high order of artistic work.


[_Read before the Statistical Society in_ 1873.]

It is well known that the population of towns decays, and has to be
recruited by immigrants from the country, but I am not aware that
any statistical investigation has yet been attempted of the rate of
its decay. The more energetic members of our race, whose breed is
the most valuable to our nation, are attracted from the country to
our towns. If residence in towns seriously interferes with the
maintenance of their stock, we should expect the breed of Englishmen
to steadily deteriorate, so far as that particular influence is

I am well aware that the only perfectly trustworthy way of
conducting the inquiry is by statistics derived from numerous
life-histories, but I find it very difficult to procure these data.
I therefore have had recourse to an indirect method, based on a
selection from the returns made at the census of 1871, which appears
calculated to give a fair approximation to the truth. My object is
to find the number of adult male representatives in this generation,
of 1000 adult males in the previous one, of rural and urban
populations respectively. The principle on which I have proceeded is

I find (A) the number of children of equal numbers of urban and of
rural mothers. The census schedules contain returns of the names and
ages of the members of each "family," by which word we are to
understand those members who are alive and resident in the same
house with their parents. When the mothers are young, the children
are necessarily very young, and nearly always (in at least those
classes who are unable to send their children to boarding schools)
live at home. If, therefore, we limit our inquiries to the census
"families" of young mothers, the results may be accepted as
practically identical with those we should have obtained if we had
direct means of ascertaining the number of their living children.
The limits of age of the mothers which I adopted in my selection were,
24 and 40 years. Had I to begin the work afresh, I should prefer
the period from 20 to 35, but I have reason to feel pretty well
contented with my present data. I correct the results thus far
obtained on the following grounds:--(B) the relative mortality of
the two classes between childhood and maturity; (C) the relative
mortality of the rural and urban mothers during childbearing ages;
(D) their relative celibacy; and (E) the span of a rural and urban
generation. It will be shown that B is important, and C noteworthy,
but that D and E may be disregarded.

In deciding on the districts to be investigated, it was important to
choose well-marked specimens of urban and rural populations. In the
former, a town was wanted where there were various industries, and
where the population was not increasing. A town where only one
industry was pursued would not be a fair sample, because the
particular industry might be suspected of having a special influence,
and a town that was increasing would have attracted numerous
immigrants from the country, who are undistinguishable as such in
the census returns. Guided by these considerations, I selected
Coventry, where silk weaving, watch-making, and other industries are
carried on, and whose population had scarcely varied during the
decade preceding the census of 1871.[25] It is an open town, in
which the crowded alleys of larger places are not frequent. Its urban
peculiarities are therefore minimised, and its statistical returns
would give a picture somewhat too favourable of the average
condition of life in towns. For specimens of rural districts, I
chose small agricultural parishes in Warwickshire.

[Footnote 25: It has greatly changed since this was written.]

By the courteous permission of Dr. Farr, I was enabled to procure
extracts from the census returns concerning 1000 "families" of
factory hands at Coventry, in which the age of the mother was
neither less than 24 nor more than 40 years, and concerning another
1000 families of agricultural labourers in rural parishes of
Warwickshire, under the same limitations as to the age of the mother.
When these returns were classified (see Table I., p. 246), I found
the figures to run in such regular sequence as to make it certain
that the cases were sufficiently numerous to give trustworthy results.
It appeared that:

(A) The 1000 families of factory hands comprised 2681 children, and
the 1000 of agricultural labourers comprised 2911; hence, the
children in the urban "families," the mothers being between the ages
of 24 and 40, are on the whole about 8 per cent, less numerous than
the rural. I see no reason why these numbers should not be accepted
as relatively correct for families, in the ordinary sense of that
word, and for mothers of all ages. An inspection of the table does
indeed show that if the selection had begun at an earlier age than 24,
there would have been an increased proportion of sterile and of
small families among the factory hands, but not sufficient to
introduce any substantial modification of the above results. It is,
however, important to recollect that the small error, whatever its
amount may be, is a concession in favour of the towns.

(B) I next make an allowance for the mortality between childhood and
maturity, which will diminish the above figures in different
proportions, because the conditions of town life are more fatal to
children than those of the country. No life tables exist for
Coventry and Warwickshire; I am therefore obliged to use statistics
for similarly conditioned localities, to determine the amount of the
allowance that should be made. The life tables of Manchester [26]
will afford the data for towns, and those of the "Healthy Districts"
[27] will suffice for the country. By applying these, we could
calculate the number of the children of ages specified in the census
returns who would attain maturity. I regret extremely that when I
had the copies taken, I did not give instructions to have the ages
of all the children inserted; but I did not, and it is too late now
to remedy the omission. I am therefore obliged to make a very rough,
but not unfair, estimate. The average age of the children was about
3 years, and 25 years may be taken as representing the age of
maturity. Now it will be found that 74 per cent. of children in
Manchester, of the age of 3, reach the age of 25, while 86 per cent.
of children do so in the "Healthy Districts." Therefore, if my rough
method be accepted as approximately fair, the number of adults who
will be derived from the children of the 1000 factory families
should be reckoned at (2681 x 74/100) = 1986, and those from the
1000 agricultural at (2911 x 86/100) = 2503.

[Footnote 26: "Seventh Annual Report of Registrar-General."]

[Footnote 27: Healthy Districts Life Table, by Dr. Farr. _Phil
Trans. Royal Society_, 1859.]

(C) The comparison we seek is between the total families produced by
an equal number of urban and rural women who had survived the age of
24. Many of these women will not marry at all; I postpone that
consideration to the next paragraph. Many of the rest will die
before they reach the age of 40, and more of them will die in the
town than in the country. It appears from data furnished by the
above-mentioned tables, that if 100 women of the age of 24 had
annually been added to a population, the number of those so added,
living between the ages of 24 and 40 (an interval of seventeen years)
would be 1539 under the conditions of life in Manchester, and 1585
under those of the healthy districts. Therefore the small factors to
be applied respectively to the two cases, on account of this
correction, are 1539/(17 x 100) and 1585/(17 x 100).

(D) I have no trustworthy data for the relative prevalence of
celibacy in town and country. All that I have learned from the
census returns is, that when searching them for the 1000 families,
131 bachelors were noted between the ages of 24 and 40, among the
factory hands, and 144 among the agricultural labourers. If these
figures be accepted as correct guides to the amount of celibacy
among the women, it would follow that I must be considered to have
discussed the cases of 1131 factory, and 1144 agricultural women,
when dealing with those of 1000 mothers in either class.
Consequently that the respective corrections to be applied, are
given by the factors 1000/1131 and 1000/1141 or 88.4/1000 and 87.6/
1000. This difference of less than 1 per cent, is hardly worth
applying, moreover I do not like to apply it, because it seems to me
erroneous and to act in the wrong direction, inasmuch as unmarried
women can obtain employment more readily in the town than in the
country, and celibacy is therefore more likely to be common in the
former than in the latter.

(E) The possible difference in the length of an urban and rural
generation must not be forgotten. We, however, have reason to
believe that the correction on this ground will be insignificant,
because the length of a generation is found to be constant under
very different circumstances of race, and therefore we should expect
it to be equally constant in the same race under different conditions;
such as it is, it would probably tell against the towns.

Let us now sum up the results. The corrections are not to be applied
for (D) and (E), so we have only to regard (A) x (B) x (C), that

2681 x 74/100 x 1539/1700 1796 77
------------------------- = ---- = --
2911 x 86/100 x 1585/1700 2334 100

In other words, the rate of supply in towns to the next adult
generation is only 77 per cent., or, say, three-quarters of that in
the country. This decay, if it continued constant, would lead to the
result that the representatives of the townsmen would be less than
half as numerous as those of the country folk after one century, and
only about one fifth as numerous after two centuries, the
proportions being 45/100 and 21/100 respectively.

[Transcriber's Note: In the original manuscript, Table I occupied
two facing pages. This is the left-hand (sinister) page; the right-hand
(dexter) page is immediately below.]

TABLE I. -- _Census Returns of 1000 Families of Factory Hands in
Coventry, and 1000 Families of Agricultural Labourers in Warwickshire,
grouped according to the Age of the Mother and the Number of Children
in the Family._

| 0. | 1. | 2. | 3. | 4. |
| F | A | F | A | F | A | F | A | F | A |
| a | g | a | g | a | g | a | g | a | g |
| c | r | c | r | c | r | c | r | c | r |
| t | i | t | i | t | i | t | i | t | i |
| o | c | o | c | o | c | o | c | o | c |
| r | u | r | u | r | u | r | u | r | u |
Age of Mother | y | l | y | l | y | l | y | l | y | l |
| . | t | . | t | . | t | . | t | . | t |
24 to 25 | 28 17 40 31 | 24 32 12 10 2 |
| +-------------------+ |
26 " 27 | 19 18 36 24 36 28 23 26 | 8 8 |
| | |
28 " 29 | 18 17 32 16 20[A] 33 36 23 | 14 23 |
| | |
30 " 31 | 13 4 23 18 24 21 28[A] 31 | 18 22 |
| | |
32 " 33 | 18 11 16 14 19 13 22[A] 27 | 23 26 |
|---------+ | |
34 " 35 | 14 15 | 11 6 17 16 28 18 | 31 34 |
| +-------------------+ | |
36 " 37 | 12 17 4 11 10 13 | 22 14 | 16 20 |
| +---------+ |
38 " 39 | 8 6 9 15 14 17 16 21 22 23 |
| |
40 | 8 7 3 10 8 9 13 14 8 10 |
Total within | |
outline | 96 67 258 109 116 111 171 149 |
Total between | |
outlines | 42 45 16 36 56 71 29 35 142 166 |
Total beyond | |
outline | |
Total |138 112 174 145 172 182 200 184 142 166 |

[Footnote A: These three cases are anomalous, the Factory being less
than the Agricultural. In the instance of 20-33, the anomaly is double,
because the sequence of the figures shows that neither of these can be
correct; certainly not the first of them.]

_Note_.--It will be observed to the left of the outline, that is,
in the upper and left hand of the table, where the mothers are young
and the children few, the factory families predominate, while the
agricultural are the most numerous between the outlines, that is,
especially in the middle of the table, where the mothers are less young,
and the family is from four to five in number. The two are equally
numerous to the right of the outlines, that is, to the right of the
table, where the families are large.

[Transcriber's Note: In the original manuscript, Table I occupied
two facing pages. This is the right-hand (dexter) page; the left-hand
(snister) page is immediately above.]

TABLE I. -- _Census Returns of 1000 Families of Factory Hands in
Coventry, and 1000 Families of Agricultural Labourers in Warwickshire,
grouped according to the Age of the Mother and the Number of Children
in the Family._

| 5. | 6. | 7. | 8. | 9. |
| F | A | F | A | F | A | F | A | F | A |
| a | g | a | g | a | g | a | g | a | g |
| c | r | c | r | c | r | c | r | c | r |
| t | i | t | i | t | i | t | i | t | i |
| o | c | o | c | o | c | o | c | o | c |
| r | u | r | u | r | u | r | u | r | u |
| y | l | y | l | y | l | y | l | y | l |Age of Mother
| . | t | . | t | . | t | . | t | . | t |
| 1 1 | | 24 to 25
| | |
| | | 26 " 27
| | |
| 6 6 | 4 1 2 | 28 " 29
| | |
| 12 15 | 2 5 2 1 | 30 " 31
| | |
| 21 25 | 9 5 1 2 | 32 " 33
| | |
| 14 18 | 12 9 5 3 1 | 34 " 35
| | |
| 15 25 | 12 10 4 5 5 2 | 36 " 37
| | |
| 14 22 | 10 15 6 7 2 1 | 38 " 39
| | |
| 7 11 | 3 9 7 7 2 1 | 40
| |Total within outline.
| 90 123 |Total between outline
| 52 54 24 25 7 9 1 |Total beyond outline.
| 90 123 52 54 24 25 7 9 1 |Total.


| | Number of Families | Number of Children |
| |--------+--------------+------------------------|
| | Factory| Agricultural | Factory | Agricultural |
| Within outline | 541 | 436 | 903 | 778 |
| Between outlines | 375 | 476 | 1233 | 1562 |
| Beyond outlines | 84 | 88 | 545 | 571 |
| Total | 1000 | 1000 | 2681 | 2911 |


[_Read at the Anthropological Institute_, Nov., 1882.]

I submit a simple apparatus that I have designed to measure the
delicacy of the sensitivity of different persons, as shown by their
skill in discriminating weights, identical in size, form, and colour,
but different in specific gravity. Its interest lies in the
accordance of the successive test values with the successive
graduations of a true scale of sensitivity, in the ease with which
the tests are applied, and the fact that the same principle can be
made use of in testing the delicacy of smell and taste.

I use test-weights that mount in a series of "just perceptible
differences" to an imaginary person of extreme delicacy of perception,
their values being calculated according to Weber's law. The lowest
weight is heavy enough to give a decided sense of weight to the hand
when handling it, and the heaviest weight can be handled without any
sense of fatigue. They therefore conform with close approximation to
a geometric series; thus--
_WR0, WR1, WR2, WR3_, etc.,
and they bear as register-marks the values of the successive indices,
0, 1, 2, 3, etc. It follows that if a person can just distinguish
between any particular pair of weights, he can also just distinguish
between any other pair of weights whose register-marks differ by the
same amount. Example: suppose A can just distinguish between the
weights bearing the register-marks 2 and 4, then it follows from the
construction of the apparatus that he can just distinguish between
those bearing the register-marks 1 and 3, or 3 and 5, or 4 and 6, etc.;
the difference being 2 in each case.

There can be but one interpretation of the phrase that the dulness
of muscular sense in any person, B, is twice as great as in that of
another person, A. It is that B is only capable of perceiving one
grade of difference where A can perceive two. We may, of course,
state the same fact inversely, and say that the delicacy of muscular
sense is in that case twice as great in A as in B. Similarly in all
other cases of the kind. Conversely, if having known nothing
previously about either A or B, we discover on trial that A can just
distinguish between two weights such as those bearing the
register-marks 5 and 7, and that B can just distinguish between
another pair, say, bearing the register-marks 2 and 6; then since
the difference between the marks in the latter case is twice as
great as in the former, we know that the dulness of the muscular
sense of B is exactly twice that of A. Their relative dulness, or if
we prefer to speak in inverse terms, and say their relative
sensitivity, is determined quite independently of the particular
pair of weights used in testing them.

It will be noted that the conversion of results obtained by the
use of one series of test-weights into what would have been given
by another series, is a piece of simple arithmetic, the fact
ultimately obtained by any apparatus of this kind being the "just
distinguishable" fraction of real weight. In my own apparatus the
unit of weight is 2 per cent.; that is, the register-mark 1 means 2
per cent.; but I introduce weights in the earlier part of the scale
that deal with half units; that is, with differences of 1 per cent.
In another apparatus the unit of weight might be 3 per cent., then
three grades of mine would be equal to two of the other, and mine
would be converted to that scale by multiplying them by 2/3. Thus
the results obtained by different apparatus are strictly comparable.

A sufficient number of test-weights must be used, or trials made, to
eliminate the influence of chance. It might perhaps be thought that
by using a series of only five weights, and requiring them to be
sorted into their proper order by the sense of touch alone, the
chance of accidental success would be too small to be worth
consideration. It might be said that there are 5 x 4 x 3 x 2, or 120
different ways in which five weights can be arranged, and as only
one is right, it must be 120 to 1 against a lucky hit. But this is
many fold too high an estimate, because the 119 possible mistakes
are by no means equally probable. When a person is tested, an
approximate value for his grade of sensitivity is rapidly found, and
the inquiry becomes narrowed to finding out whether he can surely
pass a particular mistake. He is little likely to make a mistake of
double the amount in question, and it is almost certain that he will
not make a mistake of treble the amount. In other words, he would
never be likely to put one of the test-weights more than one step
out of its proper place. If he had three weights to arrange in their
consecutive order, 1, 2, 3, there are 3x2 = 6 ways of arranging them;
of these, he would be liable to the errors of 1, 3, 2, and of 2, 1, 3,
but he would hardly be liable to such gross errors as 2, 3, 1, or 3,
2, 1, or 3, 1, 2. Therefore of the six permutations in which three
weights may be arranged three have to be dismissed from consideration,
leaving three cases only to be dealt with, of which two are wrong
and one is right. For the same reason there are only four reasonable
chances of error in arranging four weights, and only six in
arranging five weights, instead of the 119 that were originally
supposed. These are--

12354 13245 13254
21345 21354 21435

But exception might be taken to two even of these, namely, those
that appear in the third column, where 5 is found in juxtaposition
with 2 in the first case, and 4 with 1 in the second. So great a
difference between two adjacent weights would be almost sure to
attract the notice of the person who was being tested, and make him
dissatisfied with the arrangement. Considering all this, together
with the convenience of carriage and manipulation, I prefer to use
trays, each containing only three weights, the trials being made
three or four times in succession. In each trial there are three
possibilities and only one success, therefore in three trials the
probabilities against uniform success are as 27 to 1, and in four
trials at 81 to 1.

_Values of the Weights_.--After preparatory trials, I adopted 1000
grains as the value of _W_ and 1020 as that of _R_, but I am now
inclined to think that 1010 would have been better. I made the
weights by filling blank cartridges with shot, wool, and wads, so as
to distribute the weight equally, and I closed the cartridges with a
wad, turning the edges over it with the instrument well known to
sportsmen. I wrote the corresponding value of the index of _R_ on
the wad by which each of them was closed, to serve as a register
number. Thus the cartridge whose weight was _WR4_ was marked 4'. The
values were so selected that there should be as few varieties as
possible. There are thirty weights in all, but only ten varieties,
whose Register Numbers are respectively 0, 1, 2, 3, 3-1/2, 4-1/2, 5,
6, 7, 9, 12. The reason of this limitation of varieties was to
enable the weights to be interchanged whenever there became reason
to suspect that the eye had begun to recognise the appearance of any
one of them, and that the judgment might be influenced by that
recognition, and cease to be wholly guided by the sense of weight.

We are so accustomed to deal with concurrent impressions that it is
exceedingly difficult, even with the best intention of good faith,
to ignore the influence of any corroborative impression that may be
present. It is therefore right to take precautions against this
possible cause of inaccuracy. The most perfect way would be to drop
the weights, each in a little bag or sheath of light material, so
that the operatee could not see the weights, while the ratio between
the weights would not be sensibly changed by the additional weight
of the bags. I keep little bags for this purpose, inside the box
that holds the weights.

_Arrangement of the Weights_.--The weights are placed in sets of
threes, each set in a separate shallow tray, and the trays lie in
two rows in a box. Each tray bears the register-marks of each of the
weights it contains. It is also marked boldly with a Roman numeral
showing the difference between the register-marks of the adjacent
weights. This difference indicates the grade of sensitivity that the
weights in the tray are designed to test. Thus the tray containing
the weights _WR0_, _WR3_, _WR6_ is marked as in Fig. 1, and that
which contains _WR2_, _WR7_, _WR12_ is marked as in Fig. 2.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2.]

The following is the arrangement of the trays in the box. The
triplets they contain suffice for ordinary purposes.

| Just | | |
| perceptible | Grade of | Sequences |
| Ratio. | Sensitivity | of Weights |
| 1.020 | I. | 1, 2, 3 |
| 1.030 | I.1/2 | 2, 3-1/2, 5 |
| 1.040 | II. | 3, 5, 7 |
| 1.050 | II.1/2 | 2, 4-1/2, 7 |
| 1.061 | III. | 0, 3, 6 |
| 1.071 | III.1/2 | 0, 3-1/2, 7 |
| 1.082 | IV. | 1, 5, 9 |
| 1.082 | IV.1/2 | 0, 4-1/2, 9 |
| 1.104 | V. | 2, 5, 7 |
| 1.127 | VI. | 0, 6, 12 |

But it will be observed that sequences of 1/2 can also be obtained,
and again, that it is easy to select doublets of weights for coarser
tests, up to a maximum difference of XII., which may be useful in
cases of morbidly diminished sensitivity.

_Manipulation_.--A tray is taken out, the three weights that it
contains is shuffled by the operator who then passes them on to the
experimenter. The latter sits at ease with his hand in an
unconstrained position, and lifts the weights in turn between his
finger and thumb, the finger pressing against the top, the thumb
against the bottom of the cartridge. Guided by the touch alone, he
arranges them in the tray in what he conceives to be their proper
sequence; he then returns the tray to the operator, who notes the
result, the operator then reshuffles the weights and repeats the
trial. It is necessary to begin with coarse preparatory tests, to
accustom the operatee to the character of the work. After a minute
or two the operator may begin to record results, and the testing may
go for several minutes, until the hand begins to tire, the judgment
to be confused, and blunders to arise. Practice does not seem to
increase the delicacy of perception after the first few trials, so
much as might be expected.


The base of the inner tube of the whistle is the foremost end of a
plug, that admits of being advanced or withdrawn by screwing it out
or in; thus the depth of the inner tube of the whistle can be varied
at pleasure. The more nearly the plug is screwed home, the less is
the depth of the whistle and the more shrill does its note become,
until a point is reached at which, although the air that proceeds
from it vibrates as violently as before, as shown by its effect on a
sensitive flame, the note ceases to be audible.

The number of vibrations per second in the note of a whistle or
other "closed pipe" depends on its depth. The theory of acoustics
shows that the length of each complete vibration is four times that
of the depth of the closed pipe, and since experience proves that
all sound, whatever may be its pitch, is propagated at the same rate,
which under ordinary conditions of temperature and barometric
pressure may be taken at 1120 feet, or 13,440 inches per second,--it
follows that the number of vibrations in the note of a whistle may
be found by dividing 13,440 by four times the depth, measured in
inches, of the inner tube of the whistle. This rule, however,
supposes the vibrations of the air in the tube to be strictly
longitudinal, and ceases to apply when the depth of the tube is less
than about one and a half times its diameter. When the tube is
reduced to a shallow pan, a note may still be produced by it, but
that note has reference rather to the diameter of the whistle than
to its depth, being sometimes apparently unaltered by a further
decrease of depth. The necessity of preserving a fair proportion
between the diameter and the depth of a whistle is the reason why
these instruments, having necessarily little depth, require to be
made with very small bores.

The depth of the inner tube of the whistle at any moment is shown by
the graduations on the outside of the instrument. The lower portion
of the instrument as formerly made for me by the late Mr. Tisley,
optician, Brompton Road,[28] is a cap that surrounds the body of the
whistle, and is itself fixed to the screw that forms the plug. One
complete turn of the cap increases or diminishes the depth of the whistle,
by an amount equal to the interval between two adjacent threads of the
screw. For mechanical convenience, a screw is used whose pitch is 25 to
the inch; therefore one turn of the cap moves the plug one twenty-fifth
of an inch, or ten two-hundred-and-fiftieths. The edge of the cap is
divided into ten parts, each of which corresponds to the tenth of a
complete turn; and, therefore, to one two-hundred-and-fiftieth of an
inch. Hence in reading off the graduations the tens are shown on the
body of the whistle, and the units are shown on the edge of the cap.

The scale of the instrument having for its unit the two-hundred-and-
fiftieth part of an inch, it follows that the number of vibrations
in the note of the whistle is to be found by dividing (13440 x 250)/4
or 84,000, by the graduations read off on its scale.

A short table is annexed, giving the number of vibrations calculated
by this formula, for different depths, bearing in mind that the
earlier entries cannot be relied upon unless the whistle has a very
minute bore, and consequently a very feeble note.

| Scale Readings | Corresponding |
| (one division | Number of |
| = 1/250 | Vibrations |
| of an inch). | per Second |
| 10 | 84,000 |
| 15 | 56,000 |
| 20 | 42,000 |
| 25 | 33,600 |
| 30 | 28,000 |
| 35 | 24,000 |
| 40 | 21,000 |
| 45 | 28,666 |
| 50 | 16,800 |
| 55 | 15,273 |
| 60 | 14,000 |
| 65 | 12,923 |
| 70 | 12,000 |
| 75 | 11,200 |
| 80 | 10,500 |
| 85 | 9,882 |
| 90 | 9,333 |
| 95 | 8,842 |
| 100 | 8,400 |
| 105 | 8,000 |
| 110 | 7,591 |
| 115 | 7,305 |
| 120 | 7,000 |
| 125 | 6,720 |
| 130 | 6,461 |

[Footnote 28: Mr. Hawksley, surgical instrument maker 307 Oxford
Street also makes these.]

The largest whistles suitable for experiments on the human ear, have
an inner tube of about 0.16 inches in diameter, which is equal to 40
units of the scale. Consequently in these instruments the theory of
closed pipes ceases to be trustworthy when the depth of the whistle
is less than about 60 units. In short, we cannot be sure of sounding
with them a higher note than one of 14,000 vibrations to the second,
unless we use tubes of still smaller bore. In some of my experiments
I was driven to use very fine tubes indeed, not wider than those
little glass tubes that hold the smallest leads for Mordan's pencils.
I have tried without much success to produce a note that should be
both shrill and powerful, and correspond to a battery of small
whistles, by flattening a piece of brass tube, and passing another
sheet of brass up it, and thus forming a whistle the whole width of
the sheet, but of very small diameter from front to back. It made a
powerful note, but not a very pure one. I also constructed an
annular whistle by means of three cylinders, one sliding within the
other two, and graduated as before.

When the limits of audibility are approached, the sound becomes much
fainter, and when that limit is reached, the sound usually gives
place to a peculiar sensation, which is not sound but more like
dizziness, and which some persons experience to a high degree. Young
people hear shriller sounds than older people, and I am told there
is a proverb in Dorsetshire, that no agricultural labourer who is
more than forty years old, can hear a bat squeak. The power of
hearing shrill notes has nothing to do with sharpness of hearing,
any more than a wide range of the key-board of a piano has to do
with the sound of the individual strings. We all have our limits,
and that limit may be quickly found by these whistles in every case.
The facility of hearing shrill sounds depends in some degree on the
position of the whistle, for it is highest when it is held exactly
opposite the opening of the ear. Any roughness of the lining of the
auditory canal appears to have a marked effect in checking the
transmission of rapid vibrations when they strike the ear obliquely.
I myself feel this in a marked degree, and I have long noted the
fact in respect to the buzz of a mosquito. I do not hear the
mosquito much as it flies about, but when it passes close by my ear
I hear a "ping," the suddenness of which is very striking. Mr. Dalby,
the aurist, to whom I gave one of these instruments, tells me he
uses it for diagnoses. When the power of hearing high notes is
wholly lost, the loss is commonly owing to failure in the nerves,
but when very deaf people are still able to hear high notes if they
are sounded with force, the nerves are usually all right, and the
fault lies in the lining of the auditory canal.


The Questions that I circulated were as follows; there was an
earlier and uncomplete form, which I need not reproduce here.

The object of these Questions is to elicit the degree in which
different persons possess the power of seeing images in their mind's
eye, and of reviving past sensations.

From inquiries I have already made, it appears that remarkable
variations exist both in the strength and in the quality of these
faculties, and it is highly probable that a statistical inquiry into
them will throw light upon more than one psychological problem.

Before addressing yourself to any of the Questions on the opposite
page, think of some definite object--suppose it is your
breakfast-table as you sat down to it this morning--and consider
carefully the picture that rises before your mind's eye.

1. _Illumination_.--Is the image dim or fairly clear? Is its
brightness comparable to that of the actual scene?

2. _Definition_.--Are all the objects pretty well defined at the
same time, or is the place of sharpest definition at any one moment
more contracted than it is in a real scene?

3. _Colouring_.--Are the colours of the china, of the toast, bread
crust, mustard, meat, parsley, or whatever may have been on the table,
quite distinct and natural?

4. _Extent of field of view_.--Call up the image of some panoramic
view (the walls of your room might suffice), can you force yourself
to see mentally a wider range of it than could be taken in by any
single glance of the eyes? Can you mentally see more than three
faces of a die, or more than one hemisphere of a globe at the same
instant of time?

5. _Distance of images_.--Where do mental images appear to be
situated? within the head, within the eye-ball, just in front of the
eyes, or at a distance corresponding to reality? Can you project
an image upon a piece of paper?

6. _Command over images_.--Can you retain a mental picture steadily
before the eyes? When you do so, does it grow brighter or dimmer?
When the act of retaining it becomes wearisome, in what part of the
head or eye-ball is the fatigue felt?

7. _Persons_.--Can you recall with distinctness the features of all
near relations and many other persons? Can you at will cause your
mental image of any or most of them to sit, stand, or turn slowly
round? Can you deliberately seat the image of a well-known person
in a chair and see it with enough distinctness to enable you to
sketch it leisurely (supposing yourself able to draw)?

8. _Scenery_.--Do you preserve the recollection of scenery with much
precision of detail, and do you find pleasure in dwelling on it? Can
you easily form mental pictures from the descriptions of scenery
that are so frequently met with in novels and books of travel?

9. _Comparison with reality_.--What difference do you perceive
between a very vivid mental picture called up in the dark, and a
real scene? Have you ever mistaken a mental image for a reality when
in health and wide awake?

10. _Numerals and dates_.--Are these invariably associated in your
mind with any peculiar mental imagery, whether of written or printed
figures, diagrams, or colours? If so, explain fully, and say if you
can account for the association?

11.--_Specialities_.--If you happen to have special aptitudes for
mechanics, mathematics (either geometry of three dimensions or pure
analysis), mental arithmetic, or chess-playing blindfold, please
explain fully how far your processes depend on the use of visual
images, and how far otherwise?

12. Call up before your imagination the objects specified in the six
following paragraphs, numbered A to F, and consider carefully
whether your mental representation of them generally, is in each
group very faint, faint, fair, good, or vivid and comparable to the
actual sensation:--

A. _Light and colour_.--An evenly clouded sky (omitting all landscape),
first bright, then gloomy. A thick surrounding haze, first white,
then successively blue, yellow, green, and red.

B. _Sound_.--The beat of rain against the window panes, the crack of
a whip, a church bell, the hum of bees, the whistle of a railway,
the clinking of tea-spoons and saucers, the slam of a door.

C. _Smells_.--Tar, roses, an oil-lamp blown out, hay, violets, a fur
coat, gas, tobacco.

D. _Tastes_.--Salt, sugar, lemon juice, raisins, chocolate,
currant jelly.

E. _Touch_.--Velvet, silk, soap, gum, sand, dough, a crisp dead leaf,
the prick of a pin.

F. _Other sensations_.--Heat, hunger, cold, thirst, fatigue, fever,
drowsiness, a bad cold.

13. _Music_.--Have you any aptitude for mentally recalling music, or
for imagining it?

14. _At different ages_.--Do you recollect what your powers of
visualising, etc., were in childhood? Have they varied much within
your recollection?

_General remarks_.--Supplementary information written here, or on
a separate piece of paper, will be acceptable.


_For an analysis of the several chapters, see Table of Contents._

Abbadie, A. d'
About, E.
Abstract ideas,
like composite portraits;
are formed with difficulty
Admiralty, records of lives of sailors
captive animals;
races of men
_Alert_, H.M.S.,
the crew of
Alexander the Great,
medals of;
his help to Aristotle
captive animals;
change of population
Animals and birds,
their attachments and aversions
anthropometric committee;
Appold, Mr.
their migrations
his menagerie
(_see also_ Psychometric experiments)
captive animals
Athletic feats in present and past generations
Augive, or ogive
Austin, A.L.
tame kites;
change of population
Automatic thought

Barclay, Capt.,
of Uri
Barth, Dr.
Bates, W.H.
Baume, Dr.
Belief (_ie_ Faith)
Bevington, Miss L.
Bible, family
Bidder, G.
Blackburne, Mr.
Blake, the artist
Bleuler and Lehman
Blind, the
Blood, terror at
Boisbaudran, Lecoq de
Breaking out (violent passion)
Brierre de Boismont
Bruhl, Prof.
Burton, Capt.
their skill in drawing;
in Damara Land

Campbell, J. (of Islay)
Candidates, selection of
Captive Animals (_see_ Domestication of Animals)
Cats can hear very shrill notes
their terror at blood;
gregariousness of;
renders them easy to tend;
cow guarding her newly-born calf;
cattle highly prized by Damaras
Celibacy as a religious exercise;
effect of endowments upon;
to prevent continuance of an inferior race
Centesimal grades
Chance, influence of, in test experiments
Change, love of, characteristic of civilised man
observations on at schools;
changing phases of
Charterhouse College
Cheltenham College
Chess, played blindfold
mental imagery;
effect of illness on growth of head;
moral impressions on;
they and their parents understand each other;
can hear shrill notes
Chinese, the
Clock face, origin of some Number-Forms
Colleges, celibacy of Fellows of
(_see_ also chap. on Visionaries);
colour blindness
Comfort, love of, a condition of domesticability
Competitive examinations
also Memoirs I., II., and III. in Appendix
Composite origin of some visions;
of ideas;
of memories
defective in criminals;
its origin
(_see_ Antechamber of);
ignorance of its relation to the unconscious lives of cells of organism;
its limited ken
Consumption, types of features connected with
Cooper, Miss

criminals, their features;
their peculiarities of character;
their children

Cromwell's soldiers


colour blindness
was a Quaker

their grade of sensitivity;
their wild cattle and gregariousness;
their pride in them;
races of men in Damara Land


Darwin, Charles,
impulse given by him to new lines of thought;
on conscience;
notes on twins;
letter of Mr. A. L. Austin forwarded by

Darwin, Lieut., R.E.,
photographs of Royal Engineers


Death, fear of; its orderly occurrence;
death and reproduction of
cells, and their unknown relation to

Despine, Prosper

Difference, verbal difficulty in defining
many grades of

Discipline, ascetic

_Discovery_, H.M.S., the crew of

Discrimination of weights by handling
them, etc.

Dividualism; also

Doctrines, diversity of

Dogs, their capacity for hearing shrill



Du Cane, Sir E.

Duncan, Dr. Mathews





Editors of newspapers

Egg, raw and boiled, when spun

Egypt, captive animals

Ellis, Rev. Mr. (Polynesia)

Emigrants, value of their breed;
migration of barbarian races



Engineers, Royal, features of

English race, change of type; colour
of hair; one direction in which
it might be improved; change
of stature; various components of


Epileptic constitution

Eskimo, faculty of drawing and map-making

Eugenic, definition of the word

Events, observed order of

Evolution, its effects are always behind-hand;
its slow progress; man
should deliberately further it

Exiles, families of

Experiments, psychometric

FACES seen in the fire, on wall paper, etc.,


Family likenesses; records; merit,
marks for

Fashion, changes of

Fasting, visions caused by;
fasting girls


Fellows of colleges

Fertility at different ages; is small
in highly-bred animals


First Cause, an enigma

Flame, sensitive, and high notes

Fleas are healthful stimuli to animals

Fluency of language and ideas

Forest clearing

Forms in which numerals are seen (_see_
Number-Forms); months; letters;

Foxes, preservation of

France, political persecution in

French, the, imaginative faculty of

Friends, the Society of (_see_ Quakers)


Generations, length of and effect in population;
in town and country

Generic images; theory of

Geometric series of test-objects; geometric mean

Gerard, Jules


Gibbon, amphitheatrical shows

Goethe and his visualised rose


Goodwin, Mr.

Grades, deficiency of in language;

Graham, Dr., on idiots (note)

gregariousness of cattle;
gregarious animals quickly learn from
one another

Gull, Sir W., on vigour of members of
large families; on medical life-histories

Guy's Hospital Reports (consumptive


HAIR, colour of

Hall, Capt.

Hallucinations, cases of; origin of;
of great men

Handwriting; of twins

Hanwell Asylum, lunatics when at exercise

Hatherley, Lord
Haweis, Mrs.,
words and faces;
Head measured for curve of growth
Hearne (N. America)
Height, comparative, of present and past
Henslow, Rev. G.,
Heredity, the family tie;
of colour blindness in Quakers;
of criminality;
of faculty of visualising;
of seeing Number-Forms;
of colour associations with sound;
of seership;
of enthusiasm;
of character and its help in the teaching
of children by their parents;
that of a good stock is a valuable patrimony,
Hershon, Mr., the Talmud,
Hill, Rev. A.D.,
Hippocrates and snake symbol,
History of twins,
Holland, F.M.,
Hottentots, keenness of sight,
(_see_ Bushmen)
Human Nature, variety of,
Humanity of the future, power of present
generation of men upon it,
Hutchinson, Mr.,
Huxley, Professor,
on sucking pigs in New Guinea;
generic images,

Idiots, deficient in energy; in sensitivity,
Illness, permanent effect on growth,
Illumination, method of regulating it
when making composites;
requires to be controlled,
Illusions, (_see_ also Hallucinations, cases of)
Imagery, mental,
Indian Civil Service, candidates for,
Individuality, doubt of among the insane,
among the sane,
Influence of Man upon race,
Insane, the,
similar forms of it in twins,
Inspiration analogous to ordinary fluency,
morbid forms of,
Instincts, variety of,
slavish (_see_ chapter on Gregarious and
Slavish Instincts)
Intellectual differences,

Jesuits in S. America,
Jukes, criminal family,

Kensington Gardens, the promenaders in,
Key, Dr. J.,
Kingsley, Miss R.,
Kirk, Sir John,

Laboratories, anthropometric,
Larden, W.,
Legros, Prof.,
Lehman and Bleuler, (note)
Letters, association of colour with,
Lewis, G.H.,
Lewis, Miss,
Life-histories, their importance,
Livingstone, Dr.,
Longevity of families,

Macalister, Dr.,
M'Leod, Prof. H.,
Madness (_see_ Insanity)
Mahomed, Dr.,
marriage portions,
Man, his influence upon race,
Mann, Dr.,
Marks for family merit,
Marlborough College,
early and late,
with persons of good race;
marriage portions;
of Fellows of Colleges;
promotion of,
Medians and quartiles,
physiological basis of;
confusion of separate memories,
Mental imagery,
Meredith, Mrs.,
Milk offered by she-goats and wolves to children,
Moors, migrations of the,
Moreau, Dr. J. (of Tours),
Morphy, P.,
Muscular and accompanying senses, tests of,
small fear of death;
things clean and unclean,

Namaquas in Damara Land,
(_see_ also Bushmen)
Napoleon I.,
views in connection with the
faculty of visualising;
his star,
Nature (_see_ Nurture and Nature)
Negro displaced by Berbers;
by Bushmen;
exported as slaves;
replaceable by Chinese,
Nervous irritability, as distinct from sensitivity,
New Guinea,
Nicholson, Sir C.,
Notes, audibility of very shrill,
Nourse, Prof. J.E.,
Numerals, their nomenclature;
characters assigned to them;
Nurture and nature;
history of twins,
Nussbaumer, brothers,

Observed order of events,
Ogive (statistical curve)

Osborn, Mr.
Osten Sacken, Baron v.
Oswell, Mr.
Oxen (_see_ Cattle)

Parkyns, Mansfield
Peculiarities, unconsciousness of
Persecution, its effect on the character of races
Peru, captive animals in
Pet animals
Petrie, Flinders
Photographic composites (_see_ Composite Portraiture);
summed effect of a thousand brief exposures;
order of exposure is indifferent
Phthisis, typical features of
Piety, morbid forms of, in the epileptic and insane;
in the hysterical
Polynesia, pet eels
Ponies, their capacity for hearing shrill notes
Poole, R. Stuart
Poole, W.H.
population in town and country;
changes of;
decays of;
effects of early marriages on
Portraits, composite (_see_ Composite Portraiture);
number of elements in a portrait;
the National Portrait Gallery
Prejudices instilled by doctrinal teachers;
affect the judgments of able men
Presence-chamber in mind
Pricker for statistical records
Princeton College, U.S.
Prisms, double image
Proudfoot, Mr.
Psychometric experiments

Quakers, frequency of colour blindness
Questions on visualising and other allied faculties

Race and Selection;
influence of man upon;
variety and number of races in different countries;
sexual apathy of decaying races;
signs of superior race;
pride in being of good race
Races established to discover the best horses to breed from
Rapp, General
Rapture, religious
Rayleigh, Lord, sensitive flame and high notes
Reindeer, difficulty of taming
Republic of self-reliant men;
of life generally;
Revivals, religious
Richardson, Sir John
Roberts, C. (note)
Roget, J.
Rome, wild animals captured for use of
Rosiere, marriage portion to

Sailors, keenness of eyesight tested;
admiralty life-histories of
_St. James's Gazette_ (Phantasmagoria)
Savages, eyesight of
Schools, biographical notes at;
opportunities of masters;
observation of characters at
Schuster, Prof.
Seal in pond, a simile;
captured and tamed
Seemann, Dr.
Seers (_see_ chapter on Visionaries);
heredity of
Segregation, passionate terror at among cattle
Selection and race
Self, becoming less personal
Sentiments, early
Sequence of test weights
Serpent worship
Servility (_see_ Gregarious and Slavish Instincts);
its romantic side
Sexual differences in sensitivity;
in character;
apathy in highly-bred animals
Siberia, change of population in
Slavishness (_see_ Gregarious and Slavish Instincts)
Smith, B. Woodd;
curious Number-Form communicated by
Smythe, G.F.
Snakes, horror of some persons at;
antipathy to, not common among mankind
Socrates and his catalepsy
Sound, association of colour with
Space and time
Spain, the races in
Speke, Capt.
Spencer, H., blended outlines
Spiritual sense, the
Stars of great men
Statistical methods;
statistical constancy;
that of republics of self-reliant men;
statistics of mental imagery;
pictorial statistics
Stature of the English
Steinitz, Mr.
Stones, Miss
Stow, Mr.
Suna, his menagerie

Talbot Fox
Talmud, frequency of the different numerals in
Tameness, learned when young;
tame cattle preserved to breed from
Tastes, changes in
Terror at snakes;
at blood;
is easily taught
Test objects, weights, etc.
Time and space
Town and country population
Trousseau, Dr.
Turner, the painter
Twins, the history of
Typical centre

Unclean, the, and the clean
Unconcsciousness of peculiarities;
in visionaries

Variety of human nature
visionary families and races

Watches, magnetised
Welch, Mrs. Kempe
West Indies, change, of population in
Wheel and barrel
Whistles for audibility of shrill notes
Wildness taught young
Wilkes, Capt.
Winchester College
Wollaston, Dr.
Wolves, children suckled by
Women, relative sensitivity of;
coyness and caprice;
visualising faculty
Woodfield, Mr. (Australia)
Words, visualised pictures associated with
Workers, solitary

Young, Dr.
Yule, Colonel

Zebras, hard to tame
Zoological Gardens, whistles tried at;
snakes fed;
seal at
Zukertort, Mr.

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