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Initiation into Literature by Emile Faguet

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THE MIDDLE AGES.--Russia possessed a literature even in the Middle Ages.
In the eleventh century the metropolitan Hilarion wrote a discourse on
the Old and the New Testament. In the twelfth century, the _Chronicle_
that is said to be by _Nestor_ is the first historical monument of
Russia. At the same period Vladimir Monomaque, Prince of Kief, who
devoted his life to fighting with all his neighbours, left his son an
autobiographic _instruction_, which is very interesting for the light it
throws on the events and, especially, on the customs of his day. At the
same time the hegumen (abbot) Daniel left an account of his pilgrimage to
the Holy Land. In the thirteenth century (probably) another Daniel,
Daniel the prisoner, wrote from his distant place of exile to his prince
a supplicatory letter, which is astonishing because in it is found a
remarkable and wholly unexpected degree of literary talent. In the
thirteenth or fourteenth century two epic pieces, _The Lay of the Battle
of Igor_ and _The Zadonstchina_, of which it is uncertain which imitated
the other, alike present vigorous and vivid accounts of battles. In the
fifteenth or sixteenth century there is a didactic work, _The Domostroi_,
which is a moral treatise, a handbook of domestic economy, a manual of
gardening, and a cookery book, etc. The Tzar Ivan the Terrible (sixteenth
century) was a dexterous diplomatist and a precise, nervous, and ironical
writer. He left highly curious letters.

RENAISSANCE.--Kutochikine (seventeenth century), who was minister in his
own land, then disgraced and exiled in Sweden, wrote an extremely
interesting book on the habits of his contemporaries. The "Renaissance,"
if it may be so termed, that is, the contact between the Russian spirit
and Western genius, occurred in the eighteenth century. Prince Kantemir,
Russian ambassador in London, who knew Montesquieu, Maupertuis, the Abbe
Guasco, etc., wrote satires in the manner of Horace and of Boileau.
Trediakowski took on himself to compose a very tedious _Telemachidus_,
but he knew how to unravel the laws of Russian metre and to write odes
which at least were indicative of the right direction.

LOMONOSOV.--Lomonosov is regarded as the real father of Russian
literature, as the Peter the Great of literature--a great man withal,
engineer, chemist, professor, grammarian. Regarding him solely as a
literary man, he made felicitous essays in tragedy, lyrical poetry, epic
poetry, polished the Russian versification, established its grammar, and
imparted a powerful impulse in a multitude of directions.

CREATION OF THE DRAMA.--Soumarokoff founded the Russian drama. He was
manager of the first theatre opened in St. Petersburg (1756). In the
French vein he wrote tragedies, comedies, fables, satires, and epigrams.
He corresponded with Voltaire. The latter wrote to him in 1769: "Sir,
your letter and your works are a great proof that genius and taste
pertain to all lands. Those who said that poetry and music belonged only
to temperate climates were deeply in error. If climate were so potent,
Greece would still produce Platos and Anacreons, just as she produces the
same fruits and flowers; Italy would have Horaces, Virgils, Ariostos, and
Tassos.... The sovereigns who love the arts change the climates; they
cause roses to bud in the midst of snows. That is what your incomparable
monarch has done. I could believe that the letters with which she has
honoured me came from Versailles and yours from one of my colleagues in
the Academy.... Over me you possess one prodigious advantage: I do not
know a word of your language and you are completely master of
mine.... Yes, I regard Racine as the best of our tragic poets.... He is
the only one who has treated love tragically; for before him Corneille
had only expressed that passion well in _The Cid_, and _The Cid_ is not
his. Love is ridiculous or insipid in nearly all his other works. I think
as you do about Quinault; he is a great man in his own way. He would not
have written the _Art of Poetry_, but Boileau would not have written
_Armida_. I entirely agree with what you write about Moliere and of the
tearful comedy which, to the national disgrace, has succeeded to the only
real comic type brought to perfection by the inimitable Moliere. Since
Regnard, who was endowed with a truly comic genius and who alone came
near Moliere, we have only had monstrosities.... That, sir, is the
profession of faith you have asked of me." This letter is quoted, despite
its errors, because it forms, as it were, _a preface to Russian
literature_, and also a patent of nobility granted to this literature.

CATHERINE II.--The Empress wrote _in Russian_ advice as to the education
of her grandson, very piquant comedies, and review articles. Von Vizin, a
comic author, was the first to look around and to depict the custom of
his country, which means that he was the earliest humorous national
writer. The classic works of Von Vizin were _The Brigadier_ and _The
Minor_. Whilst pictures of contemporaneous manners, they were also
pleadings in favour of a reformed Russia against the Russia that existed
before Peter the Great, which still in part subsisted, as was only
natural. He made a journey to France and it will be seen from his
correspondence that he brought back a highly flattering impression.

RADISTCHEF.--Radistchef was the first Russian political writer. Under
the pretext of a _Voyage from Petersburg to Moscow_, he attacked serfdom,
absolute government, even religion, for which he was condemned to death
and exiled to Siberia. He was pardoned later on by Paul I, but soon after
committed suicide. He was verbose, but often really eloquent.

ORATORS AND POETS.--The preacher Platon, whose real name was Levchine,
was an orator full of sincerity, unction, and sometimes of real power. He
was religious tutor to the hereditary Grand Duke, son of Catherine II.
Another preacher, and his successor at the siege of Moscow, Vinogradsky,
was likewise a really great orator. It was he who, after the French
retreat from Russia, delivered the funeral oration on the soldiers killed
at Borodino. Ozerov was a classical tragedy writer after the manner of
Voltaire, and somewhat hampered thereby. Batiouchkov, although he lived
right into the middle of the nineteenth century, is already a classic. He
venerated and imitated the writers of antiquity; he was a devout admirer
of Tibullus, and wrote elegies which are quite exquisite. Krylov was a
fabulist: a dexterous delineator of animals and a delicate humourist.
Frenchmen and Italians have been alike fascinated by him, and his works
have often been translated; until the middle of the nineteenth century he
enjoyed European popularity.

THE GOLDEN AGE: PUSHKIN.--The true Russian nineteenth century and its
golden age must be dated from Pushkin. He wrote from his earliest youth.
He was an epic poet, novelist, and historian. His principal poems were
_Ruslan and Liudmila_, _Eugene Onegin_, _Poltava_; his most remarkable
historical essay was _The Revolt of Pugachev_. He possessed a fertile and
vigorous imagination, which he developed by continual and enthusiastic
study of Byron. He did not live long enough either for his own fame or
for the welfare of Russian literature, being killed in a duel at the age
of thirty-eight. Merimee translated much by Pushkin. The French lyric
stage has mounted one of his most delicate inspirations, _La Rousalka_
(the water nymph). He was quite conscious of his own genius and, freely
imitating the _Exegi monumentum_ of Horace, as will be seen, he wrote: "I
have raised to myself a monument which no human hand has constructed....
I shall not entirely perish ... the sound of my name shall permeate
through vast Russia.... For long I shall be dear to my race because my
lyre has uttered good sentiments, because, in a brutal age, I have
vaunted liberty and preached love for the down-trodden. Oh, my Muse, heed
the commands of God, fear not offence, claim no crown; receive with equal
indifference eulogy and calumny, but never dispute with fools."

LERMONTOV.--Lermontov was not inferior to his friend Pushkin, whom he
closely resembled. Like him he drew inspiration from the romantic poets
of the West. He loved the East, and his short, glorious suggestions came
to him from the Caucasus. Among his finest poetic works may be cited _The
Novice Ismael Bey_, _The Demon_, _The Song of the Tzar Ivan_. He wrote a
novel, perhaps autobiographical, entitled _A Hero of Our Own Time_, the
hero of which is painted in highly Byronic colours.

GOGOL.--Russian taste was already veering to the epic novel or epopee in
prose, of which Gogol was the most illustrious representative until
Tolstoy. He was highly gifted. In him the feeling for Nature was acutely
active, and recalling his descriptions of the plains of the Crimea, its
rivers and steppes, he must be regarded as the Rousseau and Chateaubriand
of Russia. Further, he was a close student of village habits, and a
painter in astonishing hues. He eminently possessed the sense of epic
grandeur, and added a sarcastic vein of delightful irony. His _Taras
Bulba_, _King of the Dwarfs_, _History of a Fool_, and _Dead Souls_, have
the force of arresting realism, his _Revisor_ (inspector of finances) is
a caustic comedy which has been a classic not only in Russia but in
France, where it was introduced in translation by Merimee.

TURGENEV.--Turgenev, less epical than Gogol, was also studious of local
habits and dexterous in describing them. He began with exquisite
_Huntsman's Tales_ impregnated with truth and precision, as well as
intimate and picturesque details; then he extended his scope and wrote
novels, but never at great length, and therefore suited to the exigencies
or habits of Western Europe (such as _Smoke_). He had selected Paris as
his abode, and he mixed with the greatest thinkers of the day: Taine,
Flaubert, Edmond About. In the eyes of his fellow-countrymen he became
ultimately too Western and too Parisian. His was a delicate, sensitive
soul, prone to melancholy and perpetually dreaming. He had a cult of form
in which he went so far as to make it a sort of scruple and superstition.

TOLSTOY.--Tolstoy, so recently dead, was a great epic poet in prose, a
very powerful and affecting novelist, and in some measure an apostle. He
began with _Boyhood Adolescence and Youth_, in itself very curious and
particularly valuable because of the idea it conveys of the life of the
lords of the Russian soil, and for its explanation of the formation of
the soul and genius of Tolstoy; then came _The Cossacks_, full of
magnificent descriptions of the Caucasus and of interesting scenes of
military and rural life; subsequently that masterpiece of Tolstoy's, _War
and Peace_, narratives dealing with the war of Napoleon with Russia and
of the subsequent period of peaceful and healthy rural life. It is
impossible to adequately admire the power of narration and descriptive
force, the fertility of incidents, characterisations, and dramatic
moments, the art or rather the gift of portraiture, and finally, the
grandeur and moral elevation, in fact, all the qualities, not one of
which he appeared to lack, of which Tolstoy gave proof and which he
displayed in this immense history of the Russian soul at the commencement
of the nineteenth century; for it is thus that it is meet to qualify this
noble creation. The only analogy is with _Les Miserables_ of Victor Hugo,
and it must be admitted that despite its incomparable merits, the French
work is the more unequal. _Anna Karenina_ is only a novel in the vein of
French novels, but very profound and remarkable for its analysis of
character and also impassioned and affecting, besides having considerable
moral range. _The Kreutzer_ Sonata_ is a romance rather than a novel, but
cruelly beautiful because it exposes with singular clairvoyance the
misery of a soul impotent for happiness. _Resurrection_ shows that
mournful and impassioned pity felt by Tolstoy for the humble and the
"fallen," to use the phrase of Pushkin; it realises a lofty dramatic
beauty. Tolstoy, in a thousand pamphlets or brief works, preached to his
own people and to mankind the strict morality of Christ, charity,
renunciation, peace at all price, without taking into account the
necessities of social life; and he denounced, as had Jean Jacques
Rousseau, the culpability of art and literature, being resigned to
recognising his own works as condemnable. His was the soul of an exalted
poet and a lofty poetical mind; from a poet must not be demanded
practical common sense or that feeling for reality which is demanded,
often unavailingly, from a statesman.

DOSTOEVSKY.--Dostoevsky, with a tragic genius as great as that of
Tolstoy, may be said to have been more restricted because he exclusively
delineated the unhappy, the miserable, and those defeated in life. He
knew them personally because, after being arrested in 1849 at the age of
fifty for the crime of belonging to a secret society, he spent years in
the convict prisons of Siberia. Those miseries he describes in the most
exact terms and with heart-rending eloquence in _Buried Alive: Ten Years
in Siberia_, and in the remarkable novel entitled _Crime and Punishment_.
He has lent invaluable aid in the propagation of two sentiments which
have created some stir in the West and which, assuredly, we desire to
foster: namely, "the religion of human suffering" and the cult of
"expiation."

CHAPTER XXI

POLISH LITERATURE

At an Early Date Western Influence sufficiently Potent. Sixteenth Century
Brilliant; Seventeenth and Eighteenth centuries highly Cultured;
Nineteenth Century Notably Original.

WESTERN INFLUENCE--Widely different from Russian literature, much more
Western, based more on Greek and Latin culture, Polish literature holds
high rank in the histories of European literature. Christians from the
tenth century, the Poles knew from this epoch religious songs written by
monks, in the vulgar tongue. To this is due the possession of the
_Bogarodzica_, a religious and bellicose song dedicated to the Virgin
mother of God, which is even now comprehensible, so little has the Polish
language changed. All through the Middle Ages, literary historians can
only find chronicles written sometimes in Latin, sometimes in the native
language. Under the influence of the universities, and also of the
parliamentary rule, the language acquired alike more consistency and more
authority in the fifteenth century, whilst the sixteenth was the golden
literary epoch of the Poles. There were poets, and even great poets, as
well as orators and historians. Such was Kochanowski, very much a
Western, who lived some time in Italy, also seven years in France, and
was a friend of Ronsard. His writings were epical, lyrical, tragical,
satirical, and especially elegiacal. He is a classic in Poland.
Grochowski left a volume of diversified poems, hymns on various texts of
Thomas a Kempis, _The Nights_ of Thorn, etc. Martin Bielski, who was an
historian too, but in Latin, left two political satires on the condition
of Poland, and his son Joachim wrote a history of his native land in
Polish.

SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH CENTURIES.--Though somewhat less brilliant
than the preceding, the period of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
is not unfavourable to Poland. Then may be enumerated the satirical
Opalinski, the lyrical Kochanowski, the dramatist Bogulawski, manager of
the theatre at Warsaw, who not only translated plays from the French,
English, and Spanish, but himself wrote several comedies, of which _The
Lover, Author, and Servant_ has remained the most celebrated. Rzewuski
was a dramatic author with such national plays as _Wladislas at Varna_
and _Zolkewishi_, and comedies as _The Vexations_ and _The Capricious_,
and he also was historian, orator, literary critic, and theorist.

Potocki was a literary and theoretical critic and founder of a sort of
Polish academy (society for the perfection of the tongue and of style).
Prince Czartoryski showed himself an excellent moralist in his _Letters
to Doswiadryski_. Niemcewicz extended his great literary talent into a
mass of diversified efforts. He wrote odes held in esteem, tragedies,
comedies, fables, and tales, historical novels, and he translated the
poems of Pope and the _Athalie_ of Racine.

LITERARY RENAISSANCE.--Losing her national independence, Poland
experienced a veritable literary renaissance, which offered but slender
compensation. She applied herself to explore her origins, to regain the
ancient spirit, and to live nationally in her literature. Hence her great
works of patriotic erudition. Czacki with his _Laws of Poland and of
Lithuania_, Kollontay with his _Essay on the Heredity of the Throne of
Poland_, and his _Letters of an Anonymous to Stanislas Malachowski_,
etc., Bentkowski with his _History of Polish Literature_ and his
_Introduction to General Literature_, etc. Thence came the revival of
imaginative literature, Felinski, on the one hand translator of
Crebillon, Delille and Alfieri on the other, he was the personally
distinguished author of the drama _Barbe Radzivill_; Bernatowicz, author
of highly remarkable historical novels, among which _Poiata_ gives a
picture of the triumph of Christianity in Lithuania in the fourteenth
century; Karpinski, dramatist, author of _Judith_, a tragedy;
_Alcestis_, an opera; _Cens_, a comedy, etc.; Mickiewicz, scholar, poet,
and novelist, who, exiled from his own land, was professor of literature
at Lausanne, then in Paris, at the College of France, extremely popular
in France, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy, the friend of Goethe,
Lamennais, Cousin, Michelet, and of all the French youth. He was the
author of fine poems, of a great historical novel, _Conrade
Vattenrod_, of _The People and the Polish Pilgrims_, of a _Lesson on the
Slav States_.

MODERN EPOCH.--At the time of writing, Poland continues to be a literary
nation well worthy of attention. She presents an example to the races
which incur the risk of perishing as nations because of their political
incapacity; by preserving their tongue and by sanctifying it with a
worthy literature they guard their country and, like the Greeks and
Italians, hope to reconquer it some day through the sudden turns of
fortune shown in history.

INDEX OP NAMES CITED

A

About
Addison
Aeschines
Aeschylus
Aesop
Aicard
Alarcon
Alcasus
Alcamo, Ciullo of
Aleman
Alexander
Alfieri
Alphonso X
Alphonso XI
Alvarez
Ambrose, St.
Amyot
Anacreon
Anaxagoras
Andocides
Anne, Queen
Annunzio, Gabriel d'
Antiphon
Antonina
Antonius Diogenes
Apollonius
Appian
Apuleius
Aratus
Arcadius
Archilochus
Aretino
Ariosto
Aristophanes
Aristotle
Arnauld
Arrian
Asclepiades
Athanasius, St.
Attius
Aubigne, Agrippa d'
Augier
Augustine, St.
Augustus
Aulard
Aurispa
Ausonius
Avienus

B

Babrius
Bacon, Francis
Baldi
Balzac, G. de
Balzac, H. de
Bandello
Banville, T. de
Barnave
Barthari
Basil, S.
Bataille
Batiouchkov
Baudelaire
Bayle
Bazin
Beaumarchais
Beaumont
Beccaria
Belisarius
Bellay, Joachim du
Belleau
Bembo
Benserade
Bentkowski
Beranger
Bergerac, Cyrano de
Bergson
Bernard, Tristan
Bernardes
Bernatowicz
Berni
Bernstein
Bertaut
Bielski, Joachim
Bielski, Martin
Bion
Boccaccio
Bodmer
Boetie, La
Bogulawski
Boileau
Bojardo
Bordeaux
Bordello
Bossuet
Bourdaloue
Bourget
Boutroux
Boylesve
Brantome
Brieux
Bronte, C.
Bronte, E.
Browning, E. B.
Browning, Robert
Brueys, de
Brunetiere
Brunetto
Buddha
Buffon
Bulwer-Lytton
Bunyan
Buerger
Burgundy, Duke of
Burns
Burton, Robert
Byron

C

Caballero
Caesar, Julius
Calderon
Callimachus
Callinos
Calvin
Caminha
Camoens
Campistron
Campoamor
Candamo
Canizares
Carducci
Carlyle
Caro
Cassini
Cassius
Castelar
Castro
Catherine of Russia
Cato
Catullus
Cellini, Benvenuto
Cephalon
Cervantes
Charles of Orleans
Charles II
Charles V
Chateaubriand
Chatterton
Chaucer
Chenier, Andre
Chenier, Marie-Joseph
Chrysippus
Chrysostom
Cicero
Claudian
Cleanthes
Coleridge
Comines
Commodian
Comnenus
Comte
Condillac
Congreve
Constant
Copernicus
Coppee
Corneille
Corte-Real
Cousin
Cowper
Crabbe
Cratinos
Crebillon
Cromwell
Cyprian, St.
Czacki
Czartoryski

D

Dancourt
Daniel (the abbot)
Daniel (the prisoner)
Dante
Danton
Daudet
Davenant
Davila
Defoe
Delavigne
Delille
Demosthenes
Descartes
Desportes
Destouches
Diamante
Dickens
Diderot
Dietmar
Diogenes
Dolce
Dostoevsky
Dryden
Duclos
Dufresny
Dumas, (_pere_)
Dumas, (_fils_)
Duerer

E

Eberling
Echegaray
Eliot, George
Elisabeth
Ennius
Epictetus
Epicurus
Erasmus
Ercilla
Espinel
Espronceda
Eudoxia
Eupolis
Euripides
Eusebius
Eustathius
Evemerus

F

Falcam
Fayette, Mme. de la
Feijoo
Felinski
Fenelon
Ferreira
Fichte
Ficino
Fielding
Filangieri
Flaubert
Fletcher
Florez
Fogazzaro
Folengo
Fontenelle
Foscolo
Fouillee
Fox
Frederick II
Froissart

G

Galen
Galileo
Garnier
Gautier
Gellius Aulus
Gerson
Gibbon
Gilbert
Gil Vicente
Gioberti
Giordani
Goethe
Gogol
Goldoni
Goldsmith
Goncourt, de
Gongora
Gorgias
Gottsched
Gower
Gregory, St.
Gresset
Grimm
Grochowski
Gruen
Guarini
Guasco
Guevara
Guicciardini
Guittone
Guizot
Gutierrez
Guyot

H

Habington
Haller
Haraucourt
Hartmann
Hauptmann
Haussonville, d'
Hecataeus of Abdera
Hegel
Heine
Heliodorus
Henry VI
Heraclitus
Herbert
Herder
Herodian
Herodotus
Herreros
Hervieu
Hesiod
Hilarion
Hilarius, St.
Hildebrand
Hippocrates
Homer
Horace
Huerta
Hugo, Victor
Hugo of Berzi
Hume
Hutten
Hyperides

I

Iffland
Isla
Isocrates
Ivan
Izoulet

J

Jacopone
James I
Jaures
Jerome, St.
Jodelle
Johnson, Dr
Joinville
Jonson, Ben
Joseph of Byzantium
Jovellanos
Julian the Apostate
Junius
Justinian
Juvenal
Juvencus

K

Kalidas
Kant
Kantemir
Karpinski
Keats
Kempis, T. a
Klopstock
Kochanowski
Kollontay
Koerner
Kotzebue
Krylov
Kuerenberg
Kutochikine

L

Laberius
La Bruyere
Lacerda
La Chaussee
Lactantius
La Fontaine
Lamartine
Lamb, C
Lamennais
La Motte
Lanfranc
La Rochefoucauld
Lascaris
Lavater
Lavedan
Lavisse
Leconte de Lisle
Leibnitz
Lenau
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonidas
Leopardi
Lermontov
Le Sage
Lessing
Libanius
Livius
Livy
Lobo
Locke
Lomonosov
Longus
Lope de Vega
Lorris, William of
Louis, St
Louis XI
Lucena
Lucian
Lucilius
Lucretius
Luther
Lycophron
Lyly
Lysias

M

Mably
Macaulay
Machiavelli
MacPherson
Maffei
Mairet
Maistre, Joseph de
Malaspina
Malebranche
Malherbe
Mallarme
Manuel, John
Manzinho
Manzoni
Marcus Aurelius
Marini
Marivaux
Marlowe
Marmontel
Marot
Martial
Martinez, Rose de la
Mary, Princess
Maynard
Medici, Catherine de'
Medici, Marie de'
Melanchthon
Meleager
Menander
Mendes
Mendoza
Mercier
Meredith
Merimee
Metastasio
Meung, John de
Mezeray
Michelet
Mickiewicz
Milton
Mirabeau
Moliere
Mommsen
Monomaque
Montaigne
Montalvo
Montchrestien
Montemayor
Montesquieu
Monti
Montluc
Moratin, Leandro
Moratin, Nicholas
Moschus
Mun, de
Musseus
Musset, A. de

N

Naevius
Napoleon
Nepos
Nerva
Newman
Newton
Nicole
Niebuhr
Niemcewicz
Nietzsche
Nonnus

O

Olivares
Opalinski
Oppian
Otway
Ovid
Ozerov

P

Pacuvius
Palaprat
Pandolfini
Pascal
Paulinus, St.
Paul I
Pellico
Pereira
Pericles
Perron
Perseus
Peter the Great
Petrarch
Petronius
Philetas
Philip III
Philostrates
Pico della Mirandola
Pindar
Piron
Pisistratus
Planudes
Plato
Platon
Plautus
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Younger
Plutarch
Politien
Polybius
Pompignan
Pomponius
Pontus
Pope
Porto-Riche
Potocki
Prevost, Abbe
Prevost, Marcel.
Procopius
Propertius
Protagoras
Prudentius
Ptolemy
Publius Syrus
Pulci
Pushkin

Q

Quevedo
Quinet
Quintana
Quintilian
Quintus
Quintus Curtius

R

Rabelais
Racan
Racine
Radistchef
Raynal
Regnard
Regnier, H. de
Regnier, M.
Renan
Retz, Cardinal de
Ribeiro
Ribot, A.
Ribot, T.
Richardson
Richepin
Rivas
Robert
Robertson
Robespierre
Rojas
Ronsard
Rosa
Rosa, Salvator
Rossetti, Christina
Rossetti, Dante
Rostand
Roucher
Rouget de Lisle
Rousseau, J. B.
Rousseau, J. J.
Ruskin
Rutilius
Rzewuski

S

Saa de Miranda
Saa e Menezes
Saavedra
Saint-Amant
Saint-Evremond
Saint-Gelais
Saint-Lambert
Saint-Pierre, Bernardin de
Saint-Simon
Sainte-Beuve
Sakyamuni
Sallust
Sand, George
San Phillipo
Sannazaro
Sappho
Sardou
Savonarola
Scarron
Sceve, Maurice
Schiller
Schopenhauer
Scipio
Scott
Scribe
Scudery
Sedaine
Segrais
Seignobos
Senancour
Seneca the Philosopher
Seneca the Tragic
Serao
Sevigne
Sextus Empiricus
Shakespeare
Shelley
Sheridan
Sidney
Silius Italicus
Simonides
Socrates
Solis
Sophocles
Soumarokoff
Southey
Spenser
Stael, Mme. de
Statius
Stendhal
Sterne
Sudermann
Sully-Prudhomme
Swift
Swinburne

T

Tacitus
Taine
Tannhaeuser
Tansillo
Tasso
Tassoni
Tennyson
Terence
Tertullian
Thackeray
Thales
Theocritus
Theodora
Theophrastus
Thespis
Thibaut
Thierry
Thiers
Thomson
Thorn
Thucydides
Tibullus
Tiraboschi
Tirso de Molina
Tolstoy
Torricelli
Trajan
Trediakowski
Treitschke
Trueba
Turgenev
Turgot
Tyrtaeus

U

Urfe, Honore d'

V

Vair, du
Valerius Flaccus
Valmiki
Varro
Vaugelas
Ventura de la Vega
Vergniaud
Verlaine
Vian, Theophilus de
Vico
Vignes, Peter of
Vigny, Alfred de
Villehardouin
Villon
Vinogradsky
Virgil
Vizin, von
Voiture
Voltaire

W

Waller
Wieland
Wolff
Wordsworth
Wycherley

X

Xenophon

Y

Young

Z

Zamora
Zedlitz
Zeno
Ziorgi
Zola
Zorilla
Zwingli

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