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History of the Philippine Islands Vols 1 and 2 by Antonio de Morga

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allowed at all hours.--Rizal.

[341] This powder-mill has several times changed its site. It was
afterward near Maalat on the seashore, and then was moved to Nagtahá,
on the bank of the Pasig.--Rizal.

[342] Probably on the same site where the great Tagál cannon-foundry
had formerly stood, which was burned and destroyed by the Spaniards
at their first arrival in Manila. San Agustin declares the Tagál
foundry to have been as large as that at Málaga.--Rizal.

[343] The Rizal edition omits the words, muy grande y autorizada,
capilla aparte, camara del sello real.

[344] The treasury building. The governor's palace was destroyed
in 1863.--Rizal.

[345] The Audiencia and cabildo buildings were also destroyed, but
the latter has been rebuilt.--Rizal.

[346] The Rizal edition misprints sacristan as sacristías.

[347] This is the largest convent in Manila.--Rizal.

[348] Among the Jesuits, that part of a college where the pensioners
or boarders live and receive their instruction.

[349] This college of San José was founded in 1601, although the royal
decree for it had been conceded in 1585. The number of collegiates to
enter was thirteen, among whom was a nephew of Francisco Tello and
a son of Dr. Morga. From its inception Latin was taught there. In
a suit with the College of Santo Tomás, the Jesuits obtained a
favorable decision; and it was recognized as the older institution,
and given the preference in public acts. The historians say that at
its inauguration the students wore bonnets covered with diamonds and
pearls. At present [1890] this college, after having moved from house
to house, has become a school of pharmacy attached to Santo Tomás,
and directed by the Dominican rector.--Rizal.

[350] After many varying fortunes, this institution has wholly

[351] The Confraternity of Mercy [Hermandad de la Misericordia]
was founded in 1594, by an ecclesiastic named Juan Fernández de

[352] San Juan de Dios [St. John of God].--Rizal.

[353] Better, Maalat. The Spaniards pronounced this later
Malate. There lived the chief Tagáls after they were deprived of
their houses in Manila, among whom were the families of Raja Matanda
and Raja Soliman. San Augustín says that even in his day many of the
ancient nobility dwelt there, and that they where very urbane and
cultured. "The Men hold various positions in Manila, and certain
occupations in some of the local public functions. The women make
excellent lace, in which they are so skilfull that the Dutch women
cannot surpass them." This is still true of the women.--Rizal.

[354] Now the town of Paco.--Rizal.

[355] Recopilación de leyes, lib. ii, tit. xv, ley xi, defines the
district of the Audiencia and states certain perogatives of the
governor and auditors as follows: "In the city of Manila, in the
island of Luzon, capital of the Felipinas, shall reside our royal
Audiencia and Chancillería, with a president who shall be governor and
captain-general, four auditors, who shall also be alcaldes of criminal
cases, one fiscal, one alguacil-mayor, one lieutenant of the grand
chancillor, and the other ministers and officials necessary. It shall
have as its district the said island of Luzon, and all the rest of the
Filipinas, the archipelago of China and its mainland as yet discovered
and to be discovered. We order the governor and captain-general of
the said islands and provinces and president of the royal Audiencia
in them, to hold personal charge in peace and war of the superior
government of all the district of the said Audiencia, and to make
the provisions and concessions in our royal name, which in accordance
with the laws of this Recopilación and of these kingdoms of Castilla,
and with the instructions and powers that he shall get from us, he
should and can make. In things and matters of importance that arise in
the government, the said president governor shall discuss them with
the auditors of the said Audiencia, so that they, after consulting,
may give him their opinion. He, after hearing them, shall take what
course is most advisable to the service of God and to ours, and the
peace and quiet of that province and community." Felipe II, Aranjuez,
May 5, 1583; Toledo, May 25, 1596, in ordinance of the Audiencia;
Felipe IV in this Recopilación.

[356] The original is canongias, raciones, y medias raciones,
which literally refers to the office or prebend instead of the
individual. We retain the above terms as expressing the persons who
held these prebends.

[357] Literaly, the original translates "in the islands of Sebu,
Cagayan, and Camerines."

[358] This is so changed now [1890] and the employees so increased in
number, that the annual expenses amount to more than 2,000,000 pesos,
while the intendant's salary is 12,000 pesos.--Rizal.

[359] This city has disapeared from the map and from the earth. An
inconsiderable town named Lal-ló occupies its site. It is still
[1890], however, named as the appointment of the bishopric of Bigan,
the actual residence of the bishop.--Rizal.

[360] An attempt was made to supply the lack of prebends in the
cathedral cities of the Philippines by the following law: "Inasmuch
as the bishops of the churches of Nueva Cáceres, Nueva Segovia,
and of the Name of Jesus of the Filipinas Islands should have men
to assist them in the pontifical acts, and the bishops should have
all the propriety possible in their churches, and divine worship
more reverence; and inasmuch as there are no tithes with which a
few prebendaries can be sustained in the churches: therefore our
governor of those islands shall appoint to each of the said churches
two ecclesiastics of good life and example, who shall aid and assist
the bishop in the pontifical acts, and in all else relating to divine
worship. He shall assign them a certain modest sum for their support
from our royal treasury, so that with that they may for the present
serve the churches, until there be more opportunity for endowing them
with prebendaries and providing other necessary things." Felipe III,
San Lorenzo, October 5, 1606. Recopilación de leyes, lib. i, tit. vi,
ley xviii.

[361] The Rizal edition omits a considerable portion of this
paragraph. The omission is as follows: para guarda del puerto, y
defensa de la ciudad, con bastante guarnicion de soldados de paga, a
orden del alcalde mayor, capitan a guerra de la prouincia que reside
en la ciudad. Sera la poblazon, de dozientos vezinos Españoles,
con casas de madera, tiene Cabildo, de dos alcaldes ordinarios,
ocho rejidores, alguazil mayor y sus oficiales.

[362] Now [1890] of slight importance. Of its former grandeur there
remain only 1,000 inhabitants, with a parochial house, a justice's
house, a prison, and a primary school.--Rizal.

[363] Vigan or Bigan.--Rizal.

[364] Legazpi also had two secular priests, Juan de Vivero and Juan
de Villanueva, who had part in the first conversions.--Rizal.

[365] The Jesuits preceded the Dominicans seven years as missionaries
to the Filipinas. The first Jesuits came over with Domingo de Salazar,
the first bishop, and his Dominican associate.--Rizal.

[366] Visita: here meaning a district which has no resident missionary,
but is visited by religious from some mission station, on which the
visita is therefore dependent.

[367] Cf. with the musical ability of the Filipinos that displayed
by the North American Indians, as described in The Jesuit Relations,
vols. vi, p. 183; xviii, p. 161; xxiii, p. 213; xxvii, p. 117; xxxi,
p. 219; xxxviii, pp. 259, 263; etc.

[368] Chirino (chapter vii) mentions the apportionment, by the
king, of distinct districts to the different orders. The Augustinian
authorities in Mexico granted permission to those of their order going
to the Philippines to establish themselves wherever they wished in
the islands (see VOL. II, pp. 161-168), and the latter exercised the
omnimodo [i.e., entire] ecclesiastical authority, as conceded by the
popes, until the arrival of the Franciscans in 1577. Papal concessions
probably marked out the districts as apportioned by the king.

[369] Morga refers, with his characteristic prudence, to the great
question of diocesan visits, which commenced with Fray Domingo
de Salazar, and which could not be ended until 1775, in the time
of Anda--thanks to the energy of the latter and the courage of
Archbishop Don Basilio Sancho de Santa Justa y Rufina, when after
great disturbances they succeeded in subjecting the regular curas to
the inspection of the bishops. Morga, however, shows that he did not
approve the claims of the religious to independence, but does not
dare to state so distinctly.--Rizal.

[370] The Augustinians received also one-fourth part of the tribute
from the villages while they were building churches; and 200 pesos
fuertes [i.e., ten-real pieces] and 200 cavans [the cavan equals 25
gantas, or 137 Spanish libras] of cleaned rice for four religious
who heard confessions during Lent. Fifty cavans of cleaned rice per
person seems to us too much. It results that each friar consumes 12
1/2 libras of rice or 27 chupas [the chupa is 1/8 ganta or 3 litros]
daily, thirteen times as much as any Indian.--Rizal.

[371] Recopilación de leyes, lib. vi, tit. vii, ley xvi, contains the
following in regard to the native chiefs: "It is not right that the
Indian chiefs of Filipinas be in a worse condition after conversion;
rather should they have such treatment that would gain their affection
and keep them loyal, so that with the spiritual blessings that God
has communicated to them by calling them to His true knowledge,
the temporal blessings may be joined, and they may live contentedly
and comfortably. Therefore, we order the governors of those islands
to show them good treatment and entrust them, in our name, with the
government of the Indians, of whom they were formerly the lords. In
all else the governors shall see that the chiefs are benefited justly,
and the Indians shall pay them something as a recognition, as they did
during the period of their paganism, provided it be without prejudice
to the tributes that are to be paid us, or prejudicial to that which
pertains to their encomenderos." Felipe II, Madrid, June 11, 1594.

[372] The gobernadorcillo ["little or petty governor"].

[373] Bilangõ signifies today in Tagál "the act of imprisoning,"
and bilanguan "the prison."--Rizal.

[374] For good expositions of local government in modern times, see
Bowring, Visit to the Philippine Isles (London, 1859), pp. 87-93;
and Montero y Vidal, Archipiélago Filipino (Madrid, 1886), pp. 162-168.

[375] These are now [1890] made in Spanish.--Rizal.

[376] Names of petty officers: the former the name of an
officer in oriental countries; the second signifying one who
commands. Dr. T. H. Pardo de Tavera (Costumbres de los Tagalos,
Madrid, 1892, p. 10, note 1) says the word dato is now unused by the
Tagáls. Datu or datuls primitively signified "grandfather," or "head
of the family," which was equivalent to the head of the barangay. This
name is used in Mindanao and Joló to designate certain chiefs.

[377] A later law in Recopilación de leyes (lib. vi, tit. viii, ley
xi) regulates the encomienda--giving power as follows: "The governor
and captain-general of Filipinas shall apportion the encomiendas,
in accordance with the regulations to worthy persons, without having
other respect than to the service of God our Lord, and our service,
the welfare of the public cause, and the remuneration of the most
deserving. Within sixty days, reckoned from the time that he shall
have heard of the vacancy, he shall be obliged to apportion them. If
he does not do so, the right to apportion them shall devolve upon
and pertain to our royal Audiencia of those islands, and we order
the Audiencia to apportion them, paying heed to the laws, within six
days, and to avail itself of the edicts and diligences issued by the
governor without other new ones. In case the governor shall not have
issued edicts and diligences, the Audiencia shall issue them and make
the provision within twenty days." Felipe III, Madrid, June 4, 1620.

[378] The rapidity with which many of these encomenderos amassed
great wealth in a few years is known, and that they left colossal
fortunes at their death. Some were not satisfied with the tributes
and with what they demanded, but made false measures, and balances
that weighed twice as much as was indicated. They often exacted the
tributes in certain products only, and appraised the same at what
value they wished.--Rizal.

[379] A law in Recopilación de leyes (lib. vi, tit. v, ley lxv)
cites the above provision and confirms it anew: "In order to provide
instruction for certain villages of the Filipinas Islands, which did
not enjoy it, or if they had it, it was not sufficient, it was resolved
to increase the tribute, which was formerly eight reals, or its value,
per peso, to the proportion of ten Castilian reals apiece. It was
ordered that the increased amount be placed in our royal treasury,
and one-half real of it be applied to paying the obligations which had
to be met in regard to the tithes, while the one and one-half reals
would remain to pay those soldiers there and for other purposes;
in consideration of the fact that the funds necessary to send out
religious, who are employed in the preaching of the holy gospel,
are supplied from our royal treasury, and that the encomenderos were
obliged to pay for the ordinary instruction from the eight reals,
and the part of the building of churches that fell to their share,
while the Indians had the choice of paying all the tribute in money
or in products, or in both. Thus was it enacted and voted. We order
no innovation to be made in this regard, in consideration of the
welfare and conservation of those provinces and their natives, and
so that the choice of paying in money shall not occasion any lack of
products and cause sterility." Felipe II, San Lorenzo, August 1589;
Felipe III, Zamora, February 16, 1602.

[380] The following law regulates supervision of the accounts of this
fund: "Inasmuch as, when any encomienda of the Filipinas Islands
happens to be without instruction, the fourth part of the tribute
collected by the encomendero is deposited in a box with three keys, in
order that it may be converted into benefices for the Indians; and as
it is advisable that that ordinance be executed sensibly and properly,
and that we should know the amount of it and how it is apportioned:
therefore, we order our presidents, the governors of the Filipinas
Islands, that whenever they deem it advisable to examine the account,
they shall appoint for that purpose one of the officials of our royal
treasury of those islands--the one most suitable for it--who shall
examine them. The fiscal of our royal Audiencia shall investigate
them before they are finished; and shall ask and see that they
are executed with the care that the matter requires in regard to
their items, charges, articles, and balances, and whatever else is
advisable. He shall advise our president and governor of it all, so
that he may assist him in what may be necessary, and advise us of the
result." Felipe III, Madrid, June 4, 1620, in Recopilación de leyes,
lib. i, tit. xiii, ley xiv.

[381] The bull here referred to was issued by Gregory XIV, and dated
April 18, 1591. The seventh section reads as follows: "Finally,
since, as we have learned, our very dear son in Christ, Philip,
Catholic King of the Spains, on account of the many deceits wont to
be practised therein, has forbidden any Spaniard in the aforesaid
Philippine Islands to dare to take, or have, or hold any slaves,
or servants, even by right of just and unjust war, or of purchase,
or by whatsoever other title, or pretext; although some, despite the
edict, or mandate, of King Philip himself, still keep the same slaves
in their power: therefore in order that, as is befitting to reason
and equity, the Indians themselves may freely and safely without
any fear of bondage come and go to their Christian doctrinas, and to
their own homes and possessions, we order and command all and singular
the persons living in the same islands, of whatsoever state, degree,
condition, order, and rank they may be, in virtue of holy obedience and
under pain of excommunication, on the publication of these presents,
in accordance with the edict, or mandate of the said King Philip,
to release wholly free, without deceit and guile, whatsoever Indian
slaves and servants they may have, or hold; nor ever for the future
in any manner to take or keep captives, or servants."--[Translated
from the original by REV. T. C. MIDDLETON, O.S.A.]

[382] This [1890] has disappeared from legislation, although the
personal services for España are still continued, and are fifteen

[383] Recopilación de leyes, lib. vi, tit. xii, ley xii, treating of
personal services, reads as follows: "The religious and the ministers
of the instruction, and the alcaldes-mayor of the Filipinas Islands
have a weekly repartimiento of Indians which they call tanores, so
that the Indians may serve them without pay; and besides the villages
contribute to them the fish necessary to them on Fridays, which is
against reason and justice. We order the governor and captain-general,
the Audiencia, and any other of our justices, to stop and not allow
this personal service and contribution, so that the villages shall
in no manner perform it, and we declare the villages free from any
obligation that they have or may have." This law is dated Madrid,
March 17, 1608.

[384] Taal was one of the villages where the most rigging was made
for the royal ships.--Rizal.

[385] This word reales is omitted in the Rizal edition.

[386] A comparatively early law (Recopilación de leyes, lib. vi,
tit. i, ley xv), prohibits the forcible removal of the natives for
expeditions of conquest from one island to another. It is as follows:
"We order that the Indians in the Filipinas Islands be not taken
from one island to another forcibly in order to make incursions, and
against their will, unless it be under very necessary circumstances,
and paying them for their work and trouble. They shall be well treated
and receive no injury." Felipe II, Madrid, November 7, 1574.

[387] In Java also the Dutch restrict Europeans from roaming about
the country; this is a good regulation for the protection of the

[388] Stanley praises these regulations; Rizal deplores them, as
keeping the men in authority out of touch with the people.

[389] Recopilación de leyes, lib. iv, tit. x, ley vii, has the
following law, dated Madrid, March 17, 1608: "The governor and
captain-general of Filipinas shall for the present appoint the
magistracy [regimiento] of the city of Manila, choosing persons who
shall prove to be suitable for the office and zealous for the service
of God our Lord, and for ours; and he shall not remove them without
our special order."

[390] Many royal decrees related to playing cards. The monopoly
ceased to exist perhaps before the government monopoly on betel was
initiated.--Rizal (in part).

[391] In 1890 he received 12,000 pesos.--Rizal.

[392] The prebend, in Spanish cathedrals, superior to a canonry.

The following laws (xvi and xvii, respectively) as to the appointments
of vacant prebends, are found in Recopilación de leyes, lib. i,
tit. vi.

"Because of the great distance from these kingdoms to the Filipinas
Islands and the inconvenience that might result from the prebends
falling vacant without any provision being made until we present those
who shall take them, we order the governor and captain-general of the
said islands that, when dignidades, canonries, and other prebends in
the metropolitan church become vacant, he shall present other persons
of the sufficiency and characteristics required, so that they may
serve in place of their predecessors, until we provide persons for
them. They shall receive the stipend that their predecessors shall have
received. The governor shall observe the rules made by the laws of this
titulo in his presentations." Felipe II, Guadalupe, March 26, 1580.

"We order our governors of the Filipinas Islands, and charge the
archbishops of Manila, that when any prebends of that church become
vacant, they send us three nominations for each one, instead of one
only, with very minute advice of their sufficiency, learning, degrees,
and all other qualities that are found in those proposed, so that
after examination, we may appoint the one most suitable." Felipe III,
Lerma, June 28, 1608.

[393] In 1890 the Filipinas were paying 36,670 pesos annually for
one dean, four dignitarios, five canons, four racioneros, four
medio-racioneros, and other inferior helpers, including the choir,
a total of twenty-six individuals; 3,330 pesos annually is to be
added for sacristans, singers, and orchestra.--Rizal.

[394] Their salary amounted to from 750 to 1,000 pesos. Now [1890]
the salary of each bishop is 6,000 pesos, with two father assistants
at 100 to 150 pesos per month.--Rizal.

[395] Thus in original, but it is carelessly worded; for the Society
of Jesus is not one of the mendicant orders.

[396] All of the orders held property and had regular means of revenue,
later; while the Dominicans held enormous property in both the islands
and at Hong Kong.--Rizal.

[397] The following law is from Recopilación de leyes (lib. iii,
tit. x, ley xiv): "The governor and captain-general of the Filipinas
Islands shall be careful to reward the soldiers who shall have
served us there, and their sons, with the posts and emoluments at
his disposal, in accordance with the ordinances, and [he shall do it]
with all fairness, so that they may have some remuneration. He shall
keep in toto the laws relating to this." Felipe III, Lerma, July 23,
1605; Madrid, December 19, 1618.

[398] Consejeles: men sent to service by order of a municipal council.

[399] The pay of various of the above officers and men in 1890 was as
follows: Filipino infantrymen, 4 pesos per month; Spanish artillerymen,
13-15 pesos, plus some céntimos, per month; Filipino artillerymen,
4 pesos, plus some céntimos, per month; captains, 1,500-1,800 pesos
per year; alféreces, 975-1,050 pesos per year; first sergeants,
European, 318-360 pesos per year--native, 180 pesos per year;
second sergeants, European, 248.06-307.50 pesos per year--native,
156 pesos per year; first corporals, European, 189.56-202 pesos per
year--native, 84 pesos per year; second corporals, European, 174-192
pesos per year--native corporals, 72 pesos per year; the segundo cabo
[lieutenant-commander], 12,000 pesos per year; sargento-mayor de
plaza (now lieutenant-colonel), 225 pesos per month; vice-admiral
[contra-almirante, general de galeras], 16,392 pesos per year;
frigate and ship captains, 2,700-5,760 pesos per year, according to
their duties and grades.--Rizal.

The following laws from Recopilación de leyes regulate the pay of the
soldiers and some of the officers, and impose certain restrictions
on the soldiers, and provide for certain appointments: "Each soldier
established in the Filipinas Islands shall be paid eight pesos per
month, each captain, fifty, each alférez, twenty, and each sergeant,
ten. The governor and captain-general of the said islands shall
give all the men of the companies thirty ducados to each company of
additional pay, as is done in other districts, providing the additional
pay of each one does not exceed ten pesos per year. We order that all
be well paid. When the governor shall provide any of the captains,
officers, or soldiers with an encomienda, or other post, he shall
not allow him to draw pay. While they draw pay they shall not be
allowed to trade or traffic, so that that occupation may not divert
or distract them from their proper exercise and employment of war. For
the same reason, no pay shall be granted to any soldier who serves any
other person, whomsoever he be." Felipe II, Añover, August 9, 1589,
clause 34 of his instructions; Felipe III, Ventosilla, November 4,
1606; lib. iii, tit. x, ley xiii.

"We order that when the post of general of artillery of the Filipinas
Islands becomes vacant, either by the death or promotion of its
occupant, or for any other cause, the governor and captain-general
shall not fill it without first notifying us and without our special
order for it. We permit him to appoint a captain of artillery and a
sargento-mayor, and he may assign each of them thirty pesos' pay. We
approve the increase of two pesos in the pay of the musketeers. It
is our will that the pay of the governor's captain of the guard be
increased five pesos, in addition to his fifteen pesos, and that
a like sum be granted to the commandants of forts when they have a
captain of infantry." Felipe II, clause of letter, Madrid, June 11,
1594; Felipe IV, Madrid, January 30, 1631; lib. iii, tit. v, ley iii.

[400] A definite law, as is shown in Recopilación de leyes,
lib. iii. tit. iv, ley xiii, charged the viceroys of Nueva España
to send help to the Philippines. The law is as follows: "We charge
and order the viceroys of Nueva España to aid the governor and
captain-general of Filipinas on all occasions that arise, with very
special care, promptness, and diligence, with whatever the latter
shall request; and with the men, arms, ammunition, and money, that
he deems necessary for the conservation of those islands, salaries
[the original is sueldos, perhaps a misprint for suelos, signifying
'provinces' or 'districts'], presidios, and whatever else is under
his charge." Felipe III, Aranjuez, May 25, 1607.

The two following laws impose certain restrictions on the
reënforcements sent to the Philippines from Nueva España:

"One of the captains who shall raise men in Nueva España as
reënforcements for the Filipinas Islands, shall act as their agent
to the port of Acapulco. There he shall deliver them to the general,
or commander of the ships about to sail; but no captain shall take
passage or go to the islands with the men of his company." Felipe III,
Zamora, February 16, 1602; lib. iii, tit. iv, ley xvi.

"Among the men sent by the viceroy, who shall go as a reënforcement
from Nueva España to Filipinas, he shall not allow, under any
circumstances, or admit, any mestizos or mulattoes, because of
the annoyances that have been experienced from them." Felipe III,
Valladolid, August 30, 1608; lib. iii, tit. iv, ley xv.

[401] See ante, note 227, the citation of the law from Recopilación
de leyes, lib. iii, tit. x, ley xiii.

[402] See VOL. XII ("Various documents relating to commerce"),
pp. 57-75.

Bañuelos y Carrillo, in his relation to the king, says: "That the
inhabitants of the Manilas should be allowed to export as many
boat-loads as possible of the country's produce--such as wax, gold,
perfumes, ivory, and cotton cloth [lampotes]--which they must buy
from the natives of the country, who would thus be hindered from
selling them to the Dutch. In this way we would make those peoples
friendly, and supply Nueva España with their merchandise; and the
money taken to Manila would not leave that city. ... Your Majesty
should consider that one and one-half millions in gold go to China
annually." This commerce was advantageous to the Celestial empire
alone and to certain individuals of Manila. It was fatal to España,
and harmful to the islands, whose industry was gradually perishing
like that of the metropolis.--Rizal.

[403] See in VOL. VIII, pp. 316-318, a royal decree enforcing these
prohibitions under severe penalties.

[404] Coarse stuff made of goat's hair, or a glossy silk stuff;
probably the latter is intended in the text. Gorvoran or gorgoran is
a sort of silk grogram.

[405] This fabric is now called Piña. It is made from threads
stripped from fibers of the leaf of that plant or fruit, and which
are never longer than half a yard. It cannot be woven at all times,
as extreme heat or humidity affects the fiber. The machinery employed
is of wood, unmixed with any metal, and of rude construction. This
fabric is stronger than any other of equal fineness, and its color is
unaffected by time or washing. The pieces are generally only 1 1/2 feet
wide: the price varies from 1.s. 4d. to 2s. 6d. per yard. Piña of a
yard wide is from six reals to a dollar (of eight reals) a yard. All
the joinings of the threads are of knots made by the fingers. It is
fabricated solely by native Indians in many parts of the Philippines,
but especially in Ilo-Ilo. The use of this stuff is extensive, and
the value is estimated at 500,000 dollars or £120,000; the value of
the annual export of it to Europe for dresses, handkerchiefs, collars,
scarfs, and wristbands, which are beautifully embroidered at Manila,
is estimated at 20,000 dollars annually. (Mr. Consul Farren, January
21, 1851).--Stanley.

In order to obtain the fiber of this plant, the fruit is first cut,
so that the leaf may become as long and broad as possible. When
the leaves are well developed they are torn off, and scraped with a
sharp instrument to separate the fleshy part and leave the fiber;
this is washed, dried in the sun, combed out, and classed in four
grades according to its fineness. The cloth has a peculiar softness
and delicacy; and it is said that that made formerly (one or two
centuries ago) was much finer than that made now.

[406] Scorzonera is a genus of composite plants, of numerous
species; the leaves or roots of many are used as vegetables or
salads. S. tuberosa and other Eastern species have edible roots.

[407] Delgado (ut supra) says that this fruit (Diospyros kaki,
Linn.) was brought by the Chinese traders, and called Xi-cu in their
language, whence is derived the word chiquey. It is a beautiful scarlet
fruit, although there is another species of a yellow color. Both are
sweet and pleasant to the taste. Some of the yellow variety were
grown in the Visayas, but Delgado says the tree is not indigenous
to the islands. The fruit is shaped like an acorn but is about as
large as a lemon. The peel is soft and the interior like honey, and
it contains several seeds. The tree is wide-spreading but not very
tall. The leaves are small and almost round. D. kaki is the Chinese
or Japanese persimmon; D. virginiana is the American persimmon. From
other species is obtained the valuable wood called ebony.

[408] This must be the cloth and not the porcelain of Kaga, which
even today is so highly esteemed.--Rizal.

[409] With very slight differences, this custom and ceremony is
continued to the present [1890].--Rizal.

[410] "A three per cent duty was imposed in the Filipinas on
merchandise, for the payment of the troops. We order that part of the
law to be observed, but that pertaining to the other things paid from
those duties to be repealed." Añover, August 9, 1589. (Ley xxii.)

"We ordain that the Chinese, Japanese, Siamese, Borneans, and all other
foreigners, who go to the ports of the Filipinas Islands, pay no duty
on food, supplies, and materials that they take to those islands,
and that this law be kept in the form in w, hich it may have been
introduced, and not otherwise." Añover, August 9, 1589. (Ley xxiv.)

"On the Chinese merchandise and that from other countries, shipped to
Nueva España by way of Filipinas, an impost ad valorem tax of ten per
cent shall be collected, based on their value in the ports and regions
where the goods shall be discharged. This tax shall be imposed mildly
according to the rule, and shall be a tax additional to that usually
paid on departure both from the said Filipinas Islands and from the
provinces of Nueva España, to any other places where they may and
shall be taken." El Pardo, November 1, 1591. (Ley xxi.)

"We order that the duty of three per cent collected in the Filipinas
Islands on the merchandise taken thither by the Chinese be increased by
another three per cent." El Pardo, November 20, 1606. (Ley xxiii.) The
above laws are from Recopilación de leyes, lib. viii, tit. xv.

[411] The agave (Agave americana; the maguey of Mexico) is found in
the Philippines, and is called pita, but Delgado and Blanco think
that it was not indigenous there. Its fibers were used in former
times for making the native textile called nipis, manufactured in the
Visayas. As used in the text, pita means, apparently, some braid or
other ornament of agave fibers.

[412] The ducado of Castilla was worth slightly more than two

[413] These imposts and fetters, which the products of the country
did not escape, are still [1890] in force, so that foreign markets
must be sought, since the markets of the mother-country offer no
greater advantages. According to a document of 1640, this commerce
netted the government 350,000 pesos annually.--Rizal.

[414] The salary is now [1890] 40,000 pesos.--Rizal.

[415] Recopilación de leyes (lib. iv, tit. i, ley v) outlines the
governor's and Audiencia's power in regard to conquests by private
individuals, as follows: "We grant permission to the governor and
president of the Filipinas Islands and its Audiencia to make contracts
for new explorations and conquests [pacificaciones] with persons,
who are willing to covenant to do it at their own expense and not at
that of our royal treasury; and to give them the titles of captains
and masters-of-camp, but not those of adelantados [i.e., governors]
and marshals. Those contracts and agreements such men may execute, with
the concurrence of the Audiencia, until we approve them, provided that
they observe the laws enacted for war, conquest, and exploration, so
straitly, that for any negligence, the terms of their contract will be
observed, and those who exceed the contract shall incur the penalties
imposed; also provided the parties shall receive our confirmation
within a brief period assigned by the governor." Felipe II, Guadalupe,
April 1, 1580; Toledo, May 25, 1596, a clause of instructions.

[416] There are eight auditors now [1890], and their salary
has increased to 4,700 pesos, while that of the fiscal is 5,500

[417] Recopilación de leyes, lib. v, tit. xv, ley xxviii, contains
the following on suits arising from residencias, dated Lerma, June
23, 1608: "Suits brought during the residencia against governors,
captains-general, presidents, auditors, and fiscals of our Audiencia
of Manila, and against any other officials, both civil and criminal,
shall pass in appeal and be concluded in that Audiencia, if they do
not exceed one thousand pesos of the current money."

[418] The tributes of the Indians in the Filipinas amount to more
than 4,000,000 pesos now [1890]; and from the Chinese are derived
225,000 pesos.--Rizal.

[419] Now since there is no exploitation of gold mines, and since
the Indians have no jewels that would justify this tenth or fifth,
the Spaniards substitute for this the imposts upon property, which
amount to 105,400 pesos, and that upon industry, which amounts to
1,433,200 pesos. In 1640, the revenue from the above source [fifths or
tenths] had decreased so greatly, that only 750 pesos were collected

[420] Import duties now [1890] amount to 1,700,000 pesos.--Rizal.

[421] Export duties now [1890] amount to 285,000 pesos.--Rizal.

[422] According to Hernando de los Rios, the Filipinas Islands could
have been self-sustaining from the beginning from their own products,
had it not been for the expeditions and adventurous conquests in the
Moluccas, Camboja, etc. ... In the governorship of Don Juan de Silva,
the treasury owed, for the war in the Moluccas, more than 2,000,000
pesos to the Indians, besides what it must have owed to the inhabitants
of Manila.--Rizal.

[423] This excellent custom has entirely perished.--Rizal.

"The president of our royal Audiencia of Filipinas and one auditor
of that body, shall, at the beginning of each year, examine the
accounts of our royal officials, and shall finish their examination
within the two months of January and February. On finishing their
examination they shall send a copy of them to our council for the
reason contained in the following law. Should the examination not be
finished in the said time, our officials shall receive no salary. The
auditor who shall assist in examining the accounts shall receive as
a compensation the twenty-five thousand maravedis that are ordained;
but he shall receive that amount only in that year that he shall send
the said accounts concluded to our council." Ordinance 97, Toledo,
May 15, 1596. (Ley ix.)

"For the accounts of our royal treasury, which must be furnished in
the usual form by our officials of the Filipinas Islands annually,
during the administration of their duties, the officials shall
deliver for inventory all the books and orders pertaining to those
accounts, and all that shall be requested from them and that shall
be necessary. They shall continue the course of their administration
[of their duties] with new and similar books. These accounts shall be
concluded before the governor of those islands, and the auditor whom
the Audiencia and the fiscal of that body may appoint. In case of the
finding of any doubts and remarks it is our will that the auditor and
governor resolve and determine them, so that they may be concluded and
finished. And inasmuch as the factor and overseer must give account of
certain things in kind and products of great weight and tediousness,
we order that that account be examined every three years, and that
the concluding and settling of the doubts and remarks shall be made
in the form declared. And we order that when the said accounts of
the said islands are completed and the net balances struck, they
shall be sent to our Council of the Indias, so that the accountants
of its accounts may revise and make additions to them according to
the manner of the accountancy." Valladolid, January 25, 1605. (Ley x.)

The above two laws are taken from Recopilación de leyes, lib. viii,
tit. xxix.

[424] The Chinese engaged in agriculture and fishing now [1890]
are very few.--Rizal.

[425] The Rizal edition misprints fuerça è premio as fuerza á premio.

[426] The custom of shaving the head, now prevalent among the Chinese,
was imposed upon them by their Tartar conquerors.

[427] A kind of stocking called tabi.--Rizal.

[428] The following law was issued at Segovia July 4, 1609, and
appears in Recopilación de leyes, lib. iii, tit. iv, ley xviii:
"The governor and captain-general of the Filipinas Islands shall
ever strive to maintain friendly relations, peace, and quiet, with
the emperor of Japon. He shall avail himself, for that purpose, of
the most prudent and advisable means, as long as conditions permit;
and he shall not risk the reputation of our arms and state in those
seas and among oriental nations."

[429] This port (established before 1540) was in Colima, Mexico,
near the present Manzanillo. It was plundered and burned by the
English adventurer Thomas Candish, on August 24-25, 1587.

[430] Thus named because seamen and voyagers noticed especially
the lateen sails of the light vessels used by the natives of the

[431] A marine fish (Sparus auratus), thus named because it has spots
of golden-yellow color.

[432] A chart of the Indian Ocean, by L. S. de la Rochette
(pub. London, 1803, by W. Faden, geographer to the king) shows three
volcanoes in about 25º north latitude, and but a few degrees north
of the Ladrones. One of them is called "La Desconocida, or Third
Volcano," and the following is added: "The Manilla ships always try
to make this Volcano."

[433] A group of islands called Shidsi To, lying in 34º 20'.--Rizal.

[434] "Thirty-eight degrees" is probably an error for "twenty-eight
degrees," and these islands [the first ones mentioned in the above
sentence] would be the Mounin-Sima Islands, lying between 26º 35'
and 27º 45'; and Lot's Wife in 29º 51', and Crespo, in 32º 46', which
[latter] are supposed by the Univers Pittoresque to be the Roca de Oro
[rock of gold] and the Roca de Plata of the ancient maps.--Stanley.

For these latter islands, see VOL. XIV, p. 272, note 45.

[435] A fungous substance that grows in the sea, and contains signs
of life.

[436] Probably the dogfish, a species of shark.

[437] Most of these places can be identified on the old maps of
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and most of the names
are retained today. The island of Cedros is shown on a map of 1556
(Ramusio: Vniversale della parte del mondo nvovamente ritrovata). The
island of Cenizas is shown, on the old maps, in about 32º, and Cedros
in about 29º. The Marias or Tres Marias Islands are Maria Madre,
Maria Magdalena, and Maria Cleofas. Cape Corrientes is south of
La Valle de Banderas and Chametla. Socatul is called Socatula and
Zocatula. An English map of 1626, engraved by Abraham Goos, shows
the town of Ciguatlan, north of Aquapulco, which may be the same as
Morga's Ciguatanejo. Los Motines cannot be identified.

[438] Acosta in his History of the Indies (Hakluyt Soc. edition,
London, 1880) says of the courses between the Philippines and New
Spain: "The like discourse is of the Navigation made into the South
sea, going from New Spaine or Peru to the Philippines or China, and
returning from the Philippines or China to New Spaine, the which is
easie, for that they saile alwaies from East to West neere the line,
where they finde the Easterly windes to blow in their poope. In the
yeere 1584, there went a shippe from Callao in Lima to the Philippines,
which sailed 2000 and 700 leagues without sight of land, and the
first it discovered was the Iland of Lusson, where they tooke port,
having performed their voiage in two moneths, without want of winde or
any torment, and their course was almost continually vnder the line;
. . . The returne is like vnto the voiage from the Indies vnto Spaine,
for those which returne from the Philippines or China to Mexico,
to the end they may recover the Westerne windes, they mount a great
height, vntill they come right against the Ilands of Iappon, and,
discovering the Caliphornes, they returne by the coast of New Spaine
to the port of Acapulco."

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