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History of the Philippine Islands Vols 1 and 2 by Antonio de Morga

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such went to the nearest relatives and the collateral side of that
stock, if there were no legitimate children by an ynasaba. This was
the case either with or without a will. In the act of drawing a will,
there was no further ceremony than to have written it or to have
stated it orally before acquaintances.

If any chief was lord of a barangai, then in that case, the eldest son
of an ynasaba succeeded him. If he died, the second son succeeded. If
there were no sons, then the daughters succeeded in the same order. If
there were no legitimate successors, the succession went to the
nearest relative belonging to the lineage and relationship of the
chief who had been the last possessor of it.

If any native who had slave women made concubines of any of them,
and such slave woman had children, those children were free, as was
the slave. But if she had no children, she remained a slave. [322]

These children by a slave woman, and those borne by a married woman,
were regarded as illegitimate, and did not succeed to the inheritance
with the other children, neither were the parents obliged to leave
them anything. Even if they were the sons of chiefs, they did not
succeed to the nobility or chieftainship of the parents, nor to their
privileges, but they remained and were reckoned as plebeians and in
the number and rank of the other timaguas.

The contracts and negotiations of these natives were generally illegal,
each one paying attention to how he might better his own business
and interest.

Loans with interest were very common and much practiced, and the
interest incurred was excessive. The debt doubled and increased all
the time while payment was delayed, until it stripped the debtor of
all his possessions, and he and his children, when all their property
was gone, became slaves. [323]

Their customary method of trading was by bartering one thing for
another, such as food, cloth, cattle, fowls, lands, houses, fields,
slaves, fishing-grounds, and palm-trees (both nipa and wild). Sometimes
a price intervened, which was paid in gold, as agreed upon, or in metal
bells brought from China. These bells they regard as precious jewels;
they resemble large pans and are very sonorous. [324] They play upon
these at their feasts, and carry them to the war in their boats instead
of drums and other instruments. There are often delays and terms for
certain payments, and bondsmen who intervene and bind themselves,
but always with very usurious and excessive profits and interests.

Crimes were punished by request of the aggrieved parties. Especially
were thefts punished with greater severity, the robbers being enslaved
or sometimes put to death. [325] The same was true of insulting words,
especially when spoken to chiefs. They had among themselves many
expressions and words which they regarded as the highest insult,
when said to men and women. These were pardoned less willingly and
with greater difficulty than was personal violence, such as wounding
and assaulting. [326]

Concubinage, rape, and incest, were not regarded at all, unless
committed by a timagua on the person of a woman chief. It was
a quite ordinary practice for a married man to have lived a long
time in concubinage with the sister of his wife. Even before having
communication with his wife he could have had access for a long
time to his mother-in-law, especially if the bride were very young,
and until she were of sufficient age. This was done in sight of all
the relatives.

Single men are called bagontaos, [327] and girls of marriageable age,
dalagas. Both classes are people of little restraint, and from early
childhood they have communication with one another, and mingle with
facility and little secrecy, and without this being regarded among
the natives as a cause for anger. Neither do the parents, brothers,
or relatives, show any anger, especially if there is any material
interest in it, and but little is sufficient with each and all.

As long as these natives lived in their paganism, it was not known
that they had fallen into the abominable sin against nature. But after
the Spaniards had entered their country, through communication with
them--and still more, through that with the Sangleys, who have come
from China, and are much given to that vice--it has been communicated
to them somewhat, both to men and to women. In this matter it has
been necessary to take action.

The natives of the islands of Pintados, especially the women, are very
vicious and sensual. Their perverseness has discovered lascivious
methods of communication between men and women; and there is one to
which they are accustomed from their youth. The men skilfully make
a hole in their virile member near its head, and insert therein a
serpent's head, either of metal or ivory, and fasten it with a peg of
the same material passed through the hole, so that it cannot become
unfastened. With this device, they have communication with their wives,
and are unable to withdraw until a long time after copulation. They are
very fond of this and receive much pleasure from it, so that, although
they shed a quantity of blood, and receive other harm, it is current
among them. These devices are called sagras, and there are very few
of them, because since they have become Christians, strenuous efforts
are being made to do away with these, and not consent to their use;
and consequently the practice has been checked in great part. [328]

Herbalists and witches are common among these natives, but are not
punished or prohibited among them, so long as they do not cause any
special harm. But seldom could that be ascertained or known.

There were also men whose business was to ravish and take away
virginity from young girls. These girls were taken to such men, and
the latter were paid for ravishing them, for the natives considered it
a hindrance and impediment if the girls were virgins when they married.

In matters of religion, the natives proceeded more barbarously and
with greater blindness than in all the rest. For besides being pagans,
without any knowledge of the true God, they neither strove to discover
Him by way of reason, nor had any fixed belief. The devil usually
deceived them with a thousand errors and blindnesses. He appeared to
them in various horrible and frightful forms, and as fierce animals,
so that they feared him and trembled before him. They generally
worshiped him, and made images of him in the said forms. These they
kept in caves and private houses, where they offered them perfumes
and odors, and food and fruit, calling them anitos. [329]

Others worshiped the sun and the moon, and made feasts and
drunken revels at the conjunction of those bodies. Some worshiped a
yellow-colored bird that dwells in their woods, called batala. They
generally worship and adore the crocodiles when they see them, by
kneeling down and clasping their hands, because of the harm that
they receive from those reptiles; they believe that by so doing
the crocodiles will become appeased and leave them. Their oaths,
execrations, and promises are all as above mentioned, namely, "May
buhayan eat thee, if thou dost not speak truth, or fulfil what thou
hast promised," and similar things.

There were no temples throughout those islands, nor houses generally
used for the worship of idols; but each person possessed and
made in his house his own anitos, [330] without any fixed rite or
ceremony. They had no priests or religious to attend to religious
affairs, except certain old men and women called catalonas. These
were experienced witches and sorcerers, who kept the other people
deceived. The latter communicated to these sorcerers their desires
and needs, and the catalonas told them innumerable extravagancies and
lies. The catalonas uttered prayers and performed other ceremonies to
the idols for the sick; and they believed in omens and superstitions,
with which the devil inspired them, whereby they declared whether the
patient would recover or die. Such were their cures and methods, and
they used various kinds of divinations for all things. All this was
with so little aid, apparatus, or foundation--which God permitted, so
that the preaching of the holy gospel should find those of that region
better prepared for it, and so that those natives would confess the
truth more easily, and it would be less difficult to withdraw them
from their darkness, and the errors in which the devil kept them for
so many years. They never sacrificed human beings as is done in other
kingdoms. They believed that there was a future life where those
who had been brave and performed valiant feats would be rewarded;
while those who had done evil would be punished. But they did not
know how or where this would be. [331]

They buried their dead in their own houses, and kept their bodies
and bones for a long time in chests. They venerated the skulls of the
dead as if they were living and present. Their funeral rites did not
consist of pomp or assemblages, beyond those of their own house--where,
after bewailing the dead, all was changed into feasting and drunken
revelry among all the relatives and friends. [332]

A few years before the Spaniards subdued the island of Luzon,
certain natives of the island of Borneo began to go thither to trade,
especially to the settlement of Manila and Tondo; and the inhabitants
of the one island intermarried with those of the other. These Borneans
are Mahometans, and were already introducing their religion among
the natives of Luzon, and were giving them instructions, ceremonies,
and the form of observing their religion, by means of certain gazizes
[333] whom they brought with them. Already a considerable number,
and those the chiefest men, were commencing, although by piecemeal,
to become Moros, and were being circumcised [334] and taking the names
of Moros. Had the Spaniards' coming been delayed longer, that religion
would have spread throughout the island, and even through the others,
and it would have been difficult to extirpate it. The mercy of God
checked it in time; for, because of being in so early stages, it was
uprooted from the islands, and they were freed from it, that is, in all
that the Spaniards have pacified, and that are under the government of
the Filipinas. That religion has spread and extended very widely in
the other islands outside of this government, so that now almost all
of their natives are Mahometan Moros, and are ruled and instructed by
their gaçizes and other morabitos; [335] these often come to preach
to and teach them by way of the strait of Ma[la]ca and the Red Sea,
through which they navigate to reach these islands.

The arrival of the Spaniards in these Filipinas Islands, since the
year one thousand five hundred and sixty-four, the pacification and
conversion that has been made therein, their mode of governing, and
the provisions of his Majesty during these years for their welfare,
have caused innovations in many things, such as are usual to kingdoms
and provinces that change their religion and sovereign. The foremost
has been that, besides the name of Filipinas which all the islands
took and received from the beginning of their conquest, they belong
to a new kingdom and seigniory to which his Majesty, Filipo Second,
our sovereign, gave the name of Nuevo Reyno de Castilla ["New Kingdom
of Castilla"]. By his royal concession, he made the city of Manila
capital of it, and gave to it as a special favor, among other things,
a crowned coat-of-arms which was chosen and assigned by his royal
person. This is an escutcheon divided across. In the upper part is a
castle on a red field, and in the lower a lion of gold, crowned and
rampant, holding a naked sword in its right paw. One-half of the body
is in the form of a dolphin upon the waters of the sea, to signify
that the Spaniards crossed the sea with their arms to conquer this
kingdom for the crown of Castilla. [336]

The city of Manila was founded by the adelantado Miguel Lopez de
Legazpi, first governor of the Filipinas, in the island of Luzon. It
occupies the same site where Rajamora had his settlement and fort--as
has been related more at length--at the mouth of the river which
empties into the bay, on a point between the river and the sea. The
whole site was occupied by this new settlement, and Legazpi apportioned
it to the Spaniards in equal building-lots. It was laid out with
well-arranged streets and squares, straight and level. A sufficiently
large main square [Plaza mayor] was left, fronting which were erected
the cathedral church and municipal buildings. He left another square,
that of arms [Plaza de armas], fronting which was built the fort, as
well as the royal buildings. He gave sites for the monasteries, [337]
hospital, and chapels which were to be built, as being a city which
was to grow and increase continually--as already it has done; for,
in the course of the time that has passed, that city has flourished
as much as the best of all the cities in those regions.

The city is completely surrounded with a stone wall, which is more
than two and one-half varas wide, and in places more than three. It
has small towers and traverses at intervals. [338] It has a fortress
of hewn stone at the point that guards the bar and the river, with a
ravelin close to the water, upon which are mounted some large pieces
of artillery. This artillery commands the sea and river, while other
pieces are mounted farther up to defend the bar, besides some other
moderate-sized field-pieces and swivel-guns. These fortifications
have their vaults for storing supplies and munitions, and a magazine
for the powder, which is well guarded and situated in the inner
part; and a copious well of fresh water. There are also quarters
for the soldiers and artillerymen, and the house of the commandant
[alcayde]. The city has been lately fortified on the land side at the
Plaza de armas, where it is entered by a strong wall and two salient
towers, defended with artillery, which command the wall and gate. This
fortress is called Santiago, and has a company of thirty soldiers
with their officers, and eight artillerymen who guard the gate and
entrance by watches--all in charge of a commandant who lives inside,
and has the guard and custody of the fort.

There is another fortress, also of stone, in the same wall, within
culverin range, located at the end [339] of the curtain, which extends
along the shore of the bay. It is called Nuestra Señora de Guia, and
is a very large round tower. It has its own court, well, and quarters
inside, as well as the magazine, and other rooms for work. It has a
traverse extending to the beach, on which are mounted a dozen large and
moderate-sized pieces, which command the bay and sweep the wall, which
extends along the shore to the gate and to the fort of Santiago. On
the other side the fortress has a large salient tower, mounted with
four large pieces, which command the shore ahead in the direction of
the chapel of Nuestra Señora de Guia. The gate and entrance is within
the city and is guarded by a company of twenty soldiers and their
officers, six artillerymen, and one commandant and his lieutenant,
who live inside.

On the land side, where the wall extends, there is a rampart called
Sant Andres, which mounts six pieces of artillery that command in
all directions, and some swivel-guns. Farther on is another traverse
called San Gabriel, opposite the parián of the Sangleys, with a like
amount of artillery. Both have some soldiers and an ordinary guard.

The wall has a sufficient height, and is furnished with battlements and
turrets, built in the modern style, for its defense. It has a circuit
of about one legua, which can be made entirely on top. It has many
broad steps of the same hewn stone, at intervals inside. There are
three principal city gates on the land side, and many other posterns
opening at convenient places on the river and beach, for the service
of the city. Each and all of them are locked before nightfall by
the ordinary patrols. These carry the keys to the guard-room of the
royal buildings. In the morning when day comes, the patrols return
with the keys and open the city. [340]

The royal arsenals front on the Plaza de armas. In them are kept and
guarded all the supplies of ammunition, food, rigging, iron, copper,
lead, artillery, arquebuses, and other things belonging to the royal
estate. They have their own officers and workmen, and are placed in
charge of the royal officials.

Near these arsenals is located the powder-house, with its master,
workmen, and convicts, where powder is generally ground in thirty
mortars, and that which is spoiled is refined. [341]

The building for the founding of artillery is located on a suitable
site in another part of the city. It has its molds, ovens, and tools,
founders, and workmen who work it. [342]

The royal buildings are very beautiful and sightly, and contain many
rooms. They have many windows opening toward the sea and the Plaza
de armas. They are all built of stone and have two courts, with
upper and lower galleries raised on stout pillars. The governor and
president lives inside with his family. There is a hall for the royal
Audiencia, which is very large and stately; also a separate chapel,
a room for the royal seal, [343] and offices for the scriveners of the
Audiencia, and the government. There are also other apartments for the
royal treasury and the administration of the royal officials, while a
large porch opens on the street with two principal doors, where the
guardroom is located. There is one company of regular arquebusiers,
who come in daily with their banners to stand guard. Opposite, on the
other side of the street, is another edifice for the royal treasury
and those in charge of it. [344]

The houses of the cabildo, located on the square, are built of
stone. They are very sightly and have handsome halls. On the ground
floor is the prison, and the court of the alcaldes-in-ordinary. [345]

On the same square is situated the cathedral church. It is built
of hewn stone, and has three naves, and its main chapel, and choir,
with high and low seats. The choir is shut in by railings, and has
its organ, missal-stands, and other necessary things. The cathedral
has also its sacristan [346] and his apartments and offices.

Within the city is the monastery of St. Augustine. It is very large
and has many dormitories, a refectory and kitchens. They are now
completing a church, which is one of the most sumptuous in those
districts. This convent has generally fifty religious. [347]

The monastery of St. Dominic is inside the walls. It contains
about forty religious. It was built of stone, and was very well
constructed. It has a church, house, and all offices. It has lately
been rebuilt, and much better; for it was completely destroyed in
the burning of the city in the year six hundred and three.

The monastery of St. Francis is farther on. It is well constructed
of stone, and its church is being rebuilt. It contains about forty
discalced religious.

The residence [colegio] of the Society of Jesus is established near
the fortress of Nuestra Señora de Guia. It contains twenty religious
of their order, and is an excellent stone house and church. There
they study Latin, the arts, and cases of conscience. Connected with
them is a seminary and convictorio [348] for Spanish scholars, with
their rector. These students wear gowns of tawny-colored frieze with
red facings. [349]

In another part of the city stands a handsome house, walled in, with
its stone church, called San Andres and Santa Potenciana. It is a royal
foundation, and a rectoress lives there. It has a revolving entrance
and a parlor, and the rectoress has other confidential assistants;
and there shelter is given to needy women and girls of the city,
in the form of religious retirement. Some of the girls leave the
house to be married, while others remain there permanently. It has
its own house for work, and its choir. His Majesty assists them with
a portion of their maintenance; the rest is provided by their own
industry and property. They have their own steward and their priest,
who administers the sacraments to them. [350]

In another part is the royal hospital for Spaniards, with its
physician, apothecary, surgeons, managers, and servants. It and its
church are built of stone; and it has its sick rooms and the bed
service. In it all the Spaniards are treated. It is usually quite
full; it is under the royal patronage. His Majesty provides the most
necessary things for it. Three discalced religious of St. Francis
act there as superintendents, and they prove very advantageous for
the corporal and spiritual relief of the sick. It was burned in the
conflagration of the former year six hundred and three, and is now
being rebuilt.

There is another charitable hospital in charge of the Confraternity of
that name. It was founded in the city of Manila by the Confraternity
of La Misericordia of Lisboa, and by the other confraternities of
India. [351] It has apostolic bulls for works of charity, such as
burying the dead, supporting the modest poor, marrying orphans, and
relieving many necessities. There the slaves of the city are treated,
and lodgings are likewise provided for poor women.

Next to the monastery of St. Francis is located the hospital for
natives, [352] which is under royal patronage. It was founded with
alms, by a holy lay-brother of St. Francis, one Fray Joan Clemente. A
great many natives, suffering from all diseases, are treated there
with great care and attention. It has a good edifice and workrooms
built of stone. The discalced religious of St. Francis manage it;
and three priests and four lay-brothers, of exemplary life, live
there. These are the physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries of the
hospital, and are so skilful and useful, that they cause many marvelous
cures, both in medicine and in surgery.

The streets of the city are compactly built up with houses, mostly of
stone, although some are of wood. Many are roofed with clay tiling, and
others with nipa. They are excellent edifices, lofty and spacious, and
have large rooms and many windows, and balconies, with iron gratings,
that embellish them. More are daily being built and finished. There
are about six hundred houses within the walls, and a greater number,
built of wood, in the suburbs; and all are the habitations and homes
of Spaniards.

The streets, squares, and churches are generally filled with people
of all classes, especially Spaniards--all, both men and women,
clad and gorgeously adorned in silks. They wear many ornaments and
all kinds of fine clothes, because of the ease with which these are
obtained. Consequently this is one of the settlements most highly
praised, by the foreigners who resort to it, of all in the world,
both for the above reason, and for the great provision and abundance
of food and other necessaries for human life found there, and sold
at moderate prices.

Manila has two drives for recreation. One is by land, along the point
called Nuestra Señora de Guia. It extends for about a legua along
the shore, and is very clean and level. Thence it passes through a
native street and settlement, called Bagunbayan, to a chapel, much
frequented by the devout, called Nuestra Señora de Guia, and continues
for a goodly distance further to a monastery and mission-house of
the Augustinians, called Mahalat. [353]

The other drive extends through one of the city gates to a native
settlement, called Laguio, by which one may go to a chapel of San
Anton, and to a monastery and mission-house of discalced Franciscans,
a place of great devotion, near the city, called La Candelaria. [354]

This city is the capital of the kingdom and the head of the
government of all the islands. It is the metropolis of the other
cities and settlements of the islands. In it reside the Audiencia and
Chancillería of his Majesty, and the governor and captain-general of
the islands. [355]

Manila has a city cabildo with two alcaldes-in-ordinary, twelve
perpetual regidors, an alguaçil-mayor [i.e., chief constable], a royal
standard-bearer, the scrivener of the cabildo, and other officials.

The archbishop of the Filipinas Islands resides in this city. He has
his metropolitan church, and all the cathedral dignitaries--canons,
racioneros, medias racioneros, [356] chaplains, and sacristans--and a
music-choir, who chant to the accompaniment of the organ and of flutes
[ministriles]. The cathedral is quite ornate and well decorated,
and the Divine offices are celebrated there with the utmost gravity
and ceremony. As suffragans the cathedral has three bishops--namely,
in the island of Sebu, and in Cagayan and Camarines. [357]

There is a royal treasury with three royal officials--factor,
accountant, and treasurer--by whom the royal revenue of all the
islands is managed. [358]

The vessels sailing annually to Nueva España with the merchandise and
investments of all the islands are despatched from the city of Manila;
and they return thither from Nueva España with the proceeds of this
merchandise, and the usual reënforcements.

In the city is established the camp of the regular soldiers whom his
Majesty has had stationed in the islands.

Several galleys are also stationed at Manila with their general and
captains, as well as other war-vessels, of deep draft, and smaller
ones built like those used by the natives, to attend to the needs of
all the islands.

The majority of the vessels from China, Japon, Maluco, Borney, Sian,
Malaca, and India, that come to the Filipinas with their merchandise
and articles of trade, gather in the bay and river of Manila. In that
city they sell and trade for all the islands and their settlements.

In the province [of Cagayán] of this same island of Luzon was founded
the city of Segovia, [359] during the term of Don Gonçalo Ronquillo,
the third governor. It has two hundred Spanish inhabitants who live in
wooden houses on the shore of the Tajo River, two leguas from the sea
and port of Camalayuga. There is a stone fort near the city for the
defense of it and of the river. This fort mounts some artillery, and
has its own commandant. Besides the inhabitants, there are generally
one hundred regular soldiers, arquebusiers, and their officers. They
are all in charge and under command of the alcalde-mayor of the
province, who is its military commander.

In that city is established a bishop and his church, although at
present the latter has no dignitaries or prebendaries. [360] There
is a city cabildo consisting of two alcaldes, six regidors, and an
alguacil-mayor. The city abounds in all kinds of food and refreshment
at very cheap prices.

The city of Caçeres was founded in the province of Camarines of the
same island of Luzon, during the term of Doctor Sande, governor of
the Filipinas. It has about one hundred Spanish inhabitants; and
has its cabildo, consisting of alcaldes, regidors, and officials. A
bishop of that province is established there and has his church,
although without dignitaries or prebendaries. A monastery of discalced
Franciscans is located there. The government and military affairs of
that province are under one alcalde-mayor and war-captain, who resides
in Caçeres. The latter is a place abounding in and furnished with all
kinds of provisions, at very low rates. It is founded on the bank of
a river, four leguas inland from the sea, and its houses are of wood.

The fourth city is that called Santisimo Nombre de Jesus; it is located
in the island of Sebu, in the province of Bicayas or Pintados. It was
the first Spanish settlement and was founded by the adelantado Miguel
Lopez de Legazpi, the first governor. It is a fine seaport, whose water
is very clear and deep, and capable of holding many vessels. The city
has an excellent stone fort, which mounts a considerable quantity of
artillery, and which has its commandant and officers for the guard
and defense of the port and of the city. It is sufficiently garrisoned
with regulars, and is under command of the alcalde-mayor, the military
commander of the province, who lives in the city. The settlement
contains about two hundred Spanish inhabitants who live in houses
of wood. It has a cabildo, consisting of two alcaldes-in-ordinary,
eight regidors, and an alguacil-mayor and his officers. It has a
bishop and his church, like those of other cities of these islands,
without prebendaries. [361]

The city is provided with food by, and is a station for, the ships
going from Maluco to Manila. Through his Majesty's concession they keep
there a deep-draft merchant vessel, which generally leaves its port
for Nueva España, laden with the merchandise of the products gathered
in those provinces. It has a monastery of Augustinian religious and
a seminary of the Society of Jesus.

The town of Arevalo was founded on the island of Oton [Panay], during
the term of Don Gonçalo Ronquillo. [362] It contains about eighty
Spanish inhabitants, and is located close to the sea. It has a wooden
fort, which mounts some artillery, and a monastery of the Order of
St. Augustine; also a parish church, with its own vicar and secular
priest. This church belongs to the diocese of the Sebu bishopric.

It has a cabildo, consisting of alcaldes, regidors, and other
officials. There is one alcalde-mayor and military leader in those
provinces. The town is well supplied with all kinds of provisions,
sold at very low rates.

The settlement of Villa Fernandina, [363] which was founded in the
province of the Ilocos on the island of Luzon, is settled by Spaniards,
but very few of them remain there. It has a church, with its own vicar
and secular priest. Now no mention will be made of it, on account of
what has been said. The alcalde-mayor of the province resides there,
and the town is situated in the diocese of the Cagayan bishopric.

From the earliest beginning of the conquest and pacification of
the Filipinas Islands, the preaching of the holy gospel therein
and the conversion of the natives to our holy Catholic faith were
undertaken. The first to set hand to this task were the religious
of the Order of St. Augustine, who went there with the adelantado
Legazpi in the fleet of discovery, and those of the same order who
went afterward to labor in this work, and toiled therein with great
fervor and zeal. Thus, finding the harvest in good season, they
gathered the first fruits of it, and converted and baptized many
infidels throughout the said islands. [364]

Next to them in the fame of this conversion, the discalced religious
of the Order of St. Francis went to the islands by way of Nueva
España; then those of the Order of St. Dominic, and of the Society of
Jesus. [365] Lastly, the discalced Augustinian Recollects went. One and
all, after being established in the islands, worked in the conversion
and instruction of the natives. Consequently they have made--and
there are now in all the islands--a great number of baptized natives,
besides many others in many parts, who, for want of laborers, have been
put off, and are awaiting this blessing and priests to minister to
them. Hitherto there have been but few missions in charge of secular
priests, as not many of these have gone to the islands; and as very
few have been ordained there, for lack of students.

The Order of St. Augustine has many missions in the islands of Pintados
and has established and occupied monasteries and various visitas. [366]
In the island of Luzon, they have those of the province of Ylocos,
some in Pangasinan, and all those of La Pampanga--a large number of
monasteries; while in the province of Manila and its vicinity they
have others, which are flourishing.

The Order of St. Dominic has the missions of the province of Cagayan,
and others in the province of Pangasinan, where are many monasteries
and visitas. They also administer others about the city.

The Order of St. Francis has some missions and monasteries about
Manila, all the province of Camarines and the coast opposite, and La
Laguna de Bay. These include many missions.

The Society of Jesus has three large missions in the neighborhood
of Manila, which have many visitas. In the Pintados it has many
others on the islands of Sebu, Leite, Ybabao, Camar [Samar], Bohol,
and others near by. They have good men, who are solicitous for the
conversion of the natives.

These four orders have produced many good results in the conversion
of these islands, as above stated; and in good sooth the people
have taken firm hold of the faith, as they are a people of so good
understanding. They have recognized the errors of their paganism
and the truths of the Christian religion; and they possess good and
well-built churches and monasteries of wood with their reredoses and
beautiful ornaments, and all the utensils, crosses, candlesticks,
and chalices of silver and gold. Many devotions are offered, and there
are many confraternities. There is assiduity in taking the sacraments
and in attendance on the Divine services; and the people are careful
to entertain and support their religious (to whom they show great
obedience and respect) by the many alms that they give them, as well
as by those that they give for the suffrages and the burial of their
dead, which they provide with all punctuality and liberality.

At the same time that the religious undertook to teach the natives
the precepts of religion, they labored to instruct them in matters
of their own improvement, and established schools for the reading
and writing of Spanish among the boys. They taught them to serve in
the church, to sing the plain-song, and to the accompaniment of the
organ; to play the flute, to dance, and to sing; and to play the
harp, guitar, and other instruments. In this they show very great
adaptability, especially about Manila; where there are many fine
choirs of chanters and musicians composed of natives, who are skilful
and have good voices. There are many dancers, and musicians on the
other instruments which solemnize and adorn the feasts of the most
holy sacrament, and many other feasts during the year. The native
boys present dramas and comedies, both in Spanish and in their own
language, very charmingly. This is due to the care and interest of
the religious, who work tirelessly for the natives' advancement. [367]

In these islands there is no native province or settlement which
resists conversion or does not desire it. But, as above stated,
baptism has been postponed in some districts, for lack of workers
to remain with the people, in order that they may not retrograde and
return to their idolatries. In this work, the best that is possible
is done, for the mission-fields are very large and extensive. In many
districts the religious make use, in their visitas, of certain of the
natives who are clever and well instructed, so that these may teach
the others to pray daily, instruct them in other matters touching
religion, and see that they come to mass at the central missions; and
in this way they succeed in preserving and maintaining their converts.

Hitherto, the orders who control these missions in virtue of the
omnimodo and other apostolic concessions [368] have attended to the
conversion of the natives, administered the sacraments, looked after
the spiritual and temporal and ecclesiastical affairs of the natives,
and absolved them in cases of difficulty. But now that there are an
archbishop and bishops, this is being curtailed, and the management
of these affairs is being given to the bishops, as the archbishop's
vicars--although not to such an extent, nor has the administration
of these natives been placed in their charge, in matters of justice,
and under the inspection and superintendence of the bishops, as they
have endeavored to obtain. [369]

The governor and royal Audiencia of Manila attend to what it is
advisable to provide and direct for the greatest accomplishment and
advancement of this conversion, and the administration of the natives
and their missions--both by causing the encomenderos to assist
the religious and churches, in the encomiendas that they enjoy,
with the stipends and necessary expenses of the missions; and by
furnishing from the royal revenues what pertains to it, which is no
less a sum. [370] They also ordain whatever else is required to be
provided and remedied for the said missions and for the advancement
of the natives. This also is attended to by the archbishop and the
bishops in what pertains to them in their duty and charge as pastors.

The Holy Office of the Inquisition, residing in Mexico of Nueva
España, has its commissaries, servants, and helpers in Manila and
in the bishoprics of the islands, who attend to matters touching
the Holy Office. They never fail to have plenty to do there because
of the entrance of so many strangers into those districts. However,
this holy tribunal does not have jurisdiction of the causes pertaining
to the natives, as the latter are so recently converted.

All these islands are subdued, and are governed from Manila by means
of alcaldes-mayor, corregidors, and lieutenants, each of whom rules
and administers justice in his own district and province. Appeals from
their acts and sentences go to the royal Audiencia. The governor and
captain-general provides what pertains to government and war.

The chiefs, who formerly held the other natives in subjection,
now have no power over them in the tyrannical manner of former
days. This was not the least benefit received by these natives in
having been freed from such servitude. However, it is true that
matters touching the slavery of former days have remained on the
same footing as before. The king our sovereign has ordered by his
decrees that the honors of the chiefs be preserved to them as such;
and that the other natives recognize them and assist them with certain
of the labors that they used to give when pagans. This is done with
the lords and possessors of barangays, and those belonging to such and
such a barangay are under that chief's control. When he harvests his
rice, they go one day to help him; and the same if he builds a house,
or rebuilds one. This chief lord of a barangay collects tribute from
his adherents, and takes charge of these collections, to pay them to
the encomendero. [371]

Besides the above, each village has a governor [372] who is elected. He
and his constables who are called vilangos [373] comprise the
usual magistracy among the natives. The governor hears civil suits
where a moderate sum is involved; in appeal, the case goes to the
corregidor or alcalde-mayor of the province. These governors are
elected annually by the votes of all the married natives of such
and such a village. The governor of Manila confirms the election,
and gives the title of governor to the one elected, and orders him to
take the residencia of the outgoing governor. [374] This governor,
in addition to the vilangos and scrivener (before whom he makes his
acts in writing, in the language of the natives of that province),
[375] holds also the chiefs--lords of barangays, and those who are
not so--under his rule and government, and, for any special service,
such as collections of tributes, and assignments of personal services,
as his datos and mandones. [376] They do not allow the chiefs to
oppress the timaguas or slaves under their control.

The same customs observed by these natives in their paganism, are
observed by them since they have become Christians, in so far as
they are not contrary to natural law, especially as to their slavery,
successions, inheritances, adoptions, wills, and lawful trading. In
their suits, they always allege and prove the custom, and are judged
by it, according to royal decrees to that effect. In other causes
which do not involve their customs, and in criminal cases, the matter
is determined by law as among Spaniards.

All of these islands and their natives, so far as they were pacified,
were apportioned into encomiendas from the beginning. To the royal
crown were allotted those which were chief towns and ports, and the
dwellers of the cities and towns; and also other special encomiendas
and villages in all the provinces, for the necessities and expenses
of the royal estate. All the rest was assigned to the conquerors and
settlers who have served and labored for the conquest and pacification,
and in the war. This matter is in charge of the governor, who takes
into consideration the merits and services of the claimants. [377]
In like manner the villages that become vacant are assigned. There
are many very excellent encomiendas throughout the islands, and they
offer many profits, both by the amount of their tributes and by the
nature and value of what is paid as tribute. [378] The encomienda
lasts, according to the royal laws and decrees, and by the regular
order and manner of succession to them, for two lives; but it may
be extended to a third life, by permission. After it becomes vacant,
it is again assigned and granted anew.

The tributes paid to their encomenderos by the natives were assigned
by the first governor, Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, in the provinces of
Vicayas and Pintados, and in the islands of Luzon and its vicinity;
they were equal to the sum of eight reals annually for an entire
tribute from each tributario. The natives were to pay it in their
products--in gold, cloth, cotton, rice, bells, fowls, and whatever
else they possessed or harvested. The fixed price and value of each
article was assigned so that, when the tribute was paid in any one
of them, or in all of them, it should not exceed the value of the
eight reals. So it has continued until now, and the governors have
increased the appraisements and values of the products at different
times, as they have deemed advisable.

The encomenderos have made great profits in collecting in kind, for,
after they acquired possession of the products, they sold them at
higher prices. By this they increased their incomes and the proceeds
of their encomiendas considerably; until a few years ago his Majesty,
by petition of the religious and the pressure that they brought to
bear on him in this matter, ordered for this region that the natives
should pay their tribute in whatever they wished--in kind or in
money--without being compelled to do otherwise. Consequently, when
they should have paid their eight reals, they would have fulfilled
their obligation. Accordingly this rule was initiated; but experience
demonstrates that, although it seemed a merciful measure, and one
favorable to the natives, it is doing them great injury. For, since
they naturally dislike to work, they do not sow, spin, dig gold,
rear fowls, or raise other food supplies, as they did before, when
they had to pay the tribute in those articles. They easily obtain,
without so much work, the peso of money which is the amount of their
tribute. Consequently it follows that the natives have less capital
and wealth, because they do not work; and the country, which was
formerly very well provided and well-supplied with all products,
is now suffering want and deprivation of them. The owners of the
encomiendas, both those of his Majesty and those of private persons
who possess them, have sustained considerable loss and reduction in
the value of the encomiendas.

When Gomez Perez Dasmariñas was appointed governor of the Filipinas,
he brought royal decrees ordering the formation of the camp in Manila,
with an enrollment of four hundred paid soldiers, with their officers,
galleys, and other military supplies, for the defense and security
of the country. Before that time all the Spanish inhabitants had
attended to that without any pay. Then an increase of two reals to
each tributario over the eight reals was ordered. This was to be
collected by the encomenderos at the same time when they collected
the eight reals of the tribute, and was to be delivered and placed
in the royal treasury. There this amount was to be entered on an
account separate from that of the other revenue of his Majesty, and
was to be applied in the following manner: one and one-half reals for
the expenses of the said camp and war stores; and the remaining half
real for the pay of the prebendaries of the Manila church, which his
Majesty pays from his treasury, until such time as their tithes and
incomes suffice for their sustenance. [379]

These tributes are collected from all the natives, Christians and
infidels, in their entirety--except that in those encomiendas without
instruction the encomendero does not take the fourth part of the eight
reals (which equals two reals) for himself, since that encomienda has
no instruction or expenses for it; but he takes them and deposits
them in Manila, in a fund called "the fourths." [380] The money
obtained from this source is applied to and spent in hospitals for
the natives, and in other works beneficial to them, at the option of
the governor. As fast as the encomiendas are supplied with instruction
and religious, the collection of these fourths and their expenditure
in these special works cease.

Some provinces have taken the census of their natives; and according to
these the tributes and the assignment of the two reals are collected.

In most of the provinces no census has been taken, and the tributes
are collected when due by the encomenderos and their collectors,
through the chiefs of their encomiendas, by means of the lists and
memoranda of former years. From them the names of the deceased and of
those who have changed their residence are erased, and the names of
those who have grown up, and of those who have recently moved into the
encomienda, are added. When any shortage is perceived in the accounts,
a new count is requested and made.

The natives are free to move from one island to another, and from
one province to another, and pay their tribute for that year in which
they move and change their residence in the place to which they move;
and to move from a Christian village that has instruction to another
village possessing it. But, on the other hand, they may not move from
a place having instruction to one without it, nor in the same village
from one barangay to another, nor from one faction to another. In
this respect, the necessary precautions are made by the government,
and the necessary provisions by the Audiencia, so that this system
may be kept, and so that all annoyances resulting from the moving of
the settled natives of one place to another place may be avoided.

Neither are the natives allowed to go out of their villages for
trade, except by permission of the governor, or of his alcaldes-mayor
and justices, or even of the religious, who most often have been
embarrassed by this, because of the instruction. This is done so that
the natives may not wander about aimlessly when there is no need of
it, away from their homes and settlements.

Those natives who possess slaves pay their tributes for them if the
slaves are saguiguilirs. If the slaves are namamahays living outside
their owners' houses, they pay their own tributes, inasmuch as they
possess their own houses and means of gain.

The Spaniards used to have slaves from these natives, whom they had
bought from them, and others whom they obtained in certain expeditions
during the conquest and pacification of the islands. This was stopped
by a brief of his Holiness [381] and by royal decrees. Consequently,
all of these slaves who were then in the possession of the Spanish,
and who were natives of these islands, in whatever manner they had
been acquired, were freed; and the Spaniards were forever prohibited
from holding them as slaves, or from capturing them for any reason, or
under pretext of war, or in any other manner. The service rendered by
these natives is in return for pay and daily wages. The other slaves
and captives that the Spaniards possess are Cafres and blacks brought
by the Portuguese by way of India, and are held in slavery justifiably,
in accordance with the provincial councils and the permissions of
the prelates and justices of those districts.

The natives of these islands have also their personal services, which
they are obliged to render--in some parts more than in others--to the
Spaniards. These are done in different ways, and are commonly called
the polo. [382] For, where there are alcaldes-mayor and justices, they
assign and distribute certain natives by the week for the service of
their houses. They pay these servants a moderate wage, which generally
amounts to one-fourth real per day, and rice for their food. The same
is done by the religious for the mission, and for their monasteries
and churches, and for their works, and for public works. [383]

The Indians also furnish rice, and food of all kinds, at the prices
at which they are valued and sold among the natives. These prices
are always very moderate. The datos, vilangos, and fiscals make the
division, collect, and take these supplies from the natives; and in
the same manner they supply their encomenderos when these go to make
the collections.

The greatest service rendered by these natives is on occasions of war,
when they act as rowers and crews for the vireys and vessels that go
on the expeditions, and as pioneers for any service that arises in
the course of the war, although their pay and wages are given them.

In the same way natives are assigned and apportioned for the king's
works, such as the building of ships, the cutting of wood, the trade
of making the rigging, [384] the work in the artillery foundry, and
the service in the royal [385] magazines; and they are paid their
stipend and daily wage.

In other things pertaining to the service of the Spaniards and their
expeditions, works, and any other service, performed by the natives,
the service is voluntary, and paid by mutual agreement; [386] for,
as hitherto, the Spaniards have worked no mines, nor have they given
themselves to the gains to be derived from field labors, there is no
occasion for employing the natives in anything of that sort.

Most of the Spaniards of the Filipinas Islands reside in the city
of Manila, the capital of the kingdom, and where the chief trade
and commerce is carried on. Some encomenderos live in provinces or
districts adjacent to Manila, while other Spaniards live in the
cities of Segovia, Caçeres, Santisimo Nombre de Jesus (in Sebu),
and in the town of Arevalo, where they are settled, and where most
of them have their encomiendas.

Spaniards may not go to the Indian villages, [387] except for the
collection of the tributes when they are due; and then only the
alcaldes-mayor, corregidors, and justices. It is not permitted these
to remain continually in one settlement of their district, but they
must visit as much of it as possible. They must change their residence
and place of abode every four months to another chief village and
settlement, where all the natives may obtain the benefit of their
presence; and so that the natives may receive as slight annoyance
as possible in supporting them and in the ordinary service that they
render them. [388]

The governor makes appointments to all offices. When the term of office
expires, the royal Aurdiencia orders the residencia of each official
to be taken, and his case is decided in accordance therewith; and
until the residencia is completed, the incumbent cannot be appointed
to any other duty or office. The governor also appoints commandants
of forts, companies, and other military officials, in all the cities,
towns, and hamlets of the islands. [389]

Certain offices of regidors and notaries have been sold by royal decree
for one life. But the sale of these offices has been superseded,
as it is now considered that the price paid for them is of little
consideration, while the disadvantage of perpetuating the purchasers
in office by this method is greater.

Elections of alcaldes-in-ordinary for all the Spanish towns are held
on New Year's day by the cabildo and magistracy. The residencias
of these alcaldes-in-ordinary and their cabildos are ordered by
his Majesty to be taken at the same time as that of the governor
and captain-general of the islands is taken; and they give account
of the administration of the revenues and the estates under their
care. However, the governor may take it before this, every year,
or whenever he thinks it expedient and cause the balances of their
accounts to be collected. With the governor's advice and permission
the expenses desired by the towns are made.

The city of Manila has sufficient public funds for certain years,
through the fines imposed by its judges; in its own particular
possessions, inside and outside the city; in the reweighing of the
merchandise and the rents of all the shops and sites of the Sangleys
in the parián; and in the monopoly on playing cards. All this was
conceded to the city by his Majesty, especially for the expenses of
its fortification. [390] These revenues are spent for that purpose; for
the salaries of its officials, and those of the agents sent to España;
and for the feasts of the city, chief of which are St. Potenciana's
day, May nineteen, when the Spaniards entered and seized the city,
and the day of St. Andrew, November 30, the date on which the pirate
Limahon was conquered and driven from the city. On that day the city
officials take out the municipal standard, and to the sound of music go
to vespers and mass at the church of San Andres, where the entire city,
with the magistracy and cabildo and the royal Audiencia, assemble
with all solemnity. The above revenues are also used in receiving
the governors at their first arrival in the country, in the kings'
marriage feasts, and the births of princes, and in the honors and
funeral celebrations for the kings and princes who die. In all the
above the greatest possible display is made.

The other cities and settlements do not possess as yet so many
sources of wealth or revenue, or the occasions on which to spend
them--although, as far as possible, they take part in them, in all
celebrations of the same kind.

The Spaniards living in the islands are divided into five classes of
people: namely, prelates, religious, and ecclesiastical ministers,
both secular and regular; encomenderos, settlers, and conquerors;
soldiers, officers, and officials of war (both on land and sea),
and those for navigation; merchants, business men, and traders; and
his Majesty's agents for government, justice, and administration of
his royal revenue.

The ecclesiastical prelates have already been stated, and are as
follows: The archbishop of Manila, who resides in the city, as
metropolitan, in charge of his cathedral church; he has a salary
of four thousand pesos, [391] which is paid from the royal treasury
annually. Likewise the salaries paid to the holders of the dignidades,
[392] canonries, and other prebends, and those performing other
services, are paid in the same manner. They are all under royal
patronage, and are provided in accordance with the king's orders. The
archbishop's office and jurisdiction consists of and extends to all,
both the spiritual and temporal, that is ecclesiastic, and to its
management. [393]

The bishop of the city of Santisimo Nombre de Jesus in Sibu, that
of Segovia in Cagayan, and that of Caceres in Camarines, have the
same rights of jurisdiction and enjoy the same privileges in their
dioceses, since they are suffragans of the archbishop of Manila;
appeal from their judgments is made to the latter, and he summons and
convokes them to his provincial councils whenever necessary. They
receive each an annual salary of five hundred thousand maravedis
for their support, which is paid from the royal treasury of Manila,
besides their offerings and pontifical dues. All together it is quite
sufficient for their support, according to the convenience of things
and the cheapness of the country. At present the bishops do not possess
churches with prebendaries nor is any money set aside for that. [394]

The regular prelates are the provincials of the four mendicant orders,
namely, St. Dominic, St. Augustine, St. Francis, the Society of
Jesus, and the discalced Augustinians. [395] Each prelate governs
his own order and visits the houses. The orders have nearly all the
missions to the natives under their charge, in whatever pertains to
the administration of the sacraments and conversion--by favor of,
and in accordance with, their privileges and the apostolic bulls, in
which until now they have maintained themselves--and in what pertains
to judicial matters, as vicars of the bishops, and through appointment
and authorization of the latter. The discalced Augustinians as yet
have no missions, as they have but recently entered the islands.

The monasteries are supported by certain special incomes that they
possess and have acquired--especially those of the Augustinians
and those of the Society--and by help and concessions granted by
his Majesty. The Dominicans and Franciscans do not possess or allow
incomes or properties; [396] and for them, as for the other orders,
the principal source of revenue is in the alms, offerings, and aid
given by the districts where they are established and where they have
charge. This help is given by both Spaniards and natives, very piously
and generously. They are aided also by the stipend given them from
the encomiendas for the instruction that they give there. Consequently
the religious of the orders live well and with the comfort necessary.

The first encomenderos, conquerors, and settlers of the islands,
and their issue, are honorably supported by the products of their
encomiendas, and by certain means of gain and trading interests that
they possess, as do the rest of the people. There are a great number of
them, each one of whom lives and possesses his house in the city and
settlement of Spaniards in whose province he has his encomienda. This
they do in order not to abandon their encomiendas, and thus they are
nearer the latter for their needs and for collections.

Now but few of the first conquerors who gained the country and went
there for its conquest with the adelantado Miguel Lopez de Legaspi
remain alive.

The soldiers and officers of war and of naval expeditions formerly
consisted of all the dwellers and inhabitants of the islands, who
rendered military service without any pay or salary. They went on all
the expeditions and pacifications that arose, and guarded the forts
and presidios, and cities and settlements. This was their principal
exercise and occupation. They were rewarded by the governor, who
provided them with encomiendas, offices, and profits of the country
according to their merits and services. [397]

At that time the soldiers of the islands were the best in the
Indias. They were very skilful and well-disciplined by both land
and sea, and were esteemed and respected by all those nations. They
gloried in their arms, and in acquitting themselves valiantly.

Afterward, when Gomez Perez Das Mariñas entered upon the government of
the Filipinas, he founded the regular camp of four hundred soldiers:
the arquebusiers, with pay of six pesos per month; the musketeers,
with eight pesos; six captains, with annual pay of four hundred
and twenty pesos apiece; their alféreces, sergeants, corporals,
standard-bearers, and drummers, with pay in proportion to their
duties; one master-of-camp, with annual pay of one thousand four
hundred pesos; one sargento-mayor with captain's pay; one adjutant of
the sargento-mayor and field-captain, with monthly pay of ten pesos;
two castellans; commandants of the two fortresses of Manila, with
four hundred pesos apiece annually; their lieutenants; squads of
soldiers and artillerymen; one general of galleys, with annual pay
of eight hundred pesos; each galley one captain, with annual pay of
three hundred pesos; their boatswains, boatswains' mates, coxswains,
alguacils of the galleys, soldiers, artillerymen, master-carpenters,
riggers, sailors, conscripts, [398] galley-crews of Spanish, Sangley,
and native convicts, condemned for crimes; and, when there is lack
of convicts, good rowers are obtained from the natives for pay,
for the period of the expedition and the occasion of the voyage. [399]

In the vessels and fleets of large vessels for the Nueva España line,
the ships that are sent carry a general, admiral, masters, boatswains,
commissaries, stewards, alguacils, sergeants of marine artillery
[condestables], artillerymen, sailors, pilots and their assistants,
common seamen, carpenters, calkers, and coopers, all in his Majesty's
pay, on the account of Nueva España, from whose royal treasury they
are paid. All that is necessary for this navigation is supplied
there. Their provisions and appointments are made by the viceroy;
and this has hitherto pertained to him, even though the ships may have
been constructed in the Filipinas. They sail thence with their cargo
of merchandise for Nueva España, and return thence to the Filipinas
with the reënforcements of soldiers and supplies, and whatever else
is necessary for the camp, besides passengers and religious, and the
money proceeding from the investments and merchandise. [400]

After the establishment of a regular camp for guard and expeditions,
the other inhabitants, dwellers, and residents were enrolled without
pay under the banners of six captains of the Filipinas, for special
occasions requiring the defense of the city. But they were relieved
of all other duties pertaining to the troops, unless they should
offer of their own accord to go upon any expedition, or volunteer
for any special occasion, in order to acquire merits and benefits, so
that they may be given encomiendas that become vacant, and offices,
and the means of profit of the country. They are not compelled or
obliged to do this, unless they are encomenderos. Consequently all
have given themselves to trading, as there is no other occupation,
but they are not unmindful of military service.

His Majesty prohibits all who are in his pay in the military forces
of the islands from engaging in commerce; and orders the governor
not to allow this, or permit them to export goods to Nueva España. If
the governors would observe that order, it would not be amiss. [401]

The merchants and business men form the bulk of the residents of
the islands, because of the great amount of merchandise brought
there--outside of native products--from China, Japon, Maluco, Malaca,
Sian, Camboja, Borneo, and other districts. They invest in this
merchandise and export it annually in the vessels that sail to Nueva
España, and at times to Japon, where great profits are made from
raw silk. Thence on the return to Manila are brought the proceeds,
which hitherto have resulted in large and splendid profits.

Through the very great increase of this trade--which was harmful
and prejudicial to the Spanish merchants who shipped goods to Peru
and Nueva España, and to the royal duties collected on the shipments
from España--and through the business men of Mexico and Peru having
become greedy of trade and commerce with the Filipinas, by means of
their agents and factors, so that the trade with España was ceasing
in great measure, and the merchants were sending to the Filipinas for
their investments great consignments of silver, which by that means
flowed yearly from his Majesty's kingdoms, to fall into the possession
of infidels: all persons of Nueva España and Peru were prohibited from
trading and engaging in commerce in the Filipinas, and from taking the
Chinese merchandise to those regions. [402] Permission was given to
the inhabitants and residents of the Filipinas that they alone might
trade in the said merchandise, and export it. They are to take these
goods themselves, or send them with persons who belong to the islands,
so that they may sell them. From the proceeds of the said merchandise,
they may not carry to the Filipinas more than five hundred thousand
pesos each year. [403]

A considerable number of somas and junks (which are large
vessels) generally come from Great China to Manila, laden with
merchandise. Every year thirty or even forty ships are wont to come,
and although they do not come together, in the form of a trading
and war fleet, still they do come in groups with the monsoon and
settled weather, which is generally at the new moon in March. They
belong to the provinces of Canton, Chincheo, and Ucheo [Fo-Kien],
and sail from those provinces. They make their voyage to the city of
Manila in fifteen or twenty days, sell their merchandise, and return
in good season, before the vendavals set in--the end of May and a
few days of June--in order not to endanger their voyage.

These vessels come laden with merchandise, and bring wealthy merchants
who own the ships, and servants and factors of other merchants who
remain in China. They leave China with the permission and license of
the Chinese viceroys and mandarins. The merchandise that they generally
bring and sell to the Spaniards consists of raw silk in bundles, of
the fineness of two strands [dos cabeças], and other silk of poorer
quality; fine untwisted silk, white and of all colors, wound in small
skeins; quantities of velvets, some plain, and some embroidered in
all sorts of figures, colors, and fashions--others with body of gold,
and embroidered with gold; woven stuffs and brocades, of gold and
silver upon silk of various colors and patterns; quantities of gold
and silver thread in skeins over thread and silk--but the glitter of
all the gold and silver is false, and only on paper; damasks, satins,
taffetans, gorvaranes, picotes, [404] and other cloths of all colors,
some finer and better than others; a quantity of linen made from grass,
called lençesuelo [handkerchief]; [405] and white cotton cloth of
different kinds and qualities, for all uses. They also bring musk,
benzoin, and ivory; many bed ornaments, hangings, coverlets, and
tapestries of embroidered velvet; damask and gorvaran of different
shades; tablecloths, cushions, and carpets; horse-trappings of the
same stuff, and embroidered with glass beads and seed-pearls; also
some pearls and rubies, sapphires and crystal-stones; metal basins,
copper kettles, and other copper and cast-iron pots; quantities
of all sorts of nails, sheet-iron, tin and lead; saltpetre and
gunpowder. They supply the Spaniards with wheat flour; preserves
made of orange, peach, scorzonera, [406] pear, nutmeg, and ginger,
and other fruits of China; salt pork and other salt meats; live fowls
of good breed, and very fine capons; quantities of green fruit, oranges
of all kinds; excellent chestnuts, walnuts, pears, and chicueyes [407]
(both green and dried, a delicious fruit); quantities of fine thread of
all kinds, needles, and knick-knacks; little boxes and writing-cases;
beds, tables, chairs, and gilded benches, painted in many figures and
patterns. They bring domestic buffaloes; geese that resemble swans;
horses, some mules and asses; even caged birds, some of which talk,
while others sing, and they make them play innumerable tricks. The
Chinese furnish numberless other gewgaws and ornaments of little
value and worth, which are esteemed among the Spaniards; besides a
quantity of fine crockery of all kinds; canganes, [408] sines, and
black and blue robes; tacley, which are beads of all kinds; strings
of cornelians, and other beads and precious stones of all colors;
pepper and other spices; and rarities--which, did I refer to them all,
I would never finish, nor have sufficient paper for it.

As soon as the ship reaches the mouth of the bay of Manila, the
watchman stationed at the island of Miraveles goes out to it in a
light vessel. Having examined the ship, he puts a guard of two or three
soldiers on it, so that it may anchor upon the bar, near the city, and
to see that no one shall disembark from the vessel, or anyone enter it
from outside, until the vessel has been inspected. By the signal made
with fire by the watchman from the said island, and the advice that he
sends in all haste to the city--of what ship it is, whence it has come,
what merchandise and people it brings--before the vessel has finished
anchoring, the governor and the city generally know all about it. [409]

When the vessel has arrived and anchored, the royal officials go to
inspect it and the register of the merchandise aboard it. At the
same time the valuation of the cargo is made according to law, of
what it is worth in Manila; for the vessel immediately pays three per
cent on everything to his Majesty. [410] After the register has been
inspected and the valuation made, then the merchandise is immediately
unloaded by another official into champans, and taken to the Parián,
or to other houses and magazines, outside of the city. There the
goods are freely sold.

No Spaniard, Sangley, or other person is allowed to go to the ship
to buy or trade merchandise, food, or anything else. Neither is it
allowed, when the merchandise is ashore, to take it from them or
buy it with force and violence; but the trade must be free, and the
Sangleys can do what they like with their property.

The ordinary price of the silks (both raw and woven) and the
cloths--which form the bulk of the cargo--is settled leisurely, and
by persons who understand it, both on the part of the Spaniards and
that of the Sangleys. The purchase price is paid in silver and reals,
for the Sangleys do not want gold, or any other articles, and will not
take other things to China. All the trading must be completed by the
end of the month of May, or thereabout, in order that the Sangleys
may return and the Spaniards have the goods ready to lade upon the
vessels that go to Nueva España by the end of June. However, the
larger dealers and those who have most money usually do their trading
after that time, at lower rates, and keep the merchandise until the
following year. Certain Sangleys remain in Manila with a portion of
their merchandise for the same purpose, when they have not had a good
sale for it, in order to go on selling it more leisurely. The Sangleys
are very skilful and intelligent traders, and of great coolness and
moderation, in order to carry on their business better. They are ready
to trust and accommodate freely whoever they know treats them fairly,
and does not fail in his payments to them when these are due. On
the other hand, as they are a people without religion or conscience,
and so greedy, they commit innumerable frauds and deceits in their
merchandise. The purchaser must watch them very closely, and know
them, in order not to be cheated by them. The purchasers, however,
acquit themselves by their poor payments and the debts that they incur;
and both sides generally keep the judges and Audiencia quite busy.

Some Japanese and Portuguese merchantmen also come every year from
the port of Nangasaque in Japon, at the end of October with the north
winds, and at the end of March. They enter and anchor at Manila
in the same way. The bulk of their cargo is excellent wheat-flour
for the provisioning of Manila, and highly prized salt meats. They
also bring some fine woven silk goods of mixed colors; beautiful and
finely-decorated screens done in oil and gilt; all kinds of cutlery;
many suits of armor, spears, catans, and other weapons, all finely
wrought; writing-cases, boxes and small cases of wood, japanned
and curiously marked; other pretty gewgaws; excellent fresh pears;
barrels and casks of good salt tunny; cages of sweet-voiced larks,
called fimbaros; and other trifles. In this trading, some purchases
are also made, without royal duties being collected from those
vessels. The bulk of the merchandise is used in the country, but
some goods are exported to Nueva España. The price is generally paid
in reals, although they are not so greedy for them as the Chinese,
for there is silver in Japon. They generally bring a quantity of it
as merchandise in plates, and it is sold at moderate rates.

These vessels return to Japon at the season of the vendavals, during
the months of June and July. They carry from Manila their purchases,
which are composed of raw Chinese silk, gold, deerskin, and brazil-wood
for their dyes. They take honey, manufactured wax, palm and Castilian
wine, civet-cats, large tibors in which to store their tea, glass,
cloth, and other curiosities from España.

Some Portuguese vessels sail to Manila annually during the monsoon
of the vendavals, from Maluco, Malaca, and India. They take
merchandise consisting of spices--cloves, cinnamon, and pepper;
slaves, both blacks and Cafres; cotton cloth of all sorts, fine
muslins [caniquies], linens, gauzes, rambuties, and other delicate
and precious cloths; amber, and ivory; cloths edged with pita,
[411] for use as bed-covers; hangings, and rich counterpanes from
Vengala [Bengal], Cochin, and other countries; many gilt articles
and curiosities; jewels of diamonds, rubies, sapphires, topazes,
balas-rubies, and other precious stones, both set and loose; many
trinkets and ornaments from India; wine, raisins, and almonds;
delicious preserves, and other fruits brought from Portugal and
prepared in Goa; carpets and tapestries from Persia and Turquia,
made of fine silks and wools; beds, writing-cases, parlor-chairs,
and other finely-gilded furniture, made in Macao; needle-work in
colors and in white, of chain-lace and royal point lace, and other
fancy-work of great beauty and perfection. Purchases of all the above
are made in Manila, and paid in reals and gold. The vessels return
in January with the brisas, which is their favorable monsoon. They
carry to Maluco provisions of rice and wine, crockery-ware, and
other wares needed there; while to Malaca they take only the gold or
money, besides a few special trinkets and curiosities from España,
and emeralds. The royal duties are not collected from these vessels.

A few smaller vessels also sail from Borneo, during the vendavals. They
belong to the natives of that island, and return during the first part
of the brisas. They enter the river of Manila and sell their cargoes
in their vessels. These consist of fine and well-made palm-mats, a few
slaves for the natives, sago--a certain food of theirs prepared from
the pith of palms--and tibors; large and small jars, glazed black and
very fine, which are of great service and use; and excellent camphor,
which is produced on that island. Although beautiful diamonds are found
on the opposite coast, they are not taken to Manila by those vessels,
for the Portuguese of Malaca trade for them on that coast. These
articles from Borneo are bought more largely by the natives than by
the Spaniards. The articles taken back by the Borneans are provisions
of wine and rice, cotton cloth, and other wares of the islands,
which are wanting in Borneo.

Very seldom a few vessels sail to Manila from Sian and Camboja. They
carry some benzoin, pepper, ivory, and cotton cloth; rubies and
sapphires, badly cut and set; a few slaves; rhinoceros horns, and the
hides, hoofs, and teeth of this animal; and other goods. In return they
take the wares found in Manila. Their coming and return is between the
brisas and the vendavals, during the months of April, May, and June.

In these classes of merchandise, and in the products of the
islands--namely, gold, cotton cloth, mendriñaque, and cakes of white
and yellow wax--do the Spaniards effect their purchases, investments,
and exports for Nueva España. They make these as is most suitable
for each person, and lade them on the vessels that are to make the
voyage. They value and register these goods, for they pay into the
royal treasury of Manila, before the voyage, the two per cent royal
duties on exports, besides the freight charges of the vessel, which
amount to forty Castilian ducados [412] per tonelada. This latter is
paid at the port of Acapulco in Nueva España, into the royal treasury
of the said port, in addition to the ten per cent duties for entrance
and first sale in Nueva España. [413]

Inasmuch as the ships which are despatched with the said merchandise
are at his Majesty's account, and other ships cannot be sent, there
is generally too small a place in the cargo for all the purchases. For
that reason the governor divides the cargo-room among all the shippers,
according to their wealth and merits, after they have been examined
by intelligent men, appointed for that purpose. Consequently every
man knows from his share how much he can export, and only that amount
is received in the vessel; and careful and exact account is taken of
it. Trustworthy persons are appointed who are present at the lading;
and space is left for the provisions and passengers that are to go
in the vessels. When the ships are laden and ready to sail, they
are delivered to the general and the officials who have them in
charge. Then they start on their voyage at the end of the month of
June, with the first vendavals.

This trade and commerce is so great and profitable, and easy to
control--for it only lasts three months in the year, from the
time of the arrival of the ships with their merchandise, until
those vessels that go to Nueva España take that merchandise--that
the Spaniards do not apply themselves to, or engage in, any other
industry. Consequently, there is no husbandry or field-labor worthy of
consideration. Neither do the Spaniards work the gold mines or placers,
which are numerous. They do not engage in many other industries that
they could turn to with great profit, if the Chinese trade should
fail them. That trade has been very hurtful and prejudicial in
this respect, as well as for the occupations and farm industries in
which the natives used to engage. Now the latter are abandoning and
forgetting those labors. Besides, there is the great harm and loss
resulting from the immense amount of silver that passes annually by
this way [of the trade], into the possession of infidels, which can
never, by any way, return into the possession of the Spaniards.

His Majesty's agents for the government and justice, and the royal
officials for the management of his Majesty's revenue, are as follows:
First, the governor and captain-general of all the islands, who
is at the same time president of the royal Audiencia of Manila. He
has a salary of eight thousand pesos de minas per year for all his
offices. [414] He possesses his own body-guard of twelve halberdiers,
whose captain receives three hundred pesos per year. The governor alone
provides and regulates all that pertains to war and government, with
the advice of the auditors of the Audiencia in difficult matters. He
tries in the first instance the criminal cases of the regular soldiers,
and any appeals from his decisions go to the Audiencia. [415] The
governor appoints many alcaldes-mayor, corregidors, deputies, and
other magistrates, throughout the islands and their provinces, for
carrying on the government and justice, and for military matters. These
appointments are made before a government chief scrivener appointed
by his Majesty, who helps the governor.

The governor likewise takes part with the royal Audiencia, as
its president, in whatever pertains to its duties. The Audiencia
consists of four auditors and one fiscal--each of whom receives an
annual salary of two thousand pesos de minas [416]--one reporter,
one court scrivener, one alguacil-mayor, with his assistants, one
governor of the prison of the court, one chancellor, one registrar,
two bailiffs, one chaplain and sacristan, one executioner, attorneys,
and receivers. The Audiencia tries all causes, civil and criminal,
taken to it from all the provinces of its district. [417] These
include the Filipinas Islands and the mainland of China, already
discovered or to be discovered. The Audiencia has the same authority
as the chancillerías of Valladolid and Granada in España. At the same
time, the Audiencia provides whatever is advisable for the proper
and systematic management of the royal exchequer.

His Majesty's revenues in the Filipinas Islands are in charge
of and their tribunal consists of three royal officials. They are
appointed by his Majesty, and consist of a factor, an accountant, and
a treasurer. They each receive an annual salary of five hundred and
ten thousand maravedis. They have their clerk of mines, and registrars
of the royal revenues, and their executive and other officials, all
of whom reside in Manila. From that city they manage and attend to
everything pertaining to the royal revenues throughout the islands.

His Majesty has a number of encomiendas apportioned to his royal crown
throughout the provinces of the Filipinas Islands. The tributes of
those encomiendas are collected for his royal treasury by his royal
officials and the collectors engaged for that purpose by the royal
officials. From year to year these amount to thirty thousand pesos,
after deducting costs and expenses. They collect, from one year to
another, eight thousand pesos in tributes from the Sangleys--both
Christians and infidels. [418]

They also collect the fifth of all gold dug in the islands. By
special concession for a limited period, the tenth is collected
instead of the fifth. There is a declaration concerning it, to the
effect that the natives shall pay no fifths or other duties on the
jewels and gold inherited by them from their ancestors before his
Majesty owned the country. Sufficient measures have been taken for
the clear understanding of this concession and its investigation,
for that on which the tenth has once been paid, and the steps to
be taken in the matter. From one year to another they collect ten
thousand pesos from these fifths, for much is concealed. [419]

The assignment of two reals from each tributario inures to the royal
treasury and is paid into it, for the pay of the soldiers and the
stipend of the prebendaries. These are collected from the encomenderos,
in proportion to, and on the account of, their tributes, and amount
annually to thirty-four thousand pesos.

The fines and expenses of justice are committed to the care of the
treasurer of the royal revenues, and are kept in the treasury. They
amount annually to three thousand pesos.

The three per cent duties on the Chinese merchandise of the Sangley
vessels average forty thousand pesos annually. [420]

The two per cent duties paid by the Spaniards for exporting merchandise
to Nueva España amount annually to twenty thousand pesos. On the
merchandise and money sent from Nueva España to the Filipinas,
result eight thousand pesos more. Consequently, in these things and
in other dues of less importance that belong to the royal treasury,
his Majesty receives about one hundred and fifty thousand pesos,
or thereabout, annually in the Filipinas. [421]

Inasmuch as this amount does not suffice for the expenses that are
incurred, the royal treasury of Nueva España sends annually to that of
the Filipinas, in addition to the above revenues, some assistance in
money--a greater or less sum, as necessity requires. For his Majesty
has thus provided for it from the proceeds of the ten per cent duties
on the Chinese merchandise that are collected at the port of Acapulco
in Nueva España. This assistance is given into the keeping of the
royal officials in Manila, and they take charge of it, with the rest
of the revenues that they manage and collect.

From all this gross sum of his Majesty's revenue, the salaries of
the governor and royal Audiencia are paid, as well as the stipends
of prelates and ecclesiastical prebendaries, the salaries of the
magistrates, and of the royal officials and their assistants; the
pay of all the military officers and regular soldiers; his Majesty's
share of the stipends for instruction, and the building of churches
and their ornaments; the concessions and gratifications that he has
allowed to certain monasteries, and private persons; the building
of large vessels for the navigation to Nueva España, and of galleys
and other vessels for the defense of the islands; expenses for
gunpowder and ammunition; the casting of artillery, and its care;
the expense arising for expeditions and individual undertakings
in the islands, and in their defense; that of navigations to, and
negotiations with, the kingdoms in their vicinity, which are quite
common and necessary. Consequently, since his Majesty's revenues in
these islands are so limited, and his expenses so great, the royal
treasury falls short, and suffers poverty and need. [422]

The proceeds from the ten per cent duties and the freight charges of
the ships, which are collected at Acapulco in Nueva España, on the
merchandise sent there from the Filipinas, although considerable, are
also not always sufficient for the expenses incurred in Nueva España
with the ships, soldiers, ammunition, and other supplies sent annually
to the Filipinas. These expenses are generally greatly in excess
of those duties, and the amount is made up from the royal treasury
of Mexico. Consequently, the king our sovereign derives as yet no
profit from any revenues of the Filipinas, but rather an expenditure,
by no means small, from his revenues in Nueva España. He sustains the
Filipinas only for the christianization and conversion of the natives,
and for the hopes of greater fruits in other kingdoms and provinces of
Asia, which are expected through this gateway, at God's good pleasure.

Every year the Audiencia audits the accounts of the royal officials of
his Majesty's revenues, strikes the balances, and sends the accounts
to the tribunal of accounts in Mexico. [423]

In the city of Manila, and in all those Spanish settlements of the
islands, reside Sangleys, who have come from Great China, besides
the merchants. They have appointed settlements and are engaged in
various trades, and go to the islands for their livelihood. Some
possess their pariáns and shops. Some engage in fishing and farming
among the natives, throughout the country; and go from one island to
another to trade, in large or small champans. [424]

The annual vessels from Great China bring these Sangleys in great
numbers, especially to the city of Manila, for the sake of the profits
that are gained from their fares. As there is a superabundance of
population in China, and the wages and profits there are little,
they regard as of importance whatever they get in the Filipinas.

Very great annoyances result from this; for, not only can there be
little security to the country with so many infidels, but the Sangleys
are a wicked and vicious race. Through intercourse and communication
with them, the natives improve little in Christianity and morals. And
since they come in such numbers and are so great eaters, they raise
the price of provisions, and consume them.

It is true that the city could not be maintained or preserved without
these Sangleys; for they are the mechanics in all trades, and are
excellent workmen and work for suitable prices. But a less number of
them would suffice for this, and would avoid the inconvenience of so
many people as are usually in Manila when the ships arrive--to say
nothing of the many Chinese who go about among the islands, under
pretext of trading with the natives, and there commit innumerable
crimes and offenses. At the least, they explore all the country, the
rivers, creeks, and ports, and know them better than the Spaniards
do; and they will be of great harm and injury in case of any revolt
or hostile invasion of the islands.

In order to remedy all the above, it was ordered that the vessels
should not bring so many people of this kind, under penalties that
are executed; that, when the vessels return to China, they take
these Sangleys back with them; that only a convenient number of
merchants remain in Manila, in the Parián, and the mechanics of
all necessary trades; and that these must have written license,
under severe penalties. In the execution of this, an auditor of the
Audiencia is engaged by special commission every year, together with
some assistants. On petition of the city cabildo, he usually allows
as many Sangleys to remain as are necessary for the service of all
trades and occupations. The rest are embarked and compelled to return
in the vessels going to China, and a great deal of force and violence
[425] is necessary to accomplish it.

Those merchants and artisans who remained in Manila before the revolt
of the year six hundred and three had settled the Parián and its
shops. The Parián is a large enclosed alcaicería of many streets,
at some distance from the city walls. It is near the river, and its
location is called San Graviel. There they have their own governor,
who has his tribunal and prison, and his assistants; these administer
justice to them, and watch them day and night, so that they may live
in security, and not commit disorders.

Those who cannot find room in this Parián live opposite, on the other
side of the river, where Tondo is, in two settlements called Baybay
and Minondoc. They are in charge of the alcalde-mayor of Tondo, and
under the ministry of the religious of St. Dominic, who labor for their
conversion, and for that purpose have learned the Chinese language.

The Dominicans have two monasteries with the requisite assistants,
and a good hospital for the treatment of Sangleys. In a district
kept separate from the infidels, they have a settlement of baptized
Sangleys, with their wives, households, and families, numbering five
hundred inhabitants; and the religious are continually baptizing
others and settling them in that village. But few of them turn out
well, for they are a vile and restless race, with many vices and bad
customs. Their having become Christians is not through the desire
or wish for salvation, but for the temporal conveniences that they
have there, and because some are unable to return to China because
of debts incurred and crimes committed there.

Each and all, both Christians and infidels, go unarmed and in their
national garb. This consists of long garments with wide sleeves, made
of blue cangan (but white for mourning, while the chief men wear them
of black and colored silks); wide drawers of the same material; half
hose of felt; very broad shoes, according to their fashion, made of
blue silk embroidered with braid--with several soles, well-sewed--and
of other stuffs. Their hair is long and very black, and they take
good care of it. They do it up on the head in a high knot, [426]
under a very close-fitting hood or coif of horsehair, which reaches
to the middle of the forehead. They wear above all a high round cap
made of the same horsehair, in different fashions, by which their
different occupations, and each man's rank, are distinguished. The
Christians differ only in that they cut their hair short, and wear
hats, as do the Spaniards.

They are a light-complexioned people and tall of body. They have
scant beards, are very stout-limbed, and of great strength. They
are excellent workmen, and skilful in all arts and trades. They are
phlegmatic, of little courage, treacherous and cruel when opportunity
offers, and very covetous. They are heavy eaters of all kinds of meat,
fish, and fruits; but they drink sparingly, and then of hot beverages.

They have a governor of their own race, a Christian, who has his
officials and assistants. He hears their cases in affairs of justice,
in their domestic and business affairs. Appeals from him go to the
alcalde-mayor of Tondo or of the Parián, and from all these to the
Audiencia, which also gives especial attention to this nation and
whatever pertains to it.

No Sangley can live or own a house outside these settlements of
the Parián, and of Baybay and Minondoc. Native settlements are not
allowed in Sangley settlements, or even near them. No Sangley can go
among the islands, or as much as two leguas from the city, without
special permission. Much less can he remain in the city at night,
after the gates are shut, under penalty of death.

There are generally some Japanese, both Christian and infidel, in
Manila. These are left by the vessels from Japon, although they are
not so numerous as the Chinese. They have their special settlement and
location outside the city, between the Sangley Parián and the suburb of
Laguio, near the monastery of La Candelaria. There they are directed
by discalced religious of St. Francis, by means of interpreters
whom the fathers keep for that purpose. They are a spirited race,
of good disposition, and brave. They wear their own costume, namely,
kimonos of colored silks and cotton, reaching half way down the leg,
and open in front; wide, short drawers; close-fitting half-boots of
leather, [427] and shoes like sandals, with the soles of well-woven
straw. They go bare-headed, and shave the top of the head as far
back as the crown. Their back hair is long, and fastened upon the
skull in a graceful knot. They carry their catans, large and small,
in the belt. They have scant beards, and are a race of noble bearing
and behavior. They employ many ceremonies and courtesies, and attach
much importance to honor and social standing. They are resolute in
any necessity or danger.

Those who become Christians prove very good, and are very devout
and observant in their religion; for only the desire for salvation
incites them to adopt our religion, so that there are many Christians
in Japon. Accordingly they return freely, and without opposition,
to their own country. At most there are about five hundred Japanese
of this nation in Manila, for they do not go to other parts of the
islands, and such is their disposition that they return to Japon, and
do not tarry in the islands; consequently very few of them usually
remain in the islands. They are treated very cordially, as they are
a race that demand good treatment, and it is advisable to do so for
the friendly relations between the islands and Japon. [428]

Few people come from the other nations--Sian, Camboja, Borneo, Patan,
and other islands--outside our government; and they immediately return
in their vessels. Consequently, there is nothing special to be said
of them, except that care is exercised in receiving and despatching
them well, and seeing that they return quickly to their own countries.

Since I have told, in the short time at my disposal, the
characteristics of the Filipinas Islands, and their customs and
practices, it will not be inappropriate to discuss the navigation to
them since it is made thither from Nueva España; the return voyage,
which is not short, or without great dangers and hardships; and that
made in the eastern direction.

When the islands were conquered in the year of one thousand five
hundred and seventy-four [sic; sc. 1564], the Spanish fleet sailed
under command of the adelantado Miguel Lopez de Legaspi, from Puerto
de la Navidad [429] situated in the South Sea, on the coast of Nueva
España, in the province and district of Xalisco and Galicia, where
resides the royal Audiencia of Guadalajara. A few later voyages
were made also from the same port, until the point for the sending
of these vessels was removed, for better and greater convenience,
to the port of Acapulco, located farther south on the same coast,
in sixteen and one-half degrees of latitude; it is eighty leguas from
Mexico, and in its district. It is an excellent port, sheltered from
all weather; and has a good entrance and good anchorages. Its vicinity
is advantageous, being better provisioned and more populous than that
of La Navidad. There a large Spanish colony has been established,
with its alcalde-mayor, and royal officials who have charge of his
Majesty's treasury; and these attend to the despatch of the vessels.

The vessels that sail to the Filipinas, as they are despatched annually
on his Majesty's account, must necessarily leave in the certain season
of the brisas, which begin in the month of November and last until the
end of March. This navigation should not be made at any other season,
for from June the vendavals blow, and they are contrary to the voyage.

As a rule, these ships sail and are despatched at the end of February,
or at the latest by the twentieth of March. They sail west toward the
islands of Las Velas, [430] otherwise called the Ladrones. The island
of Guan, one of them, lies in thirteen degrees of latitude. Inasmuch
as the vessels on leaving Acapulco are wont sometimes to encounter
calms, they sail south from sixteen and one-half degrees, in which
the port is situated, until they strike the brisas, which is generally
at ten or eleven degrees. By this route they sail continually before
the wind, and without changing the sails, with fresh and fair brisas,
and in other moderate weather, for one thousand eight hundred leguas,
without sighting any mainland or island. Then leaving to the south
the Barbudos and other islands, and advancing gradually to a latitude
of thirteen degrees, they sail until they sight the island of Guan;
and above it, in fourteen degrees, that of La Çarpana [Seypan]. This
voyage to those Ladrones Islands lasts generally seventy days.

The natives of those islands, who go naked, and are a very robust
and barbarous race, go out to sea to meet the ships as soon as they
discover them, at a distance of four to six leguas, with many vessels;
these are one-masted, and are very slender and light. These vessels
have a counterpoise of bamboo to leeward, and their sails are made
of palm-leaves and are lateen-sails. Two or three men go in each one
with oars and paddles. They carry loads of flying-fish, dorados,
[431] cocoa-nuts, bananas, sweet potatoes, bamboos full of water,
and certain mats; and when they reach the ships, they trade these for
iron from the hoops of casks, and bundles of nails, which they use
in their industries, and in the building of their ships. Since some
Spaniards and religious have lived among them, because of Spanish
ships being wrecked or obliged to take refuge there, they come more
freely to our ships and enter them.

Our ships sail between the two islands of Guan and Çarpana toward the
Filipinas and the cape of Espiritu Santo, a distance of three hundred
leguas farther on, in the latitude of about thirteen degrees. This
distance is made in ten or twelve days with the brisas; but it may
happen, if the ships sail somewhat late, that they encounter vendavals,
which endanger their navigation, and they enter the islands after
great trouble and stormy weather.

From the cape of Espiritu Santo, the ships enter the strait of Capul
at the islands of Mazbate and Burias; thence they sail to Marinduque
and the coast of Calilaya, the strait of Mindoro, the shoals of
Tuley, and the mouth of Manila Bay. Thence, they go to the port of
Cabit. This is a voyage of one hundred leguas from the entrance to
the islands and is made in one week. This is the end of the voyage,
which is good and generally without storms, if made in the proper time.

These vessels now make the return voyage from the Filipinas to Nueva
España with great difficulty and danger, for the course is a long one
and there are many storms and various temperatures. The ships depart,
on this account, very well supplied with provisions, and suitably
equipped. Each one sails alone, hoisting as much sail as possible,
and one does not wait for the other, nor do they sight one another
during the voyage.

They leave the bay and port of Cabit at the first setting-in of
the vendavals, between the same islands and by the same straits,
by the twentieth of June and later. As they set out amid showers,
and are among islands, they sail with difficulty until they leave
the channel at Capul. Once in the open sea, they catch the vendaval,
and voyage east, making more progress when they reach the latitude
of fourteen or fifteen degrees.

Then the brisa starts. This wind is the ordinary one in the South Sea,
especially in low latitudes. Since it is a head wind, the course is
changed, and the bow is pointed betwen the north and east, as much
as the wind will allow. With this they reach a higher latitude, and
the ship is kept in this course until the vendaval returns. Then,
by means of it, the ship again takes an eastern course in that
latitude where it happens to be, and keeps that direction as long
as that wind lasts. When the vendaval dies, the ship takes the best
course that the winds allow, by the winds then blowing between north
and east. If the wind is so contrary that it is north or northwest,
so that the ship cannot take that course, the other course is taken
so that they may continue to maintain their voyage without losing
time. At four hundred leguas from the islands they sight certain
volcanoes and ridges of the islands of Ladrones, which run north as
far as twenty-four degrees. [432] Among these they generally encounter
severe storms and whirl-winds. At thirty-four degrees is the cape of
Sestos, [433] at the northern head of Japon, six hundred leguas from
the Filipinas. They sail among other islands, which are rarely seen,
in thirty-eight degrees, encountering the same dangers and storms,
and in a cold climate, in the neighborhood of the islands Rica de
Oro ["rich in gold"] and Rica de Plata ["rich in silver"], which are
but seldom seen. [434] After passing them the sea and open expanse
of water is immense, and the ship can run free in any weather. This
gulf is traversed for many leguas with such winds as are encountered,
until a latitude of forty-two degrees is reached, toward the coast of
Nueva España. They seek the winds that generally prevail at so high a
latitude, which are usually northwest. After a long voyage the coast
of Nueva España is sighted, and from Cape Mendoçino (which lies in
forty-two and one-half degrees) the coast extends nine hundred leguas
to the port of Acapulco, which lies in sixteen and one-half degrees.

When the ships near the coast, which they generally sight betwen forty
and thirty-six degrees, the cold is very severe, and the people suffer
and die. Three hundred leguas before reaching land, signs of it are
seen, by certain aguas malas, [435] as large as the hand, round and
violet colored, with a crest in the middle like a lateen sail, which
are called caravelas ["caravels"]. This sign lasts until the ship is
one hundred leguas from land; and then are discovered certain fish,
with half the body in the form of a dog; [436] these frolic with
one another near the ship. After these perrillos ["little dogs"] are
seen the porras ["knobsticks"], which are certain very long, hollow
shoots of a yellow herb with a ball at the top, and which float on the
water. At thirty leguas from the coast are seen many great bunches of
grass which are carried down to the sea by the great rivers of the
country. These grasses are called balsas ["rafts or floats"]. Also
many perrillos are seen, and, in turn, all the various signs. Then
the coast is discovered, and it is very high and clear land. Without
losing sight of land, the ship coasts along it with the northwest,
north-northwest, and north winds, which generally prevail on that
coast, blowing by day toward the land, and by night toward the sea
again. With the decrease of the latitude and the entrance into a
warm climate the island of Cenizas [ashes] is seen, and afterward
that of Cedros [cedars]. Thence one sails until the cape of San Lucas
is sighted, which is the entrance of [the gulf of] California. From
that one traverses the eighty leguas intervening to the islands of
Las Marias and the cape of Corrientes ["currents"], which is on the
other side of California in Val de Vanderas ["valley of banners"],
and the provinces of Chametla. Thence one passes the coast of Colima,
Sacatul, Los Motines ["the mutinies"], and Ciguatanejo, and enters the
port of Acapulco--without having made a way-station or touched land
from the channel of Capul in the Filipinas throughout the voyage. The
voyage usually lasts five months or thereabout, but often six and
even more. [437]

By way of India, one may sail from the Filipinas to España, by making
the voyage to Malaca, and thence to Cochin and Goa, a distance of
one thousand two hundred leguas. This voyage must be made with the
brisas. From Goa one sails by way of India to the cape of Buena
Esperança [Good Hope], and to the Terceras [i.e., Azores] Islands,
and thence to Portugal and the port of Lisboa. This is a very long
and dangerous voyage, as is experienced by the Portuguese who make
it every year. From India they usually send letters and despatches to
España by way of the Bermejo ["Red"] Sea, by means of Indians. These
send them through Arabia to Alexandria, and thence by sea to Venecia
[Venice] and thence to España.

A galleon bound for Portugal sails and is despatched from the fort of
Malaca, in certain years, by the open sea, without touching at India
or on its coasts. It reaches Lisboa much more quickly than do the Goa
vessels. It generally sails on the fifth of January, and does not leave
later than that; nor does it usually anticipate that date. However,
not any of these voyages are practiced by the Castilians--who are
prohibited from making them--except the one made by way of Nueva
España, both going and coming, as above described. And although the
effort has been made, no better or shorter course has been found by
way of the South Sea. [438]

Laus Deo


[1] Cea is a small town situated in the old kingdom of Léon, on a
river of the same name. It was a seat of a chateau and a duchy. The
name of the first duke of Lerma was Francisco Gomez de Sandoval y
Rojas. Hume's Spain (Cambridge, 1898), mentions one of his sons as
duke of Cea, who is probably the Cristoval Gomez de Sandoval y Rojas
of Morga's dedication.

[2] The facts of Doctor Antonio de Morga's life are meager. He must
have been born in Sevilla, as his birth register is said to exist in
the cathedral of that city. He sailed from Acapulco for the Philippines
in 1595 in charge of the vessels sent with reënforcements that year. He
remained there eight years, during which time he was continually in
office. In 1598, upon the reëstablishment of the Manila Audiencia he
was appointed senior auditor. In 1600 he took charge of the operations
against the Dutch and commanded in the naval battle with them. He left
the islands July 10, 1603, in charge of the ships sailing that year
to Mexico. After that period he served in the Mexico Audiencia; and
as late as 1616 was president of the Quito Audiencia, as appears from
a manuscript in the British Museum. His book circulated, at least,
in part, in manuscript before being published. Torrubía mentions a
manuscript called Descubrimiento, conquista, pacificación y población
de ias Islas Philipinas, which was dated 1607, and dedicated to
"his Catholic Majesty, King Don Phelipe III, our sovereign." Morga
combined the three functions of historian, politician, and soldier,
and his character is many sided and complex. He is spoken of in high
terms as an historian, and Rizal, as well as Blumentritt, exalts him
above all other historians of the Philippines.

[3] Throughout this work, all notes taken entire or condensed from
José Rizal's edition of Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas por el Doctor
Antonio de Morga (Paris, 1890), will be signed Rizal, unless Rizal
is given as authority for the note or a portion of it in the body of
the note. Similarly those notes taken or condensed from Lord Henry
E. J. Stanley's translation of Morga, The Philippine Islands.... by
Antonio de Morga (Hakluyt Soc. ed., London, 1868), will be signed
Stanley, unless Stanley is elsewhere given as authority as above.

Dr. José Rizal, the Filipino patriot, was born in 1861 at Calamba in
Luzón, of pure Tagál stock, although some say that it was mixed with
Chinese blood. Through the advice of Father Leontio, a Tagál priest,
he was sent to Manila to the Jesuit institution Ateneo Municipal--where
he was the pupil of Rev. Pablo Pastells, now of Barcelona. His family
name was Mercado, but at the advice of his brother, who had become
involved in the liberal movement, he took that of Rizal. After taking
his degree at Manila, he studied in Spain, France, and Germany. He
founded the Liga Filipina, whose principal tenet was "Expulsion of
the friars and the confiscation of their property," and which was
the basis of the revolutionary society of the Sons of the Nation. On
Rizal's return to Manila, after several years of travel, in 1892,
he was arrested and exiled to Dapitan. In 1895, he was allowed to
volunteer for hospital service in Cuba, but was arrested in Barcelona,
because of the breaking out of the Filipino insurrection, and sent
back to Manila, where he was shot on December 30, 1896, by native
soldiers. Besides being a skilled physician, Dr. Rizal was a poet,
novelist, and sculptor, and had exhibited in the salon. His first novel
Noli me tangere appeared in Berlin in 1887, and was, as Dr. T. H. Pardo
de Tavera remarks, the first book to treat of Filipino manners and
customs in a true and friendly spirit. It was put under the ban by
the Church. Its sequel El Filibusterismo appeared in 1891.

Sir Henry Edward John Stanley, third Baron of Alderley, and second
Baron Eddisbury of Sinnington, a member of the peerage of the United
Kingdom, and a baronet, died on December 10, 1903, at the age of
seventy-six. He was married in 1862 to Fabia, daughter of Señor Don
Santiago Federico San Roman of Sevilla, but had no issue. He spent
many years in the East, having been first attaché at Constantinople
and Secretary of Legation at Athens. He embraced the Mahometan
religion and was buried by its rites privately by Ridjag Effendi,
Imaum of the Turkish embassy.

[4] Charles chose as his motto Plus ultra, being led thereto by the
recent world discoveries and the extension of Spanish dominions. This
motto is seen on his coins, medals, and other works.

[5] Perhaps Morga alludes to Argensola, who published his Historia
de la conquista de las Molucas this same year of 1609.--Rizal.

[6] This was the second establishment of the Audiencia, in 1598.

[7] The term "proprietary governor" refers to the regularly appointed
(hence governor in his own right) royal representative who governed the
islands; all others were governors ad interim, and were appointed in
different manners at different periods. The choice of governors showed
a gradual political evolution. In the earliest period, the successor
in case of death or removal was fixed by the king or the Audiencia of
Mexico (e.g., in the case of Legazpi). Some governors (e.g., Gomez
Perez Dasmariñas) were allowed to name their own successor. After
the establishment of the Audiencia, the choice fell upon the senior
auditor. The latest development was the appointment of a segundo
cabo, or second head (about the equivalent of lieutenant-governor),
who took the office ad interim in case of the governor's death or
removal, or a vacancy arising from any other cause.

[8] Morga may refer to accounts of the battle with Oliver van
Noordt, or the manuscripts of Juan de Plasencia, Martin de Rada,
and others.--Rizal.

[9] Magalhães and Serrano died on the same day. Argensola commenting on
this fact says: "At this time his friend Serrano was going to India;
and although in different parts, the two navigators died on the same
day, almost under like circumstances."

[10] This is too strong a statement, and Morga's knowledge is inexact,
as Magalhães had sailed the eastern seas while in the service of the
Portuguese monarch.

[11] Argensola (Conquistas de las Islas Malucas, Madrid, 1609)
mentions the expedition sent out by the bishop of Plasencia, Don
Gutierre de Vargas.

[12] An error for 1542.

[13] Urdaneta received Felipe II's order to accompany the expedition
while in Mexico.--Rizal.

See VOL. II of this series for Urdaneta's connection with this

[14] See abstract of these instructions, VOL. II, pp. 89-100.

[15] Called Villa de San Miguel at first, according to San

[16] Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, not Legazpi, first gave the name
Filipinas to the archipelago.

[17] Rizal identifies Rajamora with Soliman, and says that he was
called Rajamora or Rahang murã in opposition to Rajamatanda or Rahang
matanda, signifying, as Isabelo de los Reyes y Florentino partially
points out in an article entitled "Los Regulos de Manila," pp. 87-111
of Artículos varios (Manila, 1887), the young raja and the old raja. In
the above article, the latter seeks to identify Rajamora or Soliman
with the Raxobago of San Agustín, and declares that Rajamatanda and
Lacandola are identical. The confusion existing in later writers
regarding these names is lacking in Morga, and Rizal's conjecture
appears correct.

[18] Arigues comes from the Tagál word haligi, which are stout wooden
posts, used to support the frames of buildings. The word is in quite
common use in the Philippines among the Spanish speaking people. It
is sometimes used to denote simply a column.--Rizal (in part).

[19] This was the date of Legazpi's arrival at Manila and not of the
assault, which occurred in 1570.--Rizal.

Goiti took possession of Manila for the king, June 6, 1570. See
various documents in VOL. III of this series.

[20] The inhabitants of Sebu aided the Spaniards on this expedition,
and consequently were exempted from tribute for a considerable

[21] Rizal conjectures that this is a typographical error and should
read de Bisayas ò de los Pintados, i.e., Bisayas or Los Pintados.

[22] The Tagáls called it Maynila.--Rizal.

For the meaning of this name, see VOL. III, p. 148, note 41.

[23] Rather it was his grandson Salcedo. This hero, called the Hernán
Córtes of the Filipinas, was truly the intelligent arm of Legazpi. By
his prudence, his fine qualities, his talent, and personal worth,
the sympathies of the Filipinos were captured, and they submitted
to their enemies. He inclined them to peace and friendship with the
Spaniards. He likewise saved Manila from Limahon. He died at the age
of twenty-seven, and is the only one to our knowledge who named the
Indians as his heirs to a large portion of his possessions, namely
his encomienda of Bigan. (San Agustín).--Rizal.

See also VOL. III, p. 73, note 21.

[24] "He assigned the tribute that the natives were to pay to their
encomenderos," says San Agustín. "This was one piece of cotton cloth,
in the provinces where cloth was woven, of the value of four reals;
two fanégas of rice; and one fowl. This was to be given once each
year. Those who did not possess cloth were to give its value in kind
of another product of their own harvest in that town; and where there
was no rice harvested, they were to give two reals, and one-half real
for the fowl, estimated in money."--Rizal.

[25] Legazpi dies August 20, 1572.

[26] "One thousand five hundred friendly Indians from the islands
of Zebu, Bohol, Leyte, and Panay, besides the many other Indians
of service, for use as pioneers and boat-crews, accompanied the
Spaniards..." Lacandola and his sons and relatives, besides two hundred
Bissayans and many other Indians who were enrolled in Pangasinan,
aided them. (San Agustín).--Rizal.

[27] According to San Agustín, more than one thousand five hundred
Indian bowmen from the provinces of Pangasinan, Cagayan, and Pintados
accompanied this expedition. Its apparent motive was to place on the
throne Sirela, or Malaela, as Colin calls him, who had been dethroned
by his brother.--Rizal.

See the relation of this expedition in VOL. IV, pp. 148-303.

[28] This expedition did not succeed because of the development
of the disease beriberi among the Spanish forces, from which more
than four-fifths of the soldiers died. More than one thousand five
hundred of the most warlike natives, mostly from Cagayan and Pampanga,
accompanied the expedition.--Rizal.

[29] By making use of the strife among the natives themselves, because
of the rivalry of two brothers, as is recounted by San Agustín.--Rizal.

[30] His name was Zaizufa.--Rizal.

La Concepción, vol. ii, p. 33, gives the founding of the city of Nueva
Segovia as the resultant effect of this Japanese pirate. He says:
"He [i.e., Joan Pablos de Carrion] found a brave and intrepid Japanese
pirate in possession of the port, who was intending to conquer it and
subdue the country. He attacked the pirate boldly, conquered him,
and frustrated his lofty designs. For greater security he founded
the city of Nueva Segovia, and fortified it with a presidio."

[31] Captain Ribera was the first envoy from the Philippines to confer
with the king on the needs of the country.--Rizal.

See VOL. V of this series, pp. 207-209, for his complaints against
the governor.

[32] The fire caught from the candles placed about the catafalque of

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