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History of Friedrich II of Prussia V 9 by Thomas Carlyle

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Prepared by D.R. Thompson

Carlyle's "History of Friedrich II of Prussia"




Chapter I.


We described the Crown-Prince as intent to comply, especially in
all visible external particulars, with Papa's will and pleasure;--
to distingnish himself by real excellence in Commandantship of the
Regiment Goltz, first of all. But before ever getting into that,
there has another point risen, on which obedience, equally
essential, may be still more difficult.

Ever since the grand Catastrophe went off WITHOUT taking
Friedrich's head along with it, and there began to be hopes of
a pacific settlement, question has been, Whom shall the
Crown-Prince marry? And the debates about it in the Royal breast
and in Tobacco-Parliament, and rumors about it in the world at
large, have been manifold and continual. In the Schulenburg
Letters we saw the Crown-Prince himself much interested, and
eagerly inquisitive on that head. As was natural: but it is not in
the Crown-Prince's mind, it is in the Tobacco-Parliament, and the
Royal breast as influenced there, that the thing must be decided.
Who in the world will it be, then? Crown-Prince himself hears now
of this party, now of that. England is quite over, and the
Princess Amelia sunk below the horizon. Friedrich himself appears
a little piqued that Hotham carried his nose so high; that the
English would not, in those life-and-death circumstances, abate
the least from their "Both marriages or none,"--thinks they should
have saved Wilhelmina, and taken his word of honor for the rest.
England is now out of his head;--all romance is too sorrowfully
swept out: and instead of the "sacred air-cities of hope" in this
high section of his history, the young man is looking into the
"mean clay hamlets of reality," with an eye well recognizing them
for real. With an eye and heart already tempered to the due
hardness for them. Not a fortunate result, though it was an
inevitable one. We saw him flirting with the beautiful wedded
Wreech; talking to Lieutenant-General Schulenburg about marriage,
in a way which shook the pipe-clay of that virtuous man. He knows
he would not get his choice, if he had one; strives not to care.
Nor does he, in fact, much care; the romance being all out of it.
He looks mainly to outward advantages; to personal appearance,
temper, good manners; to "religious principle," sometimes rather
in the reverse way (fearing an OVERPLUS rather);--but always to
likelihood of moneys by the match, as a very direct item.
Ready command of money, he feels, will be extremely desirable in a
Wife; desirable and almost indispensable, in present straitened
circumstances. These are the notions of this ill-situated Coelebs.

The parties proposed first and last, and rumored of in Newspapers
and the idle brains of men, have been very many,-- no limit to
their numbers; it MAY be anybody: an intending purchaser, though
but possessed of sixpence, is in a sense proprietor of the whole
Fair! Through Schulenburg we heard his own account of them, last
Autumn;--but the far noblest of the lot was hardly glanced at, or
not at all, on that occasion. The Kaiser's eldest Daughter, sole
heiress of Austria and these vast Pragmatic-Sanction operations;
Archduchess Maria Theresa herself,--it is affirmed to have been
Prince Eugene's often-expressed wish, That the Crown-Prince of
Prussia should wed the future Empress [Hormayr,
Allgemeine Geschichte der neueslen Zeit (Wien, 1817),
i. 13; cited in Preuss, i. 71.] Which would indeed have saved
immense confusions to mankind! Nay she alone of Princesses,
beautiful, magnanimous, brave, was the mate for such a Prince,--
had the Good Fairies been consulted, which seldom happens:--and
Romance itself might have become Reality in that case: with high
results to the very soul of this young Prince! Wishes are free:
and wise Eugene will have been heard, perhaps often, to express
this wish; but that must have been all. Alas, the preliminaries,
political, especially religious, are at once indispensable and
impossible: we have to dismiss that daydream. A Papal-Protestant
Controversy still exists among mankind; and this is one penalty
they pay for not having settled it sooner. The Imperial Court
cannot afford its Archduchess on the terms possible in
that quarter.

What the Imperial Court can do is, to recommend a Niece of theirs,
insignificant young Princess, Elizabeth Christina of
Brunswick-Bevern, who is Niece to the Empress; and may be made
useful in this way, to herself and us, think the Imperial
Majesties;--will be a new tie upon the Prussians and the Pragmatic
Sanction, and keep the Alliance still surer for our Archduchess in
times coming, think their Majesties. She, it is insinuated by
Seckendorf in Tobaoco-Parliament; ought not she, Daughter of your
Majesty's esteemed friend,--modest-minded, innocent young
Princess, with a Brother already betrothed in your Majesty's
House,--to be the Lady? It is probable she will.

Did we inform the reader once about Kaiser Karl's young marriage
adventures; and may we, to remind him, mention them a second time?
How Imperial Majesty, some five-and-twenty years ago, then only
King of Spain, asked Princess Caroline of Anspach, who was very
poor, and an orphan in the world. Who at once refused, declining
to think of changing her religion on such a score;--and now
governs England, telegraphing with Walpole, as Queen there
instead. How Karl, now Imperial Majesty, then King of Spain, next
applied to Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel; and met with a much better
reception there. Applied to old Anton Ulrich, reigning Duke, who
writes big Novels, and does other foolish good-natured things;--
who persuaded his Grand-daughter that a change to Catholicism was
nothing in such a case, that he himself should not care in the
least to change. How the Grand-daughter changed accordingly, went
to Barcelona, and was wedded;--and had to dun old Grandpapa,
"Why don't you change, then?" Who did change thereupon; thinking
to himself, "Plague on it I must, then!" the foolish old Herr.
He is dead; and his Novels, in six volumes quarto, are all dead:
and the Grand-daughter is Kaiserinn, on those terms, a serene
monotonous well-favored Lady, diligent in her Catholic exercises;
of whom I never heard any evil, good rather, in her eminent serene
position. Pity perhaps that she had recommended her Niece for this
young Prussian gentleman; whom it by no means did "attach to the
Family" so very careful about him at Vienna! But if there lay a
sin, and a punishment following on it, here or elsewhere, in her
Imperial position, surely it is to be charged on foolish old Anton
Ulrich; not on her, poor Lady, who had never coveted such height,
nor durst for her soul take the leap thitherward, till the serene
old literary gentleman showed her how easy it was.

Well, old Anton Ulrich is long since dead, [1714, age 70. Huber,
t. 190.] and his religious accounts are all settled beyond cavil;
and only the sad duty devolves on me of explaining a little what
and who his rather insipid offspring are, so far as related to
readers of this History. Anton Ulrich left two sons; the elder of
whom was Duke, and the younger had an Apanage, Blankenburg by
name. Only this younger had children,--serene Kaiserinn that now
is, one of them: The elder died childless, [1731, Michaelis,
i. 132.] precisely a few months before the times we are now got
to; reigning Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, ["Welf-BOOTHS"
(Hunted Camp of the Welfs), according to Etymology. "Brunswick,"
again, is BRAUN'S-Wick; "Braun" (Brown) being an old militant Welf
in those parts, who built some lodge for himself, as a convenience
there,--Year 880, say the uncertain old Books. Hubner, t. 149;
Michaelis, &c.] all but certain Apanages, and does not concern us
farther. To that supreme dignity the younger has now come, and his
Apanage of Blankenburg and children with him;--so that there is
now only one outstanding Apanage (Bevern, not known to us yet);
which also will perhaps get reunited, if we cared for it.
Ludwig Rudolf is the name of this new sovereign Duke of
Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, or Duke in chief; age now sixty; has a
shining, bustling, somewhat irregular Duchess, says Wilhelmina;
and a nose--or rather almost no nose, for sad reasons!
[Wilhelmina, ii. 121.] Other qualities or accidents I know not of
him,--except that he is Father of the Vienna Kaiserinn;
Grandfather of the Princess whom Seckendorf suggests for our
Friedrich of Prussia.

In Ludwig Rudolf's insipid offspring our readers are unexpectedly
somewhat interested; let readers patiently attend, therefore.
He had three Daughters, never any son. Two of his Daughters,
eldest and youngest, are alive still; the middle one had a sad
fate long ago. She married, in 1711, Alexius the Czarowitz of
Peter the Great: foolish Czarowitz, miserable and making others
miserable, broke her heart by ill conduct, ill usage, in four
years; so that she died; leaving him only a poor small Peter II.,
who is now dead too, and that matter ended all but the memory of
it. Some accounts bear, that she did not die; that she only
pretended it, and ran and left her intolerable Czarowitz. That she
wedded, at Paris, in deep obscurity, an Officer just setting out
for Louisiana; lived many years there as a thrifty soldier's wife;
returned to Paris with her Officer reduced to half-pay; and told
him--or told some select Official person after him, under
seven-fold oath, being then a widow and necessitous--her sublime
secret. Sublime secret, which came thus to be known to a supremely
select circle at Paris; and was published in Books, where one
still reads it. No vestige of truth in it,--except that perhaps
a necessitous soldier's widow at Paris, considering of ways and
means, found that she had some trace of likeness to the Pictures
of this Princess, and had heard her tragic story.

Ludwig Rudolf's second Daughter is dead long years ago; nor has
this fable as yet risen from her dust. Of Ludwig Rudolf's other
two Daughters, we have said that one, the eldest, was the
Kaiserinn; Empress Elizabeth Christina, age now precisely forty;
with two beautiful Daughters, sublime Maria Theresa the elder of
them, and no son that would live. Which last little circumstance
has caused the Pragmatic Sanction, and tormented universal Nature
for so many years back! Ludwig Rudolf has a youngest Daughter,
also married, and a Mother in Germany,--to this day conspicuously
so;--of whom next, or rather of her Husband and Family-circle, we
must say a word.

Her Husband is no other than the esteemed Friend of Friedrich
Wilhelm; Duke of Brunswick-Bevern, by title; who, as a junior
branch, lives on the Apanage of Bevern, as his Father did; but is
sure now to inherit the sovereignty and be Duke of
Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel at large, he or his Sons, were the present
incumbent, Ludwig Rudolf, once out. Present incumbent, we have
just intimated, is his Father-in-law; but it is not on that ground
that he looks to inherit. He is Nephew of old Anton Ulrich, Son of
a younger Brother (who was also "Bevern" in Anton's time); and is
the evident Heir-male; old Anton being already fallen into the
distaff, with nothing but three Grand-daughters. Anton's heir will
now be this Nephew; Nephew has wedded one of the Grand-daughters,
youngest of the Three, youngest Daughter of Ludwig Rudolf,
Sovereign Duke that now is; which Lady, by the family she brought
him, if no otherwise, is memorable or mentionable here, and may be
called, a Mother in Germany.
[ANTON ULRICH (1833-1714). Duke in Chief; that is, Duke of
AUGUST WILHELM, elder Son and Heir (1662, 1714, 1731); had no
LUDWIG RUDOLF, the younger Son (1671, 1731, 1735), apanagad in
Blankenburg: Duke of Brunswick-BLANKENBURG; became WOLFENBUTTEL.
1731, died , 1st March, 1735. No Son; so that now the Bevern
succeeded. Three Daughters:
Elizabeth Christina, the Kaiserinn (1691, 1708, 1750).
Charlotte Christina (1694, 1711, 1715), Alexius of Russia's,
had a FABULOUS end.
Antoinette Amelia (1695, 1712, 1762); Bevern's Wife,--a
"Mother in Germany."
FERDINAND ALBERT (1636-1687), his younger Brother apanaged in
Bevern; that is, Duke of Brunswick-BEVERN.
FERDINAND ALBERT, eldest Son (an elder had perished, 1704, on
the Schellenberg under Marlborough), followed in Bevern (1680,
1687-1704, 1735); Kaiser's soldier, Friedrich Wilhelm's friend;
married his Cousin, Antoinette Amelia ("Mother in Germany," as
we call her). Duke in Chief, 1st March, 1785, on Ludwig Rudolf's
decease; died himself, 3d September same year.
BORN 1713, Karl the Heir (to marry our Friedrich's Sister).
1714, Anton Ulrich (Russia; tragedy of Czar Iwan).
1715, 8th November, Elizabeth Christina (Crown Prince's).
1718, Ludwig Ernst (Holland, 1787).
1721, Ferdinand (Chatham's and England's) of the Seven Years
1722, 1724, 1725, 1732, Four others; Boys the youngest Two,
who were both killed in Friedrich's Wars.]

Father Bevern her Husband, Ferdinand Albert the name of him, is
now just fifty, only ten years younger than his serene Father-in-
law, Ludwig Rudolf:--whom, I may as well say here, he does at last
succeed, three years hence (1735) and becomes Duke of Brunswick in
General, according to hope; but only for a few months, having
himself died that same year. Poor Duke; rather a good man, by all
the accounts I could hear; though not of qualities that shone.
He is at present "Duke of Brunswick-Bevern,"--such his actual
nomenclature in those ever-fluctuating Sibyl's-leaves of German
History-Books, Wilhelmina's and the others;--expectant Duke of
Brunswick in General; much a friend of Friedrich Wilhelm. A kind
of Austrian soldier he was formerly, and will again be for brief
times; General-Feldmarschall so styled; but is not notable in War,
nor otherwise at all, except for the offspring he had by this
serene Spouse of his. Insipid offspring, the impatient reader
says; but permits me to enumerate one or two of them:--

1. Karl, eldest Son; who is sure to be Brunswick in General;
who is betrothed to Princess Charlotte of Prussia,--"a satirical
creature, she, fonder of my Prince than of him," Wilhelmina
thinks. The wedding nevertheless took effect. Brunswick in General
duly fell in, first to the Father; then, in a few months more, to
Karl with his Charlotte: and from them proceeded, in due time,
another Karl, of whom we shall hear in this History;--and of whom
all the world heard much in the French Revolution Wars; in 1792,
and still more tragically afterwards. Shot, to death or worse, at
the Battle of Jena, October, 1806; "battle lost before it was
begun,"--such the strategic history they give of it.
He peremptorily ordered the French Revolution to suppress itself;
and that was the answer the French Revolution made him. From this
Karl, what NEW Queens Caroline of England and portentous Dukes of
Brunswick, sent upon their travels through the anarchic world,
profitable only to Newspapers, we need not say!--
2. Anton Ulrich; named after his august Great-Grandfather;
does not write novels like him. At present a young gentleman of
eighteen; goes into Russia before long, hoping to beget Czars;
which issues dreadfully for himself and the potential Czars he
begot. The reader has heard of a potential "Czar Iwan," violently
done to death in his room, one dim moonlight night of 1764, in the
Fortress of Schlusselburg, middle of Lake Ladoga; misty moon
looking down on the stone battlements, on the melancholy waters,
aud saying nothing.--But let us not anticipate.
3. Elizabeth Christina; to us more important than any of them.
Namesake of the Kaiserinn, her august Aunt; age now seventeen;
insipid fine-complexioned young lady, who is talked of for the
Bride of our Crown-Prince. Of whom the reader will hear more.
Crown-Prince fears she is "too religious,"--and will have "CAGOTS"
about her (solemn persons in black, highly unconscious how little
wisdom they have), who may be troublesome.
4. A merry young Boy, now ten, called Ferdinand; with whom
England within the next thirty years will ring, for some time,
loud enough: the great "Prince Ferdinand" himself,--under whom the
Marquis of Granby and others became great; Chatham superintending
it. This really was a respectable gentleman, and did considerable
things,--a Trismegistus in comparison with the Duke of Cnmberland
whom he succeeded. A cheerful, singularly polite, modest,
well-conditioned man withal. To be slightly better known to us,
if we live. He at present is a Boy of ten, chasing the
thistle's beard.
5. Three other sons, all soldiers, two of them younger than
Ferdinand; whose names were in the gazettes down to a late
period;--whom we shall ignore in this place. The last of them was
marched out of Holland, where he had long been Commander-in-chief
on rather Tory principles, in the troubles of 1787. Others of them
we shall see storming forward on occasion, valiantly meeting death
in the field of fight, all conspicuously brave of character;
but this shall be enough of them at present.

It is of these that Ludwig Rudolf's youngest daughter, the serene
Ferdinand Albert's wife, is Mother in Germany; highly conspicuous
in their day. If the question is put, it must be owned they are
all rather of the insipid type. Nothing but a kind of albuminous
simplicity noticeable in them; no wit, originality, brightness in
the way of uttered intellect. If it is asked, How came they to the
least distinction in this world?--the answer is not immediately
apparent. But indeed they are Welf of the Welfs, in this respect
as in others. One asks, with increased wonder, noticing in the
Welfs generally nothiug but the same albuminous simplicity, and
poverty rather than opulence of uttered intellect, or of qualities
that shine, How the Welfs came to play such a part, for the last
thousand years, and still to be at it, in conspicuous places?
Reader, I have observed that uttered intellect is not what
permanently makes way, but unuttered. Wit, logical brilliancy,
spiritual effulgency, true or FALSE,--how precious to idle
mankind, and to the Newspapers and History-Books, even when it is
false: while, again, Nature and Practical Fact care next to
nothing for it in comparison, even when it is true! Two silent
qualities you will notice in these Welfs, modern and ancient;
which Nature much values: FIRST, consummate human Courage;
a noble, perfect, and as it were unconscious superiority to fear.
And then SECONDLY, much weight of mind, a noble not too conscious
Sense of what is Right and Not-Right, I have found in some of
them;--which means mostly WEIGHT, or good gravitation, good
observance of the perpendicular; and is called justice, veracity,
high-honor, and other such names. These are fine qualities indeed,
especially with an "albuminous simplicity" as vehicle to them.
If the Welfs had not much articulate intellect, let us guess they
made a good use, not a bad or indifferent, as is commoner, of what
they had.


Princess Elizabeth Christina, the insipid Brunswick specimen,
backed by Seckendorf and Vienna, proves on consideration the
desirable to Friedrich Wilhelm in this matter. But his Son's
notions, who as yet knows her only by rumor, do not go that way.
Insipidity, triviality; the fear of "CAGOTAGE" and frightful
fellows in black supremely unconscious what blockheads they are,
haunts him a good deal. And as for any money coming,--her sublime
Aunt the Kaiserinn never had much ready money; one's resources on
that side are likely to be exiguous. He would prefer the Princess
of Mecklenburg, Semi-Russian Catharine or Anna, of whom we have
heard; would prefer the Princess of Eisenach (whose name he does
not know rightly); thinks there are many Princesses preferable.
Most of all he would prefer, what is well known of him in
Tobacco-Parliament, but known to be impossible, this long while
back, to go upon a round of travel,--as for instance the Prince of
Lorraine is now doing,--and look about him a little.

These candid considerations the Crown-Prince earnestly suggests to
Grumkow, and the secret committee of Tobacco-Parliament;
earnestly again and again, in his Correspondence with that
gentleman, which goes on very brisk at present. "Much of it lost,"
we hear;--but enough, and to spare, is saved! Not a beautiful
correspondence: the tone of it shallow, hard of heart; tragically
flippant, especially on the Crown-Prince's part; now and then even
a touch of the hypocritical from him, slight touch and not with
will: alas, what can the poor young man do? Grumkow--whose ground,
I think, is never quite so secure since that Nosti business--
professes ardent attachment to the real interests of the Prince;
and does solidly advise him of what is feasible, what not, in
head-quarters; very exemplary "attachment;" credible to what
length, the Prince well enough knows. And so the Correspondence is
unbeautiful; not very descriptive even,--for poor Friedrich is
considerably under mask, while he writes to that address; and of
Grumkow himself we want no more "description;" and is, in fact, on
its own score, an avoidable article rather than otherwise;
though perhaps the reader, for a poor involved Crown-Prince's
sake, will wish an exact Excerpt or two before we quite
dismiss it.

Towards turning off the Brunswick speculation, or turning on the
Mecklenburg or Eisenach or any other in its stead, the
Correspondence naturally avails nothing. Seckendorf has his orders
from Vienna: Grumkow has his pension,--his cream-bowl duly set,--
for helping Beckendorf. Though angels pleaded, not in a tone of
tragic flippancy, but with the voice of breaking hearts, it would
be to no purpose. The Imperial Majesties have ordered, Marry him
to Brunswick, "bind him the better to our House in time coming;"
nay the Royal mind at Potsdam gravitates, of itself, that way,
after the first hint is given. The Imperial will has become the
Paternal one; no answer but obedience. What Grumkow can do will
be, if possible, to lead or drive the Crown-Prince into obeying
smoothly, or without breaking of harness again. Which,
accordingly, is pretty much the sum of his part in this unlovely
Correspondence: the geeho-ing of an expert wagoner, who has got a
fiery young Arab thoroughly tied into his dastard sand-cart, and
has to drive him by voice, or at most by slight crack of whip;
and does it. Can we hope, a select specimen or two of these
Documents, not on Grumkow's part, or for Grumkow's unlovely sake,
may now be acceptable to the reader? A Letter or two picked from
that large stock, in a legible state, will show us Father and Son,
and how that tragic matter went on, better than description could.

Papa's Letters to the Crown-Prince during that final Custrin
period,--when Carzig and Himmelstadt were going on, and there was
such progress in Economics, are all of hopeful ruggedly
affectionate tenor; and there are a good few of them:
style curiously rugged, intricate, headlong; and a strong
substance of sense and worth tortuously visible everywhere.
Letters so delightful to the poor retrieved Crown-Prince then and
there; and which are still almost pleasant reading to
third-parties, once you introduce grammar and spelling. This is
one exact specimen; most important to the Prince and us.
Suddenly, one night, by estafette, his Majesty, meaning nothing
but kindness, and grateful to Seckendorf and Tobacco-Parliament
for such an idea, proposes,--in these terms (merely reduced to
English and the common spelling):--

"POTSDAM, 4th February, 1732

"MY DEAR SON FRITZ,--I am very glad you need no more physic. But
you must have a care of yourself, some days yet, for the severe
weather; which gives me and everybody colds; so pray be on your

"You know, my dear Son, that when my children are obedient, I love
them much: so, when you were at Berlin, I from my heart forgave
you everything; and from that Berlin time, since I saw you, have
thought of nothing but of your well-being and how to establish
you,--not in the Army only, but also with a right Step-daughter,
and so see you married in my lifetime. You may be well persuaded I
have had the Princesses of Germany taken survey of, so far as
possible, and examined by trusty people, what their conduct is,
their education and so on: and so a Princess has been found, the
Eldest one of Bevern, who is well brought up, modest and retiring,
as women ought to be.

"You will without delay (CITO) write me your mind on this. I have
purchased the Von Katsch House; the Feldmarschall," old
Wartensleben, poor Katte's grandfather, "as Governor" of Berlin,
"will get that to live in: and his Government House, [Fine enough
old House, or Palace, built by the Great Elector; given by him to
Graf Feldmarschall von Schomberg, the "Duke Schomberg" who was
killed in the Battle of the Boyne: "same House, opposite the
Arsenal, which belongs now (1855) to his Royal Highness Prince
Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia." (Preuss, i. 73; and
OEuvres de Frederic, xxvi. 12 n.)] I will have made
new for you, and furnish it all; and give you enough to keep house
yourself there; and will command you into the Army, April coming
[which is quite a subordinate story, your Majesty!].

"The Princess is not ugly, nor beautiful. You must mention it to
no mortal;--write indeed to Mamma (DER MAMA) that I have written
to you. And when you shall have a Son, I will let you go on your
Travels,--wedding, however, cannot be before winter next.
Meanwhile I will try aud contrive opportunity that you see one
another, a few times, in all honor, yet so that you get acquainted
with her. She is a God-fearing creature (GOTTESFURCHTIGES MENSCH),
which is all in all; will suit herself to you [be COMPORTABLE to
you] as she does to the Parents-in-law.

"God give his blessing to it; and bless You and your Posterity,
and keep Thee as a good Christian. And have God always before your
eyes;--and don't believe that damnable PARTICULAR tenet
[Predestination]; and be obedient and faithful: so shall it, here
in Time and there in Eternity, go well with thee;--and whoever
wishes that from the heart, let him say Amen.

"Your true Father to the death,


"When the Duke of Lorraine comes, I will have thee come. I think
thy Bride will be here then. Adieu; God be with you." [
OEuvres de Frederic, xxvii, part 3d, p. 55.]

This important Missive reached Custrin, by estafette, that same
midnight, 4th-5th February; when Wolden, "Hofmarschall of the
Prince's Court" (titular Goldstick there, but with abundance of
real functions laid on him), had the honor to awaken the
Crown-Prince into the joy of reading. Crown-Prince instantly
despatched, by another estafette, the requisite responses to Papa
and Mamma,--of which Wolden does not know the contents at all, not
he, the obsequious Goldstick;--but doubtless they mean "Yes,"
Crown-Prince appearing so overjoyed at this splendid evidence of
Papa's love, as the Goldstick could perceive. [Wolden's LETTER to
Friedrich Wilhelm, "5th February, 1732:" in Preuss, ii. part 2d
(or URKUNDENOUCH), p. 206. Mamma's answer to the message brought
her by this return estafette, a mere formal VERY-WELL, written
from the fingers outward, exists ( OEuvres,
xxvi. 65); the rest have happily vanished.]

What the Prince's actual amount of joy was, we shall learn better
from the following three successive utterances of his,
confidentially despatched to Grumkow in the intermediate days,
before Berlin or this "Duke of Lorraine" (whom our readers and the
Crown-Prince are to wait upon), with actual sight of Papa and the
Intended, came in course. Grumkow's Letters to the Crown-Prince in
this important interval are not extant, nor if they were could we
stand them: from the Prince's Answers it will be sufficiently
apparent what the tenor of them was. Utterance first is about a
week after that of the estafette at midnight:--

(from the Crown-Prince).

"CUSTRIN, 11th February, 1732.

"MY DEAR GENERAL AND FRIEND,--I was charmed to learn by your
Letter that my affairs are on so good a footing [Papa so well
satisfied with my professions of obedience]; and you may depend on
it I am docile to follow your advice. I will lend myself to
whatever is possible for me; and provided I can secure the King's
favor by my obedience, I will do all that is within my power.

"Nevertheless, in making my bargain with the Duke of Bevern,
manage that the CORPUS DELICTI [my Intended] be brought up under
her Grandmother [Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, Ludwig
Rudolf's Spouse, an airy coquettish Lady,--let her be the tutoress
and model of my Intended, O General]. For I should prefer being
made a"--what shall we say? by a light wife,--"or to serve under
the haughty FONTANGE [Species of topknot; so named from Fontange,
an unfortunate female of Louis Fourteenth's, who invented the
ornament.] of my Spouse [as Ludwig Rudolf does, by all accounts],
than to have a blockhead who would drive me mad by her
ineptitudes? and whom I should be ashamed to produce.

"I beg you labor at this affair. When one hates romance heroines
as heartily as I do, one dreads those 'virtues' of the ferocious
type [LES VERTUS FAROUCHES, so terribly aware that they are
virtuous]; and I had rather marry the greatest--[unnamable]--in
Berlin, than a devotee with half a dozen ghastly hypocrites
(CAGOTS) at her beck. If it were still MOGLICH [possible, in
German] to make her Calvinist [REFORMEE; our Court-Creed, which
might have an allaying tendency, and at least would make her go
with the stream]? But I doubt that:--I will insist, however, that
her Grandmother have the training of her. What you can do to help
in this, my dear Friend, I am persuaded you will do.

"It afflicted me a little that the King still has doubts of me,
while I am obeying in such a matter, diametrically opposite to my
own ideas. In what way shall I offer stronger proofs? I may give
myself to the Devil, it will be to no purpose; nothing but the old
song over again, doubt on doubt.--Don't imagine I am going to
disoblige the Duke, the Duchess or the Daughter, I beseech you!
I know too well what is due to them, and too much respect their
merits, not to observe the strictest rules of what is proper,--
even if I hated their progeny and them like the pestilence.

"I hope to speak to you with open heart at Berlin.--You may think,
too, how I shall be embarrassed, having to do the AMOROSO perhaps
without being it, and to take an appetite for mute ugliness,--for
I don't much trust Count Seckendorf's taste in this article,"--in
spite of his testimonies in Tobacco-Parliament and elsewhere.
"Monsieur! Once more, get this Princess to learn by heart the
ECOLE DES MARIS and the ECOLE DES FEMMES; that will do her much
more good than TRUE CHRISTIANITY by the late Mr. Arndt! [Johann
Arndt ("late" this long while back), Von wahren
Christenthum, Magdeburg, 1610.] If, besides, she would
learn steadiness of humor (TOUJOURS DANSER SUR UN PIED), learn
music; and, NOTA BENE, become rather too free than too virtuous,--
ah then, my dear General, then I should feel some liking for her,
and a Colin marrying a Phyllis, the couple would be in accordance:
but if she is stupid, naturally I renounce the Devil and her.--
It is said she has a Sister, who at least has common sense.
Why take the eldest, if so? To the King it must be all one.
There is also a Princess Christina Marie of Eisenach [real name
being Christina WILHELMINA, but no matter], who would be quite my
fit, and whom I should like to try for. In fine, I mean to come
soon into your Countries; [Did come, 26th February, as we shall
see.] and perhaps will say like Caesar, VENI, VIDI, VICI." ...

Paragraph of tragic compliments to Grumkow we omit. Letter ends in
this way:--

"Your Baireuth News is very interesting; I hope, in September next
[time of a grand problem coming there for Wilhelmina], my Sister
will recover her first health. If I go travelling, I hope to have
the consolation of seeing her for a fortnight or three weeks;
I love her more than my life; and for all my obediences to the
King, surely I shall deserve that recompense. The diversions for
the Duke of Lorraine are very well schemed; but"--but what mortal
can now care about them? Close, and seal. [Forster, iii. 160-162;
OEuvres de Frederic, xvi, 37-39.]

As to this Duke of Lorraine just coming, he is Franz Stephan, a
pleasant young man of twenty-five, son of that excellent Duke
Leopold Joseph, whom young Lyttelton of Hagley was so taken with,
while touring in those parts in the Congress-of-Soissons time.
Excellent Duke Leopold Joseph is since dead; and this Franz has
succeeded to him,--what succession there was; for Lorraine as a
Dukedom has its neck under the foot of France this great while,
and is evidently not long for this world. Old Fleury, men say, has
his eye upon it. And in fact it was, as we shall see, eaten up by
Fleury within four years' time; and this Franz proved the last of
all the Dukes there. Let readers notice him: a man of high destiny
otherwise, of whom we are to hear much. For ten years past he has
lived about Vienna, being a born Cousin of that House (Grandmother
was Kaiser Leopold's own Sister); and it is understood, nay it is
privately settled he is to marry the transcendent Archduchess,
peerless Maria Theresa herself; and is to reap, he, the whole
harvest of that Pragmatic Sanction sown with such travail of the
Universe at large. May be King of the Romans (which means
successor to the Kaisership) any day; and actual Kaiser one day.

We may as well say here, he did at length achieve these dignities,
though not quite in the time or on the terms proposed. King of the
Romans old Kaiser Karl never could quite resolve to make him,--
having always hopes of male progeny yet; which never came. For his
peerless Bride he waited six years still (owing to accidents),
"attachment mutual all the while;" did then wed, 1738, and was the
happiest of men and expectant Kaisers:--but found, at length, the
Pragmatic Sanction to have been a strange sowing of
dragon's-teeth, and the first harvest reapable from it a world of
armed men!--For the present he is on a grand Tour, for instruction
and other objects; has been in England last; and is now getting
homewards again, to Vienna, across Germany; conciliating the
Courts as he goes. A pacific friendly eupeptic young man;
Crown-Prince Friedrich, they say, took much to him in Berlin;
did not quite swear eternal friendship; but kept up some
correspondence for a while, and "once sends him a present of
salmon."--But to proceed with the utterances to Grumkow.

Utterance SECOND is probably of prior date; but introducible here,
being an accidental Fragment, with the date lost:--

TO THE FELDMARSCHALL VON GRUMKOW (from the Crown-Prince; exact date lost).

"... As to what you tell me of the Princess of Mecklenburg," for
whom they want a Brandenburg Prince,--"could not I marry her?
Let her come into this Country, and think no more of Russia:
she would have a dowry of two or three millions of roubles,--only
fancy how I could live with that! I think that project might
succeed. The Princess is Lutheran; perhaps she objects to go into
the Greek Church?--I find none of these advantages in this
Princess of Bevern; who, as many people, even of the Duke's Court,
say, is not at all beautiful, speaks almost nothing, and is given
to pouting (FAISANT LA FACHEE). The good Kaiserinn has so little
herself, that the sums she could afford her Niece would be very
moderate." [Fragment given in Sechendorfs Leben, italic> iii. 249 u.]

"Given to pouting," too! No, certainly; your Insipidity of
Brunswick, without prospects of ready money; dangerous for
CAGOTAGE; "not a word to say for herself in company, and given to
pouting:" I do not reckon her the eligible article!--

Seckendorf, Schulenburg, Grumkow and all hands are busy in this
matter: geeho-ing the Crown-Prince towards the mark set before
him. With or without explosion, arrive there he must; other goal
for him is none!--In the mean while, it appears, illustrious Franz
of Lorraine, coming on, amid the proper demonstrations, through
Magdeburg and the Prussian Towns, has caught some slight illness
and been obliged to pause; so that Berlin cannot have the
happiness of seeing him quite so soon as it expected. The high
guests invited to meet Duke Franz, especially the high Brunswicks,
are already there. High Brunswicks, Bevern with Duchess, and still
more important, with Son and with Daughter:--insipid CORPUS
DELICTI herself has appeared on the scene; and Grumkow, we find,
has been writing some description of her to the Crown-Prince.
Description of an unfavorable nature; below the truth, not above
it, to avert disappointment, nay to create some gleam of inverse
joy, when the actual meeting occurs. That is his art in driving
the fiery little Arab ignominiously yoked to him; and it is clear
he has overdone it, for once. This is Friedrich's THIRD utterance
to him; much the most emphatic there is:--


"CUSTRIN, 19th February, 1732.

"Judge, my dear General, if I can have been much charmed with the
description you give of the abominable object of my desires!
For the love of God, disabuse the King in regard to her [show him
that she is a fool, then]; and let him remember well that fools
commonly are the most obstinate of creatures.

"Some months ago he wrote a Letter to Walden," the obsequious
Goldstick, "of his giving me the choice of several Princesses:
I hope he will not give himself the lie in that. I refer you
entirely to the Letter, which Schulenburg will have delivered,"--
little Schulenburg called here, in passing your way; all hands
busy. "For there is no hope of wealth, no reasoning, nor chance of
fortune that could change my sentiment as expressed there [namely,
that I will not have her, whatever become of me]; and miserable
for miserable, it is all one! Let the King but think that it is
not for himself that he is marrying me, but for MYself; nay he too
will have a thousand chagrins, to see two persons hating one
another, and the miserablest marriage in the world;--to hear their
mutual complaints, which will be to him so many reproaches for
having fashioned the instrument of our yoke. As a good Christian,
let him consider, If it is well done to wish to force people;
to cause divorces, and to be the occasion of all the sins that an
ill-assorted marriage leads us to commit! I am determined to front
everything in the world sooner: and since things are so, you may
in some good way apprise the Duke" of Bevern "that, happen what
may, I never will have her.

"I have been unfortunate (MALHEUREUX) all my life; and I think it
is my destiny to continue so. One must be patient, and take the
time as it comes. Perhaps a sudden tract of good fortune, on the
back of all the chagrins I have made profession of ever since I
entered this world, would have made me too proud. In a word,
happen what will, I have nothing to reproach myself with. I have
suffered sufficiently for an exaggerated crime [that of
"attempting to desert;"--Heavens!]--and I will not engage myself
to extend my miseries (CHAGRINS) into future times. I have still
resources:--a pistol-shot can deliver me from my sorrows and my
life: and I think a merciful God would not damn me for that;
but, taking pity on me, would, in exchange for a life of
wretchedness, grant me salvation. This is whitherward despair can
lead a young person, whose blood is not so quiescent as if he were
seventy. I have a feeling of myself, Monsieur; and perceive that,
when one hates the methods of force as much as I, our boiling
blood will carry us always towards extremities.

... "If there are honest people in the world, they must think how
to save me from one of the most perilous passages I have ever been
in. I waste myself in gloomy ideas; I fear I shall not be able to
hide my grief, on coming to Berlin. This is the sad state I am
in;--but it will never make me change from being,"--surely to an
excessive degree, the illustrious Grumkow's most &c. &c.


"I have received a Letter from the King; all agog (BIEN COIFFE)
about the Princess. I think I may still finish the week here.
[26th, did arrive in Berlin: Preuss (in OEuvres, italic> xxvii. part 3d, p. 58 n).] When his first fire of
approbation is spent, you might, praising her all the while, lead
him to notice her faults. Mon Dieu, has he not already seen what
an ill-assorted marriage comes to,--my Sister of Anspach and her
Husband, who hate one another like the fire! He has a thousand
vexations from it every day. ... And what aim has the King? If it
is to assure himself of me, that is not the way. Madam of Eisenach
might do it; but a fool not (POINT UNE BETE);--on the contrary, it
is morally impossible to love the cause of our misery. The King is
reasonable; and I am persuaded he will understand this himself."
[ OEuvres de Frederic, xvi. 41, 42.]

Very passionate pleading; but it might as well address itself to
the east-winds. Have east-winds a heart, that they should feel
pity? JARNI-BLEU, Herr Feldzeugmeister,--only take care he don't
overset things again!

Grumkow, in these same hours, is writing a Letter to the Prince,
which we still have, [Ib. xvi. 43.] How charmed his Majesty is at
such obedience; "shed tears of joy," writes Grumkow, "and said it
was the happiest day of his life." Judge Grumkow's feelings soon
after, on this furious recalcitration breaking out! Grumkow's
Answer, which also we still have [Ib. xvi. pp. 44-46.] is
truculence itself in a polite form:--horror-struck as a Christian
at the suicide notion, at the--in fact at the whole matter;
and begs, as a humble individual, not wishful of violent death and
destruction upon self and family, to wash his poor hands of it
altogether. Dangerous for the like of him; "interfering between
Royal Father and Royal Son of such opposite humors, would break
the neck of any man," thinks Grumkow; and sums up with this pithy
reminiscence: "I remember always what, the King said to me at
Wusterhausen, when your Royal Highness lay prisoner in the Castle
of Custrin, and I wished to take your part: 'Nein
Grumkow, denket an diese Stelle, Gott gebe dass ich nicht wahr
rede, aber mein Sohn stirbt nicht eines naturlichen Todes;
und Gott gebe dass er nicht unter Henkers Hande komme. italic> No, Grumkow, think of what I now tell you: God grant it do
not come true,--but my Son won't die a natural death; God grant he
do not come into the Hangman's hands yet!' I shuddered at these
words, and the King repeated them twice to me: that is true, or
may I never see God's face, or have part in the merits of our
Lord."--The Crown-Prince's "pleadings" may fitly terminate here.


Saturday, 23d February, 1732, his Serene Highness of Lorraine did
at length come to hand. Arrived in Potsdam that day; where the two
Majesties, with the Serene Beverns, with the Prince Alexander of
Wurtemberg, and the other high guests, had been some time in
expectation. Suitable persons invited for the occasion: Bevern, a
titular Austrian Feldmarschall; Prince Alexander of Wurtemberg, an
actual one (poor old Eberhard Ludwig's Cousin, and likely to be
Heir there soon); high quasi-Austrian Serenities;--not to mention
Schulenburg and others officially related to Austria, or
acquainted with it. Nothing could be more distinguished than the
welcome of Duke Franz; and the things he saw and did, during his
three weeks' visit, are wonderful to Fassmann and the extinct
Gazetteers. Saw the Potsdam Giants do their "EXERCITIA,"
transcendent in perfection; had a boar-hunt; "did divine service
in the Potsdam Catholic Church; "--went by himself to Spandau, on
the Tuesday (26th), where all the guns broke forth, and dinner was
ready: King, Queen and Party having made off for Berlin, in the
interim, to be ready for his advent there "in the evening about,
five." Majesties wait at Berlin, with their Party,--among whom,
say the old Newspapers, "is his Royal Highness the Crown-Prince:"
Crown-Prince just come in from Custrin; just blessed with the
first sight of his Charmer, whom he finds perceptibly less
detestable than he expected.

Serene Highness of Lorraine arrived punctually at five, with
outburst of all the artilleries and hospitalities; balls, soirees,
EXERCITIA of the Kleist Regiment, of the Gerns-d'Armes;
dinners with Grumkow, dinners with Seckendorf, evening party with
the Margravine Philip (Margravine in high colors);--one scenic
miracle succeeding another, for above a fortnight to come.

The very first spectacle his Highness saw, a private one, and of
no intense interest to him, we shall mention here for our own
behoof. "An hour after his arrival the Duke was carried away to
his Excellency Herr Creutz the Finance-Minister's; to attend a
wedding there, along with his Majesty. Wedding of Excellency
Creutz's only Daughter to the Herr HOFJAGERMEISTER von Hacke."--
HOFJAGERMEISTER (Master of the Hunt), and more specifically
Captain Hacke, of the Potsdam Guard or Giant regiment, much and
deservedly a favorite with his Majesty. Majesty has known, a long
while, the merits military and other of this Hacke; a valiant
expert exact man, of good stature, good service among the Giants
and otherwise, though not himself gigantic; age now turned of
thirty;--and unluckily little but his pay to depend on. Majesty,
by way of increment to Hacke, small increment on the pecuniary
side, has lately made him "Master of the Hunt;" will, before long,
make him Adjutant-General, and his right-hand man in Army matters,
were he only rich;--has, in the mean while, made this excellent
match for him; which supplies that defect. Majesty was the making
of Creutz himself; who is grown very rich, and has but one
Daughter: "Let Hacke have her!" his Majesty advised;--and snatches
off the Duke of Lorraine to see it done. [Fassmann, p. 430.]

Did the reader ever hear of Finance-Minister Creutz, once a poor
Regiment's Auditor, when his Majesty, as yet Crown-Prince, found
talent in him? Can readers fish up from their memory, twenty years
back, anything of a terrific Spectre walking in the Berlin Palace,
for certain nights, during that "Stralsund Expedition" or famed
Swedish-War time, to the terror of mankind? Terrific Spectre,
thought to be in Swedish pay,--properly a spy Scullion, in a small
concern of Grumkow VERSUS Creutz? [Antea, vol. v. pp. 356-358;
Wilhelmina.] This is the same Creutz; of whom we have never spoken
more, nor shall again, now that his rich Daughter is well married
to Hacke, a favorite of his Majesty's and ours. It was the Duke's
first sight in Berlin; February 26th; prologue to the flood of
scenic wonders there.

But perhaps the wonderfulest thing, had he quite understood it,
was that of the 10th March, which he was invited to.
Last obligation laid upon the Crown-Prince, "to bind him to the
House of Austria," that evening. Of which take this account,
external and internal, from authentic Documents in our hand.


Document FIRST is of an internal nature, from the Prince's own
hand, written to his Sister four days before:--


"BERLIN, 6th March, 1732.

"MY DEAREST SISTER,--Next Monday comes my Betrothal, which will be
done just as yours was. The Person in question is neither
beautiful nor ugly, not wanting for sense, but very ill brought
up, timid, and totally behind in manners and social behavior
(MANIERES DU SAVOIR-VIVRE): that is the candid portrait of this
Princess. You may judge by that, dearest Sister, if I find her to
my taste or not. The greatest merit she has is that she has
procured me the liberty of writing to you; which is the one
solacement I have in your absence.

"You never can believe, my adorable Sister, how concerned I am
about your happiness; all my wishes centre there, and every moment
of my life I form such wishes. You may see by this that I preserve
still that sincere friendship which has united our hearts from our
tenderest years:--recognize at least, my dear Sister, that you did
me a sensible wrong when you suspected me of fickleness towards
you, and believed false reports of my listening to tale-bearers;
me, who love only you, and whom neither absence nor lying rumors
could change in respect of you. At least don't again believe such
things on my score, and never mistrust me till you have had clear
proof,--or till God has forsaken me, and I have lost my wits.
And being persuaded that such miseries are not in store to
overwhelm me, I here repeat how much I love you, and with what
respect and sincere veneration,--I am and shall be till death, my
dearest Sister,--Your most humble and faithful Brother and Valet,


[ OEuvres de Frederic, xxvii. part 1st, p. 5]

That was on the Thursday; Betrothal is on the Monday following.
Document SECOND is from poor old Fassmann, and quite of external
nature; which we much abridge:--

"Monday evening, all creatures are in gala, and the Royal
Apartments upstairs are brilliantly alight; Duke of Lorraine with
the other high strangers are requested to take their place up
there, and wait for a short while. Prussian Majesty, Queen and
Crown-Prince with him, proceeds then, in a solemn official manner,
to the Durchlaucht of Bevern's Apartment, in a lower floor of the
Palace; where the Bevern Party, Duke, Duchess, Son and intended
Charmer are. Prussian Majesty asks the Durchlaucht and Spouse,
'Whether the Marriage, some time treated of, between that their
Princess here present, and this his Crown-Prince likewise here, is
really a thing to their mind?' Serene Spouses answer, to the
effect, 'Yea, surely, very much!' Upon which they all solemnly
ascend to the Royal Apartments [upstairs where we have seen
Wilhelmina dancing before now], where Lorraine, Wurtemberg and the
other sublimities are in waiting. Lorraine and the sublimities
form a semicircle; with the two Majesties, and pair of young
creatures, in the centre. You young creatures, you are of one
intention with your parents in this matter? Alas, there is no
doubt of it. Pledge yourselves, then, by exchange of rings! said
his Majesty with due business brevity. The rings are exchanged:
Majesty embraces the two young creatures with great tenderness;"
as do Queen and Serenities; and then all the world takes to
embracing and congratulating; and so the betrothal is a finished
thing. Bassoons and violins, striking up, whirl it off in
universal dancing,--in "supper of above two hundred and sixty
persons," princely or otherwise sublime in rank, with "spouses
and noble ladies there" in the due proportion.
[Fassmann, pp. 432, 433.]

Here is fraction of another Note from the Crown-Prince to his
Sister at Baireuth, a fortnight after that event:--

BERLIN, 24th MARCH, 1732 (to Princess Wilhelmina).--... "God be
praised that you are better, dearest Sister! For nobody can love
you more tenderly than I do.--As to the Princess of Bevern [my
Betrothed], the Queen [Mamma, whom you have been consulting on
these etiquettes] bids me answer, That you need not style her
`Highness,' and that you may write to her quite as to an
indifferent Princess. As to 'kissing of the hands,' I assure you I
have not kissed them, nor will kiss them; they are not pretty
enough to tempt one that way. God long preserve you in perfect
health! And you, preserve for me always the honor of your good
graces; and believe, my charming Sister, that never brother in the
world loved with such tenderness a sister so charming as mine;
in short, believe, dear Sister, that without compliments, and in
literal truth, I am yours wholly (TOUT A VOUS),


[Ib. xxvii. part 1st, p. 5.]

This is the Betrothal of the Crown-Prince to an Insipidity of
Brunswick. Insipidity's private feelings, perhaps of a languidly
glad sort, are not known to us; Crown-Prince's we have in part
seen. He has decided to accept his fate without a murmur farther.
Against his poor Bride or her qualities not a word more. In the
Schloss of Berlin, amid such tempests of female gossip (Mamma
still secretly corresponding with England), he has to be very
reserved, on this head especially. It is understood he did not, in
his heart, nearly so much dislike the insipid Princess as he
wished Papa to think he did.

Duke Franz of Lorraine went off above a week ago, on the Saturday
following the Betrothal; an amiable serene young gentleman, well
liked by the Crown-Prince and everybody. "He avoided the Saxon
Court, though passing near it," on his way to old Kur-Mainz;
"which is a sign," thinks Fassmann, "that mutual matters are on a
weak footing in that quarter;"--Pragmatic Sanction never accepted
there, and plenty of intricacies existing. Crown-Prince Friedrich
may now go to Ruppin and the Regiment Goltz; his business and
destinies being now all reduced to a steady condition;--steady
sky, rather leaden, instead of the tempestuous thunder-and-
lightning weather which there heretofore was. Leaden sky, he, if
left well to himself, will perhaps brighten a little. Study will
be possible to him; improvement of his own faculties, at any rate.
It is much his determination. Outwardly, besides drilling the
Regiment Goltz, he will have a steady correspondence to keep up
with his Brunswick Charmer;--let him see that he be not slack
in that.

Chapter II.


Friedrich, after some farther pause in Berlin, till things were
got ready for him, went to Ruppin. This is in the Spring of 1732;
[Still in Berlin, 6th March; dates from NAUEN (in the Ruppin
neighborhood) for the first time, 25th April, 1732, among his
LETTERS yet extant: Preuss, OEuvres de Frederic, italic> xxvii. part lst, p. 4; xvi. 49.] and he continued to have
his residence there till August, 1736. Four important years of
young life; of which we must endeavor to give, in some
intelligible condition, what traces go hovering about in such
records as there are.

Ruppin, where lies the main part of the Regiment Goltz, and where
the Crown-Prince Colonel of it dwells, is a quiet dull, little
Town, in that northwestern region; inhabitants, grown at this day
to be 10,000, are perhaps guessable then at 2,000. Regiment Goltz
daily rolls its drums in Ruppin: Town otherwise lifeless enough,
except on market-days: and the grandest event ever known in it,
this removal of the Crown-Prince thither,--which is doubtless much
a theme, and proud temporary miracle, to Ruppin at present.
Of society there or in the neighborhood, for such a resident, we
hear nothing.

Quiet Ruppin stands in grassy flat country, much of which is
natural moor, and less of it reclaimed at that time than now.
The environs, except that they are a bit of the Earth, and have a
bit of the sky over them, do not set up for loveliness.
Natural woods abound in that region, also peat-bogs not yet
drained; and fishy lakes and meres, of a dark complexion:
plenteous cattle there are, pigs among them;--thick-soled
husbandmen inarticulately toiling and moiling.
Some glass-furnaces, a royal establishment, are the only
manufactures we hear of. Not a picturesque country; but a quiet
and innocent, where work is cut out, and one hopes to be well left
alone after doing it. This Crown-Prince has been in far less
desirable localities.

He had a reasonable house, two houses made into one for him, in
the place. He laid out for himself a garden in the outskirts, with
what they call a "temple" in it,--some more or less ornamental
garden-house,--from which I have read of his "letting off rockets"
in a summer twilight. Rockets to amuse a small dinner-party, I
should guess,--dinner of Officers, such as he had weekly or twice
a week. On stiller evenings we can fancy him there in solitude;
reading meditative, or musically fluting;--looking out upon the
silent death of Day: how the summer gloaming steals over the
moorlands, and over all lands; shutting up the toil of mortals;
their very flocks and herds collapsing into silence, and the big
Skies and endless Times overarching him and them. With thoughts
perhaps sombre enough now and then, but profitable if he face
them piously.

His Father's affection is returning; would so fain return if it
durst. But the heart of Papa has been sadly torn up: it is too
good news to be quite believed, that he has a son grown wise, and
doing son-like! Rumor also is very busy, rumor and the Tobacco-
Parliament for or against; a little rumor is capable of stirring
up great storms in the suspicious paternal mind. All along during
Friedrich's abode at Ruppin, this is a constantly recurring
weather-symptom; very grievous now and then; not to be guarded
against by any precaution;--though steady persistence in the
proper precaution will abate it, and as good as remove it, in
course of time. Already Friedrich Wilhelm begins to understand
that "there is much in this Fritz,"--who knows how much, though of
a different type from Papa's?--and that it will be better if he
and Papa, so discrepant in type, and ticklishly related otherwise,
live not too constantly together as heretofore. Which is
emphatically the Crown-Prince's notion too.

I perceive he read a great deal at Ruppin: what Books I know not
specially: but judge them to be of more serious solid quality than
formerly; and that his reading is now generally a kind of studying
as well. Not the express Sciences or Technologies; not these, in
any sort,--except the military, and that an express exception.
These he never cared for, or regarded as the noble knowledges for
a king or man. History and Moral Speculation; what mankind have
done and been in this world (so far as "History" will give one any
glimpse of that), and what the wisest men, poetical or other, have
thought about mankind and their world: this is what he evidently
had the appetite for; appetite insatiable, which lasted with him
to the very end of his days. Fontenelle, Rollin, Voltaire, all the
then French lights, and gradually others that lay deeper in the
firmament:--what suppers of the gods one may privately have at
Ruppin, without expense of wine! Such an opportunity for reading
he had never had before.

In his soldier business he is punctual, assiduous; having an
interest to shine that way. And is, in fact, approvable as a
practical officer and soldier, by the strictest judge then living.
Reads on soldiering withal; studious to know the rationale of it,
the ancient and modern methods of it, the essential from
the unessential in it; to understand it thoroughly,--which he got
to do. One already hears of conferences, correspondences, with the
Old Dessauer on this head: "Account of the Siege of Stralsund,"
with plans, with didactic commentaries, drawn up by that gunpowder
Sage for behoof of the Crown-Prince, did actually exist, though I
know not what has become of it. Now and afterwards this Crown-
Prince must have been a great military reader. From Caesar's
COMMENTARIES, and earlier, to the Chevalier Folard, and the
Marquis Feuquiere; [ Memoires sur la Guerre
(specially on the Wars of Louis XIV., in which Feuquiere had
himself shone): a new Book at this time (Amsterdam, 1731;
first COMPLETE edition is, Paris, 1770, 4 vols. 4to); at Ruppin,
and afterwards, a chief favorite with Friedrich.] from Epaminondas
at Leuctra to Charles XII. at Pultawa, all manner of Military
Histories, we perceive, are at his finger-ends; and he has
penetrated into the essential heart of each, and learnt what it
had to teach him. Something of this, how much we know not, began
at Ruppin; and it did not end again.

On the whole, Friedrich is prepared to distinguish himself
henceforth by strictly conforming, in all outward particulars
possible, to the paternal will, and becoming the most obedient of
sons. Partly from policy and necessity, partly also from loyalty;
for he loves his rugged Father, and begins to perceive that there
is more sense in his peremptory notions than at first appeared.
The young man is himself rather wild, as we have seen, with plenty
of youthful petulance and longings after forbidden fruit. And then
he lives in an element of gossip; his whole life enveloped in a
vast Dionysius'-Ear, every word and action liable to be debated in
Tobacco-Parliament. He is very scarce of money, too, Papa's
allowance being extremely moderate, "not above 6,000 thalers (900
pounds)," says Seckendorf once. [Forster, iii. 114 (Seckendorf to
Prince Eugene).] There will be contradictions enough to settle:
caution, silence, every kind of prudence will be much

In all outward particulars the Crown-Prince will conform; in the
inward, he will exercise a judgment, and if he cannot conform,
will at least be careful to hide. To do his Commandant duties at
Ruppin, and avoid offences, is much his determination. We observe
he takes great charge of his men's health; has the Regiment Goltz
in a shiningly exact condition at the grand reviews;--is very
industrious now and afterwards to get tall recruits, as a dainty
to Papa. Knows that nothing in Nature is so sure of conciliating
that strange old gentleman; corresponds, accordingly, in distant
quarters; lays out, now and afterwards, sums far too heavy for his
means upon tall recruits for Papa. But it is good to conciliate in
that quarter, by every method, and at every expense;--Argus of
Tobacco-Parliament still watching one there; and Rumor needing to
be industriously dealt with, difficult to keep down. Such, so far
as we can gather, is the general figure of Friedrich's life at
Ruppin. Specific facts of it, anecdotes about it, are few in those
dim Books; are uncertain as to truth, and without importance
whether true or not. For all his gravity and Colonelship, it would
appear the old spirit of frolic has not quitted him. Here are two
small incidents, pointing that way; which stand on record;
credible enough, though vague and without importance otherwise.
Incident FIRST is to the following feeble effect; indisputable
though extremely unmomentous: Regiment Goltz, it appears, used to
have gold trimmings; the Colonel Crown-Prince petitioned that they
might be of silver, which he liked better. Papa answers, Yes.
Regiment Goltz gets its new regimentals done in silver;
the Colonel proposes they shall solemnly BURN their old
regimentals. And they do it, the Officers of them, SUB DIO,
perhaps in the Prince's garden, strippiug successively in the
"Temple" there, with such degree of genial humor, loud laughter,
or at least boisterous mock-solemnity, as may be in them. This is
a true incident of the Prince's history, though a small one.

Incident SECOND is of slightly more significance; and intimates,
not being quite alone in its kind, a questionable habit or method
the Crown-Prince must have had of dealing with Clerical Persons
hereabouts when they proved troublesome. Here are no fewer than
three such Persons, or Parsons, of the Ruppin Country, who got
mischief by him. How the first gave offence shall be seen, and how
he was punished: offences of the second and the third we can only
guess to have been perhaps pulpit-rebukes of said punishments:
perhaps general preaching against military levities, want of
piety, nay open sinfulness, in thoughtless young men with
cockades. Whereby the thoughtless young men were again driven to
think of nocturnal charivari? We will give the story in
Dr. Busching's own words, who looks before and after to great
distances, in a way worth attending to. The Herr Doctor, an
endless Collector and Compiler on all manner of subjects, is very
authentic always, and does not want for natural sense: but he is
also very crude,--and here and there not far from stupid, such his
continual haste, and slobbery manner of working up those Hundred
and odd Volnmes of his:-- [See his Autobiography, which forms
Beitrage, B. vi. (the biggest and
last volume).]

"The sanguine-choleric temperament of Friedrich," says this
Doctor, "drove him, in his youth, to sensual enjoyments and wild
amusements of different kinds; in his middle age, to fiery
enterprises; and in his old years to decisions and actions of a
rigorous and vehement nature; yet so that the primary form of
utterance, as seen in his youth, never altogether ceased with him.
There are people still among us (1788) who have had, in their own
experience, knowledge of his youthful pranks; and yet more are
living, who know that he himself, at table, would gayly recount
what merry strokes were done by him, or by his order, in those
young years. To give an instance or two.

"While he was at Neu-Ruppin as Colonel of the Infantry Regiment
there, the Chaplain of it sometimes waited upon him about the time
of dinner,--having been used to dine occasionally with the former
Colonel. The Crown-Prince, however, put him always off, did not
ask him to dinner; spoke contemptuously of him in presence of the
Officers. The Chaplain was so inconsiderate, he took to girding at
the Crown-Prince in his sermons. 'Once on a time,' preached he,
one day, 'there was Herod who had Herodias to dance before him;
and he,--he gave her John the Baptist's head for her pains!'"
This HEROD, Busching says, was understood to mean, and meant, the
Crown-Prince; HERODIAS, the merry corps of Officers who made sport
for him; JOHN THE BAPTIST'S HEAD was no other than the Chaplain
not invited to dinner! "To punish him for such a sally, the Crown-
Prince with the young Officers of his Regiment went, one night, to
the Chaplain's house," somewhere hard by, with cow's-grass
adjoining to it, as we see: and "first, they knocked in the
windows of his sleeping-room upon him [HINGE-windows, glass not
entirely broken, we may hope]; next there were crackers
[SCHWARMER, "enthusiasts," so to speak!] thrown in upon him;
and thereby the Chaplain, and his poor Wife," more or less in an
interesting condition, poor woman, "were driven out into the
court-yard, and at last into the dung-heap there;"--and so left,
with their Head on a Charger to that terrible extent!

That is Busching's version of the story; no doubt substantially
correct; of which there are traces in other quarters,--for it went
farther than Ruppin; and the Crown-Prince had like to have got
into trouble from it. "Here is piety!" said Rumor, carrying it to
Tobacco-Parliament. The Crown-Prince plaintively assures Grumkow
that it was the Officers, and that they got punished for it.
A likely story, the Prince's!

"When King Friedrich, in his old days, recounted this after
dinner, in his merry tone, he was well pleased that the guests,
and even the pages and valets behind his back, laughed aloud at
it." Not a pious old King, Doctor, still less an orthodox one!
The Doctor continues: "In a like style, at Nauen, where part of
his regiment lay, he had--by means of Herr von der Groben, his
First-Lieutenant," much a comrade of his, as we otherwise
perceive--"the Diaconus of Nauen and his Wife hunted out of bed,
and thrown into terror of their lives, one night:"--offence of the
Diaconus not specified. "Nay he himself once pitched his
gold-headed stick through Salpius the Church Inspector's window,"
--offence again not specified, or perhaps merely for a little
artillery practice?--"and the throw was so dexterous that it
merely made a round hole in the glass: stick was lying on the
floor; and the Prince," on some excuse or other, "sent for it next
morning." "Margraf Heinrich of Schwedt," continues the Doctor,
very trustworthy on points of fact, "was a diligent helper in such
operations. Kaiserling," whom we shall hear of, "First-Lieutenant
von der Groben," these were prime hands; "Lieutenant Buddenbrock
[old Feldmarschall's son] used, in his old days, when himself
grown high in rank and dining with the King, to be appealed to as
witness for the truth of these stories." [Busching,
Beitrage zu der Lebensgeschichte denkwurdiger Personen, italic> v. 19-21. Vol. v.--wholly occupied with Friedrich
II. King of Prussia (Halle, 1788),--is accessible in
French and other languages; many details, and (as Busching's wont
is) few or none not authentic, are to be found in it; a very great
secret spleen against Friedrich is also traceable,--for which the
Doctor may have had his reasons, not obligatory upon readers of
the Doctor. The truth is, Friedrich never took the least special
notice of him: merely employed and promoted him, when expedient
for both parties; and he really was a man of considerable worth,
in an extremely crude form.]

These are the two Incidents at Ruppin, in such light as they have.
And these are all. Opulent History yields from a ton of broken
nails these two brass farthings, and shuts her pocket on us again.
A Crown-Prince given to frolic, among other things; though aware
that gravity would beseem him better. Much gay bantering humor in
him, cracklings, radiations,--which he is bound to keep well under
cover, in present circumstances.

Chapter III.


For three years past there has been much rumor over Germany, of a
strange affair going on in the remote Austrian quarter, down in
Salzburg and its fabulous Tyrolese valleys. Salzburg, city and
territory, has an Archbishop, not theoretically Austrian, but
sovereign Prince so styled; it is from him and his orthodoxies,
and pranks with his sovereign crosier, that the noise originates.
Strange rumor of a body of the population discovered to be
Protestant among the remote Mountains, and getting miserably
ill-used, by the Right Reverend Father in those parts.
Which rumor, of a singular, romantic, religious interest for the
general Protestant world, proves to be but too well founded.
It has come forth in the form of practical complaint to the CORPUS
EVANGELICORUM at the Diet, without result from the CORPUS;
complaint to various persons;--in fine, to his Majesty Friedrich
Wilhelm, WITH result.

With result at last; actual "Emigration of the Salzburgers:"
and Germany--in these very days while the Crown-Prince is at
Berlin betrothing himself, and Franz of Lorraine witnessing the
EXERCITIA and wonders there--sees a singular phenomenon of a
touching idyllic nature going on; and has not yet quite forgotten
it in our days. Salzburg Emigration was all in motion, flowing
steadily onwards, by various routes, towards Berlin, at the time
the Betrothal took place; and seven weeks after that event, when
the Crown-Prince had gone to Ruppin, and again could only hear of
it, the First Instalment of Emigrants arrived bodily at the Gates
of Berlin, "30th April, at four in the afternoon;" Majesty
himself, and all the world going out to witness it, with something
of a poetic: almost of a psalmist feeling, as well as with a
practical on the part of his Majesty. First Instalment this;
copiously followed by others, all that year; and flowing on, in
smaller rills and drippings, for several years more, till it got
completed. A notable phenomenon, full of lively picturesque and
other interest to Brandenburg and Germany;--which was not
forgotten by the Crown-Prince in coming years, as we shall
transiently find; nay which all Germany still remembers, and even
occasionally sings. Of which this is in brief the history.

The Salzburg Country, northeastern slope of the Tyrol (Donau
draining that side of it, Etsch or Adige the Italian side), is
celebrated by the Tourist for its airy beauty, rocky mountains,
smooth green valleys, and swift-rushing streams; perhaps some
readers have wandered to Bad-Gastein, or Ischl, in these nomadic
summers; have looked into Salzburg, Berchtesgaden, and the
Bavarian-Austrian boundary-lands; seen the wooden-clock makings,
salt-works, toy-manufactures, of those simple people in their
slouch-hats; and can bear some testimony to the phenomena of
Nature there. Salzburg is the Archbishop's City, metropolis of his
bit of sovereignty that then was. [Tolerable description of it in
the Baron Riesbeck's Travels through Germany
(London, 1787, Translation by Maty, 3 vols. 8vo), i. 124-222;--
whose details otherwise, on this Emigration business, are of no
authenticity or value. A kind of Play-actor and miscellaneous
Newspaper-man in that time (not so opulent to his class as ours
is); who takes the title of "Baron" on this occasion of coming,
out with a Book of Imaginary "Travels."
Had personally lived, practising the miscellaneous arts, about
Lintz and Salzburg,--and may be heard on the look of the Country,
if on little else.] A romantic City, far off among its beautiful
Mountains, shadowing (itself in the Salza River, which rushes down
into the Inn, into the Donau, now becoming great with the tribute
of so many valleys. Salzburg we have not known hitherto except as
the fabulous resting-place of Kaiser Barbarossa: but we are now
slightly to see it in a practical light; and mark how the memory
of Friedrich Wilhelm makes an incidental lodgment for
itself there.

It is well known there was extensive Protestantism once in those
countries. Prior to the Thirty-Years War, the fair chance was,
Austria too would all become Protestant; an extensive minority
among all ranks of men in Austria too, definable as the serious
intelligence of mankind in those countries, having clearly adopted
it, whom the others were sure to follow. In all ranks of men;
only not in the highest rank, which was pleased rather to continue
Official and Papal. Highest rank had its Thirty-Years War, "its
sleek Fathers Lummerlein and Hyacinth in Jesuit serge, its
terrible Fathers Wallenstein in chain-armor;" and, by working late
and early then and afterwards, did manage at length to trample out
Protestantism,--they know with what advantage by this time.
Trample out Protestantism; or drive it into remote nooks, where
under sad conditions it might protract an unnoticed existence.
In the Imperial Free-Towns, Ulm, Augsburg, and the like,
Protestantism continued, and under hard conditions contrives to
continue: but in the country parts, except in unnoticed nooks, it
is extinct. Salzburg Country is one of those nooks; an extensive
Crypto-Protestantism lodging, under the simple slouch-hats, in the
remote valleys there. Protestantism peaceably kept concealed,
hurting nobody; wholesomely forwarding the wooden-clock
manufacture, and arable or grazier husbandries, of those poor
people. More harmless sons of Adam, probably, did not breathe the
vital air, than those dissentient Salzburgers; generation after
generation of them giving offence to no creature.

Successive Archbishops had known of this Crypto-Protestantism, and
in remote periods had made occasional slight attempts upon it;
but none at all for a long time past. All attempts that way, as
ineffectual for any purpose but stirring up strife, had been
discontinued for many generations; [Buchholz, i. 148-151.] and the
Crypto-Protestantism was again become a mythical romantic object,
ignored by Official persons. However, in 1727, there came a new
Archbishop, one "Firmian", Count Firmian by secular quality, of a
strict lean character, zealous rather than wise; who had brought
his orthodoxies with him in a rigid and very lean form.

Right Reverend Firmian had not been long in Salzburg till he smelt
out the Crypto-Protestantism, and determined to haul it forth from
the mythical condition into the practical; and in fact, to see his
law-beagles there worry it to death as they ought. Hence the
rumors that had risen over Germany, in 1729: Law-terriers
penetrating into human cottages in those remote Salzburg valleys,
smelling out some German Bible or devout Book, making lists of
Bible-reading cottagers; haling them to the Right Reverend Father-
in-God; thence to prison, since they would not undertake to cease
reading. With fine, with confiscation, tribulation: for the
peaceable Salzburgers, respectful creatures, doffing their slouch-
hats almost to mankind in general, were entirely obstinate in that
matter of the Bible. "Cannot, your Reverence; must not, dare not!"
and went to prison or whithersoever rather; a wide cry rising, Let
us sell our possessions and leave Salzburg then, according to
Treaty of Westphalia, Article so-and-so. "Treaty of Westphalia?
Leave Salzburg?" shrieked the Right Reverend Father: "Are we
getting into open mutiny, then? Open extensive mutiny!" shrieked
he. Borrowed a couple of Austrian regiments,--Kaiser and we always
on the pleasantest terms,--and marched the most refractory of his
Salzburgers over the frontiers (retaining their properties and
families); whereupon noise rose louder and louder.

Refractory Salzburgers sent Deputies to the Diet; appealed,
complained to the CORPUS EVANGELICORUM, Treaty of Westphalia in
hand,--without result. CORPUS, having verified matters, complained
to the Kaiser, to the Right Reverend Father. The Kaiser, intent on
getting his Pragmatic Sanction through the Diet, and anxious to
offend nobody at present, gave good words; but did nothing:
the Right Reverend Father answered a Letter or two from the
CORPUS; then said at last, He wished to close the Correspondence,
had the honor to be,--and answered no farther, when written to.
CORPUS was without result. So it lasted through 1730; rumor, which
rose in 1729, waxing ever louder into practicable or impracticable
shape, through that next year; tribulation increasing in Salzburg;
and noise among mankind. In the end of 1730, the Salzburgers sent
Two Deputies to Friedrich Wilhelm at Berlin; solid-hearted, thick-
soled men, able to answer for themselves, and give real account of
Salzburg and the phenomena; this brought matters into a
practicable state.

"Are you actual Protestants, the Treaty of Westphalia applicable
to you? Not mere fanatic mystics, as Right Reverend Firmian
asserts; protectible by no Treaty?" That was Friedrich Wilhelm's
first question; and he set his two chief Berlin Clergymen, learned
Roloff one of them, a divine of much fame, to catechise the two
Salzburg Deputies, and report upon the point. Their Report, dated
Berlin, 30th November, 1730, with specimens of the main questions,
I have read; [Fassmann, pp. 446-448.] and can fully certify, along
with Roloff and friend, That here are orthodox Protestants,
apparently of very pious peaceable nature, suffering hard wrong;--
orthodox beyond doubt, and covered by the Treaty of Westphalia.
Whereupon his Majesty dismisses them with assurance, "Return, and
say there shall be help!"--and straightway lays hand on the
business, strong swift steady hand as usual, with a view that way.

Salzburg being now a clear case, Friedrich Wilhelm writes to the
Kaiser; to the King of England, King of Denmark;--orders
preparations to be made in Preussen, vacant messuages to be
surveyed, moneys to be laid up;--bids his man at the Regensburg
Diet signify, That unless this thing is rectified, his Prussian
Majesty will see himself necessitated to take effectual steps:
"reprisals" the first step, according to the old method of his
Prussian Majesty. Rumor of the Salzburg Protestants rises higher
and higher. Kaiser intent on conciliating every CORPUS,
Evangelical and other, for his Pragmatic Sanction's sake,
admonishes Right Reverend Firmian; intimates at last to him, That
he will actually have to let those poor people emigrate if they
demand it; Treaty of Westphalia being express. In the end of 1731
it has come thus far.

"Emigrate, says your Imperial Majesty? Well, they shall emigrate,"
answers Firmian; "the sooner the better!" And straightway, in the
dead of winter, marches, in convenient divisions, some nine
hundred of them over the frontiers: "Go about your business, then;
emigrate--to the Old One, if you like!"--"And our properties, our
goods and chattels?" ask they.--"Be thankful you have kept your
skins. Emigrate, I say.!" And the poor nine hundred had to go out,
in the rigor of winter, "hoary old men among them, and women
coming near their time;" and seek quarters in the wide world
mostly unknown to them. Truly Firmian is an orthodox Herr;
acquainted with the laws of fair usage and the time of day.
The sleeping Barbarossa does not awaken upon him within the Hill
here:--but in the Roncalic Fields, long ago, I should not have
liked to stand in his shoes!

Friedrich Wilhelm, on this procedure at Salzburg, intimates to his
Halberstadt and Minden Catholic gentlemen, That their
Establishments must be locked up, and incomings suspended;
that they can apply to the Right Reverend Firmian upon it;--and
bids his man at Regensburg signify to the Diet that such is the
course adopted here. Right Reverend Firmian has to hold his hand;
finds both that there shall be Emigration, and that it must go
forward on human terms, not inhuman; and that in fact the Treaty
of Westphalia will have to guide it, not he henceforth. Those poor
ousted Salzburgers cower into the Bavarian cities, till the
weather mend, and his Prussian Majesty's arrangements be complete
for their brethren and them.

His Prussian Majesty has been maturing his plans, all this while;
--gathering moneys, getting lands ready. We saw him hanging
Schlubhut in the autumn of 1731, who had peculated from said
moneys; and surveying Preussen, under storms of thunder and rain
on one occasion. Preussen is to be the place for these people;
Tilsit and Memel region, same where the big Fight of Tannenberg
and ruin of the Teutsch Ritters took place: in that fine fertile
Country there are homes got ready for this Emigration out
of Salzburg.

Long ago, at the beginning of this History, did not the reader
hear of a pestilence in Prussian Lithuania? Pestilence in old King
Friedrich's time; for which the then Crown-Prince, now Majesty
Friedrich Wilhelm, vainly solicited help from the Treasury, and
only brought about partial change of Ministry and no help.
"Fifty-two Towns" were more or less entirely depopulated; hundreds
of thousands of fertile acres fell to waste again, the hands that
had ploughed them being swept away. The new Majesty, so soon as
ever the Swedish War was got rid of, took this matter diligently
in hand; built up the fifty-two ruined Towns; issued Proclamations
once and again (Years 1719, 1721) to the Wetterau, to Switzerland,
Saxony, Schwaben; [Buchholz, i. 148.] inviting Colonists to come,
and, on favorable terms, till and reap there. His terms are
favorable, well-considered; and are honestly kept. He has a fixed
set of terms for Colonists: their road-expenses thither, so much a
day allowed each travelling soul; homesteads, ploughing
implements, cattle, land, await them at their journey's end;
their rent and services, accurately specified, are light not
heavy; and "immunities" from this and that are granted them, for
certain years, till they get well nestled. Excellent arrangements:
and his Majesty has, in fact, got about 20,000 families in that
way. And still there is room for thousands more. So that if the
tyrannous Firmian took to tribulating Salzburg in that manner,
Heaven had provided remedies and a Prussian Majesty. Heaven is
very opulent; has alchemy to change the ugliest substances into
beautifulest. Privately to his Majesty, for months back, this
Salzburg Emigration is a most manageable matter. Manage well, it
will be a god-send to his Majesty, and fit, as by pre-established
harmony, into the ancient Prussian sorrow; and "two afflictions
well put together shall become a consolation," as the proverb
promises! Go along then, Right Reverend Firmian, with your
Emigration there: only no foul-play in it,--or Halberstadt and
Minden get locked:--for the rest of the matter we will undertake.

And so, February 2d, 1732, Friedrich Wilhelm's Proclamation [Copy
of it in Mauvillon, February, 1732, ii. 311.] flew abroad over the
world; brief and business-like, cheering to all but Firmian;--
to this purport: "Come, ye poor Salzburgers, there are homes
provided for you. Apply at Regensburg, at Halle: Commissaries are
appointed; will take charge of your long march and you. Be kind,
all Christian German Princes: do not hinder them and me." And in
a few days farther, still early in February (for the matter is all
ready before proclaiming), an actual Prussian Commissary hangs out
his announcements and officialities at Donauworth, old City known
to us, within reach of the Salzburg Boundaries; collects, in a
week or two, his first lot of Emigrants, near a thousand strong;
and fairly takes the road with them.

A long road and a strange: I think, above five hundred miles
before we get to Halle, within Prussian land; and then seven
hundred more to our place there, in the utmost East. Men, women,
infants and hoary grandfathers are here;--most of their property
sold,--still on ruinous conditions, think of it, your Majesty.
Their poor bits of preciosities and heirlooms they have with them;
made up in succinct bundles, stowed on ticketed baggage-wains;
"some have their own poor cart and horse, to carry the too old and
the too young, those that cannot walk." A pilgrimage like that of
the Children of Israel: such a pilgrim caravan as was seldom heard
of in our Western Countries. Those poor succinct bundles, the
making of them up and stowing of them; the pangs of simple hearts,
in those remote native valleys; the tears that were not seen,
the cries that were addressed to God only: and then at last the
actual turning out of the poor caravan, in silently practical
condition, staff in hand, no audible complaint heard from it;
ready to march; practically marching here:--which of us can think
of it without emotion, sad, and yet in a sort blessed!

Every Emigrant man has four GROSCHEN a day (fourpence odd) allowed
him for road expenses, every woman three groschen, every child
two: and regularity itself, in the shape of Prussian Commissaries,
presides over it. Such marching of the Salzburgers: host after
host of them, by various routes, from February onwards;
above seven thousand of them this year, and ten thousand more that
gradually followed,--was heard of at all German firesides, and in
all European lands. A phenomenon much filling the general ear and
imagination; especially at the first emergence of it. We will give
from poor old authentic Fassmann, as if caught up by some sudden
photograph apparatus, a rude but undeniable glimpse or two into
the actuality of this business: the reader will in that way
sufficiently conceive it for himself.

Glimpse FIRST is of an Emigrant Party arriving, in the cold
February days of 1732, at Nordlingen, Protestant Free-Town in
Bavaria: three hundred of them; first section, I think, of those
nine hundred who were packed away unceremoniously by Firmian last
winter, and have been wandering about Bavaria, lodging "in
Kaufbeuern" and various preliminary Towns, till the Prussian
arrangements became definite. Prussian Commissaries are, by this
time, got to Donauworth; but these poor Salzburgers are ahead of
them, wandering under the voluntary principle as yet. Nordlingen,
in Bavaria, is an old Imperial Free-Town; Protestantism not
suppressed there, as it has been all round; scene of some
memorable fighting in the Thirty-Years War, especially of a bad
defeat to the Swedes and Bernhard of Weimar, the worst they had in
the course of that bad business. The Salzburgers are in number
three hundred and thirty-one; time, "first days of February, 1732,
weather very cold and raw." The charitable Protestant Town has
been expecting such an advent:--

"Two chief Clergymen, and the Schoolmaster and Scholars, with some
hundreds of citizens and many young people" went out to meet them;
there, in the open field, stood the Salzburgers, with their wives
and their little ones, with their bullock-carts and baggage-
wains," pilgriming towards unknown parts of the Earth. "'Come in,
ye blessed of the Lord! Why stand ye without?' said the Parson
solemnly, by way of welcome; and addressed a Discourse to them,"
devout and yet human, true every word of it, enough to draw tears
from any Fassmann that were there;--Fassmann and we not far from
weeping without words. "Thereupon they ranked themselves two and
two, and marched into the Town," straight to the Church, I
conjecture, Town all out to participate; "and there the two
reverend gentlemen successively addressed them again, from
appropriate texts: Text of the first reverend gentleman was,
And every one that hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or
sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for
my name's sake, shall receive an hundred-fold, and shall inherit
everlasting life. [Matthew xix. 29.] Text of the
second was, Now the Lord had said unto Abraham, Get thee
out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's
house, unto a land that I will show thee." [Genesis
xii. 1.] Excellent texts; well handled, let us hope,--especially
with brevity. After which the strangers were distributed, some
into public-houses, others taken home by the citizens to lodge.

"Out of the Spital there was distributed to each person, for the
first three days, a half-pound of flesh-meat, bread, and a measure
of beer. The remaining days they got in money six CREUTZERS
(twopence) each, and bread. On Sunday, at the Church-doors there
was a collection; no less than eight hundred GULDEN [80 pounds;
population, say, three thousand] for this object. At Sermon they
were put into the central part of the Church," all Nordlingen
lovingly encompassing them; "and were taught in two sermons,"
texts not given, What the true Church is built of, italic> and then Of true Faith, and what love a Christian
ought to have; Nordlingen copiously shedding tears
the while (VIELE THRANEN VERGOSSEN), as it well might. "Going to
Church, and coming from it, each Landlord walked ahead of his
party; party followed two and two. On other days, there was much
catechising of them at different parts of the Town;"--orthodox
enough, you see, nothing of superstition or fanaticism in the poor
people;--"they made a good testimony of their Evangelical truth.

"The Baggage-wagons which they had with them, ten in number, upon
which some of their old people sat, were brought into the Town.
The Baggage was unloaded, and the packages, two hundred and
eighty-one of them in all [for Fassmann is Photography itself],
were locked in the Zoll-Haus. Over and above what they got from
the Spital, the Church-collection and the Town-chest, Citizens
were liberal; daily sent them food, or daily had them by fours and
fives to their own houses to meat." And so let them wait for the
Prussian Commissary, who is just at hand: "they would not part
from one another, these three hundred and thirty-one," says
Fassmann, "though their reunion was but of that accidental
nature." [Fassmann, pp. 439, 440.]

Glimpse SECOND: not dated; perhaps some ten days later; and a
Prussian Commissary with this party:--

"On their getting to the Anspach Territory, there was so
incredible a joy at the arrival of these exiled Brothers in the
Faith (GLAUBENS-BRUDER) that in all places, almost in the smallest
hamlets, the bells were set a-tolling; and nothing was heard but a
peal of welcome from far and near." Prussian Commissary, when
about quitting Anspach, asked leave to pass through Bamberg;
Bishop of Bamberg, too orthodox a gentleman, declined; so the
Commissary had to go by Nurnberg and Baireuth. Ask not if his
welcome was good, in those Protestant places. "At Erlangen,
fifteen miles from Nurnberg, where are French Protestants and a
Dowager Margravine of Baireuth,"--Widow of Wilhelmina's Father-in-
law's predecessor (if the reader can count that); DAUGHTER of
Weissenfels who was for marrying Wilhelmina not long since!--
"at Erlangen, the Serene Dowager snatched up fifty of them into
her own House for Christian refection; and Burghers of means had
twelve, fifteen and even eighteen of them, following such example
set. Nay certain French Citizens, prosperous and childless,
besieged the Prussian Commissary to allow them a few Salzburg
children for adoption; especially one Frenchman was extremely
urgent and specific: but the Commissary, not having any order, was
obliged to refuse." [Fassmann, p. 441.] These must have been
interesting days for the two young Margravines; forwarding Papa's
poor pilgrims in that manner.

"At Baireuth," other side of Nurnberg, "it was towards Good Friday
when the Pilgrims under their Commissarius arrived. They were
lodged in the villages about, but came copiously into the Town;
came all in a body to Church on Good Friday; and at coming out,
were one and all carried off to dinner, a very scramble arising
among the Townsfolk to get hold of Pilgrims and dine them.
Vast numbers were carried to the Schloss:" one figures Wilhelmina
among them, figures the Hereditary Prince and old Margraf:
their treatment there was "beyond belief," says Fassmann;
"not only dinner of the amplest quality and quantity, but much
money added and other gifts." From Baireuth the route is towards
Gera and Thuringen, circling the Bamberg Territory: readers
remember Gera, where the Gera Bond was made?--"At Gera, a
commercial gentleman dined the whole party in his own premises,
and his wife gave four groschen to each individual of them;
other two persons, brothers in the place, doing the like. One of
the poor pilgrim women had been brought to bed on the journey, a
day or two before: the Commissarius lodged her in his own inn, for
greater safety; Commissarius returning to his inn, finds she is
off, nobody at first can tell him whither: a lady of quality
(VORMEHME DAME) has quietly sent her carriage for the poor pilgrim
sister, and has her in the right softest keeping. No end to
people's kindness: many wept aloud, sobbing out, 'Is this all the
help we can give?' Commissarius said, 'There will others come
shortly; them also you can help.'"

In this manner march these Pilgrims. "From Donauworth, by Anspach,
Nurnberg, Baireuth, through Gera, Zeitz, Weissenfels, to Halle,"
where they are on Prussian ground, and within few days of Berlin.
Other Towns, not upon the first straight route to Berlin, demand
to have a share in these grand things; share is willingly
conceded: thus the Pilgrims, what has its obvious advantages,
march by a good variety of routes. Through Augsburg, Ulm (instead
of Donauworth), thence to Frankfurt; from Frankfurt some direct to
Leipzig: some through Cassel, Hanover, Brunswick, by Halberstadt
and Magdeburg instead of Halle. Starting all at Salzburg, landing
all at Berlin; their routes spread over the Map of Germany in the
intermediate space.

"Weissenfels Town and Duke distinguished themselves by liberality:
especially the Duke did;"--poor old drinking Duke; very Protestant
all these Saxon Princes, except the Apostate or Pseudo-Apostate
the Physically Strong, for sad political reasons. "In Weissenfels
Town, while the Pilgrim procession walked, a certain rude foreign
fellow, flax-pedler by trade, ["HECHELTRAGER," Hawker of flax-
combs or HECKLES;--is oftenest a Slavonic Austrian (I am told).]
by creed Papist or worse, said floutingly, 'The Archbishop ought
to have flung you all into the river, you--!' Upon which a menial
servant of the Duke's suddenly broke in upon him in the way of
actuality, the whole crowd blazing into flame; and the pedler
would certainly have got irreparable damage, had not the Town-
guard instantly hooked him away."

April 21st, 1732, the first actual body, a good nine hundred
strong, [Buchholz, i. 156.] got to Halle; where they were received
with devout jubilee, psalm-singing, spiritual and corporeal
refection, as at Nordlingen and the other stages; "Archidiaconus
Franke" being prominent in it,--I have no doubt, a connection of
that "CHIEN DE FRANKE," whom Wilhelmina used to know. They were
lodged in the Waisenhaus (old Franke's ORPHAN-HOUSE); Official
List of them was drawn up here, with the fit specificality;
and, after three days, they took the road again for Berlin.
Useful Buchholz, then a very little boy, remembers the arrival of
a Body of these Salzburgers, not this but a later one in August,
which passed through his native Village, Pritzwalk in the
Priegnitz: How village and village authorities were all awake,
with opened stores and hearts; how his Father, the Village Parson,
preached at five in the afternoon. The same Buchholz, coming
afterwards to College at Halle, had the pleasure of discovering
two of the Commissaries, two of the three, who had mainly
superintended in this Salzburg Pilgrimage. Let the reader also
take a glance at them, as specimens worth notice:--

COMMISSARIUS FIRST: "Herr von Reck was a nobleman from the Hanover
Country; of very great piety; who, after his Commission was done,
settled at Halle; and lived there, without servant, in privacy,
from the small means he had;--seeking his sole satisfaction in
attendance on the Theological and Ascetic College-Lectures, where
I used to see him constantly in my student time."

COMMISSARIUS SECOND: "Herr Gobel was a medical man by profession;
and had the regular degree of Doctor; but was in no necessity to
apply his talents to the gaining of bread. His zeal for religion
had moved him to undertake this Commission. Both these gentlemen I
have often seen in my youth," but do not tell you what they were
like farther; "and both their Christian names have escaped me."

A third Commissarius was of Preussen, and had religious-literary
tendencies. I suppose these three served gratis;--volunteers;
but no doubt under oath, and tied by strict enough Prussian law.
Physician, Chaplain, Road-guide, here they are, probably of
supreme quality, ready to our hand. [Buchholz, Neueste
Preussisch-Brandenburgische Geschichte (berlin, 1775,
2 vols. 4to), i. 155 n.]

Buchholz, after "his student time," became a poor Country-
schoolmaster, and then a poor Country-Parson, in his native
Altmark. His poor Book is of innocent, clear, faithful nature,
with some vein of "unconscious geniality" in it here and there;--
a Book by no means so destitute of human worth as some that have
superseded it. This was posthumous, this "NEWEST HISTORY," and has
a LIFE of the Author prefixed. He has four previous Volumes on the
"Ancient History of Bran denburg," which are
not known to me.--About the Year 1745, there were four poor
Schoolmasters in that region (two at Havelberg, one at Seehausen,
one at Werben), of extremely studious turn; who, in spite of the
Elbe which ran between, used to meet on stated nights, for
colloquy, for interchange of Books and the like. One of them, the
Werben one, was this Buchholz; another, Seehausen, was the
Winckelmann so celebrated in after years. A third, one of the
Havelberg pair, "went into Mecklenburg in a year or two, as Tutor
to Karl Ludwig the Prince of Strelitz's children,"--whom also
mark. For the youngest of these Strelitz children was no other
than the actual "Old Queen Charlotte" (ours and George III.'s),
just ready for him with her Hornbooks about that time: Let the
poor man have what honor he can from that circumstance!
"Prince Karl Ludwig," rather a foolish-looking creature, we may
fall in with personally by and by.

It was the 30th April, 1732, seven weeks and a day since Crown-
Prince Friedrich's Betrothal, that this first body of Salzburg
Emigrants, nine hundred strong, arrived at Berlin; "four in the
afternoon, at the Brandenburg Gate;" Official persons, nay Majesty
himself, or perhaps both Majesties, waiting there to receive them.
Yes, ye poor footsore mortals, there is the dread King himself;
stoutish short figure in blue uniform and white wig, straw-colored
waistcoat, and white gaiters; stands uncommonly firm on his feet;
reddish, blue-reddish face, with eyes that pierce through a man:
look upon him, and yet live if you are true men. His Majesty's
reception of these poor people could not but be good; nothing now
wanting in the formal kind. But better far, in all the
essentialities of it, there had not been hitherto, nor was
henceforth, the least flaw. This Salzburg Pilgrimage has found for
itself, and will find, regulation, guidance, ever a stepping-stone
at the needful place; a paved road, so far as human regularity
and punctuality could pave one. That is his Majesty's shining
merit. "Next Sunday, after sermon, they [this first lot of
Salzburgers] were publicly catechised in church; and all the world
could hear their pertinent answers, given often in the very
Scripture texts, or express words of Luther."

His Majesty more than once took survey of these Pilgrimage
Divisions, when they got to Berlin. A pleasant sight, if there
were leisure otherwise. On various occasions, too, her Majesty had
large parties of them over to Monbijou, to supper there in the
fine gardens; and "gave them Bibles," among other gifts, if in
want of Bibles through Firmian's industry. Her Majesty was Charity
itself, Charity and Grace combined, among these Pilgrims. On one
occasion she picked out a handsome young lass among them, and had
Painter Pesne over to take her portrait. Handsome lass, by Pesne,
in her Tyrolese Hat, shone thenceforth on the walls of Monbijou;
and fashion thereupon took up the Tyrolese Hat, "which has been
much worn since by the beautiful part of the Creation," says
Buchholz; "but how many changes they have introduced in it no pen
can trace."

At Berlin the Commissarius ceased; and there was usually given the
Pilgrims a Candidatus Theologiae, who was to conduct them the rest
of the way, and be their Clergyman when once settled. Five hundred
long miles still. Some were shipped at Stettin; mostly they
marched, stage after stage,--four groschen a day. At the farther
end they found all ready; tight cottages, tillable fields, all
implements furnished, and stock,--even to "FEDERVIEH," or
Chanticleer with a modicum of Hens. Old neighbors, and such as
liked each other, were put together: fields grew green again,
desolate scrubs and scrags yielding to grass and corn.
Wooden clocks even came to view,--for Berchtesgaden neighbors also
emigrated; and Swiss came, and Bavarians and French:--and old
trades were revived in those new localities.

Something beautifully real-idyllic in all this, surely:--Yet do
not fancy that it all went on like clock-work; that there were not
jarrings at every step, as is the way in things real. Of the
Prussian Minister chiefly concerned in settling this new Colony I
have heard one saying, forced out of him in some pressure:
"There must be somebody for a scolding-stock and scape-goat;
I will be it, then!" And then the Salzburg Officials, what a humor
they were in! No Letters allowed from those poor Emigrants;
the wickedest rumors circulated about them: "All cut to pieces by
inroad of the Poles;" "Pressed for soldiers by the Prussian drill-
sergeant;" "All flung into the Lakes and stagnant waters there;
drowned to the last individual;" and so on. Truth nevertheless did
slowly pierce through. And the "GROSSE WIRTH," our idyllic-real
Friedrich Wilhelm, was wanting in nothing. Lists of their unjust
losses in Salzburg were, on his Majesty's order, made out and
authenticated, by the many who had suffered in that way there,
--forced to sell at a day's notice, and the like:--with these his
Majesty was diligent in the Imperial Court; and did get what human
industry could of compensation, a part but not the whole.
Contradictory noises had to abate. In the end, sound purpose,
built on fact and the Laws of Nature, carried it; lies,
vituperations, rumors and delusion sank to zero; and the true
result remained. In 1738, the Salzburg Emigrant Community in
Preussen held, in all their Churches, a Day of Thanksgiving;
and admitted piously that Heaven's blessing, of a truth, had been
upon this King and them. There we leave them, a useful solid
population ever since in those parts; increased by this time we
know not how many fold.

It cost Friedrich Wilhelm enormous sums, say the Old Histories;
probably "ten TONS OF GOLD,"--that is to say, ten hundred thousand
thalers; almost 150,000 pounds, no less! But he lived to see it
amply repaid, even in his own time; how much more amply since;--
being a man skilful in investments to a high degree indeed.
Fancy 150,000 pounds invested there, in the Bank of Nature
herself; and a hundred millions invested, say at Balaclava, in the
Bank of Newspaper rumor: and the respective rates of interest they
will yield, a million years hence! This was the most idyllic of
Friedrich Wilhelm's feats, and a very real one the while.

We have only to add or repeat, that Salzburgers to the number of
about 7,000 souls arrived at their place this first year; and in
the year or two following, less noted by the public, but faring
steadily forward upon their four groschen a day, 10,000 more.
Friedrioh Wilhelm would have gladly taken the whole; "but George
II. took a certain number," say the Prussian Books (George II., or
pious Trustees instead of him), "and settled them at Ebenezer in
Virginia,"--read, Ebenezer IN GEORGIA, where General Oglethorpe
was busy founding a Colony. [Petition to Parliament, 10th (21st)
May, 1733, by Oglethorpe and his Trustees, for 10,000 pounds to
carry over these Salzburgers; which was granted; Tindal's RAPIN
(London, 1769), xx. 184.] There at Ebenezer I calculate they might
go ahead, too, after the questionable fashion of that country, and
increase and swell;--but have never heard of them since.

Salzburg Emigration was a very real transaction on Friedrich
Wilhelm's part; but it proved idyllic too, and made a great
impression on the German mind. Readers know of a Book called
Hermann and Dorothea? It is written by the
great Goethe, and still worth reading. The great Goethe had heard,
when still very little, much talk among the elders about this
Salzburg Pilgrimage; and how strange a thing it was, twenty years
ago and more. [1749 was Goethe's birth-year.] In middle life he
threw it into Hexameters, into the region of the air; and did that
unreal Shadow of it; a pleasant work in its way, since he was not
inclined for more.

Chapter IV.


Majesty seeing all these matters well in train,--Salzburgers under
way, Crown-Prince betrothed according to his Majesty's and the
Kaiser's (not to her Majesty's, and high-flying little George of
England my Brother the Comedian's) mind and will,--begins to think
seriously of another enterprise, half business, half pleasure,
which has been hovering in his mind for some time. "Visit to my
Daughter at Baireuth," he calls it publicly; but it means
intrinsically Excursion into Bohmen, to have a word with the
Kaiser, and see his Imperial Majesty in the body for once.
Too remarkable a thing to be omitted by us here.

Crown-Prince does not accompany on this occasion; Crown-Prince is
with his Regiment all this while; busy minding his own affairs in
the Ruppin quarter;--only hears, with more or less interest, of
these Salzburg-Pilgrim movements, of this Excursion into Bohmen.
Here are certain scraps of Letters; which, if once made legible,
will assist readers to conceive his situation and employments
there. Letters otherwise of no importance; but worth reading on
that score. The FIRST (or rather first three, which we huddle into
one) is from "Nauen," few miles off Ruppin; where one of our
Battalions lies; requiring frequent visits there:--

1. TO GRUMKOW, AT BERLIN (from the Crown-Prince).

"NAUEN, 26th April, 1732.

"MONSIEUR MY DEAREST FRIEND,--I send you a big mass of papers,
which a certain gentleman named Plotz has transmitted me.
In faith, I know not in the least what it is: I pray you present
it [to his Majesty, or in the proper quarter], and make me rid
of it.

"To-morrow I go to Potsdam [a drive of forty miles southward], to
see the exercise, and if we do it here according to pattern.
NEUE BESEN KEHREN GUT [New brooms sweep clean, IN GERMAN]; I shall
have to illustrate my new character" of Colonel; "and show that I
am EIN TUCHTIGER OFFICIER (a right Officer). Be what I may, I
shall to you always be", &c. &c.

NAUEN, 7th MAY, 1732. "... Thousand thanks for informing me how
everything goes on in the world. Things far from agreeable, those
leagues [imaginary, in Tobacco-Parliament] suspected to be forming
against our House! But if the Kaiser don't abandon us; ... if God
second the valor of 80,000 men resolved to spend their life, ...
let us hope there will nothing bad happen.

"Meanwhile, till events arrive, I make a pretty stir here
(ME TREMOUSSE ICI D'IMPORTANCE), to bring my Regiment to its
requisite perfection, and I hope I shall succeed. The other day I
drank your dear health, Monsieur; and I wait only the news from my
Cattle-stall that the Calf I am fattening there is ready for
sending to you. I unite Mars and Housekeeping, you see. Send me
your Secretary's name, that I may address your Letters that way,"
--our Correspondence needing to be secret in certain quarters.

... "With a" truly infinite esteem, "FREDERIC."

NAUEN, 10th MAY, 1732. "You will see by this that I am exact to
follow your instruction; and that the SCHULZ of Tremmen [Village
in the Brandenburg quarter, with a SCHULZ or Mayor to be depended
on], becomes for the present the mainspring of our correspondence.
I return you all the things (PIECES) you had the goodness to
communicate to me,--except Charles Douze,
[Voltaire's new Book; lately come out, "Bale, 1731."] which
attaches me infinitely. The particulars hitherto unknown which he
reports; the greatness of that Prince's actions, and the perverse
singularity (BIZARRERIE) of his fortune: all this, joined to the
lively, brilliant and charming way the Author has of telling it,
renders this Book interesting to the supreme degree. ... I send
you a fragment of my correspondence with the most illustrious
Sieur Crochet," some French Envoy or Emissary, I conclude:
"you perceive we go on very sweetly together, and are in a high
strain. I am sorry I burnt one of his Letters, wherein he assured
me he would in the Versailles Antechamber itself speak of me to
the King, and that my name had actually been mentioned at the
King's Levee. It certainly is not my ambition to choose this
illustrious mortal to publish my renown; on the contrary, I should
think it soiled by such a mouth, and prostituted if he were the
publisher. But enough of the Crochet: the kindest thing we can do
for so contemptible an object is to say nothing of him at all."
[ OEuvres de Frederic, xvi. 49, 51.]--...

Letter SECOND is to Jaagermeister Hacke, Captain of the Potsdam
Guard; who stands in great nearness to the King's Majesty; and, in
fact, is fast becoming his factotum in Army-details. We, with the
Duke of Lorraine and Majesty in person, saw his marriage to the
Excellency Creutz's Fraulein Daughter not long since; who we trust
has made him happy;--rich he is at any rate, and will be Adjutant-
General before long; powerful in such intricacies as this that the
Prince has fallen into.

The Letter has its obscurities; turns earnestly on Recruits tall
and short; nor have idle Editors helped us, by the least hint
towards "reading" it with more than the EYES. Old Dessauer at this
time is Commandant at Magdeburg; Buddenbrock, perhaps now passing
by Ruppin, we know for a high old General, fit to carry messages

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