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History of Friedrich II of Prussia V 18 by Thomas Carlyle

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damned brood!'--Well, well. 'Solomon's Temple,' the Moslems say,
'had to be built under the chirping of ten thousand Sparrows.'
Ten thousand of them; committee of the whole house, unanimously of
the opposite view;--and could not quite hinder it. That too
is something!"--

More to our immediate purpose is this other thing: That the
Austrians have been in Council of War; and, on deliberation, have
decided to come out of their defences; to quit their strong Camp,
which lies so eligibly, ahead of Breslau and arear of Lissa and of
Schweidnitz Water yonder; to cross Schweidnitz Water, leave Lissa
behind them; and meet this offensively aggressive Friedrich in
pitched fight. Several had voted, No, why stir?--Daun especially,
and others with emphasis. "No need of fighting at all," said Daun:
"we can defend Schweidnitz Water; ruin him before he ever get
across." "Defend? Be assaulted by an Army like his?" urges
Lucchesi, the other Chief General: "It is totally unworthy of us!
We have gained the game; all the honors ours; let us have done with
it. Give him battle, since he fortunately wishes it; we finish him,
and gloriously finish the War too!" So argued Lucchesi, with
vivacity, persistency,--to his own ill luck, but evidently with
approval from Prince Karl. Everybody sees, this is the way to
Prince Karl's favor at present. "Have not I reconquered Silesia?"
thinks Prince Karl to himself; and beams applause on the high
course, not the low prudent one. [Kutzen, pp. 45-48.] In a word,
the Austrians decide on stepping out to meet Friedrich in open
battle: it was the first time they ever did so; and it was likewise
the last.

Sunday, December 4th, at four in the morning, Friedrich has marched
from Parchwitz, straight towards the Austrian Camp; [Muller,
p. 26.] he hears, one can fancy with what pleasure, that the
Austrians are advancing towards him, and will not need to be forced
in their strong position. His march is in four columns, Friedrich
in the vanguard; quarters to be Neumarkt, a little Town about
fourteen miles off. Within some miles of Neumarkt, early in the
afternoon, he learns that there are a thousand Croats in the place,
the Austrian Bakery at work there, and engineer people marking out
an Austrian Camp. "On the Height beyond Neumarkt, that will be?"
thinks Friedrich; for he knows this ground, having often done
reviews here; to Breslau all the way on both hands, not a rood of
it but is familiar to him. Which was a singular advantage, say the
critics; and a point the Austrian Council of War should have taken
more thought of.

Friedrich, before entering Neumarkt, sends a regiment to ride
quietly round it on both sides, and to seize that Height he knows
of. Height once seized, or ready for seizing, he bursts the barrier
of Neumarkt; dashes in upon the thousand Croats; flings out the
Croats in extreme hurry, musketry and sabre acting on them;
they find their Height beset, their retreat cut off, and that they
must vanish. Of the 1,000 Croats, "569 were taken prisoners, and
120 slain," in this unexpected sweeping out of Neumarkt.
Better still, in Neumarkt is found the Austrian Bakery, set up and
in full work;--delivers you 80,000 bread-rations hot-and-hot, which
little expected to go such a road. On the Height, the Austrian
stakes and engineer-tools were found sticking in the ground;
so hasty had the flight been.

How Prince Karl came to expose his Bakery, his staff of life so far
ahead of him? Prince Karl, it is clear, was a little puffed up with
high thoughts at this time. The capture of Schweidnitz, the late
"Malplaquet" (poorish Anti-Bevern Malplaquet), capture of Breslau,
and the low and lost condition of Friedrich's Silesian affairs, had
more or less turned everybody's head,--everybody's except
Feldmarschall Daun's alone:--and witty mess-tables, we already
said, were in the daily habit of mocking at Friedrich's march
towards them with aggressive views, and called his insignificant
little Army the "Potsdam Guard-Parade." [Cogniazzo, ii. 417-422.]
That was the common triumphant humor; naturally shared in by Prince
Karl; the ready way to flatter him being to sing in that tune.
Nobody otherwise can explain, and nobody in any wise can justify,
Prince Karl's ignorance of Friedrich's advance, his almost
voluntary losing of his staff-of-life in that manner.

MAP TO GO HERE--FACING PAGE 48, BOOK 18 continuation----

Prince Karl's soldiers have each (in the cold form) three days,
provision in their haversacks: they have come across the Weistritz
River (more commonly called Schweidnitz Water), which was also the
height of contemptuous imprudence; and lie encamped, this night,--
in long line, not ill-chosen (once the River IS behind),--
perpendicular to Friedrich's march, some ten miles ahead of him.
Since crossing, they had learned with surprise, How their Bakery
and Croats had been snapt up; that Friedrich was not at a distance,
but near;--and that arrangements could not be made too soon!
Their position intersects the Great Road at right angles, as we
hint; and has villages, swamps, woody knolls; especially, on each
wing, good defences. Their right wing leans on Nypern and its
impassable peat-bogs, a Village two or three miles north from the
Great Road; their centre is close behind another Village called
Leuthen, about as far south from it: length of their bivouac is
about five miles; which will become six or so, had Nadasti once
taken post, who is to form the left wing, and go down as far as
Sagschutz, southward of Leuthen. Seven battalions are in this
Village of Leuthen, eight in Nypern, all the Villages secured;
woods, scraggy abatis, redoubts, not forgotten: their cannon are
numerous, though of light calibre. Friedrich has at least 71 heavy
pieces; and 10 of them are formidably heavy,--brought from the
walls of Glogau, with terrible labor to Ziethen; but with excellent
effect, on this occasion and henceforth. They got the name of
"Boomers, Bellowers (DIE BRUMMER)," those Ten. Friedrich was in
great straits about artillery; and Retzow Senior recommended this
hauling up of the Ten Bellowers, which became celebrated in the
years coming. And now we are on the Battle-ground, and must look
into the Battle itself, if we can.

Chapter X.


From Neumarkt, on Monday, long before day, the Prussians, all but a
small party left there to guard the Bakery and Army Properties, are
out again; in four columns; towards what may lie ahead.
Friedrich, as usual in such cases, for obvious reasons, rides with
the vanguard. To Borne, the first Village on the Highway, is some
seven or eight miles. The air is damp, the dim incipiences of dawn
struggling among haze; a little way on this side Borne, we come on
ranks of cavalry drawn across the Highway, stretching right and
left into the dim void: Austrian Army this, then? Push up to it;
see what it is, at least.

It proves to be poor General Nostitz, with his three Saxon
regiments of dragoons, famous since Kolin-day, and a couple of
Hussar regiments, standing here as outpost;--who ought to have been
more alert; but they could not see through the dark, and so,
instead of catching, are caught. The Prussians fall upon them,
front and flank, tumble them into immediate wreck; drive the whole
outpost at full gallop home, through Borne, upon Nypern and the
right wing,--without news except of this symbolical sort.
Saxon regiments are quite ruined, "540 of them prisoners" (poor
Nostitz himself not prisoner, but wounded to death [Died in
Breslau, the twelfth day after (Seyfarth, ii. 362).]); and the
ground clear in this quarter.

Friedrich, on the farther side of Borne, calls halt, till the main
body arrive; rides forward, himself and staff, to the highest of a
range or suite of knolls, some furlongs ahead; sees there in full
view, far and wide, the Austrians drawn up before him. From Nypern
to Sagschuitz yonder; miles in length; and so distinct, while the
light mended and the hazes faded, "that you could have counted them
[through your glasses], man by man." A highly interesting sight to
Friedrich; who continues there in the profoundest study, and calls
up some horse regiments of the vanguard to maintain this Height and
the range of Heights running south from it. And there, I think, the
King is mainly to be found, looking now at the Austrians, now at
his own people, for some three hours to come. His plan of Battle is
soon clear to him: Nypern, with its bogs and scrags, on the
Austrian right wing, is tortuous impossible ground, as he well
remembers, no good prospect for us there: better ground for us on
their left yonder, at Leuthen, even at Sagschutz farther south,
whither they are stretching themselves. Attempt their left wing;
try our "Oblique Order" upon that, with all the skill that is in
us; perhaps we can do it rightly this time, and prosper
accordingly! That is Friedrich's plan of action. The four columns
once got to Borne shall fall into two; turn to the right, and go
southward, ever southward:--they are to become our two Lines of
Battle, were they once got to the right point southward.
Well opposite Sagschutz, that will be the point for facing to left,
and marching up,--in "Oblique Order," with the utmost faculty
they have!

"The Oblique Order, SCHRAGE STELLUNG," let the hasty reader pause
to understand, "is an old plan practised by Epaminondas, and
revived by Friedrich,--who has tried it in almost all his Battles
more or less, from Hohenfriedberg forward to Prag, Kolin, Rossbach;
but never could, in all points, get it rightly done till now, at
Leuthen, in the highest time of need. "It is a particular
manoeuvre," says Archenholtz, rather sergeant-wise, "which indeed
other troops are now [1793] in the habit of imitating; but which,
up to this present time, none but Prussian troops can execute with
the precision and velocity indispensable to it. You divide your
line into many pieces; you can push these forward stairwise, so
that they shall halt close to one another," obliquely, to either
hand; and so, on a minimum of ground, bring your mass of men to the
required point at the required angle. Friedrich invented this mode
of getting into position; by its close ranking, by its depth, and
the manner of movement used, it had some resemblance to the
"Macedonian Phalanx,"--chiefly in the latter point, I should guess;
for when arrived at its place, it is no deeper than common.
"Forming itself in this way, a mass of troops takes up in
proportion very little ground; and it shows in the distance, by
reason of the mixed uniforms and standards, a totally chaotic mass
of men heaped on one another," going in rapid mazes this way and
that. "But it needs only that the Commander lift his finger;
instantly this living coil of knotted intricacies develops itself
in perfect order, and with a speed like that of mountain rivers
when the ice breaks,"--is upon its Enemy. [Archenholtz, i. 209.]

"Your Enemy is ranked as here, in long line, three or two to one.
You march towards him, but keep him uncertain as to how you will
attack; then do on a sudden march up, not parallel to him, but
oblique, at an angle of 45 degrees,--swift, vehement, in
overpowering numbers, on the wing you have chosen. Roll that wing
together, ruined, in upon its own line, you may roll the whole five
miles of line into disorder and ruin, and always be in overpowering
number at the point of dispute. Provided, only, you are swift
enough about it, sharp enough! But extraordinary swiftness,
sharpness, precision is the indispensable condition;--by no means
try it otherwise; none but Prussians, drilled by an Old Dessauer,
capable of doing it. This is the SCHRAGE ORDNUNG, about which there
has been such commentating and controversying among military
people: whether Friedrich invented it, whether Caesar did it, how
Epaminondas, how Alexander at Arbela; how"--Which shall not in the
least concern us on this occasion.

The four columns rustled themselves into two, and turned southward
on the two sides of Borne;--southward henceforth, for about two
hours; as if straight towards the Magic Mountain, the Zobtenberg,
far off, which is conspicuous over all that region.
Their steadiness, their swiftness and exactitude were
unsurpassable. "It was a beautiful sight," says Tempelhof, an eye-
witness: "The heads of the columns were constantly on the same
level, and at the distance necessary for forming; all flowed on
exact, as if in a review. And you could read in the eyes of our
brave troops the noble temper they were in." [Tempelhof, i. 288,
287.] I know not at what point of their course, or for how long,
but it was from the column nearest him, which is to be first line,
that the King heard, borne on the winds amid their field-music, as
they marched there, the sound of Psalms,--many-voiced melody of a
Church Hymn, well known to him; which had broken out, band
accompanying, among those otherwise silent men. The fact is very
certain, very strange to me: details not very precise, except that
here, as specimen, is a verse of their Hymn:--

"Grant that with zeal and skill, this day, I do
What me to do behooves, what thou command'st me to;
Grant that I do it sharp, at point of moment fit,
And when I do it, grant me good success in it."

"Gieb dass ich thu' mit Fleiss was mir zu thun gebuhret,
Wozu mich dein Befehl in meinem Stande fuhret,
Gieb dass ich's thue bald, zu der Zeit da ich's soll;
Und wenn ich's thu', so gieb dass es gerathe wohl."
["HYMN-BOOK of Porst" (Prussian Sternhold-and-
Hopkins), "p. 689:" cited in Preuss, ii. 107.]

One has heard the voice of waters, one has paused in the mountains
at the voice of far-off Covenanter psalms; but a voice like this,
breaking the commanded silences, one has not heard. "Shall we order
that to cease, your Majesty?" "By no means," said the King;
whose hard heart seems to have been touched by it, as might well
be. Indeed there is in him, in those grim days, a tone as of trust
in the Eternal, as of real religious piety and faith, scarcely
noticeable elsewhere in his History. His religion, and he had in
withered forms a good deal of it, if we will look well, beiug
almost always in a strictly voiceless state,--nay, ultra-voiceless,
or voiced the wrong way, as is too well known. "By no means!"
answered he: and a moment after, said to some one, Ziethen
probably: "With men like these, don't you think I shall have
victory this day!"

The loss of their Saxon Forepost proved more important to the
Austrians than it seemed;--not computable in prisoners, or killed
and wounded. The Height named Scheuberg,--"Borne Rise" (so we might
call it, which has got its Pillar of memorial since, with gilt
Victory atop [Not till 1854 (Kutzen, pp. 194, 195).];--where
Friedrich now is and where the Austrians are not, is at once a
screen and a point of vision to Friedrich. By loss of their Nostitz
Forepost, they had lost view of Friedrich, and never could recover
view of him; could not for hours learn distinctly what he was
about; and when he did come in sight again, it was in a most
unexpected place! On the farther side of Borne, edge of the big
expanse of open country there, Friedrich has halted; ridden with
his adjutants to the top of "the Scheuberg (Shy-HILL)," as the
Books call it, though it is more properly a blunt Knoll or "Rise,"
--the nearest of a Chain of Knolls, or swells in the ground, which
runs from north to south on that part.

Except the Zobtenberg, rising blue and massive, on the southern
horizon (famous mythologic Mountain, reminding you of an ARTHUR'S
SEAT in shape too, only bigger and solitary), this Country, for
many miles round, has nothing that could be called a Hill; it is
definable as a bare wide-waving champaign, with slight bumps on it,
or slow heavings and sinkings. Country mostly under culture, though
it is of sandy quality; one or two sluggish brooks in it; and reedy
meres or mires, drained in our day. It is dotted with Hamlets of
the usual kind; and has patches of scraggy fir. Your horizon, even
where bare, is limited, owing to the wavy heavings of the ground;
windmills and church-belfries are your only resource, and even
these, from about Leuthen and the Austrian position, leave the
Borne quarter mostly invisible to you. Leuthen Belfry, the same
which may have stood a hundred years before this Battle, ends in a
small tile-roof, open only at the gables:--"Leuthen Belfry," says a
recent Tourist, "is of small resource for a view. To south you can
see some distance, Sagschutz, Lobetintz and other Hamlets, amid
scraggy fir-patches, and meadows, once miry pools; but to north you
are soon shut in by a swell or slow rise, with two windmills upon
it [important to readers at present]; and to eastward [Breslau side
and Lissa side], or to westward [Friedrich's side], one has no
view, except of the old warped rafters and their old mouldy tiles
within few inches; or, if by audacious efforts at each end, to the
risk of your neck, you get a transient peep, it is stopt, far short
of Borne, by the slow irregular heavings, with or without fir about
them." [Tourist's Note, PENES ME.]

In short, Friedrich keeps possession of that Borne ridge of Knolls,
escorted by Cavalry in good numbers; twinkling about in an
enigmatic way:--"Prussian right wing yonder," think the Austrians--
"whitherward, or what can they mean?"--and keeps his own columns
and the Austrian lines in view; himself and his movements
invisible, or worse, to the Austrian Generals from any spy-glass or
conjecture they can employ.

The Austrian Generals are in windmills, on church-belfries, here,
there; diligently scanning the abstruse phenomenon, of which so
little can be seen. Daun, who had always been against this
adventure, thinks it probable the vanished Prussians are retiring
southward: for Bohemia and our Magazines probably. "These good
people are smuggling off (DIE GUTEN LEUTE PASCHEN AB)," said he:
"let them go in peace." [Muller, p. 36.] Daun, that morning, in his
reconnoitrings, had asked of a peasant, "What is that, then?"
(meaning the top of a Village-steeple in the distance, but thought
by the peasant to be meaning something nearer hand). "That is the
Hill our King chases the Austrians over, when he is reviewing
here!" Which Daun reported at head-quarters with a grin.
[Nicolai, Anekdoten, iv. 34.]

Lucchesi, on the other hand, scanning those Borne Hills, and the
cavalry of Friedrich's escort twinkling hither and thither on them,
becomes convinced to a moral certainty, That yonder is the Prussian
Vanguard, probable extremity of left wing; and that he, Lucchesi,
here at Nypern, is to be attacked. "Attacked, you?" said one
Montazet, French Agent or Emissary here: "unless they were snipes,
it is impossible!" But Lucchesi saw it too well.

He sends to say that such is the evident fact, and that he,
Lucchesi, is not equal to it, but must have large reinforcement of
Horse to his right wing. "Tush!" answer Prince Karl and Daun; and
return only argument, verbal consolation, to distressed Lucchesi.
Lucchesi sends a second message, more passionately pressing, to the
like effect; also with the like return. Upon which he sends a third
message, quite passionate: "If Cavalry do not come, I will not be
responsible for the issue!" And now Daun does collect the required
reinforcement; "all the reserve of Horse, and a great many from the
left wing;"--and, Daun himself heading them, goes off at a swift
trot; to look into Lucchesi and his distresses, three or four miles
to right, five or six from where the danger lies. Now is
Friedrich's golden moment.

Wending always south, on their western or invisible side of those
Knolls, Friedrich's people have got to about the level, or LATITUDE
as we might call it, of Nadasti's left. To Radaxdorf, namely, to
Lobetintz, or still farther south, and perhaps a mile to west of
Nadasti. Friedrich has mounted to Lobetintz Windmill; and judges
that the time is come. Daun and Cavalry once got to support their
right wing, and our south latitude being now sufficient, Friedrich,
swift as Prussian manoeuvring can do it, falls with all his
strength upon their left wing. Forms in oblique order,--horse,
foot, artillery, all perfect in their paces; and comes streaming
over the Knolls at Sagschutz, suddenly like a fire-deluge on
Nadasti, who had charge there, and was expecting no such adventure!
How Friedrich did the forming in oblique order was at that time a
mystery known only to Friedrich and his Prussians: but soldiers of
all countries, gathering the secret from him, now understand it,
and can learnedly explain it to such as are curious. Will readers
take a touch more of the DRILL-SERGEANT?

"You go stairwise (EN ECHELON)," says he: "first battalion starts,
second stands immovable till the first have done fifty steps;
at the fifty-first, second battalion also steps along;
third waiting for ITS fifty-first step. First battalion [rightmost
battalion or leftmost, as the case may be; rightmost in this
Leuthen case] doing fifty steps before the next stirs, and each
battalion in succession punctually doing the same:" march along on
these terms,--or halt at either end, while you advance at the
other,--it is evident you will swing yourself out of the parallel
position into any degree of obliquity. And furthermore, merely by
halting and facing half round at the due intervals, you shove
yourself to right or to left as required (always to right in this
Leuthen case): and so--provided you CAN march as a pair of
compasses would--you will, in the given number of minutes, impinge
upon your Enemy's extremity at the required angle, and overlap him
to the required length: whereupon, At him, in flank, in front, and
rear, and see if he can stand it! "A beautiful manoeuvre" says
Captain Archenholtz; "devised by Friedrich," by Friedrich
inheriting Epaminondas and the Old Dessauer; "and which perhaps
only Friedrich's men, to this day, could do with the
requisite perfection."

Nadasti, a skilful War-Captain, especially with Horse, was
beautifully posted about Sagschutz; his extreme left folded up EN
POTENCE there (elbow of it at Sagschutz, forearm of it running to
Gohlau eastward); POTENCE ending in firwood Knolls with Croat
musketeers, in ditches, ponds, difficult ground, especially towards
Gohlau. He has a strong battery, 14 pieces, on the Height to rear
of him, at the angle or elbow of his POTENCE; strong abatis, well
manned in front to rightwards: upon this, and upon the Croats in
the firwood, the Prussians intend their attack. General Wedell is
there, Prince Moritz as chief, with six battalions, and their
batteries, battery of 10 Brummers and another; Ziethen also and
Horse: coming on, in swift fire-flood, and at an angle of forty-
five degrees. Most unexpected, strange to behold! From southwest
yonder; about one o'clock of the day.

Nadasti, though astonished at the Prussian fire-deluge, stands to
his arms; makes, in front, vigorous defence; and even takes, in
some sort, the initiative,--that is, dashes out his Cavalry on
Ziethen, before Ziethen has charged. Ziethen's Horse, who are
rightmost of the Prussians: and are bare to the right,--ground
offering no bush, no brook there (though Ziethen, foreseeing such
defect, has a clump of infantry near by to mend it),--reel back
under this first shock, coming downhill upon them; and would have
fared badly, had not the clump of infantry instantly opened fire on
the Nadasti visitors, and poured it in such floods upon them, that
they, in their turn, had to reel back. Back they, well out of
range;--and leave Ziethen free for a counter-attack shortly, on
easier terms, which was successful to him. For, during that first
tussle of his, the Prussian Infantry, to left of Ziethen, has
attacked the Sagschutz Firwood; clears that of Croats;
attacks Nadasti's line, breaks it, their Brummer battery potently
assisting, and the rage of Wedell and everybody being extreme.
So that, in spite of the fine ground, Nadasti is in a bad way, on
the extreme left or outmost point of his POTENCE, or tactical KNEE.
Round the knee-pan or angle of his POTENCE, where is the abatis, he
fares still worse. Abatis, beswept by those ten Brummers and other
Batteries, till bullet and bayonet can act on it, speedily gives
way. "They were mere Wurtembergers, these; and could not stand!"
cried the Austrians apologetically, at a great rate, afterwards;
as if anybody could well have stood.

Indisputably the Wurtembergers and the abatis are gone; and the
Brandenburgers, storming after them, storm Nadasti's interior
battery of 14 pieces; and Nadasti's affairs are rapidly getting
desperate in this quarter. Figure Prince Karl's scouts, galloping
madly to recall that Daun Cavalry! Austrian Battalions, plenty of
them, rush down to help Nadasti; but they are met by the crowding
fugitives, the chasing Prussians; are themselves thrown into
disorder, and can do no good whatever. They arrive on the ground
flurried, blown; have not the least time to take breath and order:
the fewest of them ever got fairly ranked, none of them ever stood
above one push: all goes rolling wildly back upon the centre about
Leuthen. Chaos come on us;--and all for mere lack of time:
could Nadasti but once stretch out one minute into twenty! But he
cannot. Nadasti does not himself lose head; skilfully covers the
retreat, trying to rally once and again. Not for the first few
furlongs, till the ditches, till the firwood, quagmires are all
done, could Ziethen, now on the open ground, fairly hew in;
"take whole battalions prisoners;" drive the crowd in an altogether
stormy manner; and wholly confound the matter in this part.

Prince Karl, his messengers flying madly, has struggled as man
seldom did to put himself in some posture about Leuthen, to get up
some defences there. Leuthen itself, the churchyard of it
especially, is on the defensive. Men are bringing cannon to the
windmills, to the swelling ground on the north side of Leuthen;
they dig ditches, build batteries,--could they but make Time halt,
and Friedrich with him, for one quarter of an hour. But they
cannot. By the extreme of diligence, the Austrians have in some
measure swung themselves into a new position, or imperfect Line
round Leuthen as a centre,--Lucchesi, voluntarily or by order,
swinging southwards on the one hand; Nadasti swinging northwards by
compulsion;--new Line at an angle say of 75 degrees to the old one.
And here, for an hour more, there was stiff fighting, the stiffest
of the day;--of which, take one direct glimpse, from the Austrian
side, furnished by a Young Gentleman famous afterwards:--

Leuthen, let us premise, is a long Hamlet of the usual littery
sort; with two rows, in some parts three, of farm-houses, barns,
cattle-stalls; with Church, or even with two Churches, a Protestant
and a Catholic; goes from east to west above a mile in length. With
the wrecks of Nadasti tumbling into it pell-mell from the
southeast, and Lucchesi desperately endeavoring to swing round from
the northwest, not quite incoherently, and the Prussian fire-storm
for accompaniment, Leuthen is probably the most chaotic place in
the Planet Earth during that hour or so (from half-past two to
half-past three) while the agony lasted. At one o'clock Nadasti was
attacked; at two he is tumbling in mid-career towards Leuthen:
I guess the date of this Excerpt, or testimony by a Notable Eye-
witness, may be half-past two; crisis of the agony just about to
begin: and before four it was all finished again. Eye-witness is
the young Prince de Ligne, now Captain in an Austrian Regiment of
Foot; and standing here in this perilous posture, having been
called in as part of the Reserve. He says:--

"Cry had risen for the Reserve," in which was my regiment, "and
that it must come on as fast as possible,"--to Leuthen, west of us
yonder. "We ran what we could run. Our Lieutenant-Colonel fell
killed almost at the first; beyond this we lost our Major, and
indeed all the Officers but three,--three only, and about eleven or
twelve of the Voluuteer or Cadet kind. We had crossed two
successive ditches, which lay in an orchard to left of the first
houses in Leuthen; and were beginning to form in front of the
Village. But there was no standing of it. Besides a general
cannonade such as can hardly be imagined, there was a rain of case-
shot upon this Battalion, of which I, as there was no Colonel left,
had to take command; and a third Battalion of the Royal Prussian
Foot-guards, which had already made several of our regiments pass
that kind of muster, gave, at a distance of eighty paces, the
liveliest fire on us. It stood as if on the parade-ground, that
third Battalion, and waited for us, without stirring.

"The Austrian regiment Andlau, at our right hand, could not get
itself formed properly by reason of the houses; it was standing
thirty deep, and sometimes its shot hit us on the back. On my left
the Austrian regiment Merci ran its ways; and I was glad of that,
in comparison. By no method or effort could I get the dragoons of
Bathyani, who stood fifty yards in rear of me, to cut in a little,
and help me out,"--no good cutting hereabouts, think the dragoons
of Bathyani. "My soldiers, who were still tired with running, and
had no cannon (these either from necessity or choice they had left
behind), were got scattered, fewer in number, and were fighting
mainly out of sullenness. More our honor, than the notion of doing
good in the affair, prevented us from running off. An Ensign of the
regiment Arberg helped me awhile to form, from his and my own
fragments, a kind of line; but he was shot down. Two Officers of
the Grenadiers brought me what they still had. Some Hungarians,
too, were luckily got together. But at last, as, with all helps
and the remnants of my own brave Battalion, I had come down to at
most 200, I drew back to the Height where the Windmill is,"
[Kutzen p. 103 (from "Prince de Ligne's DIARY, i. 63, German
Translation").]--where many have drawn back, and are standing in
sheltered places, a hundred deep, say our Books.

Stiff fighting at Leuthen; especially furious till Leuthen
Churchyard, a place with high stone walls, was got. Leuthen
Village, we observe, was crammed with Austrians spitting fire from
every coign of vantage; Church and Churchyard especially are a
citadel of death. Cannon playing from the Windmill Heights, too;--
moments are inestimable. The Prussian Commander (name charitably
hidden) at Leuthen Churchyard seems to hesitate in the murderous
fire-deluge: Major Mollendorf, namable from that day forward,
growling, "No time this for study," dashes out himself, "EIN ANDRER
MANN (Follow me, whoever is a man)!"--smashes in the Church-Gate of
the place, nine muskets blazing on him through it; smashes, after a
desperate struggle, the Austrians clean out of it, and conquers the
citadel. [Muller, p. 42.]

The Austrians, on confused terms, made stiff dispute in this second
position for about an hour. The Prussian Reserve was ordered up by
Friedrich; the Prussian left wing, which had stood "refused," about
Radaxdorf, till now: at one time nearly all the Prussians were in
fire. Friedrich is here, is there, wherever the press was greatest;
"Prince Ferdinand," whom we now and then find named, as a diligent
little fellow, and ascertain to be here in this and other Battles
of Friedrich's,--"Prince Ferdinand at one time pointed his cannon
on the Bush or Fir-Clump of Radaxdorf;--an aide-de-camp came to him
with message: "You are firing on the King; the King is yonder!"
At which Ferdinand [his dear little Brother] ERSCHRACK," or almost
fainted with terror. [Kutzen, p. 110.]

Stiff dispute; and had the Austrians possessed the Prussian
dexterity in manoeuvring, and a Friedrich been among them,--
perhaps? But on their own terms, there was from the first little
hope in it. "Behind the Windmills they are a hundred men deep;"
by and by, your Windmills, riddled to pieces, have to be abandoned;
the Prussian left wing rushing on with bayonets, will not all of
you have to go? Lucchesi, with his abundant Cavalry, seeing this
latter movement and the Prussian flank bare in that part, will do a
stroke upon them;--and this proved properly the finale of the
matter, finale to both Lucchesi and it.

The Prussian flank was to appearance bare in that leftward quarter;
but only to appearance: Driesen with the left wing of Horse is in a
Hollow hard by; strictly charged by Friedrich to protect said
flank, and take nothing else in hand. Driesen lets Lucchesi gallop
by, in this career of his; then emerges, ranked, and comes storming
in upon Lucchesi's back,--entirely confounding his astonished
Cavalry and their career. Astonished Cavalry, bullet-storm on this
side of them, edge of sword on that, take wing in all directions
(or all except to west and south) quite over the horizon;
Lucchesi himself gets killed,--crosses a still wider horizon, poor
man. He began the ruin, and he ends it. For now Driesen takes the
bared Austrians in flank, in rear; and all goes tumbling here too,
and in few minutes is a general deluge rearward towards Saara and
Lissa side.

At Saara the Austrians, sun just sinking, made a third attempt to
stand; but it was hopelessly faint this time; went all asunder at
the first push; and flowed then, torrent-wise, towards all its
Bridges over the Schweidnitz Water, towards Breslau by every
method. There are four Bridges, Stabelwitz below Lissa;
Goldschmieden, Hermannsdorf, above; and the main one at Lissa
itself, a standing Bridge on the Highroad (also of wood); and by
this the chief torrent flows; Prussian horse pursuing vigorously;
Prussian Infantry drawn up at Saara, resting some minutes, after
such a day's work. [Archenholtz, i. 209; Seyfarth,
Beylagen, ii. 243-252 (by an eye-witness, intelligent
succinct Account of the Battle and previous March; ib. 252-272,
of the Sieges &c. following); Preuss, ii. 112, &c.; Tempelhof,
i. 276.]

Truly a memorable bit of work; no finer done for a hundred years,
or for hundreds of years; and the results of it manifold, immediate
and remote. About 10,000 Austrians are left on the field, 3,000 of
them slain; prisoners already 12,000, in a short time 21,000;
flags 51, cannon 116;--"Conquest of Silesia" gone to water;
Prince Karl and Austria fallen from their high hopes in one day.
The Prussians lost in killed 1,141, in wounded 5,118; 85 had been
taken prisoners about Sagschutz and Gohlau, in the first struggle
there. [Kutzen, pp. 118, 125.] There and at Leuthen Village had
been the two tough passages; about an hour each; in three hours the
Battle was done. "MEINE HERREN," said Friedrich that night at
parole, "after such a spell of work, you deserve rest. This day
will bring the renown of your name, and of the Nation's, to the
latest posterity."

High and low had shone this day; especially these four:
Ziethen, Driesen, Retzow,--and above all Moritz of Dessau.
Riding up the line, as night fell, Friedrich, in passing Moritz and
the right wing, drew bridle for an instant: "I congratulate you on
the Victory, Herr Feldmarschall!" cried he cheerily, and with
emphasis on the last word. Moritz, still very busy, answered
slightly; and Friedrich repeated louder, "Don't you hear that I
congratulate you, Herr FELDMARSCHALL!"--a glad sound to Moritz, who
ever since Kolin had stood rather in the shadow. "You have helped
me, and performed every order, as none ever did before in any
battle," added the grateful King.

Riding up the line, all now grown dusky, Friedrich asks, "Any
battalion a mind to follow me to Lissa?" Three battalions
volunteering, follow him; three are plenty. At Saara, on the Great
Road, things are fallen utterly dark. "Landlord, bring a lantern,
and escort." Landlord of the poor Tavern at Saara escorts
obediently; lantern in his right hand, left hand holding by the
King's stirrup-leather,--King (Excellency or General, as the
Landlord thinks him) wishing to speak with the man. Will the reader
consent to their Dialogue, which is dullish, but singular to have
in an authentic form, with Nicolai as voucher? [ Anekdoten,
iii. 231-235.] Like some poor old horse-shoe, ploughed up on the
field. Two farthings worth of rusty old iron; now little other than
a curve of brown rust: but it galloped at the Battle of Leuthen;
that is something!--

KING. "Come near; catch me by the stirrup-leather [Landlord with
lantern does so]. We are on the Breslau Great Road, that goes
through Lissa, are n't we?"
LANDLORD. "Yea, Excellenz."
KING. "Who are you?"
LANDLORD. "Your Excellenz, I am the KRATSCHMER [Silesian for
Landlord] at Saara."
KING. "You have had a great deal to suffer, I suppose."
LANDLORD. "ACH, your Excellenz, had not I! For the last eight-and-
forty hours, since the Austrians came across Schweidnitz Water, my
poor house has been crammed to the door with them, so many servants
they have; and such a bullying and tumbling:--they have driven me
half mad; and I am clean plundered out."
KING. "I am sorry indeed to hear that!--Were there Generals too in
your house? What said they? Tell me, then."
LANDLORD. "With pleasure, your Excellenz. Well; yesterday noon, I
had Prince Karl in my parlor, aud his Adjutants and people all
crowding about. Such a questioning aud bothering! Hundreds came
dashing in, and other hundreds were sent out: in and out they went
all night; no sooner was one gone, than ten came. I had to keep a
roaring fire in the kitchen all night; so many Officers crowding to
it to warm themselves. And they talked and babbled this and that.
One would say, That our King was coming on, then, 'with his Potsdam
Guard-Parade.' Another answers, 'OACH, he dare n't come! He will
run for it; we will let him run.' But now my delight is, our King
has paid them their fooleries so prettily this afternoon!"
KING. "When got you rid of your high guests?"
LANDLORD. "About nine this morning the Prince got to horse; and not
long after three, he came past again, with a swarm of Officers;
all going full speed for Lissa. So full of bragging when they came;
and now they were off, wrong side foremost! I saw how it was.
And ever after him, the flood of them ran, Highroad not broad
enough,--an hour and more before it ended. Such a pell-mell, such a
welter, cavalry and musketeers all jumbled: our King must have
given them a dreadful lathering. That is what they have got by
their bragging and their lying,--for, your Excellenz, these people
said too, 'Our King was forsaken by his own Generals, all his
first people had gone and left him:' what I never in this world
will believe."
KING (not liking even rumor of that kind). "There you are right;
never can such a thing be believed of my Army."
LANDLORD (whom this "MY" has transfixed). "MEIN GOTT, you are our
GNADIGSTER KONIG (most gracious King) yourself! Pardon, pardon, if,
in my stupidity, I have--"
KING. "No, you are an honest man:--probably a Protestant?"
LANDLORD. "JOA, JOA, IHR MAJESTAT, I am of your Majesty's creed!"

Crack-crack! At this point the Dialogue is cut short by sudden
musket-shots from the woody fields to right; crackle of about
twelve shots in all; which hurt nothing but some horse's feet,--had
been aimed at the light, and too low. Instantly the light is blown
out, and there is a hunting out of Croats; Lissa or environs not
evacuated yet, it seems; and the King's Entrance takes place under
volleyings and cannonadings.

King rides directly to the Schloss, which is still a fine handsome
house, off the one street of that poor Village,--north side of
street; well railed off, and its old ditches aud defences now
trimmed into flower-plots. The Schloss is full of Austrian
Officers, bustling about, intending to quarter, when the King
enters. They, and the force they still had in Lissa, could easily
have taken him: but how could they know? Friedrich was surprised;
but had to put the best face on it. [In Kutzen (pp. 121, 209 et
seq.) explanation of the true circumstances, and source of the
mistake.] "BON SOIR, MESSIEURS!" said he, with a gay tone, stepping
in: "Is there still room left, think you?" The Austrians, bowing to
the dust, make way reverently to the divinity that hedges a King of
this sort; mutely escort him to the best room (such the popular
account); and for certain make off, they and theirs, towards the
Bridge, which lies a little farther east, at the end of
the Village.

Weistritz or Schweidnitz Water is a biggish muddy stream in that
part; gushing and eddying; not voiceless, vexed by mills and their
weirs. Some firing there was from Croats in the lower houses of the
Village, and they had a cannon at the farther bridge-end; but they
were glad to get away, and vanish in the night; muddy Weistritz
singing hoarse adieu to their cannon and them. Prussian grenadiers
plunged indignant into the houses; made short work of the
musketries there. In few minutes every Croat and Austrian was
across, or silenced otherwise too well; Prussian cannon now going
in the rear of them, and continuing to go,--such had been the
order, "till the powder you have is done." Fire of musketry and
occasional cannon lasts all night, from the Lissa or Prussian side
of the River,--"lest they burn this Bridge, or attempt some
mischief." A thing far from their thoughts, in present

The Prussian host at Saara, hearing these noises, took to its arms
again; and marched after the King. Thick darkness; silence;
tramp, tramp:--a Prussian grenadier broke out, with solemn tenor
voice again, into Church-Music; a known Church-Hymn, of the homely
TE-DEUM kind; in which five-and-twenty thousand other voices, and
all the regimental bands, soon join:--

"Nun dunket alle Gott
Mit Herzen, Mund und Handen,
Der grosse Dinge thut
An uns und allen Enden." [Muller, p. 48.]

"Now thank God, one and all,
With heart, with voice, with hands-a,
Who wonders great hath done
To us and to all lands-a."

And thus they advance; melodious, far-sounding, through the hollow
Night, once more in a highly remarkable manner. A pious people, of
right Teutsch stuff, tender though stout; and, except perhaps
Oliver Cromwell's handful of Ironsides, probably the most perfect
soldiers ever seen hitherto. Arriving at the end of Lissa, and
finding all safe as it should be there, they make their bivouac,
their parallelogram of two lines, miles long across the fields,
left wing resting on Lissa, right on Guckerwitz; and--having, I
should think, at least tobacco to depend on, with abundant stick-
fires, and healthy joyful hearts--pass the night in a thankful,
comfortable manner.

Leuthen was the most complete of all Friedrich's victories;
two hours more of daylight, as Friedrich himself says, and it would
have been the most decisive of this century. [ OEuvres de
Frederic, iv. 167.] As it was, the ruin of this big
Army, 80,000 against 30,000, ["89,200 was the Austrian strength
before the Battle" (deduct the Garrisons of Schweidnitz and
Liegnitz): Preuss, ii. 109 (from the STAFF-OFFICERS).] was as good
as total; and a world of Austrian hopes suddenly collapsed; and all
their Silesian Apparatus, making sure of Silesia beyond an IF, was
tumbled into wreck,--by this one stroke it had got, smiting the
corner-stone of it as if with unexpected lightning. On the morrow
after Leuthen, Friedrich laid siege to Breslau; Karl had left a
garrison of 17,000 in it, and a stout Captain, one Sprecher,
determined on defence: such interests hung on Breslau, such
immensities of stores were in it, had there been nothing else.
Friedrich, pushing with all his strength, in spite of bad weather
and of Sprecher's industrious defence, got it in twelve days.
[7th-19th December: DIARIUM, &c. of it in Helden-
Geschichte, iv. 955-961.] Sprecher had posted placards
on the gallows and up and down, terrifically proclaiming that any
man convicted of mentioning surrender should be instantly hanged:
but Friedrich's bombardment was strong, his assaults continual;
and the ditches were threatening to freeze. On the seventh day of
the siege, a Laboratorium blew up; on the ninth, a Powder-Magazine,
carrying a lump of the rampart away with it. Sprecher had to
capitulate: Prisoners of War, we 17,000; our cannons, ammunitions
(most opulent, including what we took from Bevern lately);
these, we and Breslau altogether, alas, it is all yours again.
Liegnitz Garrison, seeing no hope, consented to withdraw on leave.
[26th December: Helden-Geschichte, iv. 1016.]
Schweidnitz cannot be besieged till Spring come: except
Schweidnitz, Maria Theresa, the high Kaiserinn, has no foot of
ground in Silesia, which she thought to be hers again.
Gone utterly, Patents and all; Schweidnitz alone waiting till
spring. To the lively joy of Silesia in general; to the thrice-
lively sorrow and alarm of certain individuals, leading Catholic
Ecclesiastics mainly, who had misread the signs of the times in
late months! There is one Schaffgotsch, Archbishop or head-man of
them, especially, who is now in a bad way. Never was such royal
favor; never such ingratitude, say the Books at wearisome length.
Schaffgotsch was a showy man of quality, nephew of the quondam
Austrian Governor, whom Friedrich, across a good deal of Papal and
other opposition, got pushed into the Catholic Primacy, and took
some pains to make comfortable there,--Order of the Black Eagle,
guest at Potsdam, and the like;--having a kind of fancy for the
airy Schaffgotsch, as well as judging him suitable for this
Silesian High-Priesthood, with his moderate ideas and quality
ways,--which I have heard were a little dissolute withal. To the
whole of which Schaffgotsch proved signally traitorous and ingrate;
and had plucked off the Black Eagle (say the Books, nearly
breathless over such a sacrilege) on some public occasion, prior to
Leuthen, and trampled it under his feet, the unworthy fellow.
Schaffgotsch's pathetic Letter to Friedrich, in the new days
posterior to Leuthen, and Friedrich's contemptuous inexorable
answer, we could give, but do not: why should we? O King, I know
your difficulties, and what epoch it is. But, of a truth, your airy
dissolute Schaffgotsch, as a grateful "Archbishop and Grand-Vicar,"
is almost uglier to me than as a Traitor ungrateful for it;
and shall go to the Devil in his own way! They would not have him
in Austria; he was not well received at Rome; happily died before
long. [Preuss, ii. 113, 114; Kutzen, pp. 12, 155-160, for the real
particculars.] Friedrich was not cruel to Schaffgotsch or the
others, contemptuously mild rather; but he knew henceforth what to
expect of them, and slightly changed this and that in his Silesian
methods in consequence.

Of Prince Karl let us add a word. On the morrow after Leuthen,
Captain Prince de Ligne and old Papa D'Ahremberg could find little
or no Army; they stept across to Grabschen, a village on the safe
side of the Lohe, and there found Karl and Daun: "rather silent,
both; one of them looking, 'Who would have thought it!' the other,
'Did n't I tell you?'"--and knowing nothing, they either, where the
Army was. Army was, in fact, as yet nowhere. "Croat fellows, in
this Farmstead of ours," says De Ligne, "had fallen to shooting
pigeons." The night had been unusually dark; the Austrian Army had
squatted into woods, into office-houses, farm-villages, over a wide
space of country; and only as the day rose, began to dribble in.
By count, they are still 50,000; but heart-broken, beaten as men
seldom were. "What sound is that?" men asked yesterday at Brieg,
forty miles off; and nobody could say, except that it was some huge
Battle, fateful of Silesia and the world. Breslau had it louder;
Breslau was still more anxious. "What IS all that?" asked somebody
(might be Deblin the Shoemaker, for anything I know) of an Austrian
sentry there: "That? That is the Prussians giving us such a beating
as we never had." What news for Deblin the Shoemaker, if he is
still above ground!--

"Prince Karl, gathering his distracted fragments, put 17,000 into
Breslau by way of ample garrison there; and with the rest made off
circuitously for Schweidnitz; thence for Landshut, and down the
Mountains, home to Konigsgratz,--self and Army in the most wrecked
condition. Chased by Ziethen; Ziethen (sticking always to the hocks
of them,' as Friedrich eagerly enjoins on him; or sometimes it is,
'sitting on the breeches of them:' for about a fortnight to come.
[Eleven Royal Autographs: in Blumenthal, Life of De
Ziethen (ii. 94-111), a feeble incorrect Translation
of them.] Ziethen took 2,000 prisoners; no end of baggages, of
wagons left in the difficult places: wild weather even for Ziethen,
still more for Karl, among the Silesian-Bohemian Hill-roads:
heavy rains, deep muds, then sudden glass, with cutting snow-
blasts: 'An Army not a little dilapidated,' writes Prince Karl,
almost with tears in his eyes; (Army without linens, without
clothes; in condition truly sad and pitiable; and has always, so
close are the enemy, to encamp, though without tents.'
[Kutzen, p. 134 ("Prince Karl to the Kaiser, December 14th").].
Did not get to Konigsgratz, and safe shelter, for ten days more.
Counted, at Konigsgratz in the Christmas time, 37,000 rank and
file,--'22,000 of whom are gone to hospital,' by the
Doctor's report.

"Universal astonishment, indignation, even incredulity, is the
humor at Vienna: the high Kaiserinn herself, kept in the dark for
some time, becomes dimly aware; and by Kaiser Franz's own advice
she relieves Prince Karl from his military employments, and
appoints Daun instead. Prince Karl withdrew to his Government of
the Netherlands; and with the aid of generous liquors, and what
natural magnanimity he had, spent a noiseless life thenceforth;
Sword laid entirely on the shelf; and immortal Glory, as of
Alexander and the like, quite making its exit from the scene,
convivial or other. 'The first General in the world,' so he used to
be ten years ago, in Austria, in England, Holland, the thrice-
greatest of Generals: but now he has tried Friedrich in Five
pitched Battles (Czaslau, Hohenfriedberg, Sohr, then Prag, then
Leuthen);--been beaten every time, under every form of
circumstance; and now, at Leuthen, the fifth beating is such, no
public, however ignorant, can stand it farther. The ignorant public
changes its long-eared eulogies into contumeliously horrid shrieks
of condemnation; in which one is still farther from joining.
'That crossing of the Rhine,' says Friedrich, 'was a BELLE CHOSE;
but flatterers blew him into dangerous self-conceit; besides, he
was ill-obeyed, as others of us have been.' ["Prince de Ligne,
Memoires snr Frederic (Berlin, 1789), p. 38 " (Preuss, ii.
112).] Adieu to him, poor red-faced soul;--and good liquor to him,
--at least if he can take it in moderation!"

The astonishment of all men, wise and simple, at this sudden
oversetting of the scene of things, and turning of the gazetteer-
diplomatic theatre bottom uppermost, was naturally extreme,
especially in gazetteer and diplomatic circles; and the admiration,
willing or unwilling, of Friedrich, in some most essential points
of him, rose to a high pitch. Better soldier, it is clear, has not
been heard of in the modern ages. Heroic constancy, courage
superior to fate: several clear features of a hero;--pity he were
such a liar withal, and ignorant of common honesty; thought the
simple sort, in a bewildered manner, endeavoring to forget the
latter features, or think them not irreconcilable. Military judges
of most various quality, down to this day, pronounce Leuthen to be
essentially the finest Battle of the century; and indeed one of the
prettiest feats ever done by man in his Fighting Capacity.
Napoleon, for instance, who had run over these Battles of Friedrich
(apparently somewhat in haste, but always with a word upon them
which is worth gathering from such a source), speaks thus of
Leuthen: "This Battle is a masterpiece of movements, of manoeuvres,
and of resolution; enough to immortalize Friedrich, and rank him
among the greatest Generals. Manifests, in the highest degree, both
his moral qualities and his military." [Montholon,
Memoires &c., de Napoleon, vii. 211. This Napoleon
Criticism, are pleasant reading, though the fruit evidently of
slight study, and do credit to Napoleon perhaps still more than
to Friedrich.]

How the English Walpoles, in Parliament and out of it; how the
Prussian Sulzers, D'Argenses, the Gazetteer and vague public, may
have spoken and written at that time, when the matter was fresh and
on everybody's tongue,--judge still by two small symptoms which we
have to show:--

1. A LETTER OF FRIEDRICH'S TO D'ARGENS (Durgoy, near Breslau, 19th
December, 1757).--"Your friendship seduces you, MON CHER; I am but
a paltry knave (POLISSON) in comparison with 'Alexander,' and not
worthy to tie the shoe-latchets of 'Caesar'! Necessity, who is the
mother of industry, has made me act, and have recourse to desperate
remedies in evils of a like nature.

"We have got here [this day, by capitulation of Breslau] from
fourteen to fifteen thousand prisoners: so that, in all, I have
above twenty-three thousand of the Queen's troops in my hands,
fifteen Generals, and above seven hundred Officers. 'T is a plaster
on my wounds, but it is far enough from healing them.

"I am now about marching to the Mountain region, to settle the
chain of quarters there; and if you will come, you will find the
roads free and safe. I was sorry at the Abbe's treason,"--paltry De
Prades, of whom we heard enough already. [ OEuvres de
Frederic, xix. 47.]

2. A POTTERY-APOTHEOSIS OF FRIEDRICH.--"There stands on this
mantel-piece," says one of my Correspondents, the amiable
Smelfungus, in short, whom readers are acquainted with, "a small
China Mug, not of bad shape; declaring itself, in one obscure
corner, to be made at Worcester, 'R. I., Worcester, 1757' (late in
the season, I presume, demand being brisk); which exhibits, all
round it, a diligent Potter's-Apotheosis of Friedrich, hastily got
up to meet the general enthusiasm of English mankind. Worth, while
it lasts unbroken, a moment's inspection from you in
hurrying along.

"Front side, when you take our Mug by the handle for drinking from
it, offers a poor well-meant China Portrait, labelled KING OF
PRUSSIA: Copy of Friedrich's Portrait by Pesne, twenty years too
young for the time, smiling out nobly upon you; upon whom there
descends with rapidity a small Genius (more like a Cupid who had
hastily forgotten his bow, and goes headforemost on another errand)
to drop a wreath on this deserving head;--wreath far too small for
ever getting on (owing to distance, let us hope), though the
artless Painter makes no sign; and indeed both Genius and wreath,
as he gives them, look almost like a big insect, which the King
will be apt to treat harshly if he notice it. On the opposite side,
again, separated from Friedrich's back by the handle, is an
enormous image of Fame, with wings filling half the Mug, with two
trumpets going at once (a bass, probably, and a treble), who flies
with great ease; and between her eager face end the unexpectant one
of Friedrich (who is 180 degrees off, and knows nothing of it)
stands a circular Trophy, or Imbroglio of drums, pikes, muskets,
cannons, field-flags and the like; very slightly tied together,--
the knot, if there is one, being hidden by some fantastic bit of
scroll or escutcheon, with a Fame and ONE trumpet scratched on it;
--and high out of the Imbroglio rise three standards inscribed with
Names, which we perceive are intended to be names of Friedrich's
Victories; standards notable at this day, with Names which I will
punctually give you.

"Standard first, which flies to the westward or leftward, has
'Reisberg' (no such place on this distracted globe, but meaning
Bevern's REICHENBERG, perhaps),--'Reisberg,' 'Prague,' 'Collin.'
Middle standard curves beautifully round its staff, and gives us to
read, 'Welham' (non-extant, too; may mean WELMINA or Lobositz),
'Rossbach' (very good), 'Breslau' (poor Bevern's, thought a VICTORY
in Worcester at this time!). Standard third, which flies to
eastward or right hand, has 'Neumark' (that is, NEUMARKT and the
Austrian Bread-ovens, 4th December); 'Lissa' (not yet LEUTHEN in
English nomenclature); and 'Breslau' again, which means the capture
of Breslau CITY this time, and is a real success, 7th-19th
December;--giving us the approximate date, Christmas, 1757, to this
hasty Mug. A Mug got up for temporary English enthusiasm, and the
accidental instruction of posterity. It is of tolerable China;
holds a good pint, 'To the Protestant Hero, with all the honors;'--
and offers, in little, a curious eyehole into the then England,
with its then lights and notions, which is now so deep-hidden from
us, under volcanic ashes, French Revolutions, and the wrecks of a
Hundred very decadent Years."

Chapter XI.


Friedrich, during those grand victories, is suffering sadly in
health, "COLIQUE DEPUIS HUIT JOURS, neither sleep nor appetite;"
"eight months of mere anguishes and agitations do wear one down."
He is tired too, he says, of the mere business-talk, coarse and
rugged, which has been his allotment lately; longs for some humanly
roofed kind of lodging, and a little talk that shall have flavor in
it. [Letters of his to Prince Henri (December 26th, &c.:
OEuvres, xxvi. 167, 169; Stenzel, v: 123).] The troops
once all in their Winter-quarters, he sits down in Breslau as his
own wintering-place: place of relaxation,--of rest, or at least of
changed labor,--no man needing it more. There for some three months
he had a tolerable time; perhaps, by contrast, almost a delightful.
Readers must imagine it; we have no details allowed us, nor any
time for them even if we had.

There come various visitors, various gayeties,--King's Birthday
(January 24th); quality Balls, "at which Royal Majesty sometimes
deigned to show himself." A lively Breslau, in comparison.
Sister Amelia paid a beautiful visit of a fortnight or more:
Sister Amelia, and along with her, two married Cousins (once
Margravines of Schwedt), whose Husbands, little Brother Ferdinand,
and Eugen of Wurtemberg, are wintering here. The Marquis d'Argens,
how exquisitely treated we shall see, is a principal figure;
Excellency Mitchell, deep in very important business just now, is
another. Reader de Catt (he who once, in a Dutch River-Boat, got
into conversation with the snuffy gentleman in black wig) made his
new appearance, this Winter,--needed now, since De Prades is off.
"Should you have known me again?" asked Friedrich. "Hardly, in that
dress; besides, your Majesty looks thinner." "That I can believe,
with the cursed life I have been leading!" [Rodenbeck, i. 285.]
There came also, day not given, a Captain Guichard ("Major Quintus
Icilius" that is to be) with his new Book on the Art Military of
[a La Haye, 2 tomes, 4to, 1757 (Nicolai, Anekdoten, italic> vi. 134)] which cannot but be welcome to Friedrich. A solid
account of that matter, by the first man who ever understood both
War and Greek. Far preferable to Folard's, a man without Greek at
all, and with military ideas not a little fantastic here and there.
Of Captain Guichard, were his Book once read, and himself a little
known, there will be more to say. For the present, fancy him
retained as supernumerary:--and in regard to Friedrich's Winter
generally, accept the following small hints, small but direct:--

FRIEDRICH TO D'ARGENS (three different times).

1. ON THE ROAD TO LEUTHEN "(Torgau, 15th November 1757). ... I have
been obliged to have the Abbe arrested [De Prades, of whom enough,
long since]; he has been playing the spy, and I have many evident
proofs of it. That is very infamous and very ungrateful.--I have
made a prodigious quantity of verses (PRODIGIEUSEMENT DE VERS).
If I live, I will show them you in Winter-quarters: if I perish,
they are bequeathed to you, and I have ordered that they be put
into your hand. ...

"Adieu, my dear Marquis. I fancy you to be in bed: don't rot
there;--and remember you have promised to join me in
Winter-quarters;"--on this latter point Friedrich is very urgent,
amiably eager; prepared to wrap the poor Marquis in cotton, and
carry him and lodge him, like glass with care. [ OEuvres de
Frederic, ] xix, 43.] For example:--

2. WHILE SETTLING THE WINTER-QUARTERS ("Striegau, 26th December,
1757:" Siege of Breslau done ten days ago). ... "What a pleasure to
hear you are coming! Your travelling you can do in your own way.
I have chosen a party of Light Horse (JAGER), who will appear at
Berlin to conduct you. You can make short journeys: the first to
Frankfurt, the second to Crossen, the third to Grunberg, fourth to
Glogau, fifth to Parchwitz, sixth to Breslau. I have directed that
horses be ordered for you, that your rooms be warmed everywhere,
and good fowls ready on all roads. Your apartment in this House
[Royal House in Breslau, which the King has built for himself years
ago] is carpeted, hermetically shut. You shall suffer nothing from
draughts or from noise." [Ib. xix. 48.]--Lucky Marquis; what a
Landlord! Came accordingly; stayed till deep in April,--waiting
latterly for weather, I perceive; long after the King himself was
off. Thus:--

23d April, 1758"). "Adieu, dear Marquis; I fancy you are now in
Berlin again. Go to Charlottenburg whenever and how you like; take
care of yourself; and be ready for the beginning of October next!--
As to me, MON CHER, I am off to fight windmills and ostriches
(AUTRUCHES), that is, Russians and Austrians (AUTRICHIENS). Adieu,
MON CHER." [ OEuvres de Frederic, xix. 49.]

There circulated in the Newspapers, this Winter, something of what
was called a LETTER from Friedrich to Maria Theresa, formally
proposing Peace, after these magnificent successes. And certainly,
of all things in the Earth, Friedrich would have best liked Peace,
this year, last year, and for the next five years: "Go home, then,
good neighbors; don't break into my house, don't cut my poor
throat, and we will be friends again!" Friedrich, it appears, had
actually, finding or making opportunity, sent some polite Letter,
of pacific tenor, in his light clever way, to that address;--not
without momentary hopes of perhaps getting good from it.
[In PREUSS, ii. 130 (Friedrich's Letter mostly given;--bearer a
Prince van Lobkowitz, prisoner at Leuthen, now going home on
handsome terms) Stenzel, v. 124 (for the PER-CONTRA feeling).]
And the Kaiserinn herself, Austria's high Mother, did, they say,
after such a Leuthen coming on the back of such a Rossbach, feel
discouraged; but the Pompadour (not France's Mother, whatever she
might be to France) was of far other mind: "Do not speak of it, MA
REINE! Double or quits, that is our game: can we yield for a little
ill-luck? Never!"

France dismisses its D'Argenson, "What Armies are these of his;
flying home on us, like draggled poultry, across the Rhine!"--
summons the famed Belleisle to be War-Minister, and give things an
eagle-quality: ["26th February, 1758" (BARBIER, iv. 258).]
France engages to pay its subsidies better (France now the general
paying party, Austria, Sweden, Russia itself, all looking to
France,--would she were as punctual as England used to be!),--in a
word, engages to be magnanimous extremely, and will hear of nothing
but persistence. "Shall not we reap, then, where there is such a
harvest standing white to us?" Kaunitz admits that there never will
again be such a chance.--Peace, it is clear enough, will not be got
of these people by any Letter, or human device whatever, except
simply by uttermost, more or less miraculous fighting for it.
Friedrich is profoundly aware of this fact;--is busy completing his
Army: 145,000 for the field, this Year, 53,000 the Silesian part,
"a good many of them Austrian deserters;" [Stenzel, v. 155.] and is
closing an important Subsidy Treaty with England,--of which
more anon.

And if this is the mood in France and Austria, think what Russia's
will be! The Czarina is not dead of dropsy, as some had expected,
but, on the contrary, alive, and fiercer than ever; furious against
Apraxin, and determined that Fermor, his successor, shall defy
Winter, and begin work at once. She has indignantly dismissed
Apraxin (to be tried by Court-Martial, he); dismisses Bestuchef the
Chancellor; appoints a new General, Fermor by name; orders Fermor
to go and lose not a moment, now in the depth of Winter since it
was not done in the crown of Summer, and take possession of East
Preussen in her name.

Which Fermor does; 16th January, crosses the border again, 31,000
in all, without opposition except from the frost; plants himself up
and down,--only two poor Prussian battalions there; who retire,
with their effects, especially "with seven wagons of money."
January 22d, Fermor enters Konigsberg; publishes no end of
proclamations, manifestoes, rescripts, to inform the poor people,
trembling at the Cossack atrocities of last Year, "That his august
Sovereign Elizabeth of All the Russias has now become Proprietress
of East Preussen, which shall be perfectly protected and
exquisitely well-governed henceforth; and that all men of official
or social position have, accordingly, to come and take the oath to
her, with the due alacrity and punctuality, at their peril."

No man is willing for the operation, most men shudder at it;
but who can help them? Surely it was an unblessed operation.
Poor souls, one pities them; for at heart they were, and continued,
loyal to their own King; thoroughly abhorrent of becoming Russian,
as Czarish Majesty has thoroughly resolved they shall. Some few
absconded, leaving their property as spoil; the rest swore, with
mental reservation, with shifts, such as they could devise:--for
example, some were observed to swear with gloves on; the right
hand, which they held up, was a mere right FIST with a stuffed
glove at the end of it,--SO help me Beelzebub (or whoever is the
recording Angel here)! [ Helden-Geschichte, v.
141-149: Preuss, ii. 145, iii. 578, iv. 477, &c.] And thus does
Preussen, with astonishment, as by the spell of a Czarina Circe,
find itself changed suddenly to Russian: and does not recover the
old human form till four years hence,--when, again suddenly, as we
shall see, the Circe and her wand chance to get broken.

Friedrich could not mend or prevent this bad Business; but was so
disgusted with it, he never set foot in East Preussen again,--never
could bear to behold it, after such a transformation into temporary
Russian shape. I cannot say he abhorred this constrained Oath as I
should have done: on the contrary, in the first spurt of
indignation, he not only protested aloud, but made reprisals,--
"Swear ME those Saxons, then!" said he; and some poor magistrates
of towns, and official people, had to make a figure of swearing (if
not allegiance altogether, allegiance for the time being), in the
same sad fashion, till one's humor cooled again. [Preuss, ii. 163:
Oath given in Helden-Geschichte, v. 631.]
East Preussen, lost in this way, held by its King as before, or
more passionately now than ever; still loved Friedrich, say the
Books; but it is Russia's for the present, and the mischief is
done. East Preussen itself, Circe Czarina cherishing it as her own,
had a much peaceabler time: in secret it even sent moneys,
recruits, numerous young volunteers to Friedrich; much more, hopes
and prayers. But his disgust with the late transformation by
enchantment was inexpiable.

It was May or June, as had been anticipated, before the Russian
main Army made its practical appearance in those parts. Fermor had,
in the interim, seized Thorn, seized Elbing ("No offence,
magnanimous Polacks, it is only for a time!"),--and would fain have
had Dantzig too, but Dantzig would n't. Not till June 16th did the
unwieldy mass (on paper 104,000, and in effect, and exclusive of
Cossack rabble, about 75,000) get on way; and begin slowly
staggering westward. Very slowly, and amid incendiary fire and
horrid cruelty, as heretofore;--and in August coming we shall be
sure to hear of it.

Lehwald was just finishing with the Swedes,--had got them all
bottled up in Stralsund again, about New-Year's time, when these
Russians crossed into Preussen. We said nothing of the Swedish
so-called Campaign of last Year;--and indeed are bound to be nearly
silent of that and of all the others. Five Campaigns of them, or at
least Four and a half; such Campaigns as were never made before or
since. Of Campaign 1757, the memorable feature is, that of the
whole "Swedish Division," as the laughing Newspapers called it,
which was "put to flight by five Berlin Postilions;"--substantially
a truth, as follows:--

"Night of September 12th-13th, 1757, the Swedes, 22,000 strong, did
at last begin business; crossed Peene River, the boundary between
their Pommern and ours; and, having nothing but some fractions of
Militia to oppose them, soon captured the Redoubts there;
spread over Prussian Pommern, and on into the Uckermark;
diligently raising contributions, to a heavy amount. No less than
90,000 pounds in all for this poor Province; though, by a strange
accident, 60,000 pounds proved to be the actual sum.

"Towards the end of October they had got as much as 60,000 pounds
from the northern parts of Uckermark, Prentzlow being their head-
quarter during that operation; and they now sent out a Detachment
of 200 grenadiers and 100 dragoons towards Zehdenick, another
little Town, some forty miles farther south, there to wring out the
remaining sum. The Detachment marched by night, not courting
notice; but people had heard of its coming; and five Prussian
Postilions,--shifty fellows, old hussars it may be, at any rate
skilful on the trumpet, and furnished with hussar jackets and an
old pistol each, determined to do something for their Country.
The Swedish Detachment had not marched many miles, when,--after or
before some flourishes of martial trumpeting,--there verily fell on
the Swedish flank, out of a clump of dark wood, five shots, and
wounded one man. To the astonishment and panic of the other two
hundred and ninety-nine; who made instant retreat, under new shots
and trumpet-tones, as if it were from five whole hussar regiments;
retreat double-quick, to Prentzlow; alarm waxing by the speed;
alarm spreading at Prentzlow itself: so that the whole Division got
to its feet, recrossed the Peene; and Uckermark had nothing more to
pay, for that bout! This is not a fable, such as go in the
Newspapers," adds my Authority, "but an accurate fact:" [
Helden-Geschichte, iv. 764, 807; Archenholtz, i.
160.]--probably, in our day, the alone memorable one of that
"Swedish War."

"The French," says another of my Notes, "who did the subsidying all
round (who paid even the Russian Subsidy, though in Austria's
name), had always an idea that the Swedes--22,000 stout men, this
year, 4,000 of them cavalry--might be made to co-operate with the
Russians; with them or with somebody; and do something effective in
the way of destroying Friedrich. And besides their subsidies and
bribings, the French took incredible pains with this view;
incessantly contriving, correspondencing, and running to and fro
between the parties: [For example: M. le Marquis de Montalembert,
L'ARMEE SUEDOISE, 1757-1761 ("with the Swedish Army," yes, and
sometimes with the Russian,--and sometimes on the French Coasts,
ardently fortifying against Pitt and his Descents there:--a very
intelligent, industrious, observant man; still amusing to read, if
one were idler), A LONDRES (evidently Paris), 1777, 3 vols. small
8vo. Then, likewise very intelligent, there is a Montazet, a
Mortaigne, a Caulaiucourt; a CAMPAGNE DES RUSSES EN 1757; &c. &c.,
--in short, a great deal of fine faculty employed there in spinning
ropes from sand.] but had not, even from the Russians and Czarish
Majesty, much of a result, and from the Swedes had absolutely none
at all. By French industry and flagitation, the Swedish Army was
generally kept up to about 20,000: the soldiers were expert with
their fighting-tools, knew their field-exercise well; had fine
artillery, and were stout hardy fellows: but the guidance of them
was wonderful. 'They had no field-commissariat,' says one Observer,
'no field-bakery, no magazines, no pontoons, no light troops; and,'
among the Higher Officers, 'no subordination.' [Archenholtz, i.
158.] Were, in short, commanded by nobody in particular. Commanded
by Senator Committee-men in Stockholm; and, on the field, by
Generals anxious to avoid responsibility; who, instead of acting,
held continual Councils of War. The history of their Campaigns,
year after year, is, in summary, this:--

"Late in the season (always late, War-Offices at home, and
Captaincies here, being in such a state), they emerged from
Stralsund, an impregnable place of their own,--where the men, I
observe, have had to live on dried fishy substances, instead of
natural boiled oatmeal; [Montalembert, i. 32-37, 335. 394, &c.
(that of the demand for Neise PORRIDGE, which interested me, I
cannot find again).] and have died extensively in consequence:--
they march from Stralsund, a forty or thirty miles, till they reach
the Swedish-Pommern boundary, Peene River; a muddy sullen stream,
flowing through quagmire meadows, which are miles broad, on each
shore. River unfordable everywhere; only to be crossed in four or
five places, where paved causeways are. The Swedes, with
deliberation, cross Peene; after some time, capture the bits of
Redoubts, and the one or two poor Prussian Towns upon it;
Anklam Redoubt, PEENE-MUNDE (Peene-mouth) Redoubt; and rove forward
into Prussian Pommern, or over into the Uckermark, for fifty, for a
hundred miles; exacting contributions; foraging what they can;
making the poor country-people very miserable, and themselves not
happy,--their soldiers 'growing yearly more plunderous,' says
Archenholtz, 'till at length they got, though much shyer of murder,
to resemble Cossacks,' in regard to other pleas of the crown.

"There is generally some fractional regiment or two of Prussian
force, left under some select General Manteuffel, Colonel Belling;
who hangs diligently on the skirts of them, exploding by all
opportunities. There have been Country Militias voluntarily got on
foot, for the occasion; five or six small regiments of them;
officered by Prussian Veterans of the Squirearchy in those parts;
who do excellent service. The Governor of Stettin, Bevern, our old
Silesian friend, strikes out now and then, always vigilant, prompt
and effective, on a chance offering. This, through Summer, is what
opposition can be made: and the Swedes, without magazines, scout-
service, or the like military appliances, but willing enough to
fight [when they can see], and living on their shifts, will rove
inward, perhaps 100 miles; say southwestward, say southeastward
[towards Ruppin, which we used to know],--they love to keep
Mecklenburg usually on their flank, which is a friendly Country.
Small fights befall them, usually beatings; never anything
considerable. That is their success through Summer.

"Then, in Autumn, some remnant more of Prussian regulars arrive,
disposable now for that service; upon which the Swedes are driven
over Peene again (quite sure to be driven, when the River with its
quagmires freezes); lose Anklam Redoubt, Peene-munde Redoubt;
lose Demmin, Wollin; are followed into Swedish Pommern, oftenest to
the gates of Stralsund, and are locked up there, there and in Rugen
adjoining, till a new season arrive."--This year (1757-1758),
Lehwald, on turning the key of Stralsund, might have done a fine
feat; frost having come suddenly, and welded Rugen to mainland.
"What is to hinder you from starving them into surrender?"
signifies Friedrich, hastily: "Besiege me Stralsund!" Which Lehwald
did; but should have been quicker about it; or the thaw came too
soon, and admitted ships with provision again. Upon which Lehwald
resigned, to a General Graf von Dohna; and went home, as grown too
old: and Dohna kept them bottled there till the usual Russian
Advent (deep in June); by which time, what with limited stockfish
diet, what with sore labor (breaking of the ice, whenever frost
reappeared) and other hardship, more than half of them had died.--
"Every new season there was a new General tried; but without the
least improvement. There was mockery enough, complaint enough;
indignant laughter in Stockholm itself; and the Dalecarlians
thought of revolting: but the Senator Committee-men held firm,
ballasted by French gold, for four years.

"The Prussian Militias are a fine trait of the matter; about
fifteen regiments in different parts;--about five in Pommern, which
set the example; which were suddenly raised last Autumn by the
STANDE themselves, drilled in Stettin continually, while the Swedes
were under way, and which stood ready for some action, under
veterans of the squirearchy, when the Swedes arrived. They were
kept up through the War. The STANDE even raised a little fleet,
[Archenholtz, i. 110.] river fleet and coast fleet, twelve
gunboats, with a powerful carronade in each, and effective men and
captain; a great check on plundering and coast mischief, till the
Swedes, who are naval, at last made an effort and destroyed
them all."

Friedrich was very sensible of these procedures on the part of his
STANDE; and perhaps readers are not prepared for such, or for
others of the like, which we could produce elsewhere, in a Country
without Constitution to speak of. Friedrich raises no new taxes,--
except upon himself exclusively, and these to the very blood:--
Friedrich gets no Life-and-Fortune Addresses of the vocal or
printed sort, but only of the acted. Very much the preferable kind,
where possible, to all parties concerned. These poor militias and
flotillas one cheerfully puts on record; cheerfully nothing else,
in regard to such a Swedish War;--nor shall we henceforth insult
the human memory by another word upon it that is not indispensable.


One of Friedrich's most important affairs, at present,--vitally
connected with his Army and its furnishings, which is the all-
important,--was his Subsidy Treaty with England. It is the third
treaty he has signed with England in regard to this War; the second
in regard to subsidy for it; and it is the first that takes real
practical effect. It had cost difficulty in adjusting, not a little
correspondence and management from Mitchell; for the King is very
shy about subsidy, though grim necessity prescribes it as
inevitable; and his pride, and his reflections on the last Subsidy
Treaty, "One Million sterling, Army of Observation, and Fleet in
the Baltic," instead of which came Zero and Kloster-Zeven, have
made him very sensitive. However, all difficulties are got over;
Plenipotentiary Knyphausen, Pitt, Britannic Majesty and everybody
striving to be rational and practical; and at London, 11th April,
1758, Subsidy Treaty, admirably brief and to the point, is
finished: [In four short Articles; given in
Helden-Geschichte, v. 16, 17.] "That Friedrich shall
have Four Million Thalers, that is, 670,000 pounds; payable in
London to his order, in October, this Year; which sum Friedrich
engages to spend wholly in maintenance and increase of his Army for
behoof of the common object;--neither party to dream of making the
least shadow of peace or truce without the other." Of Baltic Fleet,
there is nothing said; nor, in regard to that, was anything done,
this year or afterwards; highly important as it would have been to
Friedrich, with the Navies so called of both Sweden and Russia
doing their worst upon him. "Why not spare me a small English
squadron, and blow these away?" Nor was the why ever made clear to
him; the private why being, that Czarish Majesty had, last year,
intimated to Britannic, "Any such step on your part will annihilate
the now old friendship of Russia and England, and be taken as a
direct declaration of War!"--which Britannic Majesty, for
commercial and miscellaneous reasons, hoped always might be
avoided. Be silent, therefore, on that of Baltic Fleet.

In all the spoken or covenanted points the Treaty was accurately
kept: 670,000 pounds, two-thirds of a million very nearly, will, in
punctual promptitude, come to Friedrich's hand, were October here.
And in regard to Ferdinand (a point left silent, this too),
Friedrich's expectations were exceeded, not the contrary, so long
as Pitt endured. This is the Third English-Prussian Treaty of the
Seven-Years War, as we said above; and it is the First that took
practical effect: this was followed by three others, year after
year, of precisely the same tenor, which were likewise practical
and punctually kept,--the last of them, "12th December, 1760," had
reference to Subsidy for 1761:--and before another came, Pitt was
out. So that, in all, Friedrich had Four Subsidies; 670,000 pounds
x4=2,680,000 pounds of English money altogether:--and it is
computed by some, there was never as much good fighting otherwise
had out of all the 800,000,000 pounds we have funded in that
peculiar line of enterprise. [First Treaty, 16th January, 1756 (is
in Helden-Geschichte, iii. 681), "We will
oppose by arms any foreign Armament entering Germany;"
Second Treaty, 11th January, 1757 (never published till 1802), is
in Scholl, iii. 30-32: "one million subsidy, a Fleet &c." (not KEPT
at all); after which,
Third Treaty (the FIRST really issuing in subsidy and performance)
is 11th April, 1758 (given in Helden-Geschichte, italic> v. 17); Fourth (really SECOND), 7th December, 1758 (Ib. v.
752); Fifth (THIRD), 9th November, 1759; Sixth (FOURTH), 12th
December, 1760. See PREUSS, ii. 124 n.]

Pitt had no difficulty with his Parliament, or with his Public, in
regard to this Subsidy; the contrary rather. Seldom, if ever, was
England in such a heat of enthusiasm about any Foreign Man as about
Friedrich in these months since Rossbach and what had followed.
Celebrating this "Protestant Hero," authentic new Champion of
Christendom; toasting him, with all the honors, out of its
Worcester and other Mugs, very high indeed. Take these Three
Clippings from the old Newspapers, omitting all else; and rekindle
these, by good inspection and consideration, into feeble symbolic
lamps of an old illumination, now fallen so extinct.

January 2d," 1758, "was observed as a Day of Thanksgiving, at the
Chapel in Tottenham-Court Road [brand-new Chapel, still standing
and acting, though now in a dingier manner], by Mr. Whitfield's
people, for the signal Victories gained by the King of Prussia over
his Enemies. [ Gentleman's Magazine, xxviii.
(for 1758), p. 41.]--'Why rage the Heathen; why do the people
imagine a vain thing? Sinful beings we, perilously sunk in sin
against the Most High:--but they, do they think that, by earthly
propping and hoisting, their unblessed Chimera, with his Three
Hats, can sweep away the Eternal Stars!'"--In this strain, I
suppose: Protestant Hero and Heaven's long-suffering Patiences and
Mercies in raising up such a one for a backsliding generation;
doubtless with much unction by Mr. Whitfield.

No. 2. KING OF PRUSSIA'S BIRTHDAY (Tuesday, January 24th).
"This being the Birthday of the King of Prussia, who then entered
into the forty-seventh year of his age, the same was observed with
illuminations and other demonstrations of joy;"--throughout the
Cities of London and Westminster, "great rejoicings and
illuminations," it appears, [ Gentleman's Magazine, italic> xxviii. (for 1758), p. 43; and vol. xxix. p. 42, for next
year's birthday, and p. 81 for another kind of celebration.]--now
shining so feebly at a century's distance!--No. 3 is still more
curious; and has deserved from us a little special inquiring into.

No. 3. MISS BARBARA WYNDHAM'S SUBSIDY. "March 13th, 1758,"--while
Pitt and Knyphausen are busy on the Subsidy Treaty, still not out
with it, the Newspapers suddenly announce,--

"Miss Bab. Wyndham, of Salisbury, sister of Henry Wyndham, Esq., of
that City, a maiden lady of ample fortune, has ordered her banker
to prepare the sum of 1,000 pounds to be immediately remitted, in
her own name, as a present to the King of Prussia." [
London Chronicle, March 14th-16th, 1758;
Lloyd's Evening Post; &c. &c.] Doubtless to the King
of Prussia's surprise, and that of London Society, which would not
want for commentaries on such a thing!

Before long, the Subsidy Treaty being now out, and the Wyndham
topic new again, London Society reads, in the same Newspaper, a
Documentary Piece, calculated to help in its commentaries. There is
good likelihood of guess, though no certainty now attainable, that
the "English Lady" referred to may be Miss Bab. herself;--of whose
long-vanished biography, and brisk, airy, nomadic ways, we catch
hereby a faint shadow, momentary, but conceivable, and sufficient
for us:--

London Chronicle, of 13th-15th April, 1758.

"The following Account, which is a real fact, will serve to show
with what punctuality and exactness the King of Prussia attends to
the most minute affairs, and how open he is to applications from
all persons.

"An English Lady being possessed of actions [shares] in the Embden
Company, and having occasion to raise money on them, repaired to
Antwerp [some two years ago, as will be seen], and made application
for that purpose to a Director of the Company, established there by
the King of Prussia for the managing all affairs relative thereto.
This person," Van Erthorn the name of him, "very willingly entered
into treaty with her; but the sum he offered to lend being far
short of what the actions would bring, and he also insisting on
forfeiture of her right in them, if not redeemed in twelve months,
--she broke off with him, and had recourse to some merchants at
Antwerp, who were inclinable to treat with her on much more
equitable terms. The proceeding necessarily brought the parties
before this Director for receiving his sanction, which was
essential to the solidity of the agreement; and he, finding he was
like to lose the advantage he had flattered himself with, disputed
the authenticity of the actions, and thereby threw her into such
discredit, as to render all attempts to raise money on them
ineffectual. Upon this the Lady wrote a Letter by the common post
to his Majesty of Prussia, accompanied with a Memorial complaining
of the treatment she had received from the Director; and she
likewise enclosed the actions themselves in another letter to a
friend at Berlin. By the return of the post, his Majesty
condescended to answer her Letter; and the actions were returned
authenticated; which so restored her credit, that in a few hours
all difficulties were removed relating to the transaction she had
in hand; and it is more than probable the Director has felt his
Majesty's resentment for his ill-behavior.--The Lady's Letter was
as follows:--

"'ANTWERP, 19th February, 1756.

"'SIR,--Having had the happiness to pay my court to your Majesty
during a pretty long residence at Berlin [say in Voltaire's time;
Miss Barbara's "Embden Company," I observe, was the first of the
two, date 1750; that of 1753 is not hers], and to receive such
marks of favor from their Majesties the Queens [a Barbara capable
of shining in the Royal soirees at Monbijou, of talking to, or of,
your Voltaires and lions, and investing moneys in the new Embden
Company] as I shall ever retain a grateful sense of,--I presume to
flatter myself that your Majesty will not be offended at the
respectful liberty I have taken in laying before you my complaints
against one Van Erthorn, a Director of the Embden China Company,
whose bad behavior to me, as set forth in my Memorial, hath forced
me to make a very long and expensive stay at this place; and, as
the considerable interest I have in that Company may farther
subject me to his caprices, I cannot forbear laying my grievances
at the foot of your Majesty's throne; most respectfully
supplicating your Majesty that you would be graciously pleased to
give orders that this Director shall not act towards me for the
future as he hath done hitherto.

"'I hope for this favor from your Majesty's sovereign equity; and I
shall never cease offering up my ardent prayers for the prosperity
of your glorious reign; having the honor to be, with the most
respectful zeal, Sir, your Majesty's most humble, most obedient,
and most devoted servant, * * *'


"'POTSDAM, 26th February, 1756.

"'MADAM,--I received the Letter of the 19th instant, which you
thought proper to write to me; and was not a little displeased to
hear of the bad behavior of one of the Directors of the Asiatic
Company of Embden towards you, of which you were forced to
complain. I shall direct your grievances to be examined, and have
just now despatched my orders for that purpose to Lenz, my
President of the Chamber of East Friesland,' Chief Judge in those
parts. [Seyfarth, ii. 139.] 'You may assure yourself the strictest
justice shall be done you that the case will admit. God keep you in
his holy protection. FRIEDRICH.'"

Whether this refers to Miss Barbara or not, there is no affirming.
But the interesting point is, Friedrich did receive and accept Miss
Barbara's 1,000 pounds. The Prussian account, which calls her "an
English JUNGFRAU, LADY SALISBURY, who actually sent a sum of
money," [Preuss, ii. 124, whose reference is merely
"Gentleman's Magazine for 1758." Both in the ANNUAL
REGISTER of that Year (i. 86),and in the Gentleman's
Magazine, pp. 142, 177, the above Paragraph and
Letters are copied from the Newspapers, but without the smallest
commentary (there or elsewhere), or any mention of a "Lady
Salisbury."] would not itself be satisfactory: but, by good chance,
there is still living, in Salisbury City, a very aged Gentleman,
well known for his worth, and intelligence on such matters, who,
being inquired of, makes reply at once: That the First Earl of
Malmesbury (who was of his acquaintance, and had many anecdotes and
reminiscences of Friedrich, all noted down, it was understood, with
diplomatic exactitude, but never yet published or become
accessible) did, as "I well remember, among other things, mention
the King's telling him that he," the King, "had received a Thousand
Pounds from Miss Wyndham; with a part of which he had bought the
Flute then in his hand." [Letter from John Fowler, Esq.,
"Salisbury, 2d April, 1860," to a Friend of mine (PENES ME):
of Barbara's identity, or otherwise, with the Antwerp Embden Lady,
Mr. F. can say nothing.] Which latter circumstance, too, is
curious. For, at all times, however straitened Friedrich's
Exchequer might be, it was his known habit, during this War, to
have always, before the current year ended, the ways and means
completely settled and provided for the year coming; so that
everything could be at once paid in money (good money or bad,--good
still up to this date);--And nothing was observed to fall short, so
much as the customary liberality of his gifts to those about him.
I infer, therefore: Friedrich had decided to lay out this 1,000
pounds in what he would call luxuries, chiefly gifts,--and, among
other things, had said to himself, "I will have a new flute, too!"
Probably one of his last; for I understand he had, by this time
(Malmesbury's time, 1772), ceased much playing, and ceased
altogether not long after. [Preuss, i. 371-373.]

James Harris, First Earl of Malmesbury, was Resident at Berlin,
1772: that is all the date we have for the King's saying, "And with
part of it I bought this Flute!" Date of Lord Malmesbury's mention
of it at Salisbury, we have none,--likeliest there might be various
dates; a thing mentioned more than once, and not improvable by
dating. The Wyndhams still live in the Close of Salisbury;
a respected and well-known Family; record of them (none of Barbara
there, or elsewhere except here) to be found in the County
Histories. [Britton's Beauties of England and Wales, italic> xv. part ii. p. 118; Hoare's Salisbury italic> (mistaken, p. 815); &c.] I only know farther, Barbara died
May, 1765, "aged and wealthy," and "with the bulk of her fortune
endowed a Charity, to be called 'Wyndham College,'" [ANNUAL
REGISTER (for 1765), viii. 86.]--which I hope still flourishes.
Enough on this small Wyndham matter; which is nearly altogether
English, but in which Friedrich too has his indefeasible property.


While this Subsidy Treaty is getting settled in England, Duke
Ferdinand has his French in full cackle of universal flight;
and before the signing of it (April 11th), every feather of them is
over the Rhine; Duke Ferdinand busy preparing to follow. Glorious
news, day after day, coming in, for Pitt, for Miss Barbara and for
all English souls, Royal Highness of Cumberland hardly excepted!
The "Descent on Rochefort," last Autumn, had a good deal
disappointed Pitt and England;--an expensively elaborate
Expedition, military and naval; which could not "descend" at all,
when it got to the point; but merely went groping about, on the
muddy shores of the Charente, holding councils of war yonder;
"cannonaded the Isle of Aix for two hours;" and returned home
without result of any kind, Courts-martial following on it, as too
usual. This was an unsuccessful first-stroke for Pitt. Indeed, he
never did much succeed in those Descents on the French Coast,
though never again so ill as this time. Those are a kind of things
that require an exactitude as of clockwork, in all their parts:
and Pitt's Generalcies and War-Offices,--we know whether they were
of the Prussian type or of the Swedish! A very grievous hindrance
to Pitt;--which he will not believe to be quite incurable.
Against which he, for his part, stands up, in grim earnest, and
with his whole strength; and is now, and at all times, doing what
in him lies to abate or remedy it:--successfully, to an unexpected
degree, within the next four years. From America, he has decided to
recall Lord Loudon, as a cunctatory haggling mortal, the reverse of
a General; how very different from his Austrian Cousin!
[Cousins certainly enough; their Progenitors were Brothers, of that
House, about 1568,--when Matthew, the cadet, went "into Livonia,"
into foreign Soldiering (Papa having fallen Prisoner "at the Battle
of Langside," 1568, and the Family prospects being low); from this
Matthew comes, through a scrips of Livonian Soldiers, the famed
Austrian Loudon. Douglas, Peerage of Scotland, italic> p. 425; &c. &c. VIE DE LOUDON (ill-informed on that point
and some others) says, the first Livonian Loudon came from
Ayrshire, "in the fourteenth century".] "Abercrombie may be
better," hopes he;--was better, still not good. But already in the
gloomy imbroglio over yonder, Pitt discerns that one Amherst (the
son of people unimportant at the hustings) has military talent:
and in this puddle of a Rochefort Futility, he has got his eye on a
young Officer named Wolfe, who was Quartermaster of the Expedition;
a young man likewise destitute of Parliamentary connection, but who
may be worth something. Both of whom will be heard of! In a four
years' determined effort of this kind, things do improve: and it
was wonderful, to what amount,--out of these chaotic War-Offices
little better than the Swedish, and ignorant Generalcies fully
worse than the Swedish,--Pitt got heroic successes and work
really done.

On Pitt, amid confused clouds, there is bright dawn rising;
and Friedrich too, for the last month, in Breslau, has a cheerful
prospect on that Western side of his horizon. Here is one of his
Postscripts, thrown off in Autograph, which Duke Ferdinand will
read with pleasure: "I congratulate you, MON CHER, with my whole
heart! May you FLEUR-DE-LYS every French skin of them; cutting out
on their"--what shall we say (LEUR IMPRIMANT SUR LE CUE)!--"the
Initials of the Peace of Westphalia, and packing them across the
Rhine," tattooed in that latest extremity of fashion! [Friedrich to
Duke Ferdinand, "Grussau, 19th March, 1758:" in Knesebeck,
Herzog Ferdinand, i. 64. Herzog Ferdinand
wahrend des 7-jahrigen Krieges ("from the English aud
Prussian Archives") is the full Title of Knesebeck's Book:
LETTERS altogether; not very intelligently edited, but well worth
reading by every student, military and civil: 2 vols. 8vo.
Hannover, 1857.]

Friedrich, grounding partly on those Rhine aspects, has his own
scheme laid for Campaign 1758. It is the old scheme tried twice
already: to go home upon your Enemy swiftly, with your utmost
collective strength, and try to strike into the heart of him before
he is aware. Friedrich has twice tried this; the second time with
success, respectable though far short of complete. Weakened as now,
but with Ferdinand likely to find the French in employment, he
means to try it again; and is busy preparing at Neisse and
elsewhere, though keeping it a dead secret for the time. There is,
in fact, no other hopeful plan for him, if this prove feasible at
all. Double your velocity, you double your momentum. One's weight
is given,--weight growing less and less;--but not, or not in the
same way and degree, one's velocity, one's rightness of aim.
Weight given: it is only by doubling or trebling his velocity that
a man can make his momentum double or treble, as needed!
Friedrich means to try it, readers will see how,--were the Fort of
Schweidnitz once had; for which object Friedrich watches the
weather like a very D'Argens, eager that the frost would go.
Recapture of Schweidnitz, the last speck of Austrianism wiped away
there; that is evidently the preface to whatsoever day's-work may
be ahead.

March 15th, frost being now off, Friedrich quits Breslau and
D'Argens,--his Head-quarter thenceforth Kloster-Grussau, near
Landshut, troops all getting cantoned thereabout, to keep Bohemia
quiet,--and goes at once upon Schweidnitz. With the top of the
morning, so to speak; means to have Schweidnitz before campaigning
usually can begin, or common laborers take their tools in this
trade. The Austrian Commandant has been greatly strengthening the
works; he had, at first, some 8,000 of garrison; but the three
months' blockade has been tight upon him and them; and it is hoped
the thing can be done.

APRIL 1st-2d,--Siege-material being got to the ground, and Siege
Division and Covering Army all in their places,--in spite of the
heavy rains, we open our first parallel, Austrian Commandant not
noticing till it is nearly done. April 8th, we have our batteries
built; and burst out, at our best rate, into cannonade; aiming a
good deal at "Fort No. 1," called also "GALGEN or Gallows Fort,"
which we esteem the principal. Cannonade continues day after day,
prospers tolerably on Gallows Fort,"--though the wet weather, and
hardship to the troops, are grievous circumstances, and make
Friedrich doubly urgent. "Try it by storm!" counsels Balbi, who is
Engineer. Night of APRIL 15th-16th storm takes place; with such
vigor and such cunning, that the Gallows Fort is got for almost
nothing (loss of ten men);-and few hours after, Austria beat the
chamade. [Tempelhof, ii. 21-25; Helden-Geschichte, italic> v. 109-123: above all, Tielcke, Beytrage zur
Kriegs-Kunst und zur Geschichte des Krieges von 1756 bis 1763 italic> (6 vols. 4to, Freyberg, 1775-1786), iv. 43-76. Volume iv.
is wholly devoted to Schweidnitz and its successive Sieges.]
Fifty-one new Austrian guns, for one item, and about 7,000 pounds
of money. Prisoners of War the Garrison, 8,000 gone to 4,900;
with such stores as we can guess, of ours and theirs added:
Balbi was Prussian Engineer-in-Chief, Treskau Captain of the
Siege;--other particulars I spare the reader.

Unfortunate Schweidnitz underwent four Sieges, four captures or
recaptures, in this War;--upon all of which we must be quite
summary, only the results of them important to us. For the curious
in sieges, especiaIly for the scientifically curious, there is, by
a Captain Tielcke, excellent account of all these Schweidnitz
Sieges, and of others;--Artillery-Captain Tielcke, in the Saxon or
Saxon-Russian service; whom perhaps we shall transiently fall in
with, on a different field, in the course of this Year.

Chapter XII.


Fouquet, on the first movement towards Schweidnitz, had been
detached from Landshut to sweep certain Croat Parties out of Glatz;
Ziethen, with a similar view, into Troppau Country; both which
errands were at once perfectly done. Daun lies behind the Bohemian
Frontier (betimes in the field he too, "arrived at Konigsgratz,
March 13th"); and is, with all diligence, perfecting his new
levies; intrenching himself on all points, as man seldom did;
"felling whole forests," they say, building abatis within abatis;
--not doubting, especially on these Ziethen-Fouquet symptoms, but
Friedrich's Campaign is to be an Invasion of Bohemia again.
"Which he shall not do gratis!" hopes Daun; and, indeed, judges say
the entrance would hardly have been possible on that side, had
Friedrich tried it; which he did not.

Schweidnitz being done, and Daun deep in the Bohemian problem,--
Friedrich, in an unintelligible manner, breaks out from Grussau and
the Landshut region (April 19th-25th), not straight southward, as
Daun had been expecting, but straight southeastward through Neisse,
Jagerndorf: all gone, or all but Ziethen and Fouquet gone, that
way;--meaning who shall say what, when news of it comes to Daun?
In two divisions, from 30 to 40,000 strong; through Jagerndorf,
ever onward through Troppau, and not till THEN turning southward:
indubitable march of that cunning Enemy; rapidly proceeding, his
40,000 and he, along those elevated upland countries, watershed of
the Black Sea and the Baltic, bleakly illumined by the April sun;
a march into the mists of the future tense, which do not yet clear
themselves to Daun. Seeing the march turn southward at Troppau, a
light breaks on Daun: "Ha! coming round upon Bohemia from the east,
then?" That is Daun's opinion, for some time yet; and he
immediately starts that way, to save a fine magazine he has at
Leutomischl over there. Daun, from Skalitz near Konigsgratz where
he is, has but some eighty miles to march, for the King's hundred
and fifty; and arrives in those parts few days after the King;
posts himself at Leutomischl, veiled in Pandours. Not for two weeks
more does he ascertain it to have been a march upon the Olmutz
Country, and the intricate forks of the Morawa River; with a view
to besieging Olmutz, by this wily Enemy! Upon which Daun did strive
to bestir himself thitherward, at last; and, though very slow and
hesitative, his measures otherwise were unexceptionable, and turned
out luckier than had been expected by some people.

Olmutz is an ancient pleasant little City, in the Plains of Mahren,
romantic, indistinct to the English mind; with Domes, with Steeples
eminent beyond its size,--population little above 10,000 souls;--
has its Prince-Archbishop and ecclesiastic outfittings, with whom
Friedrich has lodged in his time. City which trades in leather, and
Russian and Moldavian droves of oxen. Memorable to the Slavic
populations for its grand Czech Library, which was carried away by
the Swedes, happily into thick night; [To Stralsund (1645), "and
has not since been heard of."] also for that poor little Wenzel of
theirs (last heir of the Bohemian Czech royalties, whom no reader
has the least memory of) being killed on the streets here;--
uncertain, to this day, by whom, though for whose benefit that
dagger-stroke ended is certain enough; [Supra, vol. v. p. 118.]--
poor little Wenzel's dust lies under that highest Dome, of the old
Cathedral yonder, if anybody thought of such a thing in hot
practical times. Poor Lafayette, too, lodged here in prison, when
the Austrians seized him. City trades in leather and live stock, we
said; has much to do with artillery, much with ecclesiastry;--and
Friedrich besieged it, for seven weeks, in the hot summer days of
1758, to no purpose. Friedrich has been in Olmiitz more than once
before; his Schwerin once took it in a single day, and it was his
for months, in the old Moravian-Foray time: but the place is
changed now; become an arsenal or military storehouse of Austria;
strongly fortified, and with a Captain in it, who distinguishes
himself by valiant skill and activity on this occasion.

Friedrich's Olmutz Enterprise, the rather as it was unsuccessful,
has not wanted critics. And certainly, according to the ordinary
rules of cautious prudence, could these have been Friedrich's in
his present situation, it was not to be called a prudent
Enterprise. But had Friedrich's arrangements been punctually
fulfilled, and Olmutz been got in fair time, as was possible or
probable, the thing might have been done very well. Duke Ferdinand,
in these early May days, is practically making preparations to
follow the French across the Rhine; no fear of French Armies
interfering with us this year. Dohna has the Swedes locked in
Stralsund (capable of being starved, had not the thaw come); and in
Hinter-Pommern he has General Platen, with a tolerable Detachment,
watching Fermor and his Russians; Dohna, with Platen, may entertain
the Russians for a little, when they get on way,--which we know
will be at a slow pace, and late in the season. Prince Henri
commands in Saxony, say with 30,000;--King's vicegerent and other
self there, "Do YOUR wisest and promptest; hold no councils of
war!" Prince Henri, altogether on the aggressive as yet, is waiting
what Reichs Army there may be;--has already had Mayer and Free
Corps careering about in Franken Country once and again, tearing up
the incipiencies and preparations, with the usual emphasis; and is
himself intending to follow thither, in a still more impressive
manner. Friedrich's calculation is, Prince Henri will have his
hands free for a good few weeks yet. Which proved true enough, so
far as that went.

And now, supposing Olmutz ours, and Vienna itself open to our
insults, does not, by rapid suction, every armed Austrian flow
thitherward; Germany all drained of them: in which case, what is to
hinder Prince Henri from stepping into Bohmen, by the Metal
Mountains; capturing Prag; getting into junction with us here, and
tumbling Austria at a rate that will astonish her! Her, and her
miscellaneous tagraggery of Confederates, one and all.
Konigsberg, Stralsund, Bamberg; Russians, Swedes, Reichsfolk,--
here, in Mahren, will be the crown of the game for all these.
Prosper in Mahren, all these are lamed; one right stroke at the
heart, the limbs become manageable quantities! This was Friedrich's
program; and had not imperfections of execution, beyond what was
looked for, and also a good deal of plain ill-luck, intervened,
this bold stroke for Mahren might have turned out far otherwise
than it did.

The march thither (started from Neisse April 27th) was beautiful:
Friedrich with vanguard and first division; Keith with rear-guard
and second, always at a day's distance; split into proper columns,
for convenience of road and quarter in the hungry countries;
threading those silent mountain villages, and upper streamlets of
Oder and Morawa: Ziethen waving intrusive Croateries far off;
Fouquet, in thousands of wagons, shoving on from Neisse, "in four
sections," with the due intervals, under the due escorts, the
immensity of stores and siege-furniture, through Jagerndorf,
through Troppau, and onwards; [Table of his routes and stages in
TEMPELHOF, ii. 46.]--punctual everybody; besiegers and siege
materials ready on their ground by the set day. Daun too had made
speed to save his Magazine. Daun was at Leutomischl, May 5th,--a
forty miles to west of the Morawa,--few days after Friedrich had
arrived in those countries by the eastern or left bank, by Troppau,
Gibau, Littau, Aschmeritz, Prossnitz; and a week before Friedrich
had finished his reconnoitrings, campings, and taken position to
his mind. Camps, four or more (shrank in the end to three), on both
banks of the River; a matter of abstruse study; so that it was May
12th before Friedrich first took view of Olmutz itself, and could
fairly begin his Problem,--Daun, with his best Tolpatcheries, still
unable to guess what it was.

Of the Siege I propose to say little, though the accounts of it are
ample, useful to the Artillerist and Engineer. If the reader can be
made to conceive it as a blazing loud-sounding fact, on which, and
on Friedrich in it, the eyes of all Europe were fixed for some
weeks, it may rest now in impressive indistinctness to us. Keith is
Captain of the Siege, whom all praise for his punctual firmness of
progress; Balbi as before, is Engineer, against whom goes the
criticism, Keith's first of all, that he "opened his first parallel
800 yards too far off,"--which much increased the labor, and the
expenditure of useless gunpowder, shot having no effect at such a
distance. There were various criticisms: some real, as this; some
imaginary, as that Friedrich grudged gunpowder, the fact being that
he had it not, except after carriage from Neisse, say a hundred and
twenty miles off,--Troppau, his last Silesian Town, or safe place
(his for the moment), is eighty miles;--and was obliged to waste
none of it.

Friedrich is not thought to shine in the sieging line as he does in
the fighting; which has some truth in it, though not very much.
When Friedrich laid himself to engineering, I observe, he did it
well: see Neisse, Graudenz, Magdeburg. His Balbi went wrong with
the parallels, on this occasion; many things went wrong: but the
truly grievous thing was his distance from Silesia and the
supplies. A hundred and twenty miles of hill-carriage, eighty of
them disputable, for every shot of ammunition and for every loaf of
bread; this was hard to stand:--and perhaps no War-apparatus but a
Prussian, with a Friedrich for sole chief-manager, could have stood
it so long. Friedrich did stand it, in a wonderfully tolerable
manner; and was continuing to stand it, and make fair progress;
and it is not doubted he would have got Olmutz, had not there
another fact come on him, which proved to be of unmanageable
nature. The actual loss, namely, of one Convoy, after so many had
come safe, and when, as appears, there was now only one wanted and
no more!--Let us attend to this a little.

Had Daun, at Olmutz, been as a Duke of Cumberland relieving
Tournay, rushing into fight at Fontenoy, like a Hanover White-
Horse, neck clothed with thunder, and head destitute of knowledge,
--how lucky had it been for Friedrich! But Daun knows his trade
better. Daun, though superior in strength, sits on his Magazine,
clear not to fight. By no art of manoeuvring, had Friedrich much
tried it, or hoped it, this time, could Daun have been brought to
give battle. As Fabins Cunctator he is here in his right place;
taking impregnable positions, no man with better skill in that
branch of business; pushing out parties on the Troppau road;
and patiently waiting till this dangerous Enemy, with such endless
shifts in him, come in sight perhaps of his last cartridge, or
perhaps make some stumble on the way towards that consummation.
Daun is aware of Friedrich's surprising qualities. Bos against Leo,
Daun feels these procedures to be altogether feline (FELIS-
LEONINE); such stealthy glidings about, deceptive motions,
appearances; then such a rapidity of spring upon you, and with such
a set of claws,--destructive to bovine or rhinoceros nature:
in regard to all which, Bos, if he will prosper, surely cannot be
too cautious. It was remarked of Daun, that he was scrupulously
careful; never, in the most impregnable situations, neglecting the
least precaution, but punctiliously fortifying himself to the last
item, even to a ridiculous extent, say Retzow and the critics.
It was the one resource of Daun: truly a solid stubborn patience is
in the man; stubborn courage too, of bovine-rhinoceros type;--
stupid, if you will, but doing at all times honestly his best and
his wisest without flurry; which character is often of surprising
value in War; capable of much mischief, now and then, to quicker
people. Rhinoceros Daun did play his Leo a bad prank more than
once; and this of barring him out from Olmutz was one of them,
perhaps the worst after Kolin.

Daun's management of this Olmutz business is by no means reckoned
brilliant, even in the Fabius line; but, on the contrary, inert,
dim-minded, inconclusive; and in reality, till almost the very
last, he had been of little help to the besieged. For near three
weeks (till May 23d) Daun sat at Leutomischl, immovable on his
bread-basket there, forty or more miles from Olmutz; and did not
see that a Siege was meant. May 27th-28th, Balbi opened his first
parallel, in that mistaken way; four days before which, Daun does
move inwards a march or so, to Zwittau, to Gewitsch (still thirty
miles to west of Olmutz); still thinking of Bohemia, not of any
siege; still hanging by the mountains and the bread-basket.
And there,--about Gewitsch, siege or no siege, Daun sits down
again; pretty much immovable, through the five weeks of
bombardment; and,--except that Loudon and the Light Horse are very
diligent to do a mischief, "attempting our convoys, more than once,
to no purpose, and alarming some of our outposts almost every
night, but every night beaten off,"--does, in a manner, nothing;
sits quiet, behind his impenetrable veil of Pandours, and lets the
bombardment take its course. Had not express Order come from Vienna
on him, it is thought Daun would have sat till Olmutz was taken;
and would then have gone back to Leutomischl and impregnable posts
in the Hills. On express order, he-- But gather, first, these poor
sparks in elucidation:--

"The 'destructive sallies' and the like, at Olmutz, were
principally an affair of the gazetteers and the imagination: but it
is certain, Olmutz this time was excellently well defended;
the Commandant, a vigorous skilful man, prompt to seize advantages;
and Garrison and Townsfolk zealously helping: so that Friedrich's
progress was unusually slow. Friedrich's feelings, all this while,
and Balbi's (who 'spent his first 1,220 shots entirely in vain,'
beginning so far off), may be judged of,--the sound of him to Balbi
sometimes stern enough! As when (June 9th) he personally visits
Balbi's parallels (top of the Tafelberg yonder); and inquires,
'When do you calculate to get done, then?' West side of Olmutz and
of the River (east side lies mostly under water), there is the
bombarding; seventy-one heavy guns; Keith, in his expertest manner,
doing all the captaincies: Keith has about 8,000 of foot and horse,
busy and vigilant, with their faces to the east. In a ring of four
camps, or principally three (Prossnitz, Littau, and Neustadt, which
is across the River), all looking westward or northwestward, some,

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