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History of California by Helen Elliott Bandini

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appeared before the world. Then from all over southern California came
orange men to get buds from these trees. Back home they went with the
precious bits of life. Acres of seedling oranges were quickly shorn of
their green crowns. Cut, cut, went knife and shears till only the stock
was left, and then into a carefully made slit in the bark was placed the
navel bud. It soon sprouted, and everywhere one could see the stranger
growing sturdily on its adopted stem. Thousands of buds were sold from
the two parent trees until there were hundreds of thousands of their
beautiful children growing all over the state, giving golden harvests.

If we owe to two ladies the success of orange culture in California, it
was a third who saved the industry when ruin threatened it. For a while
all went merrily with the orange grower; then in some way, from
Australia, there came into the country an insect pest called the
cushiony scale, which settled on the orange trees and seemed likely to
destroy them. "What can be done to save our trees?" was the cry from the
people of the southland. What they did was to bring from Australia a
different visitor, the dainty bug called the ladybird. She was eagerly
welcomed. No one dreamed of bidding her, in the words of the old nursery
rhyme, "fly away home." She was carried to the diseased orchards, where
she settled on the scale, and as it was her favorite food, she soon had
the trees clean again. In time other pests came to trouble vine and
fruit growers, but it is interesting to know that scientists nearly
always succeeded in finding some insect enemy of the troublesome
visitor, which would help the horticulturist out of his difficulties.

In the business of orange-growing, success is due in a large measure to
care in the picking, packing, and shipping of the fruit--care even in
those little things that seem almost of no consequence. The more
particular Californians are to ship only the best fruit in the best
condition and properly packed, the higher prices will the fruit bring,
the higher reputation the state gain.

The lemon industry comes closely second to the orange. This fruit does
not need so much heat as does the orange, but neither can it stand so
much cold. It needs more water, but it bears more fruit and can be
marketed the year round. The lemons not sold as fresh fruit are made to
yield such products as citric acid, oil of lemon, from which cooking
essences are made, and candied lemon peel. In this latter branch of the
trade, however, the citron is more generally used, though it is not of
so delicate a flavor.

The pomelo, or grape fruit, is fast gaining in favor and increasing in

To the stranger who visits California the orange is the most interesting
of trees. To pick an orange with her own hands, and to pin on her breast
a bunch of the fragrant blossoms, is to an Eastern woman one of the most
pleasant experiences of her visit to the Golden State.

In the history of the growth of southern California, and especially of
its orange culture, the use of water on the soil plays a prominent part.
It was the discovery that the most sandy and unpromising-looking land
became a miracle of fertility when subjected to the irrigating stream,
that caused the wonderful prosperity of the dry portions of the state.

Irrigation, which means the turning of water from a well, spring, or
stream, upon land to promote the growth of plant life, has been used by
mankind for thousands of years. In Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico,
there are remains of irrigation canals made by people who lived so long
ago that we know nothing of their history.

The padres who settled California were adepts in this science. In
founding a mission they always chose its site near some stream, the
water of which could be turned upon the cultivated fields; and the dams,
canals, and reservoirs which the padres constructed were so well built
that many of them have lasted until the present time.

It will seem strange to many people to learn that the highest-priced,
most fertile farm lands in the United States are not to be found in the
rich valleys of the Eastern states or the prairies of the middle West,
but in the dry region between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Ocean.
Colorado, which belongs to the land of little rain, has in proportion to
its size the richest mines of any state in the Union, yet the product of
its farms, all irrigated, equals the output of its mineral wealth.

All the flourishing towns of southern California depend for their
wonderful prosperity upon the fertility of the irrigated country
surrounding them.

Trees and plants require water for their growth, but they do not all
need it in like quantity, nor at the same time; therefore, the
scientific farmer on arid lands, where there is an abundance of water
for irrigation, has an immense advantage over his Eastern brother who
depends for water upon the rainfall alone.

While the valuable raisin crop of the Californian is drying in the sun
and the slightest shower would damage, or perhaps ruin it, just beyond
lies the orange orchard, the trees of which are suffering for water. The
fruit, the size of a large walnut, is still hard and green, and must
have an abundance of the life-giving liquid if it is to develop into the
rich yellow orange, filled with delicious juice, which adorns the New
Year's market. How would our ranchman prosper if he depended upon rain?
As it is, he furrows his orchard from its highest to its lowest level;
then into the flume which runs parallel with the highest boundary of the
grove he turns the water from pipe or reservoir, and opening the
numerous little slide-doors or sluice-gates of the flume, soon has the
satisfaction of seeing each furrow the bed of a running stream, the
water of which sinks slowly, steadily, down to the roots of the thirsty
trees. After the water has been flowing in this manner for some hours,
it is shut off, for it has done enough work. In a day or two the
ranchman runs the cultivator over the ground of the orchard, leaving the
soil fine and crumbly and the trees in perfect condition for another six
or eight weeks of growth.

The first attempts of the American immigrant at irrigation were very
simple--just the making of a furrow turning the water of a stream upon
his land. Then, as he desired to cultivate more land and raise larger
crops, his ditches had to be longer, often having branches. Soon
neighbors came in and settled above and below him. They too used of the
stream; there was no law to control selfishness, so there were
disagreements and bitter quarrels over the water. Lawsuits followed and
sometimes even fighting and murders. The remedy for this state of things
was found to be in a company ditch, flume, or reservoir, with the use of
water controlled by fixed laws.

There are some crops, notably grapes, which are grown without
irrigation. The grapevine, instead of being treated as a climber, is
each year trimmed back to the main stem, which thus becomes a strong
woody stalk, often a foot or more in circumference, quite capable of
withstanding the heat and dryness of the atmosphere and of drawing from
the soil all the nourishment needed for the fruit.

Wheat, barley, and oats, both as grain and as hay, are largely raised
without irrigation. Olives, and many deciduous trees, by careful
cultivation may flourish without water other than the rainfall; yet
notwithstanding this, for a home in southern California, land without a
good water-right is of little value.

The wealth of the region is in a great measure in its expensive water
system, which, by means of reservoirs, dams, ditches, flumes, and pipes,
gathers the water from the mountain streams and conveys it to the
thirsty land below.

Chapter XV

California's other Contributions to the World's Bill of Fare

By 1874 people in the Eastern states had begun to talk of California
canned fruits. Apricots and the large white grape found ready sale, but
California raisins, though on the market, were not in demand. That line
from the old game "Malaga raisins are very fine raisins and figs from
Smyrna are better," represented the idea of the public; and figs,
raisins, and prunes eaten in the United States all came from abroad. But
how is it to-day?

Thanksgiving and Christmas dinners of our Eastern friends owe much to
California. She sends the seedless raisins, candied orange and lemon
peel, the citron and beet sugar for the mince pies and plum puddings.
Her cold-storage cars carry to the winter-bound states the delicious
white celery of the peat lands, snow-white heads of cauliflower, crisp
string beans, sweet young peas, green squash, cucumbers, and ripe
tomatoes. For the salads are her olives and fresh lettuce dressed with
the golden olive oil of the Golden State. Of ripe fruits, she sends
pears, grapes, oranges, pomegranates. For desserts, she supplies great
clusters of rich sugary raisins, creamy figs, stuffed prunes, and
soft-shelled almonds and walnuts. All these and other delicacies
California gives toward the holiday making in the East.

But it is not only to the homes of the wealthy that she carries good
cheer; to people who have very little money to spend, and those who are
far away from civilization, as soldiers, surveyors, woodmen, and
road-builders, California's products go to help make palatable fare. To
these her canned meats, fish, and vegetables, and canned and dried
fruits, are very welcome.

The canneries and fruit-packing establishments of the state bring in
many millions of dollars each year and give employment to a host of
people, a large number of whom are women and young girls.

Most of the fruits California now raises came into the country with the
padres. Captain Vancouver tells us that he found at the Santa Clara
mission, at the time of his visit in 1792, a fine orchard consisting of
apples, pears, peaches, plums, apricots; and at San Buenaventura all
these with the addition of oranges, grapes, and pomegranates. Alfred
Robinson describes the orchards and vineyards of San Gabriel mission as
very extensive. Wine and brandy were made at most of the missions, San
Fernando being especially noted for its brandy. Guadalupe Vallejo tells
of bananas plantains, sugar cane, citrons, and date palms growing at the
southern missions. Palm trees were planted "for their fruit, for the
honor of St. Francis, and for use on Palm Sunday."

Not only did the padres enjoy fresh fruits from their gardens, but
raisins were dried from the grapes, citron, orange, and lemon peel were
candied, and much fruit was preserved. It is not recorded that they had
pumpkin pie in those days, but a small, fine-grained pumpkin was raised
extensively for preserves. It is still a favorite dainty among the
native Californians, and no Spanish dinner is complete without this
dulce, as it is called. Spanish-American housewives excel their American
sisters in the art of preserving. Pumpkin, peach, pear, fig, are all
treated in the same manner, being first soaked in lye, then thoroughly
washed and scalded in abundance of fresh water, and then cooked in a
very heavy sirup. The result of this treatment is that the outside of
the fruit is crisp and brittle, while the inside is creamy and

The first of California's dried fruits to come before the public was the
raisin. Raisins are merely the proper variety of grapes suitably dried.
Some think that they are dipped in sugar, but this is not the fact. The
only sugar is that contained in the juice of the grape, which should be
about one fourth sugar. The only raisin grape for general use is the
greenish variety called the Muscat. The rich purple or chocolate color
of the raisin of the market is caused by the action of the sun while the
raisin is being cured. If dried in the shade the fruit has a sickly
greenish hue. The seedless Sultana is a small grape, fast coming into
favor for a cooking raisin.

The proper planting of a raisin vineyard requires a large amount of care
and labor. But the summer is one long holiday, as there is little to do
to the vines from early May until August. Then comes picking time. From
all the country round gather men and women, boys and girls, and the work

To be a successful raisin grower and packer, one must take care in all
little things. The workman who neglects to cut from the branch the
imperfect or bad grapes, or who lays the fruit in the trays so that it
will be in heaps or overlapped, is apt to be soon discharged. After
about a week of exposure to the sun and air, the grapes are turned by
placing an empty tray over a full one, and reversing the positions. Then
after a few days longer in the sun, the fruit goes to the sweat-box, a
hundred pounds to the box, and is placed in a room in the packing house,
where it lies about ten days. The bunches go into this room unequally
dried, with still a look and taste of grape about them, but after this
sweating process they come out uniform in appearance, rich, sugary,
tempting,--the raisins of commerce, with little suggestion of the fruit
from which they came. Then they are boxed.

There are generally three grades: very choice clusters, ordinary and
imperfect bunches, and loose raisins. Raisins of the third class are
sent to the stemmer and a large proportion of them then go to the
seeder. Seeding raisins for mother and grandmother at holiday times used
to be the duty and pleasure of the older boys and girls of the
household. But seeding is now done by machinery. A machine will seed on
an average ten tons daily. Before entering the seeder the raisins are
subjected to a thorough brushing, by which every particle of dust is
removed. They are then run through rubber rollers which flatten the
fruit and press the seeds to the surface; then through another pair of
rollers, with wire teeth which catch and hold the seeds while the
raisins pass on down a long chute to the packing room, where women and
girls box them for market.

With all fruits the drying process is much the same, though peaches,
apples, and pears are first peeled. California figs, when dried, sell
well. This is a fruit which is growing in favor, whether fresh,
preserved, or dried. Fruit canning is an interesting process. The fruit
is not boiled in sirup and then placed in cans, as is frequently the
custom in home preserving, but when peeled it is placed directly in the
cans, in which it receives all its cooking and in which it is finally

The raising of beets and the converting of them into sugar form an
industry which is growing rapidly, and is of the utmost importance to
the people of the Pacific slope.

The canning of fresh vegetables is a new industry which is bringing into
the state a steady stream of money, and in addition is proving a double
blessing to thousands of people, both those who gain from it their
living, and those who could not otherwise have vegetables for food. A
sailor said recently that if he could not be a sailor he would do the
next best thing--can vegetables for other sailors. When Galvez received
the order from the king of Spain to found settlements in Upper
California, one of the chief reasons for so doing was that fresh
vegetables might be raised for the sailors engaged in the Philippine
trade. To-day the Philippines use a large portion of California's canned

In the southern counties olive orchards are being extensively planted.
Near San Fernando is the largest in the world, covering thirteen hundred
acres. Doctors have said that a liberal use of California olive oil will
do much to promote the good health of mankind, and it is thought by many
that the manufacture of olive oil will be one of the greatest industries
the state has known.

Nut raising is keeping pace with fruit in importance. To an Eastern
person it seems strange to see nut-bearing trees cultivated in orchards;
though profitable, this method does away with the pleasures of nutting

California's crystallized fruits are in constant demand, especially for
the Christmas trade. This crystallizing is a process in which the juice
is extracted and replaced with sugar sirup, which hardens and preserves
the fruit from decay while still keeping the shape.

One sometimes reads the saying, "Fresno for raisins, Santa Clara for
cherries and prunes, and the northern counties and mountain-ranches for
apples." But in fact, California's fruit industries are well distributed
over the state, and the really excellent work which is being done in all
sections will still advance as the people learn more of the necessary
details and methods.

In spite of mistakes and experiments the steady progress on the
California ranches is being recognized. Of one of our leading fruit
growers, Mr. Eliwood Cooper of Santa Barbara, the Marquis of Lorne
writes in the Youth's Companion: "He has shown that California can
produce better olive oil than France, Spain, or Italy, and English
walnuts and European almonds in crops of which the old country hardly
even dreams."

A history of California's products would be incomplete without a
reference to him who is called the "Wonder Worker of Santa Rosa."
"Magician! Conjurer!" are terms frequently applied to Mr. Luther
Burbank, the man who is acknowledged by the scientists of the world to
have done more with fruits and flowers than any other man. Mr. Burbank
waves his wand, and the native poppy turns to deepest crimson, the white
of the calla lily becomes a gorgeous yellow, rose and blackberry lose
their thorns, the cactus its spines. The meat of the walnut and almond
become richer in quality, while their shells diminish to the thinness of
a knife blade.

Yet in these seeming miracles there is nothing of "black art" or sleight
of hand. The experiments of this wonderful man, the surprising results
he gains, are obtained, first by a close study of the laws of nature,
then, where he desires change and improvement, by assisting her process,
often through years of closest application and unceasing toil. He is a
man of whom it is truthfully said, "He has led a life of hardships, has
sacrificed self at every point, that he might glorify and make more
beautiful the world around him." Any boy or girl who knows something of
how plants grow and reproduce themselves will find great pleasure in
following Mr. Burbank's simple methods.

It is only recently that his countrymen have begun to appreciate the
work of this great naturalist. A short time ago a resident of Berkeley,
a student and book-lover, one who knew Mr. Burbank but had given little
attention to his productions, was in Paris. While there he had the good
fortune to be present at a lecture delivered before a gathering of the
most eminent scientists of Europe. In the course of his address the
speaker had occasion to mention the name of Luther Burbank. Instantly
every man in the audience arose and stood a moment in silence, giving to
the simple mention of Mr. Burbank's name the respect usually paid to the
presence of royalty. It is a name now known in all the languages of the
civilized world, and numbers of the wisest of the world's citizens cross
the ocean solely to visit the busy plant-grower of Santa Rosa.

Luther Burbank was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1849, and while
yet a lad his strongest desire was to produce new plants better than the
old ones. His first experiment was with a vegetable. For the sake of
getting seed, he planted some Early Rose potatoes in his mother's
garden. In the whole patch only one seed-ball developed, and this he
watched with constant care. Great was his disappointment, therefore,
when one morning, just as it was ready to be picked, he found that it
had disappeared. A careful search failed to recover the missing ball,
but as he thought the matter over, while at work, it struck Luther that
perhaps a dog had knocked it off in bounding through the garden. Looking
more carefully for it, he found the ball twenty feet away from the vine
on which it had hung. In it were twenty-three small, well-developed
seeds. These he planted with great care, and from one of them came the
first Burbank potatoes. The wealth of the country was materially
increased by this discovery; the wealth of the boy only to the amount of
one hundred and twenty-five dollars, which he used in attending a better
school than he had before been able to enjoy.

In 1875 Mr. Burbank, to secure, as he said, "a climate which should be
an ally and not an enemy to his work," moved to Santa Rosa, California.
For ten years of poverty and severe toil he was engaged, for the sake of
a livelihood, in the nursery business, making, in the meantime, such
experiments as he had time for. During the next twenty years, however,
Mr. Burbank was able to give nearly his whole time to his
nature-studies. His energy is tireless, and his aim is to supply to
humanity something for beauty, sustenance, or commerce better than it
has possessed.

Perhaps among all his productions the greatest good to the world will
arise from the spineless cactus. The scourge of the American desert is
the cactus, commonly known as the prickly pear, the whole surface of
which is covered with fine, needlelike spines, while its leaves are
filled with a woody fiber most hurtful to animal life. When eaten by
hunger-crazed cattle it causes death. After years of labor Mr. Burbank
has succeeded in developing from this most unpromising of plants a
perfected cactus which is truly a storehouse of food for man and beast.
Spines and woody fiber have disappeared, leaving juicy, pear-shaped
leaves, weighing often twenty-five or fifty pounds, which, when cooked
in sirup, make a delicious preserve, and in their natural state furnish
a nourishing, thirst-quenching food for domestic animals. The fruit of
this immense plant is aromatic and delicate, and its seeds are at
present worth far more than their weight in gold, since from them are to
spring thousands of plants by means of which it is believed the
uninhabitable portions of the desert may be made to support numberless
herds of cattle.

Another of Mr. Burbank's achievements is the evergreen crimson rhubarb,
which is not only far less acid than the old variety, but richer in
flavor and a giant in size.

The pomato, a tomato grown on a potato plant, is most interesting. The
plant is a free bearer, having a white, succulent, delicious fruit,
admirable when cooked, used in a salad, or eaten fresh as our other

The experiments with prunes conducted at the Santa Rosa ranch have been
of the greatest value to the state. For forty years the prune growers of
the Pacific slope had been searching for a variety of this fruit which
would be as rich in sugar and as abundant a bearer as the little
California prune of commerce, and yet of a larger size, and earlier in
its time of ripening. Mr. Burbank with his famous sugar prune filled all
these requirements, and revolutionized the prune industry of the state.
Besides this triumph he has succeeded in obtaining a variety of this
fruit having a shell-less kernel, so that the fruit when dried much
resembles those which are artificially stuffed.

The flowers which Mr. Burbank has evolved by his methods, and those
which he has simply enlarged and glorified, are far too numerous to be
named here.

In 1905 a grant of ten thousand dollars a year was bestowed upon Mr.
Burbank by the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C., for the purpose
of assisting him in his experiments. Seldom has money been better

Chapter XVI

The Hidden Treasures of Mother Earth

Thousands of years ago, before the time of which we have any history,
there were rivers in California,--rivers now dead,--whose sides were
steeper and whose channels were wider than those of the rivers in the
same part of the world to-day. Rapid streams they were, and busy, too;
washing away from the rocks along their sides the gold held there,
dropping the yellow grains down into the gravelly beds below. After a
time there came down upon these rivers a volcanic outflow; great
quantities of ashes, streams of lava and cement, burying them hundreds
of feet deep, until over them mountain ridges extended for miles and

Other changes in the earth's surface took place, and in the course of
time our streams of to-day were formed. As they cut their way through
the mountain ranges, some of them crossed the channels of old dead
rivers, and finding the gold hidden there, carried some of it along,
rolling it over and over, mixed with sand and gravel, down into the
lower lands under the bright sunlight. Here it was found by Marshall and
the gold hunters who followed him. These were the placer mines of which
we read in Chapter VII.

Gradually the best placer mines were taken up and the newcomers to the
gold fields traced the precious metal up the streams into the gravel of
the hillsides. Then was begun hydraulic mining, where water did the
work. In the canons great dams were constructed to catch the flow from
the melting snows of the mountains, and miles of flumes were built to
carry the water to the mining grounds. Immense pipes were laid and
altogether millions of dollars were invested in hydraulic mining. The
water coming down under heavy pressure from the mountain reservoirs
passed through giant hose which would carry a hundred miner's inches,
and, striking the mountain side with terrific force, washed away the
earth from the rocks. Down fell the sand and gravel into sluices or
boxes of running water where cleats and other arrangements caught and
held the gold, which was heavy, while the lighter mixture was carried
out into the canyon.

The material thus dumped on the mountain side was called debris, and to
any one living in the mining region of the state that word means trouble
--means fighting, lawsuits, ruin. For the debris did not stay up in the
canyon, but was washed down into the rivers, overflowing farm lands,
spoiling crops and orchards, and making the streams shallow, their
waters muddy. So great was the destruction this process caused that, in
1893, the Congress of the United States enacted a law which provided for
the creation of a Debris Commission to regulate the business of
hydraulic mining in California. The result of the investigations of this
commission was to put a stop to all hydraulic mining in territory
drained by the San Joaquin and Sacramento rivers, or any other territory
where the use of this form of mining should injure the river systems or
lands adjacent. Thus, almost in a moment, the important industry was

It is estimated that over one hundred million dollars were invested in
hydraulic mining. Much of this was entirely lost, as the expensive
machinery rusted and the water system fell into ruins. It was very hard
for the miners, as well as for the commerce of the state, but the act of
the government was based upon the principle that one man's business must
not damage another man's property. Clever engineers in the pay of the
government are still trying to find some way by which the debris can be
safely disposed of in order that this valuable system may resume

Deprived of the use of water as their agent, gold hunters next tried
mining by drifts; that is, by tunneling into the mountain's side until
the bed of a buried river is reached. These tunnels are often five
thousand to eight thousand feet long. The gold is brought out of the
ground before it is washed clean of the gravel. Sometimes it is mixed
with cement, when it has to be crushed in rollers before it can be
cleared of other material. The counties where drift mining is most in
operation are Placer, Nevada, and Sierra.

Quartz mining is the most expensive manner of getting out gold, and a
great deal of valuable and complicated machinery has been invented for
this branch of the business. The quartz mines of California are among
the richest in the world, and some of the greatest fortunes of modern
times have been made from them.

In a mine of this kind there is generally a shaft, or opening, extending
straight down into the earth, from which, at different levels,
passageways branch out where the veins of gold are richest. The openings
must be timbered to prevent caving in, and there must be pumps to remove
the water as well as hoisting works to take out the material. Then on
the surface, as near as possible to the mouth of the mine, must be
located the quartz mill. When possible, a tunnel is used in this mining,
which makes the handling of ore less expensive, for then there need be
no hoisting works or pumps, since the tunnel drains itself.

Gold in quartz rock is generally in ledges or veins, one to three feet
in width. Digging it out is not very hard, save where there is not
enough room to stand upright and use the pick, or when, in a shaft deep
in the ground, the heat makes it difficult to work. A California boy at
the mines wrote recently: "Mining is not so bad; that is, if I could get
along without the occasional whack I bestow upon my left hand. Last week
I started a little tunnel and pounded my hand so that it swelled up
considerably. Drilling is not hard, and loading is a snap, but it's all
interesting work and there is the excitement of seeing what you are
going to find next."

When the ore reaches the surface it is sent to the mill, where it is
first pulverized, then mixed with a chemical which goes about catching
up the grains of gold--arresting and holding them fast. It is quite a
long process before the gold is completely separated from all other
material and ready for shipment. Often the quartz contains other
minerals of value, the separation of which requires much work.

There is a very rich mine in Nevada called the Comstock, which some
years ago had sunk its shafts so deep into the earth that it became
almost impossible for the miners to work on account of the great heat,
the bad air, and the quantity of water which had constantly to be pumped
out. How these troubles were remedied is the story of one of
California's greatest and best citizens. Adolph Sutro was a Prussian by
birth, and his adopted state may well be proud to claim him. He had
built a little quartz mill in Nevada, near the Comstock mine. Seeing the
suffering of the workmen in all the mines on that mountain side, he
thought of a plan for the construction of a large tunnel which was to
begin at a low level at the nearest point of the Carson River and run
deep into the mountain so that it could drain all the rich mining
section, give good ventilation for the deep underground works, and
afford a much cheaper and more convenient way of taking care of the ore.
It was to be four miles long, with branches extending from it to
different mines. Its height was to be ten feet; width, twelve, with a
drainage trench in the center to carry away the waste water to the
Carson River, and tracks on each side for the passage of mules and cars.

At first the mine owners were pleased with the project, and Mr. Sutro
succeeded in forming a company to build the tunnel. Then he went to
Washington, where the government became so interested in his plans that
on July 25, 1866, there was passed an act of Congress granting Sutro
such privileges in regard to public lands as would safeguard his work.
About the time that the news of this action reached the West, the men
who owned the mines and had made an arrangement for the use of the
tunnel, decided that they did not want the work done; it is said, for
the reason that they found Mr. Sutro too wise and far-seeing for them to
be able to manage him. At all events, with all their wealth and power
they tried to ruin him. They said that his plans were worthless, and any
one was foolish to invest in the tunnel company. Then Mr. Sutro, by
means of lectures upon the subject, appealed to the people. In
California, Nevada, the Eastern states, and even Europe, he told what
his plans would do for the miners and the good of the country. It was
not long before he gained all the help he needed, and the great work was

As the workmen progressed into the mountain side there were many
difficulties to overcome. Day and night without ceasing the work went
on. Laborers would faint from the combined heat and bad air, and be
carried to the outer world to be revived. Carpenters followed the
drillers, trackmen coming closely after. Loose rock, freshly blasted,
was tumbled into waiting cars and hauled away over rails laid perhaps
but half an hour before. Constantly in the front was Sutro himself, coat
flung aside, sleeves rolled up. In the midst of the flying dirt, great
heat, bad air, dripping slush, and slippery mud he worked side by side
with the grimy, half-naked miners, thus showing himself capable not only
of planning a great work, but of seeing personally that it was well
done, no matter with what sacrifice to his own ease and comfort.

After the tunnel was completed, Mr. Sutro sold his interest in it for
several millions of dollars. How that money was expended, any visitor to
San Francisco well knows. With it were built the great Sutro baths, with
their immense tanks of pure and constantly changing, tempered ocean
water, their many dressing rooms, their grand staircases, adorned with
rare growing plants, their tiers of seats rising in rows, one above
another, with room for thousands of spectators, and their galleries of
pictures and choice works of art. Over all is a roof of steel and tinted
glass. Nowhere else in America is there so fine a bathing establishment.

Besides this there are the lovely gardens of Sutro Heights, developed by
Mr. Sutro's money and genius from the barren sand-hills of the San
Miguel rancho. In addition to these is the choice library of about two
hundred thousand volumes, which is of great use to the people of San
Francisco. Perhaps neither San Francisco nor California has yet quite
appreciated the value of the work of Adolph Sutro.

Since 1848 the state of California has sent to the United States Mint
over one billion dollars in gold. Of this, little Nevada County, which
seems to be worth literally her weight in gold, has sent over two
hundred and forty million. The Empire Mine is the leading producer of
California, but there are others nearly as rich. Nevada City is in the
center of this mining country. The streets are very hilly, and after a
heavy rain people may be seen searching the city gutters and
newly-formed rivulets for gold, and they are sometimes rewarded by
finding fair-sized nuggets washed down from the hills above.

A visitor to one of the deep mines of California says:--

"We descended to the seven hundred foot level, where the day before a
pile of ore had been blasted down. A little piece of the quartz, crushed
in a mortar panned out four dollars in gold. I picked out one piece of
rock, not larger than a peach, and the manager, after weighing and
testing it, announced that it contained ten dollars in free gold. The
kick of a boot would reveal ore which showed glittering specks of pure

In the estimate of many people all very valuable mines are supposed to
be of gold, but this is a mistake. While gold is king in California,
copper mining is rapidly becoming of great importance. A continuous
copper belt, the largest yet discovered in the world, exists under her
soil, and while a comparatively small depth has been so far attained,
the profit has been considerable. One of the largest quicksilver mines
in the world is at New Almaden. The value of the output of the borax
mines is over a million dollars a year. There were mined in California
in 1907 over fifty different materials, most of them at a value of
several thousand dollars a year, with some as high as a million and

The mineral product of California outranking gold in value is petroleum,
which has added greatly to the wealth of the state. Natural gas and
mineral waters are also valuable commercial products.

To many, the most interesting class among minerals is the gems, of which
California yields a variety. The beautiful lilac stone, Kunzite, was
discovered near Pala, San Diego County. This county has also some fine
specimens of garnets, and beautiful tourmalines are being mined at a
profit. San Bernardino County yields a superior grade of turquoise from
which has been realized as much as eleven thousand dollars a year.
Chrysoprase is being mined in Tulare County, also the beautiful new
green gem something like clear jade, called Californite. Topaz, both
blue and white, is being found, and besides these, many diamonds of good
quality have been collected, principally from the gravels of the
hydraulic mines. In 1907 there was discovered in the mountains of San
Benito County a beautiful blue stone closely resembling sapphire, more
brilliant but less durable. It was named, by professors of mineralogy in
the state university, Benitite, from the place where it was discovered.

Perhaps the most valuable of all the products of California is its water
supply, either visible as in springs and streams, or underground as in
artesian water. Of its use in irrigation, we have already spoken. In the
production of electricity it is coming to be of the greatest importance,
making possible the most stupendous works of modern times. Such is the
undertaking of the Edison Electric Company in bringing down to Los
Angeles, over many miles of the roughest country, power from the Kern
River, tapping the tumultuous stream far up in the Sierras. The taking
of the necessary machinery to those heights was in itself a wonderful
labor. The power thus created is a blessing to a wide region.

Chapter XVII

From La Escuela of Spanish California to the Schools of the Twentieth

In no line has California advanced so far beyond the days of the padres
as in her schools. In the early settlements there were no educated
people but the priests at the missions and the Spanish officers with
their families at the presidios. Later, clever men of good families came
into the territory, took up land, and made their homes on the great
ranchos, but among these there were few who would take the time or
trouble to teach the children; so life to the young people was a long
holiday. The sad result was that they grew up so ignorant as to astonish
the educated strangers who visited the coast.

At the missions the padres had schools where they taught the young
Indians something of reading and writing, religious services and songs,
and the trades necessary for life. This, with their duties in the church
and the extensive building and planting of the mission settlements, took
all the time of the hard-working priests. Occasionally, an educated
woman would teach her own children and those of her relatives, but like
most attempts at home education, it was so interrupted as to amount to

In 1794 a new governor came from Spain who was so shocked at this state
of affairs that he at once ordered three schools opened. The first,
December, 1794, was held in a granary at San Jose and was in charge of a
retired sergeant of the Spanish army. The children had been so long free
from all restraint that they did not like to go to school, and their
parents did not always take the trouble to insist. There were some
reasons for this, as the masters did not know much about what they were
trying to teach, and the use of the ferule and scourge (the latter a
whip of cords tipped with iron) was frequent and cruel. There were no
books but primers, and these were hard to obtain. The writing, paper was
furnished by the military authorities and had to be returned when the
child was through with it, that it might be used in making cartridges.
These schools were for boys only, girls not being expected to learn
anything except cooking, sewing, and embroidery.

Slowly the state of things improved, and in 1829 in the yearly report to
the Mexican government, it was stated that there were eleven primary
schools in the province with three hundred and thirty-nine boys and
girls. One of the best of these schools was that of Don Ignacio Coronel
of Los Angeles.

In 1846 the first American school was opened at Santa Clara by Mrs.
Oliver Mann Isbell. It provided for children from about twenty emigrant
families and was held in a room of the Santa Clara mission on the great
patio. The floor was of earth, the seats boxes; an opening in the tiled
roof over the center of the room allowing the smoke to escape when, on
rainy days, a fire was built on a rude platform of stones set in the
middle of the floor. Wherever the Americans lived, they would have
schools, although their first buildings were bare and inconvenient, with
no grace or adornment either inside or out. In some out-of-the-way
places, whole terms of school were spent most happily under spreading
live oaks.

In the making of the first constitution, educational matters were not
forgotten; one section providing that there should be a common school
system supported by money from the sale of public lands. On account of
the minerals the lands so allotted were supposed to contain, it was
believed that they would sell for such vast amounts that the state would
have money sufficient for the grandest public schools that ever existed.
In fact these lands brought in altogether, after a number of years, less
than a quarter of a million dollars. The act provided also that the
schools be kept open three months in the year. An effort was made to
extend this period to six months, but was defeated by Senator Gwin.

Considering the state of the country when the public schools were begun,
and the short time in which they have been developed, the California
free schools are a credit to the state and to the men and women who have
helped to make them what they are. No community is so poor and remote
but that it may have its school if the inhabitants choose to organize
for the purpose. Hardly can the settler find a ranch from which his
children may not attend a district school over which floats the stars
and stripes.

Money for educational purposes is now raised by state and county taxes
on property, this sum, in cities, being largely increased by the
addition of the city taxes. High schools have only recently been given
state aid, and that moderately; the larger ones still depending, in a
great measure, upon the special tax of the city, district, or county,
according to the class to which the school belongs. The state supports
one Polytechnic school, that at San Luis Obispo, where there are three
courses, agriculture, mechanics, and domestic science.

About 1878, in the endeavor to teach the children of the worst parts of
San Francisco a right way of living, the free kindergartens were begun.
Perhaps their success cannot be better shown than in the fact that in
the first year of the work along "Barbary coast," one of the most
turbulent districts of the city, the Italian fruit and vegetable dealers
who lived there, brought the teachers a purse of seventy-five dollars,
because the children had been taught not to steal their fruits and
vegetables or to break their windows. The first free kindergarten was
started on Silver Street in "Tar Flats" and had for its teacher a pretty
young girl, with beautiful eyes and a mass of bronze-colored hair, whom
the ragged little urchins soon learned to adore. That little school was
the beginning of one of the best kindergarten systems in the country,
and the pretty young teacher is now Kate Douglas Wiggin, one of
America's best loved writers, the author of those delightful books, "The
Birds' Christmas Carol," "Timothy's Quest" and others equally
interesting. There have been many gifts to these kindergartens. In
memory of their only son, Mr, and Mrs. Leland Stanford gave one hundred
thousand dollars, while Mrs. Phoebe Hearst supported entirely three of
the schools. Kindergartens may now form part of the primary department
in the school system of any community so desiring, and are to be found
in most of the cities.

Nothing in the educational work of California is of more importance than
the five normal schools, which graduate each year hundreds of teachers
thoroughly prepared in all branches for the important work of training
the children of the state.

As the crown of the free school system, stands the state university at
Berkeley. Many an interesting story might be told of the noble men, who
as early as 1849 began their long struggle to gain for the youth of
California the chance for higher education. The Reverend Samuel Willey,
the American consul Mr. Larkin, and Mr. Sherman Day were leaders in this
enterprise. There was much against them; men's thoughts were almost
entirely given to the necessities of everyday life, and few seemed able
to see that a grand and beautiful future was coming to the new
territory. The university secured its charter in 1868, but it was not
until the adoption of the new constitution in 1879 that it was placed on
a firm basis which could not be changed by each new legislature.

The coming of Mr. Benjamin Ide Wheeler to the presidency was one of the
best strokes of fortune the institution has ever known. Under his
management it has taken a great stride forward. In the work it does, and
the high standard it demands, it takes its place side by side with the
best universities of the older Eastern states. The work of its college
of agriculture is becoming of great service to the farmer and fruit
grower. The result of its experiments in determining the best wheat for
the soil is of very great importance to the grain industry of the state.

Connected with the university are: the Lick Observatory on Mount
Hamilton; the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art, the Hastings College of
Law, and Colleges of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmacy, in San
Francisco; and an admirable University Extension Course which offers its
advantages to the people of any locality throughout the state who may
desire its help.

One of the most practical and important associations in the state is the
Farmer's Institute, which, under direction and control of the
university, holds a three days' meeting once a month in each locality
throughout the state. Also, once a year, an institute of a week's
duration is held at Berkeley, where eminent scientists give their
services, and the results are most helpful.

The university has received many gifts from distinguished citizens. Mrs.
Phoebe Hearst has devoted much of her time and a large amount of her
money to its improvement, and plans are under way to make it the most
finished and beautiful educational institution ever owned by any state
or country.

Barely one hour's ride from San Francisco south, lies the Leland
Stanford Junior University, which at the time of its foundation, in
1885, was the greatest gift ever bestowed upon humanity by any one
person. In this noble movement Mr. and Mrs. Stanford were as one. Their
only son died in 1884, and the university is a memorial of him, a grand
example of the way in which those who are dead may yet live, through the
good done in their names. Although entirely a private benefaction, its
doors are open to students absolutely free of all tuition charges.

This university started with a large endowment, but after the death of
Mr. Stanford, a lawsuit with the United States, and a shrinkage in the
value of the properties it owned, ran the finances so low that for a
short time it was found necessary to charge a small entrance fee. Even
then, the college was kept open only through the economy and
self-sacrifice of Mrs. Stanford and the members of the faculty, who
stood by the institution with noble unselfishness. By the year 1906 the
financial condition had become satisfactory and the attendance had
materially increased. Two handsome new buildings, one for the library
and the other for the gymnasium, were about completed when, on April 18,
an earthquake, the most destructive ever experienced on the Pacific
coast, shook all the region around San Francisco Bay. Stanford suffered
severely: the two new buildings were ruined; so, too, was the museum
and a portion of the chemistry building. Both the noble arch and the
mosaics in the front of the memorial chapel were destroyed. Beyond this,
comparatively little damage was done to the college buildings. The
graduating exercises were postponed until the fall term; otherwise the
disaster did not interfere seriously with the routine of study, neither
did it affect the attendance in 1906-7, which was unusually large. In
the fall of 1907 President Jordan stated that he was empowered to
announce that Thomas Weldon Stanford, brother of Senator Leland
Stanford, had decided to give the university his own large fortune of
several millions.

It is generally recognized that the university owes a great part of its
present success to the splendid talents and faithfulness of President
Jordan, who has given the hardest labor of the best years of his busy
life to helping it onward and upward. Its educational work is thorough,
and its requirements are being steadily raised. It stands for the
highest education that is possible. Addition is constantly being made to
its group of noble buildings. Beautiful Stanford is the sparkling jewel
in California's diadem.

Not far from the University of California in the suburbs of Oakland is
situated Mills College, which for many years was the only advanced
school for girls of which the state could boast. This institution had
its beginning as a seminary in Benicia, but was moved to its present
situation in 1871. In 1885 it became a college with a state charter. In
plan of studies and high Christian aim, it resembles Mount Holyoke, from
which many of its leading instructors have been graduated.

There is no place here to speak of all the leading private schools of
the state. Throop Polytechnic in Pasadena, the Thatcher School in the
valley of the Ojai, and Belmont Military Academy are among the best. A
word, however, must be said in tribute to Santa Clara College, without
which the California youth of from twenty to forty years ago would have
been lacking in that higher education which stands for so much in the
making of a state. Incorporated in 1851, it was opened with funds
amounting to but one hundred and fifty dollars, yet it grew steadily.
With a clever Jesuit faculty, this college has done admirable work of so
thorough a character as to win the praise of all those who have come in
contact with its results. From it have been graduated such men as
Stephen M. White, Reginaldo del Valle, and many other of our leading
professional and business men.

Chapter XVIII


The state of California lies between the parallels 32i and 42i north
latitude, extending over a space represented on the eastern coast by the
country between Edisto Inlet, South Carolina, and the northern point of
Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Its northern third lies between 120i and 124i
26' west longitude. From Cape Mendocino, its most westerly point, the
coast trends southeastward to San Diego Bay. The total coast line on the
Pacific is 1200 miles.

The state's greatest width is 235 miles, which is between Point
Conception and the northern end of the Amaragosa Range on the Nevada
line. It is narrowest between Golden Gate and the southern end of Lake
Tahoe. Its area is 158,297 sq. miles, second only to Texas of all the

The population of California, according to the United States census of
1920, is 3,426,861, which has since been greatly increased. The
following table shows the counties of the State:--

Counties of California

Area Population Valuation
Name Origin and Meaning of Name Sq.
Mi. 1920 1910 of Property County Seat
Alameda Sp., Shaded promenade
764 344,127 246,131 128,681,766 Oakland
710 243 309 422,063 Markleeville
Amador Sp., Sweetheart
632 7,793 9,086 4,918,908 Jackson
Butte Fr., Rounded, detached hill
1,660 30,030 27,301 16,057,766 Oroville
Calaveras Sp., Skul's (from Indian battle ground)
1,080 6,183 9,171 6,177,285 San Andreas
Colusa Ind.
1,088 9,290 7,732 12,188,096 Colusa
Contra Costa Sp., Opposite coast
728 53,889 31,674 21,753,956 Martinez
Del Norte Sp., Of the North
992 2,759 2,417 2,882,445 Crescent City
Eldorado Sp., The gilded (name given to fabled land of gold)
1,796 6,426 7,492 4,668,840 Placerville
Fresno Sp., Ash tree
6,152 128,779 75,657 34,302,205 Fresno
1,270 11,853 7,172 10,645,524 Willow
Humboldt (named for Baron von Humboldt)
3,496 37,413 33,857 24,911,492 Eureka
4,200 43,383 13,591 El Centro
10,294 7,031 6,974 2,316,319 Independence
8,050 54,843 37,715 24,050,871 Bakersfield
1,176 22,032 16,230 7,883,009 Hanford
1,328 5,402 5,526 3,258,020 Lakeport
4,520 8,507 4,802 4,590,748 Susanville
Los Angeles Sp., The angels
4,200 936,438 504,132 169,268,166 Los Angeles
Madera Sp., Timber
2,062 12,203 8,368 6,732,495 Madera
Marin Ind.
549 27,342 25,114 14,489,582 San Rafael
Mariposa Sp., Butterfly
1,510 2,775 3,956 2,270,246 Mariposa
Mendocino Sp., (from Mendoza, viceroy of Mexico)
3,626 24,116 23,929 13,131,995 Ukiah
Merced Sp., Mercy
1,932 24,579 15,148 14,877,086 Merced
Modoc Ind.
3,741 5,425 6,191 4,076,680 Alturas
Mono Sp., Monkey, or pretty
3,020 960 2,042 1,151,109 Bridgeport
Monterey Sp., King's forest
3,340 27,980 24,146 18,962,554 Salinas
Napa Ind.
780 20,678 19,800 13,840,291 Napa
Nevada Sp., Heavy fall of snow
972 10,850 14,955 7,203,349 Nevada City
Orange (named for its chief product)
750 61,375 34,436 13,812 Santa Ana
Placer Sp., Loose (from placer mines)
1,365 18,584 18,237 9,677,724 Auburn
Plumas Sp., Feathers
2,694 5,681 5,259 2,792,091 Quincy
7,323 50,297 34,696 16,373,296 Riverside
Sacramento Sp., The Sacrament
1,000 90,978 67,806 41,333,337 Sacramento
San Benito Sp., St. Benedict
1,388 8,995 8,041 6,499,068 Hollister
San Bernardino Sp., St. Bernard
19,947 73,401 56,706 21,392,228 San Bernardino
San Diego Sp., St. James
4,278 112,248 61,665 20,807,594 San Diego
San Francisco Sp., St. Francis (of Assisi)
47 506,676 416,912 564,070,301 San Francisco
San Joaquin Sp., name of a saint
1,396 79,905 50,732 34,740,353 Stockton
San Luis Obispo Sp., St. Louis the Bishop
3,310 21,893 19,383 13,680,235 San Luis Obispo
San Mateo Sp., St. Matthew
434 36,781 26,585 18,999,564 Redwood City
Santa Barbara Sp., St. Barbara
2,632 41,097 27,738 18,849,976 Santa Barbara
Santa Clara Sp., name of a saint
1,286 100,588 83,539 61,390,817 San Jose
Santa Cruz Sp., Holy Cross
424 26,269 26,240 12,560,071 Santa Cruz
Shasta Fr., Chaste, pure
3,876 13,311 18,920 10,902,036 Redding
Sierra Sp., Sawtoothed Ridge
960 1,783 4,098 1,844,560 Downieville
5,991 13,545 18,801 10,560,650 Treks
Solano Sp., name of a mission
900 40,602 27,559 20,195,481 Fairfield
Sonoma Ind., Valley of the Moon
1,620 51,990 48,394 30,380,419 Santa Rosa
1,456 43,557 22,522 12,834,108 Modesto
Sutter (named for J. A. Sutter)
622 10,115 6,328 6,621,047 Yuba City
3,008 12,882 11,401 11,674,562 Red Bluff
3,282 2,552 3,301 1,651,362 Weaverville
Tulare Sp., Reed-covered
4,952 59,032 35,440 17,447,042 Visalia
Tuolumne Ind., Stone wigwams
2,208 7,768 9,979 7,089,725 Sonora
Ventura Sp.
1,722 28,724 18,347 11,171,219 Ventura
Yolo Ind., Rushes
996 17,105 13,926 17,640,436 Woodland
Yuba Sp., Uba, wild grapes
636 10,375 10,042 5,898,350 Marysville

List of Governors

Gaspar de Portola, April, 1769
Pedro Fages, July, 1770
Fernando Rivera y Moncada, May 25, 1774
Felipe de Neve, Feb. 3, 1777
Pedro Fages, Sept. 1O, 1782
Jose Romeu, April 16, 1791
Jose Arrillaga, April 9, 1792
Diego de Borica, May 14, 1794
Jose Arrillaga, Jan. 16, 1800
Jose Arguello, July 24, 1814
Pablo de Sola, March 31, 1815

California became province of the Mexican Empire, April 11, 1822

Luis Arguello, Nov. 10, 1822, First native Governor.

March 26, 1825, California became province of Mexican Republic.

Jose Maria Echeandia, Nov. 8, 1825
Manuel Victoria, Jan. 31, 1831
Jose Maria Echeandia, Dec. 6, 1831
Jose Figueroa, Jan. 15, 1833
Jose Castro, Sept. 29, 1835
Nicolas Gutierrez, Jan. 2, 1836
Mariano Chico, May 3, 1836
Nicolas Gutierrez, Sept. 6, 1836
Jose Castro, Nov. 5, 1836
Juan B. Alvarado, Dec. 7, 1836
Manuel Micheltorena, Dec. 31, 1842
Pio Pico, Feb. 22, 1845, to Aug. 10, 1846, end of Mexican rule.

The following were Governors under Military Rule, U.S.A.

John D. Sloat, July 7, 1846
Robert F. Stockton, July 29, 1846
John C. Fremont, Military Governor, Jan. 19, 1847, for 50 days
Stephen W. Kearny, Military Governor, March to May 31, 1847
R. B. Mason, Military Governor, May 31, 1847
Persifer F. Smith, Military Governor, Feb. 28, 1849
Bennet Riley, April 12, 1849

Peter H. Burnett, Dec. 20, 1849, First State Governor, Democratic,
received 6716 votes, total vote, 12,064.
John McDougall, Lieutenant Governor, became Governor Jan. 9, 1851,
John Bigler, Jan. 8, 1852, Democrat
John Bigler, Jan. 7, 1854, Democrat
John Neely Johnson, Jan. 9, 1856, American Party
John B. Weller, Jan. 8, 1858, Democrat
Milton S. Latham, Jan. 9, 1860, Democrat
John G. Downey (Lieutenant Governor), inaugurated Jan. 14, 1860,
Leland Stanford, Jan. 10, 1862, Republican
Frederick F. Low, Dec. 10, 1863, Union Party
Henry H. Haight, Dec. 5, 1867, Democrat
Newton Booth, Dec. 8, 1871, Republican
Romualdo Pacheco (Lieutenant Governor), inaugurated Feb. 27, 1875,
Republican (native state Governor)
William Irwin, Dec. 8, 1875, Democrat
Geo. C. Perkins, Jan. 8, 1880, Republican
Geo. Stoneman, Jan. 10, 1883, Democrat
Washington Bartlett, Jan. 8, 1887, Democrat
Robert W. Waterman (Lieutenant Governor), inaugurated Sept. 13, 1887,
H. H. Markham, Jan. 8, 1891, Republican
James H. Budd, Jan. II, 1895, Democrat
Henry T. Gage, Jan. 4, 1899, Republican
Geo. C. Pardee, Jan. 7, 1903, Republican
James N. Gillett, Jan. 9, 1907, Republican
Hiram W. Johnson, January, 1911, Republican; reelected on Progressive
ticket, 1914
William D. Stephens (Lieutenant Governor), inaugurated March 15, 1917,

Electoral Vote

1852, Democratic, 4 votes
1856, Democratic, 4 votes
1860, Republican, 4 votes
1864, Republican, 5 votes
1868, Republican, 5 votes
1872, Republican, 6 votes
1876, Republican, 6 votes
1880 Republican, 1 vote
Democratic, 5 votes
1884, Republican, 8 votes
1888, Republican, 8 votes
1892, Republican, 1 vote
Democratic, 8 votes
1896, Republican, 8 votes
Democratic, People's and Silver parties, 1 vote
1900, Republican, 9 votes
1904, Republican, 9 votes
1908, Republican, to votes
1912, Democratic, 2 votes
Progressive, 11 votes
1916, Democratic, 13 votes
1920, Republican, 13 votes


Bancroft--"History of California," vols. I, II, Ill, IV, V, VI, VII.
Bancroft--"California Pastoral."
Bancroft--"History of North Mexican States."
Hittell--"History of California," vols. I, II, III, IV.
Royce--"History of California."
Blackmar--"Spanish Institutions of the Southwest."
Montalvo--"Sergas of Esplandian." Translator, E. E. Hale, Atlantic
Monthly, Vol. XIII, p. 265.
Vancouver--"Voyage of Discovery to the Pacific Ocean," vol. III.
Geronimo Boscano--"Chinigchinich," "History of Mission Indians."
Alfred Robinson--"Life in California."
Francisco Palou--"Life of Fray Junipero Serra."
Junipero Serra--"Diary." Translated in magazine Out West, March-July,
Hakluyt--"Drake's Voyages."
Vanegas--"History of California."
Davis--"Sixty Years in California."
Colton--"Three Years in California."
Sherman--"Memoirs." Century Magazine, vols. 41-42.
Stoddard--"In the Footsteps of the Padres."
Lummis--"The Right Hand of the Continent." Series, Out West Magazine,
Lummis--" Spanish Pioneers."
Jackson--"A Century of Dishonor."
California Book of Louisiana Purchase Exposition.


Abalone, 22
Acapulco, 68
Admission to the Union, 179-182
Adobe, 93
Alameda, 182
Alaska, 214
Alba, 110
Alcalde, 104, 108, 173, 174
Alfalfa, 244
Afileria, 209
Alta, 86
Alvarado, 125, 133, 134, 136
American government of California, 173-179
American River, 150
Americans in California, 129, 134, 140-146, 149
Anaheim, settled, 212
Anian, Strait of, 53, 62
Apricots, 256
Area, 289
Arguello, Captain Lulls, 128, 131, 132
Arguello family, 145
Arroyo Seco, 97, 146
Ascension, Padre, 8, 670
Atole, 94
Avalon, 68
Ayala, Lieutenant, 88
Bahia, 249
Bailey, W. F., quoted, 185
Bananas, 257
Bancroft, quoted, 206
Bandini, aids Americans, 145
Bandini, Dona Arcadia, quoted, 137
Bandini, Mrs., makes flag, 146
Barley, 255
Bautista, 134
Bear Flag Republic, 142
Beets, 260
Belmont Military Academy, 287
Benitite, 277
Benton, Senator, 182, 195
Berkeley, State University at, 283
Bidwell, quoted, 166
Bolero, 116
Bonito, 22
Borax, 276
British, visit California, 130
Broderick, David C., 190, 191
Buffalo Bill, 186
Burbank, Luther, 262-266
Burnett, Peter, 181
Butte County, oranges in, 247
Cable, Pacific, 225
Cabo de Pinos, 55
Cabrillo, Juan Rodriguez, 48-56, 72
Cacafuegos, 60
Cactus, 265
Cahuenga, treaty of, 146, 148
Calaveras grove, 235
Calhoun, 179
California, area of, 289
California, climate of, 13-18
California, geography of, 13,14
California, name, origin of, 11, 12
California Column, 198
California Lancers, 193
Californite, 276
Camisa, 116
Canneries, 257, 260, 261
Cape Mendocino, 67
Capitol, 204
Carmelo River, 71, 87
Carmenon, Sebastin, explorations of, 67
Carne seco, 101
Carquinez, Strait of, 14
Carreta, 116, 118, 213
Carrillo, in convention, 177
Castillo, Domingo, map of, 12
Castro, General, 139, 140, 142
Cattle raising, 108, 113
Celery, 256
Central Pacific Railroad, 197-201
Chagres, Panama, 163
Chamisso, Albert von, 182
Chapman, 125, 126
Cherries, 262
China, war with Japan, 223
Chinese, in California, 202, 203
Chinese, work on railroad, 198
Chinigchinich, 25, 33-36, 45, 47
Chippa, 43-45
Cholos, 138
Cigaritos, 109
Citron, 246, 256
Civil War, 180, 189-194
Clay, Henry, 178
Cleeta, 19-29, 45-47
Climate, 13-18
Club wheat, 242
Cody, Mr., 186
Coloma, mill near, 150
Columbia, and Panama Canal, 222
Colony days, 211-214
Colton, Rev. Walter, 173, 174
Colton, quoted, 203
Comandante, 136
Comstock mine, 271
Concepcion de Arguello, 130, 131
Conquest of California, 139-146
Constitution of 1849, 178
Constitution of 1879, 203
Constitutional Convention of 1849, 177
Cooper, Ellwood, 262
Copper mining, 276
Corn, 244
Coronel, Don Ignacio, school of, 280
Cortez, Hernando, 12, 53, 74
Cotopacnic, 46
Counties, 290, 291
Cradle, used in mining, 158
Crespi, Juan, 75, 100
Crocker, Charles, 197-199
Cuatrito, 117
Cuchuma, 22, 26, 32, 35, 45
Cushiony scale, 250
Day, Sherman, 284
Debris, 268
Del Valle, Reginaldo, 288
Dewey, Commodore, in Spanish war, 217
Dios, 110
Dolores mission, 88
Donner party, 167
Dragontea, 57
Drake, Sir Francis, 57-66, 12, 73
Drakes Bay, 63
Dress of early Californians, 115, 116
Dried fruits, 260
Drift mining, 269
Dulce, 258.
Earthquake (1906), 225-228
El Camino Real, 95
El Refugio, 125
Empire mine, 274
England, explorations, 59-66
Escuela, 279
Explorations, 48-73, 81-83
Farallones, 81
Farmer's Institute, 285
Ferrelo, 56, 57, 85
Festivals, 126
Fiesta, 126
Figs, 260
Flores, General, 146
Flour trade, 243
Forests, 229-236
Forty-niners, 156, 172
Fremont, Captain, 139-143, 146
Fremont, dispute with Kearny, 148, 149
Fremont, elected senator, 178
Fremont, explorations, 139, 107, 195
Fremont, on land question, 182
French, visit California, 129
Frijoles, 98
Fruit, 246-263
Fruit, canned, 257, 260
Fruit, crystallized, 261
Fruit, dried, 260
Fruit, preserved, 258
Fugitive Slave Law, 190
Galli, Francisco, 66
Galvez, Jose de, 75-78, 84, 87
Gems, 276
Gente de razon, 124
Gentiles, 80
Gesnip, 19-33, 38-47
Gicamas, 70
Gigantea, 234
Gillespie, 140, 143, 146
Gold, discovered, 147, 151, 155
Gold, early mining, 154-160
Gold, modern mines, 267-271, 274
Golden Hind, ship, 66
Governors, list of, 292
Graham, 133, 134
Grain, 238-245
Grape fruit, 252
Grapes, 254, 258-260
Guam, 225
Gwin, in convention, 177
Gwin, senator, 178, 189, 190, 281
Hague, 220, 221
Harte, Bret, 180, 200
Harvester, 240
Hawaii, 218-220, 225
Hearst, Mrs. Phoebe, 283, 285
Hecox, Mrs., quoted, 171
Hittell, quoted, 205
Hopkins, Mark, 197
Huntington, Collis P., 197, 198
Huntington, H. E., 239
Hydraulic mining, 160, 268, 269
Ide, 141.
Immigration after 1848, 156, 161-172
Indian Bar, 184
Indians, aborigines, 19-47, 54, 63, 64
Indians, baskets, 43-45
Indians, boats, 39
Indians, clothing, 21, 31, 32, 33, 43, 63
Indians, food, 28, 29, 38, 42, 45-47
Indians, houses, 26
Indians, hunting, 23-25, 42, 43
Indians, myths, 80, 45
Indians, worship, 33-36
Indians in Santa Catalina, 70
Indians, mission, 91-105, 127
Indians, on ranches, 110-112
Indians, recent history, 206-208
Irrigation, 245, 252-255
Isadora, 138
Isbell, Mrs. Oliver Mann, 280
Jacal, 26
Japan, 223-225
Jesuits in New Spain, 76
Jiminez, 53
Jones, Commodore, 136, 137
Jones, W. C., 182
Jordan, President, 287
Juan, 48, 51, 52, 56
Judah, Theodore D., 196-198.
Kahhoom, 43-45
Kearny, General Stephen, 145, 148, 149
Kern River, electric power from, 278
Kindergartens, 282
King, Thomas Starr, 192
Klamath, 37, 38
Korea, 223
Kotzebue, Otto von, 132
Kunzite, 276
Ladybird, 250
La Fiesta, 126
Laguna rancho, battle of, 146
Laguna rancho, sheep on, 210
Land question, 182, 183
La Perouse, 129
La Posesion, 55
La Purisima mission, 89
Larkin, consul, 136, 137,139, 284
Leland Stanford Junior University, 285-287
Lemons, 245, 251
Lick Observatory, 284
Lollah, 30
Lopez, Juan, 147
Lorne, Marquis of, quoted, 262
Los Angeles, beginnings of, 107, 108.
Los Angeles, captured by Americans, 143
Los Angeles, church built by Chapman, 125
Los Angeles, during Civil War, 194
Los Angeles, in colony days, 213
Los Angeles, Kern River power, 278
Los Angeles, old palms in, 144
Los Angeles, State Normal School, 283
Lumber, 229-236
Lummis. Charles F., author, 249
Macana, 22, 27, 28, 31, 32, 37, 38, 41, 42, 44, 46
Machado, Agustin, 122
McKinley, President, 218, 220
Maestro, 113
Mahan, Captain, quoted, 220
Malaga, 256
Manchuria, 223
Mandarin orange, 248
Manila, cable to, 225
Manila, trade, 67, 74, 77
Manila Bay, battle, 217
Marin County, 226
Mariposa grove, 234
Marshall, James, 150-153
Mason, Colonel, 149, 154
Mayor domo, 110
Mendocino, Cape, 67
Mendoza, 72
Merced River, 160. 111
Mexican government of California, 124
Mexico, dispute over Plus Fund, 221
Mexico, revolt against Spain, 122, 124
Mexico, war with the United States, 134-135, 140, 174
Micheltorena, Governor, 137
Millay, 48
Mills College, 287
Mines, modern, 267-277
Missions, 76-105
Missions, aid government, 123
Missions, irrigation, 252
Missions, orchards, 257, 258
Missions, schools at, 279
Missions, secularized, 103-105, 126
Missions, wheat raising, 237-239
Modocs, 208
Monterey, attacked by pirate, 125
Monterey, captured by Jones, 186, 137
Monterey, captured by Sloat, 143
Monterey, mission founded at, 85
Monterey, presidio of, 87
Monterey Bay, discovered, 55, 71
Monterey Bay, Portola at, 81
Mountains, 18-16
Muchachas, 110, 112
Muchchos, 110
Murphy, Virginia Reed, quoted, 168
Muscat grape, 258
Mussel Slough District, 201
Nahal, 31
Nakin, 29, 47
Native Sons of the Golden West, 205
Navel orange, 248-250
Nevada City, 274
Neve, Felipe de, 107
New Albion, 64
New Almaden, quicksilver mines, 276
Nihie, 35, 36
No-fence law, 211
Nopal, 29, 32-36, 40, 41, 43
Normal schools, 283
Nuts, 257, 261, 262
Oats, 255
Ojai, 287
Olives, 246, 255, 261
Ollas, 22, 26, 85
Oranges, 246-254
Oregon, voyage of the, 216, 217
Oregon Country, 135
Ortega, discovers San Francisco bay, 82, 83
Ortega, rancho attacked, 125
Otter hunting, 132, 183
Outdoor life, 17, 18
Outlaws, 214
Pacheco, Governor, 205
Pacific cable, 225
Pacific Ocean, importance of, 18, 217
Padres, 51, See Missions
Pala, chapel, 89
Palou, Francisco, 75, 79, 88, 100
Panama Canal, 221
Panocha, 120
Papas pequenos, 70
Pasadena, settled, 212
Pastorel, 97
Patio, 94
Patron, 111
Patrona, 110, 112
Payuchi, 25-47
Pepe, 49, 50
Pesos, 60
Petroleum, 276
Peyri, 95, 96
Philippine trade, 58, 71-78, 201
Philippines, 217, 218
Pico, General Andres, 145, 146, 148
Pinos, Point, 55, 71, 80, 81
Pius Fund, 76, 220
Placer mines, 347, 158, 268
Plaza, 107
Pocket, in placer mining, 180
Pomato, 265
Pomelo, 252
Pony express, 185-188
Port Costa, wheat grader at, 243
Portola, Captain, 77-80, 88-85
Prairie schooner, 170
Preserved fruit, 258
Presidios, 85, 108
Prunes, 262, 266
Pueblos, 106-108
Pumpkin, preserved, 258
Quartz mining, 270
Quicksilver, 276
Railroad, 196-201, 205, 206
Rainfall, 14, 16
Raisins, 250, 258-260
Ramirez, 177
Ranch life, 109-127
Rancheros, 121, 122, 183
Ranches, modern, 262
Ranchos, 109
Rebosa, 118
Reyes, Point, 67, 81-88
Rezanof, Count, 130, 181
Rhubarb, 205
Riley, Governor, 176
Riverside, founded, 212
Riverside, oranges at, 247, 249, 250
Robinson, Alfred, quoted, 257
Rodeo, 113, 114
Roosevelt, 222, 224, 225
Ross, Fort, 131, 133
Routes to California, 101-172
Rurik, ship, 182
Russia, sells Alaska, 215
Russia, war with Japan, 224
Russians in California, 131-133
Sacramento, founded, 133
Sacramento, pony express at, 186
Sacramento, railroad begun, 198
Sacramento valley, 239, 269
St. John de Anton, 61
St. Michael orange, 248
Sal, Point, 130
Salinas River, 189
San Agustin, 67
San Antonio mission, 87
San Antonio, ship, 79, 83-85
San Benito County, benitite in, 277
San Bernardino County, gems in, 276
San Bruno, 182
San Buenaventura mission, 89, 99
San Buenaventura mission, fruit trees, 246, 257
San Carlos, ship, 79, 88, 287
San Carlos de Borromeo mission, 85, 86, 100, 120
San Diego, captured by Americans, 143-146
San Diego Bay, discovered, 50, 68
San Diego mission, 80, 92
San Diego mission, fruit trees, 248
San Diego mission, Indian revolt, 102
San Diego mission, wheat, 287
San Diego presidio, 108
San Diego, ship, 68
San Fernando mines, 148
San Fernando mission, 89,90
San Fernando mission, brandy, 257
San Fernando mission, fruit trees, 246
San Francisco, city named, 153
San Francisco, disorder in (Vigilantes), 184
San Francisco, during Civil War, 192, 198
San Francisco, earthquake and fire, 226-228
San Francisco, gold excitement, 158, 154
San Francisco, growth after 1848, 156
San Francisco, in war of 1898, 218
San Francisco, kindergartens, 282
San Francisco, pony express at, 186
San Francisco, Sutro baths, etc., 273, 274
San Francisco Bay, discovered, 88, 87, 88
San Francisco mission, 87, 88
San Francisco presidio, 108
San Gabriel mission, 87,90
San Gabriel mission, Chapman at, 125, 120
San Gabriel mission, mill at, 239
San Gabriel mission, orchards, 246, 257
San Gabriel mission, wheat, 237
San Gabriel River, battle of, 146
San Joaquin Valley, 239, 247, 269
San Jose, beginnings of, 107
San Jose, early school at, 280
San Jose, earthquake, 226
San Jose mission, 89, 121
San Jose mission, Indian revolt, 102
San Jose, ship, 83
San Juan Bautista mission, 89
San Juan Capistrano mission, 89, 98
San Juan Capistrano mission, attacked by pirate, 125
San Luis Obispo mission, 87
San Luis Obispo Polytechnic School, 282
San Luis Rey mission, 89, 95
San Mateo, 182
San Miguel, Cabrillo at, 50, 55-57
San Miguel mission, 89, 123
San Pasqual, battle, 145, 146
San Pedro, Bay-of, discovered, 54, 71
San Rafael mission, 89
San Salvador, 53
San Tomas, ship, 68, 71, 72
Sanchez, Padre, 246
Sanitary Commission, 192
Santa Barbara mission, 89
Santa Barbara mission, fruit trees, 246
Santa Barbara presidio, 108
Santa Catalina, 22
Santa Catalina, discovered, 53, 68
Santa Clara College, 288
Santa Clara mission, 89
Santa Clara mission, Indian revolt, 102
Santa Clara mission, orchards, 257
Santa Clara mission, school at, 280
Santa Cruz, town founded, 107
Santa Cruz mission, 80
Santa Fe, 78
Santa Inez mission, 89
Santa Inez mission, fruit trees, 246
Santa Rosa, 226, 264, 266
Saunders, and navel oranges, 249
Scale, orange, 250, 251
School taxes, 282
Schools, early, 113, 279-281
Schools, modern, 281-288
Sempervirens, 230, 234
Senor, 56, 133
Senora, 213
Senorita, 213
Sequoias, 230-235
Sequoya League, 208
Serra, Junipero, 75-80, 83-88, 102
Serra, Junipero, death of, 100
Serra, Junipero, work of, 91, 92
Seward, 179, 214, 215
Shasta, oranges in, 247
Shasta, Mount, 275
Sheep Industry, 209-211
Sherman, Wm. T., 149, 151, 164
"Shirley," quoted, 184
Sholoc, 22-82, 85, 36, 89, 46, 47
Shumeh, 31
Sierra Nevada, 14, 16, 56, 100, 282
Slavery struggle, 175-179, 190
Sloat, Commodore, 142, 148
Soil, 16, 18
Solano mission, 89
Soledad mission, 89
Sombrero, 111
Sonoma, captured, 141
South Sea, 58
Southern Pacific Railroad, 201,290
Spain, colonies, 75, 77
Spain, colonies, explorations, 48-57, 66-73, 81-83
Spain, colonies, revolt against, 122, 124
Spain, colonies, trade laws, 119-122
Spanish government of California, 77, 122
Spanish-American War, 215-219
Stampede of 1849, 161
Stanford, Leland, gifts for education, 283, 286
Stanford, Leland, governor, 193
Stanford, Leland, railroad work, 197-200
Stanford, Mrs. Leland, 283, 286
Stanford, Thomas Weldon, 287
Stanford University, 285-287
Steamboat, first in California, 155
Stearns, Don Abel, 137, 147, 148
Stock raising, 108, 113
Stockton, Commodore, 143, 146, 148
Stockton, grain center, 242
Sugar, 260
Sultana grape, 239
Sutro, Adolph, 271-274
Sutro baths, 273, 274
Sutter, Captain John, 133, 150-152
Sutter's Fort, 133
Sutter's mill, 150, 153
Tamales, 209
Tangerine orange, 248
Telegraph, 195
Texas, 134, 135
Thatcher School, 287
Throop Polytechnic School, 287
Tibbetta, Mrs., and navel oranges, 249
Titas, 45
Tomales, 226
Tortilla, 93,111, 244
Trade, early, 119-122
Tres Re yes, ship, 68, 82, 83
Trist, 175
Tsuwish, 43, 45
Tuscon, 206
Tulare County, products, 247, 276
Tules, 30, 31, 35, 39, 40
Tuolumne grove, 284
Union Pacific Railroad, 197-201
United States, conquers California, 134-146
University of California, 283-285
Valencia late orange, 248
Vallejo, General, 125
Vallejo, General, captured, 141
Vallejo, General, in convention, 177
Vallejo, General, loses land, 183
Vallejo, General, quoted, 118, 148
Vallejo, Senorita Guadalupe, quoted 118, 121, 183, 257
Vancouver, Captain, 130
Vancouver, Captain, quoted, 257
Vanquech, 35
Vaquero, 111
Vasques, 214
Vegetables, 256, 257, 261
Ventura, Cabrillo at, 54
Vera Cruz, 74, 75
Vigilantes, 184, 185
Vizcaino, Don Sebastian, explorations of, 68-73
Wash-day expedition, 118
Webster, Daniel, 176, 179
Westminster, settled, 212
Wheat, 237-245, 255
Wheeler, Benjamin Ide, 284
White, Stephen M., 288
Whitman, Walt, quoted, 219
Wiggin, Kate Douglas, 282
Willey, Rev. Samuel, 284
Wolfskill grove, 246
Yerba Buena, 152
Yosemite, 238
Zanja, 94

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