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Hardy Ornamental Flowering Trees and Shrubs by A. D. Webster

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ELAEAGNUS ARGENTEA.--Silver Berry. North America, 1813. A spreading
shrub 8 feet or 10 feet high, with lanceolate leaves clothed with
silvery scales. The flowers are axillary and clustered, and are
succeeded by pretty, silvery-ribbed berries.

E. GLABRA (_syn E. reflexus_).--From Japan. This is one of the
handsomest species, forming bushes of delightful green, leathery
leaves, and with a neat and rather compact habit of growth. It grows
with great freedom when planted in light, sandy soil, big globose
bushes being the result of a few years' growth. Being perfectly hardy
it is to be recommended if only for the ample leathery, deep green
foliage. The flowers are inconspicuous. There is a form having the
leaves margined with pale yellow, and known under the name of E. glabra

E. LONGIPES (_syn E. edulis_ and _E. crisp a_).--Japan, 1873. This
species, is also worthy of culture, whether for the ornamental flowers
or fruit. It is a shrub 6 feet high, bearing an abundance of spotted,
oval red berries on long footstalks. Quite hardy.

E. MACROPHYLLA.--Japan. This is of robust growth, with handsome, dark
green leaves, and purplish branch tips. The leaves are thick of
texture, often fully 3 inches long, glossy-green above, and silvery
beneath. The latter is all the more remarkable, as the leaves have the
habit of curling up their edges, and thus revealing the light, silvery
tint of the under sides. It thrives well in light, sandy peat, and may
be relied upon as one of the hardiest of shrubs.

E. ROTUNDIFOLIA.--An interesting and perfectly hardy species, growing
about five feet high, and remarkable for the great wealth of pretty
scarlet and amber-coloured berries. The flowers are not very showy, but
this is made up by the beautiful silvery leaves, most pronounced on the
under sides, and wealth of fruit, which hangs on long stalks like

Other species of less interest are E. pungens, of which there is a
variegated variety; E. Simoni, a neat Chinese shrub; and E. latifolia,
of good habit and with large leaves. The various species and varieties
of Elaeagnus may all be cultivated in light, free soil, and from
experiments that were recently made, they have been found of great
value for planting by the seaside. They are popularly known as the Wild
Olives and Evergreen Oleasters.


EMBOTHRIUM COCCINEUM.--Fire Bush. South America, 1851. This is a
beautiful shrub, of tall growth, with flowers of great interest and
beauty. Except in warm and favoured situations, it is not very hardy,
and should always be grown as a wall plant. The fiery scarlet,
orange-tinted flowers, resembling somewhat those of the Honeysuckle,
are very beautiful by the first weeks of May. It grows to about 6 feet
in height in southern England, and is, when in full flower, a shrub of
unusual beauty.


EPHEDRA VULGARIS (_syn Ephedra monastachya_), from Siberia, 1772, is a
half-hardy shrub of trailing habit, with inconspicuous flowers.
Thriving in very poor soil, or on rocky situations, is the only reason
why it is introduced here.


EPIGAEA REPENS.--Ground Laurel, or New England Mayflower. Northern
United States, 1736. This is, perhaps, in so far as stature is
concerned, hardly worthy of a place in our list, yet it is such a
pretty and useful shrub, though rarely rising more than 6 inches from
the ground, that we cannot well pass it over. For planting beneath Pine
or other trees, where it can spread about at will, this prostrate shrub
is most at home. There it enlivens the spot with its pretty evergreen
foliage, and sweet-scented, white or pinky flowers. It is quite hardy.


ERCILLA SPICATA (_syn Bridgesia spicata_).--Chili, 1840. A
small-growing, half-climbing shrub, with leathery, deep green leaves,
and inconspicuous flowers. Hailing from Chili, it is not very hardy,
but given the protection of a wall, or planted against a tree-stump, it
soon forms a neat mass of evergreen foliage.


ERICA CARNEA.--South Europe, 1763. This is one of the most beautiful
and desirable of hardy Heaths, on account of the richly-coloured
flowers and early season at which they are produced. In the typical
species the flowers are pink or flesh-coloured, and produced in January
and February. It is a dwarf, compact growing species, with bright green
foliage. There is a form with pure white flowers, named E. carnea alba,
or E. herbacea, but although distinct and beautiful, it is not of so
robust growth as the parent.

E. CILIARIS.--A pretty native species, with ciliate glandular leaves,
and racemes of highly-coloured, rosy flowers. Found in Dorsetshire and

E. CINEREA,--Gray-leaved Heath. In this species, also a native of
Britain, the flowers are of a reddish-purple colour, and borne in dense
terminal racemes. There are numerous varieties, including a
white-flowered E. cinerea alba; E. cinerea atro-purpurea, bearing dark
purple flowers; E. cinerea atro-sanguinea, dark red flowers; E. cinerea
coccinea, scarlet; E. cinerea purpurea, purple flowers; and E. cinerea
rosea, with deep rose-coloured flowers.

E. MEDITERRANEA.--Mediterranean Heath. Portugal, 1648. This is a
robust-growing species, of rather erect habit, and often attaining to
fully a yard in height. Flowers abundantly produced, and of a pretty
pinky hue. Of this there are several varieties, the following being
best known: E. mediterranea hibernica, found in Ireland; E.
mediterranea alba, with white flowers; E. mediterranea nana, of very
dwarf growth; and E. mediterranea rubra, with showy, deep red flowers.

E. SCOPARIA and E. ERECTA are desirable species, the former bearing
greenish flowers, and the latter of decidedly upright growth.

E. TETRALIX.--Cross-leaved Heath. A native species of low, and bushy
growth, with close umbels or terminal clusters of pretty pinky flowers.
The varieties of this most worthy of notice are E. Tetralix alba, white
flowered; E. Tetralix Mackiana, crimson flowered; E. Tetralix rubra,
deep red flowers; and E. Tetralixbicolor, with parti-coloured flowers.

E. VAGANS..--Cornish Heath. A native species, bearing pinky-white
flowers, but there are forms with white and red flowers, named E.
vagans alba and E. vagans rubra.

The various kinds of Heath succeed best either in peaty soil, or that
composed for the greater part of light, sandy loam, but many will grow
and flower freely if planted in rich yellow loam. They are very
desirable plants, either for bed formation, for rockwork ornamentation,
or for planting around the shrubbery margins. Propagation is effected
either by cuttings or sub-divisions, but seedlings of several species
spring up freely under favourable conditions.


ESCALLONIA FLORIBUNDA (_syn E. montevideusis_).--New Grenada, 1827.
This is one of the handsomest species, bearing long, arching clusters
of white flowers. It is a very desirable shrub for wall or lattice-work
covering, against which it grows rapidly, and soon forms an object of
great beauty by reason of its neat foliage and graceful habit, as also
wealth of pretty flowers.

E. ILLINATA.--Chili, 1830. This should also be included, it being a
handsome and pretty-flowered plant.

E. MACRANTHA.--Chiloe, 1848. This is a general favourite in English
gardens, where it succeeds well, but especially in maritime parts of
the country. It is of stout growth, 6 feet or more in height, of
spreading habit, and with elliptical, serrulated, bright green leaves,
and clusters of crimson-red flowers produced in summer. For
wall-covering this is an almost invaluable shrub, although it succeeds
well as a standard in all but the colder parts of the country. Any
free, open soil suits it well, but thorough drainage must be attended
to. There are several very distinct and good varieties, such as E.
macrantha sanguinea, with flowers deeper in colour than those of the
parent plant; and E. macrantha Ingrami, a profuse-blooming and very
desirable form.

E. PHILLIPIANA.--Valdivia, 1873. When seen as a standard bush, and
loaded with its myriads of tiny white flowers, this must rank amongst
the handsomest members of the family. It is very hardy, and retains its
foliage throughout the winter. The hybrid forms, E. exoniensis and E.
leucantha, deserve recognition, the latter even as late as November
being laden with its small spikes of pretty white flowers, which
contrast nicely with the neat, evergreen foliage.

E. PTEROCLADON.--Patagonia, 1854. This is remarkable for the
curiously-winged branches, which give to the shrub a rather peculiar
and distinct appearance. The freely-produced flowers are white or pink.

E. RUBRA.--Chili, 1827. This has less handsome leaves and flowers than
the above, but it is, all the same, a beautiful plant. The flowers vary
a good deal in depth of colouring, and may be seen of all tints between
pure white and red.

The Escallonias are all of very free growth in any light, warm, sandy,
and well-drained soil, and are readily propagated.


EUCRYPHIA PINNATIFOLIA.--Chili, 1880. This shrub, is as yet rare in
cultivation, and is not suited for the colder or more exposed parts of
the country. It is, however, a singularly distinct and beautiful shrub,
with deep glossy-green, pinnate foliage, and bearing large, pure white
flowers, that are rendered all the more conspicuous by the
golden-yellow anthers. As an ornamental shrub it is well worthy of
cultivation. In so far as its hardihood in this climate has to do, it
may be mentioned that in various parts of England and Ireland it has
stood in the open ground unharmed for several years back. Light, sandy,
well drained peat would seem to meet with its requirements.


EUONYMUS AMERICANA.--American Spindle Tree. North America, 1686. This
is a deciduous or semi-evergreen shrub, of about 6 feet in height,
found over a wide area in Canada and the United States. It is of
partially erect growth, with long and lithe branches, covered with
pleasing light green bark. Flowers appearing in June, and succeeded by
rough, warted, brilliant scarlet capsules, which are particularly showy
and attractive. It likes a shady situation, and rich, rather damp soil.

E. EUROPAEUS.--West Asia, Europe (Britain), &c. An indigenous species,
rarely exceeding 6 feet in height, and rendered very effective in
autumn by reason of the pale scarlet fruit, which, when fully ripe, and
having split open, reveals the orange-coloured arils of the seeds. It,
too, delights to grow in the shade.

E. FIMBRIATUS, Japan and India, and its handsome variegated form, E.
fimbriatus foliis variegatus et argenteo maculatus, are rather too
tender for cultivation in this country, even in southern districts, and
where afforded wall protection. E. verrucosus and E. atropurpureus are
also worthy of cultivation.

E. LATIFOLIUS.--Broad-leaved Spindle Tree. A European species (1730),
deciduous, and growing from 10 feet to sometimes fully 20 feet in
height. The leaves are bright, shining green, and much larger than
those of our native species. Flowers, purplish-white, appearing in
June; the capsules large, deep red, and when open contrasting very
effectively with the bright orange arils in which the seeds are
enveloped. It is a very distinct and beautiful, small-growing lawn
tree, and succeeding, as it does, best in shade is an extra


FABIANA IMBRICATA.--Chili, 1838. This is, unfortunately, not hardy in
any but the milder maritime parts of England and Ireland. It is a
charming shrub of Heather-like appearance, with small, crowded leaves,
and pure white flowers produced in May. Planted at the base of a
southern wall it does best, and where it thrives it is certainly one of
our handsomest half-hardy shrubs.


FATSIA JAPONICA (_syns Aralia japonica_ and _A. Sieboldii_).--Japan,
1858. This is of no particular value as a flowering shrub, but being
hardy in most districts, and having large handsome leaves that impart
to it a tropical appearance, it is well worthy of culture. The flowers
are ivory-white, and produced in large umbels towards the end of
autumn, but our early frosts too often mar their beauty. In this
country it grows about 10 feet high, and is usually what is termed
"leggy" in appearance, and thrives well in any good loamy soil if
fairly dry.


FENDLERA RUPICOLA.--Mexico, 1888. A low-growing shrub, peculiar to the
dry rocky parts of the United States, particularly the south-western
district. It grows about a yard high, and bears a great profusion of
bluish-white flowers, that are rendered very conspicuous by reason of
the bright yellow stamens. It is the only known species, and is nearly
allied to the Saxifrages. Any fairly good garden soil will suit it
well, but it wants to be planted where superfluous moisture is quickly
carried off.


FORSYTHIA SUSPENSA (_syn F. Fortunei_ and _F. Sieboldii_).--Japan and
China, 1864. A slender-growing shrub, with variable leaves, and long,
trailing shoots. The flowers are abundantly produced, are of a
beautiful golden tint, and bell-shaped, and being of good substance
last for a long time. Either as a wall plant, or for using in some
sheltered corner, and where the branches can spread about at will, it
forms a very distinct and handsome shrub, and one that is perfectly
hardy and quite indifferent as regards the quality of soil in which it
is planted. There are several forms of this pretty shrub, but as they
do not differ to any great extent from the species, are hardly worthy
of consideration.

F. suspensa intermedia is a garden hybrid, 1891.

F. VIRIDISSIMA.--Japan, 1845. This is another desirable species, but it
is not comparable in point of beauty with the former. It is usually of
strong erect growth, with stout shoots, wreathed with bright yellow
flowers towards the end of winter. It is a very beautiful shrub, and a
valuable addition to the winter or early spring flowering section.


FOTHERGILLA ALNIFOLIA.--North Eastern America, 1765. This is an
ungainly habited shrub, of dwarf growth, the branches being somewhat
slender and crooked. The flowers are white, sweetly scented, and
produced in dense terminal spikes. It is perfectly hardy.


FRAXINUS ORNUS (_syn F. argentea, F. rotundifolia_, and _Ornus
europea_).--Manna Ash. South Europe, 1730. This is a handsome tree,
especially when young and vigorous, and by far the most ornamental
species in cultivation. For planting in situations where large-growing
subjects would be out of place this is a valuable tree, while the
wealth of flowers renders it particularly interesting and effective. It
rarely exceeds 30 feet in height, with leaves not unlike those of the
common Ash, and conspicuous panicles of light, feathery, white
petaliferous flowers, produced usually in great abundance all over the
tree. Perfectly hardy.

F. Ornus serotina alba and F. Ornus serotina violacea are beautiful
seedling forms that were raised in France, and on account of their
dwarf habit and profusion of flowers are well worthy of attention. The
flowers of the first-named variety are pure white, the stamens having
at first yellow anthers, which speedily turn to a rich blackish-brown.
The other differs but little, only in the flowers, which are of a
distinct greyish-violet hue, while the leaves are of a darker shade of
green, and the leaflets longer and narrower.

F. MARIESII.--Northern China, 1880. This is hardy in most parts of the
country. The whole tree is quite glabrous except the petioles, which
are clothed with a dense pubescence. Flowers pure white, and arranged
in large dense panicles.


FREMONTIA CALIFORNICA.--California, 1851. A handsome and deciduous
Californian shrub, but scarcely hardy enough for the open air without
protection. In Southern England and Ireland, however, it does well, and
all the better if planted within the influence of the sea. The large
yellow flowers are often about 2 inches across, and produced singly
along the branches, while the leaves are large, lobed, and of an
enticing shade of green. Planted against a wall, in good dampish loam,
it succeeds well.


FUCHSIA MACROSTEMA GLOBOSA (_syn F. globosa_).--Chili. This is readily
recognised by the globose form assumed by the incurved sepals, while
the flowers are smaller and less showy than those of F. Riccartoni.
Hardihood about similar to the following.

F. RICCARTONI.--This seedling from F. m. globosa is one of the two
hardiest varieties, but even this plant, except in warm, maritime
districts, is by no means satisfactory. Where it does well it is a
shrub of great beauty, and blooms profusely. This species has red,
straight sepals, and a purple corolla. In favoured districts it may
frequently be seen as much as 12 feet high, and is then during the
flowering period an object of great beauty. It originated at Riccarton,
near Edinburgh, about 1830.


GARRYA ELLIPTICA.--California, 1818. This is a handsome shrub, with dark
green coreaceous leaves, resembling very nearly those of the Evergreen
Oak. The long, tassellated catkins, of a peculiar yellowish-green
colour, render the plant one of much interest and beauty. As a wall
plant it thrives well, the slight protection thus afforded favouring the
growth and expansion of the catkins. For planting in the shrubbery it is
also well suited, and where it oft-times attains to a height of 6 feet,
and is bushy in proportion. It is well to bear in mind that there are
male and female plants of the Garrya, and that the former is the more
ornamental. Good rich, well-drained loam will suit this shrub well.


GAULTHERIA NUMMULARIOIDES (_syn G. nummulariae_ and _G. repens_).
--Himalayas. This is a neat Alpine species, with small and very dark
green leaves. It likes a shady situation and vegetable soil. For
planting on the rockwork, amongst tree roots, or beneath the shade of
trees, the Gaultherias are particularly suitable. Light, but rich
vegetable soil suits them best.

G. PROCUMBENS.--Canada Tea, or Creeping Winter-green. North America,
1762. This is of much smaller growth than the following, rarely rising
to a greater height than about half a foot, with lanceolate, serrated
leaves, and pendulous axillary clusters of white flowers.

G. SHALLON.--North-west America, 1826. Growing in favourable situations
to fully a yard in height, this distinct evergreen shrub, which is
fairly common in cultivation, is particularly valuable, as it thrives
well under the shade and drip of trees. It is a rambling plant, with
ovate-cordate, almost sessile leaves, and bears tiny white flowers that
are succeeded by purplish fruit. G. Shallon acutifolia has more sharply
pointed leaves than those of the species.


GENISTA AETNENSIS (_syn Spartium aetnensis_).--Etna Broom. Sicily and
Sardinia, 1816. This is a large-growing species of elegant growth, and
remarkable for the abundance of yellow flowers with which it is
literally covered in August. Than this South-European Pea-flower,
perhaps not another member of the family is more worthy of culture, the
neat, elegant habit of growth and profusion of flowers rendering it a
plant of particular interest and beauty. It is quite hardy, thrives in
any light soil if well drained, and is readily propagated from seed,
which it ripens in abundance.

G. ANXANTICA.--Naples, 1818. This is a nearly allied species to our
native G. tinctoria, and is of dwarf growth with a rich abundance of
golden yellow flowers that are produced towards the end of summer.

G. CINEREA (_syn G. ramosissima_), from South Europe, is a very
beautiful and desirable species, a yard high, and bearing in July
slender twigs of the brightest yellow flowers.

G. EPHEDROIDES.--Corsica and Sardinia, 1832. With small and
abundantly-produced flowers, this resembles Ephedra, hence its name.

G. GERMANICA.--Germany, 1773. This is a handsome rock garden shrub, of
fully 18 inches in height, with arching stems and a plentiful supply of
bright flowers during the summer and autumn months.

G. HISPANICA.--South-western Europe, 1759. This species resembles our
common Broom, but the branches are not angular. The large, yellow,
fragrant flowers appear in July. There is a charming double-flowered
variety named G. hispanica flore-pleno.

G. LUSITANICA.--Portugal, 1771. This is remarkable for its opposite
branches, is of spiny growth, and one of the earliest to appear in

G. MONOSPERMA.--South Europe, 1690. This has white flowers, and is of
value as a seaside shrub, and grows well in almost pure sand. A native
of the Mediterranean coast.

G. PILOSA.--Greenweed. Europe (Britain). This is a dense prostrate
native species, with bright yellow blossoms produced freely during May
and June. A delightful rock shrub, and one that will succeed well almost
in pure gravel.

G. PROSTRATA.--Burgundy and Alps of Jura, 1775. A small-growing species
suitable for rock gardening, and of spreading bushy growth. Flowers
small, but ornamental, and produced in May and June.

G. RADIATA (_syn Spartium radiatum_).--South Europe, 1758. This is a
slender-growing shrub, about 18 inches high, with narrow leaflets, and
terminal heads of yellow flowers produced in summer.

G. SAGITTALIS.--South Europe, 1750. With its peculiarly winged and
jointed stems, which are of a deep green colour, this is one of the most
distinct forms. The flowers are few but pretty, and with the dwarf habit
render the plant an excellent subject for rockwork.

G. TINCTORIA.--Dyers' Greenweed. Europe (Britain), North and West Asia.
This is a spineless species, and bears a profusion of yellow flowers
from July onwards. The double-flowering variety, G. tinctoria
flore-pleno, is, in so far as ornamental qualities are concerned,
superior to the parent form.

G. TINCTORIA ELATIOR (_syn G. elatior_) grows to 12 feet in height, is
of free, spreading growth, and a very handsome plant. The flowers, which
are individually small and yellow, are so thickly produced that the
shrub, in late summer, has the appearance of a sheet of gold.

G. TRIANGULARIS (_syn G. triquetra_).--South Europe, 1815. This is a
decidedly good garden plant, and of neat, trailing habit. The stems are
three sided, and the flowers golden yellow and plentifully produced. A
native of South Europe, and perfectly hardy in almost any position.

The above include most of the hardy Genistas, though G. capitata and G.
daurica, both very ornamental kinds, might be added to the list. They
are all very hardy, free-flowering shrubs, of simple culture, and
succeeding well in any light and rather dry soil.


GLEDITSCHIA TRIACANTHOS.--Honey Locust. United States, 1700. As an
ornamental hardy tree this is well worthy the attention of planters, the
pinnate and bipinnate foliage being particularly elegant, while the
flowers, though individually small, are borne in such quantities of
fascicled racemes as to attract notice. The stem and branches are armed
with formidable prickles, but there is a form in which the prickles are
absent. A native of North America, and readily cultivated in any soil of
even fair quality. For town planting it is a valuable tree. There is a
good weeping variety named G. triacanthos pendula.

G. SINENSIS (_syn G. horrida_).--China, 1774. This nearly resembles the
latter, and is occasionally to be met with in cultivation in this


GORDONIA LASIANTHUS.--Loblolly Bay. North America, 1739. A shrub of
great beauty, but one that, unfortunately, is rarely to be seen outside
the walls of a botanic garden. It is of Camellia-like growth, with
large, sweetly fragrant flowers and a good habit of growth.

G. PUBESCENS.--North America, 1774. This is of smaller growth than the
latter, rarely exceeding about 6 feet high, with large white flowers
that are rendered all the more conspicuous by the tuft of golden
stamens. Both species are somewhat tender, although hailing from the
coast, swampy grounds of the southern States of North America. Planted
in favoured sites, they usually grow freely in light, peaty soil, or
that containing a large admixture of decayed leaf soil.


GRABOWSKIA BOERHAAVIAEFOLIA.--Peru, 1780. This is occasionally to be
seen in sheltered and favoured gardens, but it is not to be relied upon
in other than southern and seaside districts. The plant is of no
particular interest to the cultivator, the outline being ungainly, while
the pale blue flowers are both dull and uninteresting. It belongs to the
Solanum family, and is only worth cultivating as a curiosity. Light,
warm soil and a sunny position are necessities in the cultivation of
this shrub.


GRISELINIA LITTORALIS.--New Zealand, 1872. This forms a compact bush of
moderate size, and is fairly hardy. The leaves are of a light, pleasing
green shade, coriaceous, and glossy, and remain on the plant during
winter. It is an excellent shrub for the seaside, and, moreover, will
succeed well in stiff soils where many other plants would refuse to


GYMNOCLADUS CANADENSIS.--Kentucky Coffee Tree. Canada, 1748. When in
full leafage this is a distinct and beautiful tree, the foliage hanging
in well-rounded masses, and presenting a pretty effect by reason of the
loose and tufted appearance of the masses of finely-divided leaves.
Leaves often 3 feet long, bipinnate, and composed of numerous
bluish-green leaflets. Flowers white, borne in loose spikes in the
beginning of summer, and succeeded by flat, somewhat curved brown pods.
It prefers a rich, strong soil or alluvial deposit.

G. CHINENSIS.--Soap Tree. China, 1889. Readily distinguished from the
American species by its much smaller and more numerous leaflets, and
thicker fruit pod. It is not very hardy in this country unless in the
milder sea-side districts. The leaves are used by the Chinese women to
wash their hair, hence the popular name of Soap Tree.


HALESIA DIPTERA (_syn H. reticulata_).--North America, 1758. This is not
so suitable for our climate as H. tetraptera, though in southern parts
of the country it forms a neat, healthy bush, and flowers freely. It is
distinguished, as the name indicates, by having two wings to the seed
vessel, H. tetraptera having four.

H. HISPIDA (_syn Pterostyrax hispidum_).--Japan, 1875. This is a shrub
of perfect hardihood, free growth, and very floriferous. The flowers,
which are pure white, and in long racemes, resemble much those of the
Snowdrop Tree. Leaves broad and slightly dentated. It is a handsome
shrub, of free growth, in light, sandy loam, and quite hardy even when
fully exposed.

H. PARVIFLORA has smaller flowers than those of our commonly-cultivated

H. TETRAPTERA.--Snowdrop Tree. North America, 1756. This is a very
ornamental tall-growing shrub, of somewhat loose growth, and bearing
flowers which resemble, both in size and appearance, those of our common
Snowdrop. It is one of the most ornamental of all the small-growing
American trees, and richly deserves a place in every collection, on
account of the profusion with which the flowers are produced in April
and May. They are snow-white, drooping, and produced in lateral
fascicles of eight or ten together. It is a native of river banks in
North Carolina, and is well suited for cultivation in this country.
Light, peaty soil will grow it to perfection.


HALIMODENDRON ARGENTEUM (_syn Robinia Halimodendron_).--Salt tree. A
native of Asiatic Russia (1779), having silvery foliage, and pink or
purplish-pink flowers, axillary or fascicled. It is a neat and pretty
shrub, that is rendered valuable as succeeding well in maritime
districts. Quite hardy and of free growth in sandy soil.


HAMAMELIS JAPONICA.--The Japanese Witch Hazel. Japan, 1862. This is a
small species with lemon-yellow flowers. H. japonica arborea is a taller
growing variety, with primrose-yellow petals, and a deep claret calyx.
The flowers are borne in clusters in early spring. Rarely in this
country do we find this species of greater height than about 8 feet, but
it is of bushy growth, though somewhat straggling in appearance. As
early as the beginning of January this Witch Hazel may be found in
bloom, the bare branches being studded here and there with the
curious-shaped flowers, these having bright yellow, twisted petals and
reddish calyces. H.j. Zuccarinianais a very desirable free-flowering
variety, with pale yellow petals and a greenish-brown calyx.

H. VIRGINICA.--Virginian Witch Hazel. North America, 1736. This has
smaller flowers than H.j. arborea, and they are plentifully produced in
autumn or early winter. In this country it assumes the shape of an open
bush of about 6 feet in height, but is usually of untidy appearance from
the branches being irregularly disposed.

They all delight in cool, rather moist soil, and are of value for their
early-flowering nature.


HEDYSARUM MULTIJUGUM.--South Mongolia. Hardly ten years have elapsed
since this pretty shrub was introduced into England, so that at present
it is rather rare in our gardens. It is a decided acquisition, if only
for the production of flowers at a time when these are scarce. Usually
the flowering time is in August, but frequently in the first weeks of
October the pretty flowers are still full of beauty. It is of bushy
habit, from 4 feet to 5 feet high, with oblong leaflets, in number from
twenty to thirty-five, which are Pea-green above and downy on the under
sides. Flowers bright red, and produced in axillary racemes. It is
perfectly hardy, and grows freely in porous decomposed leaf-soil.


HELIANTHEMUM HALIMIFOLIUM.--Spain, 1656. This species is of erect habit,
3 feet or 4 feet high, and with leaves reminding one of those of the Sea
Purslane. It is an evergreen, and has large bright yellow flowers,
slightly spotted at the base of the petals.

H. LAEVIPES (_syn Cistus laevipes_).--South-western Europe. A dwarf
shrub, with Heath-like leaves, and yellow flowers that are produced in
great abundance.

H. LASIANTHUM (_syns H. formosum_ and _Cistus formosus_).--Spain and
Portugal, 1780. This is a beautiful species, but not hardy unless in the
South and West. It has large, bright yellow flowers, with a deep
reddish-purple blotch at the base of each petal.

H. LAVENDULAEFOLIUM has lavender-like leaves, with the under surface
hoary, and yellow flowers. A native of the Mediterranean regions.

H. LIBONATES.--This species bears dark green Rosemary-like leaves, and
yellow flowers that are produced very abundantly. South Europe.

H. PILOSUM.--South of France, 1831. This bears white flowers that are of
good substance, and about an inch across.

H. POLIFOLIUM (_syn H. pulverulentum_).--Europe (Britain), and North
Africa. This is a neat-growing shrub, of very dwarf growth, with hairy
leaves and yellow flowers; and H. polifolium roseum, has pretty rosy-red

H. UMBELLATUM.--South Europe, 1731. A neat, small-growing species, with
white flowers and glossy-green leaves covered with a rusty-white
tomentum beneath.

H. VULGARE.--Common Rock Rose. Europe (Britain), North Africa, and West
Asia. A widely distributed native plant, of dwarf growth, with
linear-oblong, hairy leaves, and usually yellow flowers. H. vulgare
nummularium differs in having the leaves green and sub-orbicular, with
yellow flowers. H. vulgare barbaturn is of erect habit, with silky,
hairy, oval leaves. H. vulgare mutabile bears pale rose flowers, marked
with yellow at the base. H. vulgare grandiflorum is remarkable for the
large, bright yellow flowers, and is one of the most beautiful and
worthy varieties. H. vulgare ovalifolium (_syn H. serpyllifolium_) bears
yellow flowers and ovate leaves, with the margins revolute. H. vulgare
hyssopifolium bears reddish flowers, but the colouring varies
considerably, and saffron is not uncommon.

The Rockroses are very valuable plants, in that they will succeed on
poor, gravelly banks where few other plants could eke out an existence.
They cannot withstand stiff soil, nor that at all inclined to be damp,
their favourite resorts being exposed, rocky ground, and dry, gravelly
banks. Being readily increased from cuttings, which take root well under
a hand glass or in a cool house, it is advisable, at least with the more
tender forms, to have at hand a stock, so that blanks in the shrubbery
may be filled up.


HIBISCUS SYRIACUS (_syn Althaea frutex_).--Syrian Mallow. Syria, 1596.
An old occupant of our gardens, and one that cannot be too freely
cultivated. When favourably situated, it often reaches 6 feet in height,
with three-lobed, neatly-toothed leaves, and with large, showy blossoms
that are borne towards the end of summer. The typical species has
purplish flowers, with a crimson spot at the base of each petal, but
others, varying in colour from snow-white to purple and blue, are common
in cultivation. H. syriacus coelestis bears bright blue flowers, while
H. syriacus variegatus has beautifully variegated foliage. Of the
double-flowered forms, there are several beautiful and worthy plants,
the following list containing some of the best varieties of this popular

H. syriacus albo-pleno.
" amaranthus.
" amplissima.
" ardens.
" caerulea plena.
" carnea plena.
" De la Veuve.
" elegantissimum.
" fastuosa.
" Lady Stanley.
" Leopoldii.
" lilacina plena.
" paeoniaeflora.
" puniceus plenus.
" rosea plena.
" rubra plena.
" spectabilis plena.
" violacea.


HIPPOPHAE RHAMNOIDES.--Sea Buckthorn, or Sallow Thorn. Though generally
considered as a sea-side shrub, the Sea Buckthorn is by no means
exclusively so, thriving well, and attaining to large dimensions, in
many inland situations. The flowers are not at all conspicuous, but this
is amply compensated for by the beautiful silvery-like leaves and wealth
of fruit borne by the shrub. In not a few instances, for fully a foot in
length, the branches are smothered with crowded clusters of bright
orange berries, and which render the shrub during November and December
both distinct and effective. It does best in sandy soil, and is readily
increased from suckers, which are usually plentifully produced by old
plants. For sea-side planting it is one of our most valuable shrubs,
succeeding, as it does, well down even to high water mark, and where the
foliage is lashed with the salt spray.


HOLBOELLIA LATIFOLIA (_syn Stauntonia latifolia_).--Himalayas, 1840. An
evergreen climbing shrub that is more often found under glass than out
of doors. In the South of England, however, it is quite hardy against a
sunny wall. It grows 12 feet high, with shining green leathery leaves,
and fragrant purplish-green flowers. H. latifolia angustifolia has
decidedly narrower leaves than the species, but is in no other way


HYDRANGEA ARBORESCENS.--North America, 1736. This is a plant of large
growth, but the flowers are greenish-white, and by no means conspicuous.

H. HORTENSIS (_syn Hortensia opuloides_).--China, 1790. This is an
old-fashioned garden shrub that is only hardy in the south and west of
these islands and in the vicinity of the sea. In some of the forms
nearly all the flowers are sterile, the calyx-lobes being greatly
expanded, and in others the outer flowers only are sterile. According to
the nature of the soil the flowers vary much in colour, some being pure
white, others pink, and others of varying shades of blue. There are some
very beautiful and distinct varieties, such as H. hortensis japonica; H.
hortensis Otaksa, with large panicles of sterile blue flowers; H.
hortensis rosea-alba, with large rosy flowers; H. hortensis Thomas Hogg,
a very free-flowering and welcome form; H. hortensis mandschurica, and
H. hortensis stellata flore-pleno, with partially double flowers, are
worthy of attention.

H. PANICULATA.--Japan, 1874. This is one of the most distinct species,
in which the flower-heads are elongated, not flat, as in most other
species, and from which the finest form in cultivation has been
obtained. This is H. paniculata grandiflora, in which the flowers are
sterile and pure white, forming large panicles often a foot in length.
It is a magnificent variety, and, being perfectly hardy, should be
extensively planted for ornament. The flowers are produced in late
summer, but remain in good form for fully two months, dying off a rich
reddish hue.

H. QUERCIFOLIA.--Oak-leaved Hydrangea. Florida, 1803. This species has
neatly lobed leaves, and terminal panicles of pinky-white, but partially
barren, flowers.

H. SCANDENS.--Climbing Hydrangea. Japan, 1879. This is not very hardy,
but with the protection of a sunny wall it grows freely.

The Hydrangeas require a rich, loamy soil, and, unless in maritime
districts, a warm and sheltered situation. They are readily propagated
by means of cuttings.


HYMENANTHERA CRASSIFOLIA.--A curious New Zealand shrub with rigid
ashy-coloured branches, and small leathery leaves. The flowers are
violet-like in colour, but by no means conspicuous. The small white
berries which succeed the flowers are, in autumn, particularly
attractive, and very ornamental. It is perfectly hardy and of free
growth in light peaty earth.


HYPERICUM ANDROSAEMUM.--Tutsan, or Sweet Amber. Europe (Britain). A
pretty native species, growing about 2 feet high, with ovate leaves
having glandular dots and terminal clustered cymes of yellow flowers.

H. AUREUM.--South Carolina and Georgia, 1882. This soon forms a neat and
handsome plant. The flowers are unusually large, and remarkable for the
tufts of golden-yellow stamens with which they are furnished.

H. CALYCINUM.--Aaron's Beard, or Rose of Sharon. South-east Europe. This
is a well-known native species of shrubby growth, bearing large yellow
flowers from 3 inches to 4 inches in diameter. It is a prostrate plant,
with coriaceous glossy leaves with small pellucid dots, and of great
value for planting in the shade.

H. ELATUM is a spreading species from North America (1762), growing to
fully 4 feet in height, and bearing terminal corymbs of large, bright
yellow flowers in July and August. Leaves rather large, oblong-ovate,
and revolute. On account of its spreading rapidly from the root, this
species requires to be planted where it will have plenty of room.

H. HIRCINUM.--Goat-scented St. John's Wort. Mediterranean region, 1640.
A small-growing and slender species, with oblong-lanceolate leaves 2
inches long, and producing small yellow flowers in terminal heads. There
is a smaller growing form known as H. hircinum minus. The plant emits a
peculiar goat-like odour.

H. MOSERIANUM is a beautiful hybrid form with red anthers.

H. OBLONGIFOLIUM (_syns H. Hookerianum_ and _H. nepalensis_).--Nepaul,
1823. An evergreen species, about 4 feet high, with oblong, pellucid,
dotted leaves, and deep golden, somewhat waxy flowers at the end of

H. PROLIFICUM.--North America, 1758. This is a much branched twiggy
shrub, about 4 feet high, with small, linear-lanceolate leaves, thickly
studded with pellucid dots. Flowers not very large, five-petalled, and
of a pleasing bright yellow colour. The allied if not identical H.
Kalmiana is worthy of being included in a selection of these plants.

H. URALUM.--Nepaul, 1823. A neat but fragile species that attains to
about a yard in height. Leaves rather small, elliptic, almost stalkless,
and perforated with transparent dots. Flowers small and of a bright
golden yellow.

H. fasciculatum, H. pyrimidatum, and H. patulum are all worthy of
attention, where a good representative collection is of importance. The
Hypericums succeed best when planted in a rather sandy and not too dry
loam, and they are readily increased either from divisions or by means
of cuttings.


IDESIA POLYCARPA (_syns Flacourtica japonica_ and _Polycarpa
Maximowiczii_).--A Japanese tree of small growth, and only introduced to
this country in 1866. It is a handsome, hardy species, bearing large,
bright-green leaves with conspicuous crimson footstalks, often 4 inches
across, and of a glaucous tint on the under sides. The deliciously
fragrant flowers are greenish-white or yellowish-green, and produced in
graceful drooping racemes. In southern England it does well, and, being
a tree of unusual beauty of both leaves and flowers, is well worthy of
attention. Rich loam, not too stiff, will grow the Idesia well.


ILEX AQUIFOLIUM.--Common Holly. Europe (Britain) and West Asia. Though
the Hollies are not usually reckoned ornamental for the sake of their
flowers, their berries are highly so. Some of them are nevertheless
deliciously fragrant when in bloom. The leaves of this, our native
species, in their typical form are oblong-ovate, wavy, and deeply
spiny-toothed. The tree flowers in May and June, while the clusters of
bright red berries ripen in autumn, persist all the winter, and
sometimes even hang on tree till a second crop is matured, provided they
are not devoured by birds during severe weather. The varieties are very
numerous, and differ chiefly in the form and toothing of the leaves,
which are variegated in many cases, their size and form, and in the
colour of the berries in a few instances.

I. Aquifolium albo-marginata has ovate, nearly flat, spiny-serrate
leaves, with a narrow silvery margin, and fruits freely. I. Aquifolium
fructu albo has white berries; in I. Aquifolium fructu luteo they are
yellow and very abundantly produced; and in I. Aquifolium fructu nigro
they are black. I. Aquifolium handsworthensis has elliptic-oblong spiny
leaves, with a creamy-white margin and marbled with gray. Grafted trees
bear berries in great profusion from the time they are only a foot high,
and are highly ornamental. I. Aquifolium Hodginsii has large, broadly
oblong-ovate, slightly spiny leaves, and large crimson-red berries that
ripen late in autumn. I. Aquifolium Hodginsii aurea is a sub-variety
with a broad golden margin to the leaves, and the disc splashed with
gray. Beautiful and distinct is I. Aquifolium Lawsoniana, with ovate,
flat, almost spineless leaves, heavily and irregularly blotched with
yellow in the centre. The berries are of a brilliant red. The variety
differs from Milkmaid in having flat, nearly entire leaves. I.
Aquifolium pendula has a wide, rounded, drooping head, but otherwise
does not differ from the type. Many others bear berries, but the above
are all very distinct forms.

I. OPACA.--American Holly. United States, 1744. The leaves of this
species are oblong or oval, small, spiny-serrate, and of a dark opaque
green. The berries, which ripen in autumn, are small, bright red, and
very liable to be eaten by birds. In America this Holly is put to
precisely the same purposes as the common Holly is in Europe. It is
perfectly hardy here.


ILLICIUM FLORIDANUM, from Florida (1771), is a beautiful but uncommon
shrub, probably on account of its being tender and susceptible to injury
by frost, unless in the warmer and more favoured parts of the country.
The fragrant flowers are of a purplish-rose, while the foliage is neat
and of a pleasing green.

I. ANISATUM (_syn I. religiosum_), from China and Japan (1842), is too
tender for outdoor culture in this country.


INIDGOFERA GERARDIANA (_syns I. floribunda_ and _I. Dosua_).--India,
1842. This forms a compact dwarf bush in the open, but is still better
suited for covering a wall, the growth and floriferousness being then
much increased. The foliage is neat and Pea-green, while the bright pink
Pea-like flowers are produced in long racemes. It is a pretty bush, and
grows freely enough in any good garden soil, but very fine flowering
specimens may be seen in light, sandy soil of a peaty nature. There is a
white flowered variety named I. Gerardiana alba.


ITEA VIRGINICA.--North America, 1744. This is a neat, deciduous shrub of
3 feet or 4 feet in height. The ovate-lanceolate leaves are of a light
greyish-green, and the small white flowers are produced in dense racemes
or spikes. Planted in a somewhat shady place, and in rather cool, damp
soil, this little shrub does well and flowers profusely.


JAMESIA AMERICANA.--Rocky Mountains and Colorado, 1865. Amongst early
spring-flowering shrubs this pretty but neglected plant is one of the
best, of perfect hardihood, for it stands the vigour of our winters with
impunity, and of dense thick growth; it is suitable for using in a
variety of ways, as well as for purely ornamental purposes. The leaves
are oval and neatly dentated, and the flowers individually of large
size, pure white, and produced in terminal bunches. Cool soil and a
shady situation would seem to suit the plant admirably, but for screen
purposes in the rock garden or border it is invaluable on account of the
strong and dense twigs.


JASMINUM FRUTICANS.--South Europe, 1570. An evergreen species, well
adapted, from its rather stiff and upright growth, for planting alone.
It has trifoliolate leaves and showy yellow flowers.

J. HUMILE.--India, 1656. A hardy species of dwarf growth, and bearing
beautiful golden flowers produced in summer.

J. NUDIFLORUM.--Naked Jasmine. China, 1844. A showy and well-known
species, from China, with numerous, usually solitary yellow flowers,
ternate leaves, and flexible branches. The variety J. nudiflorum
aureo-variegatum has golden-variegated leaves.

J. OFFICINALE.--Northern India to Persia, 1548. The white-flowered
Jasmine of our gardens is a very beautiful and desirable clambering
shrub, either for wall covering, for planting by tree stumps, rooteries,
or rockeries, or for screening and draping the pergola or garden
latticework. From its great hardihood, vigour of growth, and beauty of
flowers, it is certainly one of the most deservedly popular of wall
shrubs. The branches are deep green, angular, and flexible, the leaves
pinnate, and the flowers pure-white and sweetly-scented. The variety J.
officinale affine has flowers that are individually larger than those of
the species; J. officinale aurea has badly variegated leaves; J.
officinale grandiflorum and J. officinale grandiflorum majus, are also
desirable kinds.

J. PUBIGERUM GLABRUM (_syn J. Wallichianum_), from North-west India, is
not well-known, being tender in most parts of the country.

J. REVOLUTUM.--India, 1812. This has persistent dark, glossy-green
leaves, and fragrant, bright yellow flowers, produced in large, terminal
clusters. From India, but perfectly hardy as a wall plant, and for which
purpose, with its bright evergreen leaves, it is well suited.

As regards soil, the Jasmines are very accommodating, and are propagated
by layers or cuttings.


KADSURA JAPONICA.--Japan, 1846. This is a small-growing shrub, with
lanceolate and pointed leaves, that are remotely dentated. The flowers
are not very showy, being of a yellowish-white colour and about an inch
across. They are produced both terminal and axillary, and in fair
abundance. The scarlet fruits are arranged in clusters, and when fully
ripe are both showy and interesting. Generally speaking this shrub
suffers from severe frost, but as only the branch tips are injured, it
shoots freely from the stock. It produces its flowers in the autumn.
There is a variety with variegated leaves.


KALMIA ANGUSTIFOLIA.--Sheep Laurel. Canada, 1736. This is at once
distinguished from K. latifolia by its much smaller and narrower leaves
and smaller flowers, which latter are, however, of brighter tint and
more plentifully produced. It rarely exceeds 2 feet in height. Of this
there are two very distinct forms, that named K. angustifolia pumila,
being of neat and dense small growth; and K. angustifolia rubra, in
which the flowers are of an unusually deep red.

K. GLAUCA.--Canada and Sitcha, 1767. This, which has lilac-purple
flowers, produced in early spring, is not a very desirable species,
being rather straggling of growth and with few flowers.

K. HIRSUTA.--Hairy-leaved Kalmia. South-east Virginia to Florida, 1786.
This is at once distinguished by the rather rough and hairy foliage and
few rosy-tinted flowers. It is of dwarf, neat growth.

K. LATIFOLIA.--Calico Bush, or Mountain Laurel. Alleghanies, Canada, and
Western Florida, 1734. A favourite shrub in every garden where the
conditions of soil will allow of its being successfully cultivated. In
peaty soil, or light, friable loam and leaf soil, it forms a dense,
round-headed bush, often 8 feet in height, and nearly as much through,
with pleasing green leaves, and dense clusters of beautiful pink,
wax-like flowers. The flowering period commences in May, and usually
extends to the end of July. This is a choice shrub of great hardihood,
and one of the handsomest flowering in cultivation. There is a still
more beautiful form named K. latifolia major splendens, and one with
small Myrtle-like foliage named K. latifolia myrtifolia.

The members of this handsome family are, as a rule, partial to cool,
damp soil, peat of a light, sandy nature being preferred. They thrive
well where Azaleas and Rhododendrons will succeed. In bold masses they
have a fine effect, but a well developed standard specimen of the
commonly cultivated species is highly ornamental.


KERRIA JAPONICA (_syn Corchorus japonicus_).--Japan, 1700. A Japanese
shrub, the double-flowered variety of which, K. japonica flore-pleno, is
one of our commonest wall plants. The orange-yellow flowers, produced in
great rosettes, are highly ornamental, and have earned for the shrub a
well-known name. It succeeds well almost anywhere, and, though usually
seen as a wall plant, is perfectly hardy, and forms a neat shrub for the
open border. There is a form in which the leaves are variegated, and
known under the name of K. japonica variegata.


KOELREUTERIA PANICULATA.--Northern China, 1763. Whether for its foliage
or flowers, this small-growing tree is worthy of a place. Though of
rather irregular growth, the beautiful foliage and large panicles of
yellowish flowers, which stand well above the leaves, make the shrub
(for it does not in this country attain to tree height), one of
particular interest, and a valuable aid in ornamental planting. In a
sheltered corner, and planted in rich soil, it grows and flowers freely.


LABURNUM ADAMI (_syn Cytisus Adami_).--A graft hybrid form between the
common Laburnum and Cytisus purpureus, the result being flowers of the
Laburnum, the true Cytisus purpureus, and the graft hybrid between the
two. It was raised by Jean Louis Adam in 1825. It is a curious and
distinct tree, worthy of culture if only for the production of three
distinct kinds of flowers on the same plant.

L. ALPINUM (_syn Cytisus alpinus_).--Scotch Laburnum. Europe, 1596. This
very closely resembles the common Laburnum, but it is of larger growth,
and flowers later in the season. The flowers, too, though in longer
racemes, are usually less plentifully produced. It grows 30 feet high.
There is a weeping form, L. alpinum pendulum, and another with fragrant
flowers, named L. alpinum fragrans, as also a third, with very long
racemes of flowers, named L. alpinum Alschingeri.

L. CARAMANICUM.--Asia Minor, 1879. A bushy shrub of vigorous habit, with
trifoliolate and petiolate leaves of a pale green colour, thick and
tough, and brightly polished on the upper surface. Flowers bright
yellow, the calyx being helmet-shaped and rusty-red. It is a beautiful
but uncommon shrub, and succeeds very well in chalky or calcareous soil.
Flowers in July.

L. VULGARE (_syn Cytisus Laburnum_).--Common Laburnum. Southern France
to Hungary, 1596. This is one of our commonest garden and park trees,
and at the same time one of the most beautiful and floriferous. The
large, pendulous racemes of bright yellow flowers are, when at their
best in May, surpassed neither in quantity nor beauty by those of any
other hardy tree. There are several varieties of this Laburnum--a few
good, but many worthless, at least from a garden point of view. L.
vulgare Parkesii is a seedling form, bearing large racemes of
deep-coloured flowers, often 14 inches long; L. vulgare Watereri was
raised in the Knap Hill Nursery, Surrey, and is one of the most distinct
and beautiful of the many forms into which the Laburnum has been
sub-divided. The flower racemes are very long and richly coloured. L.
vulgare quercifolium and L. vulgare sessilifolium are fairly well
described by their names; L. vulgare fragans differs only in having
sweetly-scented flowers; L. vulgare involutum has curiously-curled
leaves; while L. vulgare aureum, where it does well, is a beautiful and
distinct form.


LARDIZABALA BITERNATA.--Chili, 1848. Requires wall protection, there
being few situations in which it will succeed when planted in the open.
It is a tall, climbing shrub, with dark green persistent leaves, and
bearing purplish flowers in drooping racemes in mid-winter. Planted in
rather dry soil, at the base of a sunny wall, this shrub forms a by no
means unattractive covering, the twice ternate, glossy leaves being
fresh and beautiful the winter through.


LAPAGERIA ROSEA.--Chili, 1847. This is, unfortunately, not hardy, unless
in favoured maritime districts, but in such situations it has stood
unharmed for many years, and attained to goodly proportions. It is a
beautiful climber, with deep-green leaves, and large, fleshy,
campanulate flowers of a deep rose colour. There is a white-flowered
form called L. alba, introduced from Chili in 1854. Planted on an east
aspect wall, and in roughly broken up peat and gritty sand, it succeeds


LAVANDULA VERA (_syn L. Spica_).--Common Lavender. South Europe, 1568. A
well-known and useful plant, but of no particular value for ornamental
purposes. It is of shrubby growth, with narrow-lanceolate, hoary leaves,
and terminal spikes of blue flowers.


LAVATERA ARBOREA.--Tree Mallow. Coasts of Europe, (Britain). A
stout-growing shrub reaching in favourable situations a height of fully
6 feet, with broadly orbicular leaves placed on long stalks. The flowers
are plentiful and showy, of a pale purplish-red colour, and collected
into clusters. It is a seaside shrub succeeding best in sheltered
maritime recesses, and when in full flower is one of the most ornamental
of our native plants. There is also a beautiful variegated garden form,
L. a. variegata.


LEDUM LATIFOLIUM (_syn L. groenlandicum_).--Wild Rosemary, or Labrador
Tea. This is a small shrub, reaching to about 3 feet in height,
indigenous to swampy ground in Canada, Greenland, and over a large area
of the colder parts of America. Leaves oval or oblong, and plentifully
produced all over the plant. Flowers pure white, or slightly tinted with
pink, produced in terminal corymbs, and usually at their best in April.
A perfectly hardy, neat-growing, and abundantly-flowered shrub, but one
that, somehow, has gone greatly out of favour in this country. This
plant has been sub-divided into several varieties, that are, perhaps,
distinct enough to render them worthy of attention. They are L.
latifolium globosum, with white flowers, borne in globose heads, on the
short, twiggy, and dark-foliaged branches. L. latifolium angustifolia
has narrower leaves than those of the species, while L. latifolium
intermedium is of neat growth and bears pretty, showy flowers.

L. PALUSTRE.--Marsh Ledum. This is a common European species, growing
from 2 feet to 3 feet high, with much smaller leaves than the former,
and small pinky-white flowers produced in summer. It is an interesting
and pretty plant. The Ledums succeed best in cool, damp, peaty soil.


LEIOPHYLLUM BUXIFOLIUM (_syns L. thymifolia, Ammyrsine buxifolia_ and
_Ledum buxifolium_).--Sand Myrtle. New Jersey and Virginia, 1736. This
is a dwarf, compact shrub from New Jersey, with box-like leaves, and
bunches of small white flowers in early summer. For using as a rock
plant, and in sandy peat, it is an excellent subject, and should find a
place in every collection.


LESPEDEZA BICOLOR (_syn Desmodium penduliflorum_).--North China and
Japan. A little-known but beautiful small-growing shrub, of slender,
elegant growth, and reaching, under favourable culture, a height of
about 6 feet. The leaves are trifoliolate, small, and neat, and the
abundant racemes of individually small, Pea-shaped flowers are of the
richest and showiest reddish-purple. Being only semi-hardy will account
for the scarcity of this beautiful Japanese shrub, but having stood
uninjured in all but the coldest parts of these islands should induce
lovers of flowering shrubs to give it a fair chance.


LEUCOTHOE AXILLARIS (_syn Andromeda axillaris_).--North America, 1765.
This is of small growth, from 2 feet to 3 feet high, with oval-pointed
leaves and white flowers in short racemes produced in May and June. It
is not a very satisfactory species for cultivation in this country.

L. CATESBAEI (_syns Andromeda Catesbaei_ and _A. axillaris_).--North
America. This has white flowers with an unpleasant odour like that of
Chestnut blossoms, but is worthy of cultivation, and succeeds best in
cool sandy peat or friable yellow loam.

L. DAVISIAE, from California (1853), is a very handsome evergreen shrub,
of small and neat growth, and will be found an acquisition where compact
shrubs are in demand. The leaves are small, of a deep green colour, and
remain throughout the year. Flowers produced in great abundance at the
branch tips, usually in dense clusters, and individually small and pure

L. RECURVA (_syn Andromeda recurva_).--North America. A very distinct
plant on account of the branch tips being almost of a scarlet tint, and
thus affording a striking contrast to the grayish-green of the older
bark. The flowers are pinky-white and produced in curving racemes and
abundantly over the shrub. Like other members of the family it delights
to grow in cool sandy peat.


LEYCESTERIA FORMOSA, from Nepaul (1824), is an erect-growing, deciduous
shrub, with green, hollow stems, and large ovate, pointed leaves of a
very deep green colour. The flowers are small, and white or purplish,
and produced in long, pendulous, bracteate racemes from the axils of
the upper leaves. It is one of the most distinct and interesting of
hardy shrubs, the deep olive-green of both stem and leaves, and
abundantly-produced and curiously-shaped racemes, rendering it a
conspicuous object wherever planted. Perfectly hardy, and of free,
almost rampant growth in any but the stiffest soils. Cuttings root
freely and grow rapidly.


LIGUSTRUM IBOTA (_syn L. amurense_).--Japan, 1861. A compact growing
species, about 3 feet in height, with small spikes of pure white flowers
produced freely during the summer months.

L. JAPONICUM (_syns L. glabrum, L. Kellennanni, L. Sieboldii_ and _L.
syringaeflorum_).--Japan Privet. This is a dwarf-growing species rarely
exceeding 4 feet in height, with broad, smooth, glossy-green leaves, and
large compound racemes of flowers. There are several varieties,
including L. japonicum microphyllum, with smaller leaves than the
parent; and one with tricoloured foliage and named L. japonicum

L. LUCIDUM (_syns L. magnoliaefolium_ and _L. strictum_).--Shining-leaved
Privet, or Woa Tree. China, 1794. A pretty evergreen species, with oval
leaves, and terminal, thyrsoid panicles of white flowers. It is an old
inhabitant of our gardens, and forms a somewhat erect, twiggy bush, of
fully 10 feet in height. Of this there are two varieties, one with
larger bunches of flowers, and named L. lucidum floribundum, and another
with variegated leaves, L. lucidum variegatum. L. lucidum coriaceum
(Leathery-leaved Privet) is a distinct variety, with thick,
leathery-green leaves, and dense habit of growth.

L. OVALIFOLIUM (_syn L. californicum_).--Oval-leaved Privet. Japan,
1877. This is a commonly-cultivated species, with semi-evergreen leaves,
and spikes of yellowish-white flowers. It is a good hedge plant, and
succeeds well as a town shrub. There are several variegated forms, of
which L. ovalifolium variegatum (Japan, 1865) and L. ovalifolium aureum
are the best.

L. QUIHOI.--China, 1868. This is a much valued species, as it does not
flower until most of its relations have finished. Most of the Privets
flower at mid-summer, but this species is often only at its best by the
last week of October and beginning of November. It forms a straggling
freely-branched shrub, of fully 6 feet in height and nearly as much
through, with dark shining-green oblong leaves, and loose terminal
panicles of pure white, powerfully-scented flowers. It flourishes, like
most of the Privets, on poor soil, and is a little-known species that
note should be made of during the planting season.

L. SINENSE (_syns L. villosum_ and _L. Ibota villosum_).--Chinese
Privet. China, 1858. This is a tall deciduous shrub, with oblong and
tomentose leaves, and flowers in loose, terminal panicles and produced
freely in August. L. sinense nanum is one of the prettiest forms in
cultivation. It is almost evergreen, with a horizontal mode of growth,
and dense spikes of crearny-white flowers, so thickly produced as almost
to hide the foliage from view. It is a most distinct and desirable

L. VULGARE.--Common Privet. Although one of our commonest shrubs, this
Privet can hardly be passed unnoticed, for the spikes of creamy-white
flowers, that are deliciously scented, are both handsome and effective.
Of the common Privet there are several distinct and highly ornamental
forms, such as L. vulgare variegatum, L. vulgare pendulum, having
curiously-creeping branches, and the better-known and valuable L.
vulgare sempervirens (_syn L. italicum_), the Italian Privet.


LINNAEA BOREALIS.--Twin Flower. A small and elegant, much-creeping
evergreen shrub, with small, ovate crenate leaves, and pairs of very
fragrant, pink flowers. Two conditions are necessary for its
cultivation--a half-shaded aspect where bottom moisture is always
present, and a deep, rich, friable loam. A native of Scotland and
England, flowering in July.


LIPPIA CITRIODORA (_syns Aloysia citriodora_ and _Verbena
triphylla_).--Lemon-scented Verbena. Chili, 1794. With its slender
branches and pale green, pleasantly-scented, linear leaves, this little
plant is a general favourite that needs no description. The flowers are
not very ornamental, being white or lilac, and produced in small,
terminal panicles. A native of Chili, it is not very hardy, but grown
against a sunny wall, and afforded the protection of a mat in winter,
with a couple of shovelfuls of cinders heaped around the stem, it passes
through the most severe weather with little or no injury, save, in some
instances, the branch tips being killed back. Propagated readily from
cuttings placed in a cool frame or under a hand-light.


LIRIODENDRON TULIPIFERA.--Tulip Tree. North America, 1688. One of the
noblest hardy exotic trees in cultivation. The large, four-lobed,
truncate leaves, of a soft and pleasing green, are highly ornamental,
and are alone sufficient to establish the identity of the tree. Flowers
large, yellow, and sweet-scented, and usually freely produced when the
tree has attained to a height of between 20 feet and 30 feet. When we
consider the undoubted hardihood of the tree and indifference to soil,
its noble aspect, handsome foliage that is so distinct from that of any
other tree, and showy flowers, we feel justified in placing it in the
very first rank of ornamental trees. L. tulipifera integrifolia has
entire leaves, which render it distinct from the type; L. tulipifera
fastigiata, or pyramidalis, is of erect growth; L. tulipifera aurea,
with golden foliage; and L. tulipifera crispa, with the leaves curiously
undulated--a peculiarity which seems constant, but is more curious than
beautiful. Few soils come amiss to the Tulip Tree, it thriving well in
that of very opposite descriptions--loam, almost pure gravel, and
alluvial deposit.


LONICERA CAPRIFOLIUM.--Europe. This species resembles L. Periclymenum,
but is readily distinguished by the sessile flower-heads, and
fawny-orange flowers.

L. FLEXUOSA (_syn L. brachypoda_).--Japan, 1806. This is a pretty
species, and one of the most useful of the climbing section. By its
slender, twining, purplish stems, it may at once be distinguished, as
also by the deep green, purplish-tinted leaves, and sweetly-scented
flowers of various shades of yellow and purple. A native of China, and
perfectly hardy as a wall plant. L. flexuosa aureo-reticulata is a
worthy variety, in which the leaves are beautifully netted or variegated
with yellow.

L. FRAGRANTISSIMA.--China, 1845. This species is often confounded with
L. Standishii, but differs in at least one respect, that the former is
strictly a climber, while the latter is of bushy growth. The leaves,
too, of L. Standishii are hairy, which is not the case with the other
species. It is a very desirable species, with white fragrant flowers,
produced during the winter season.

L. PERICLYMENUM.--Honeysuckle, or Woodbine. An indigenous climbing
shrub, with long, lithe, and twisted cable-like branches, and bearing
heads of sweetly-scented, reddish-yellow flowers. This is a favourite
wild plant, and in the profusion and fragrance of its flowers it is
surpassed by none of the exotic species. There are several distinct
nursery forms of this plant, including those known as L. Periclymenum
Late Dutch, L. Periclymenum Early Cream, and L. Periclymenum
odoratissimum; as also one with variegated foliage.

L. SEMPERVIRENS.--Scarlet Trumpet Honeysuckle. A North American
evergreen species (1656), with scarlet, almost inodorous flowers,
produced freely during the summer. For wall covering it is one of the
most useful of the family. The variety L. sempervirens minor is worthy
of attention.

L. STANDISHII, a Chinese species (1860), has deliciously fragrant while
flowers, with a slight purplish tint, and is well worthy of attention,
it soon forming a wall covering of great beauty.

L. TATARICA.---Tartarian Honeysuckle. Tartary, 1752. This is a very
variable species, in so far at least as the colour of flowers is
concerned, and has given rise to several handsome varieties. The typical
plant has rosy flowers, but the variety L. tatarica albiflora has pure
white flowers; and another, L. tatarica rubriflora has freely produced
purplish-red flowers.

L. XYLOSTEUM (_syn Xylosteum dumetorum_).--Fly Honeysuckle. Europe
(England) to the Caucasus. The small, creamy-white flowers of this plant
are not particularly showy, but the scarlet berries are more conspicuous
in September and October. The gray bark of the branches has also a
distinct effect in winter when grown in contrast to the red-barked
species of Cornus, Viburnum, and yellow-barked Osier. It is one of the
oldest occupants of British shrubberies. L. Xylosteum leucocarpum has
white berries; those of L. Xylosteum melanocarpum are black; and in L.
Xylosteum xanthocarpum they are yellow.

The Honeysuckles are all of the readiest culture, and succeed well in
very poor soils, and in that of opposite qualities. Propagated from
cuttings or by layering.


LOROPETALON CHINENSE.--Khasia Mountains and China, 1880. This is a
pretty and interesting shrub belonging to the more familiar Witch Hazel
family. Flowers clustered in small heads, the calyx pale green, and the
long linear petals almost pure white. Being quite hardy, and interesting
as well as ornamental, should insure this Chinese shrub a place in every
good collection.


LYCIUM BARBARUM.--Box Thorn, or Tea Tree. North Asia, 1696. A pretty
lax, trailing shrub, with long, slender, flexible twigs, small
linear-lanceolate leaves, and rather sparsely-produced lilac or violet
flowers. Planted against a wall, or beside a stout-growing, open-habited
shrub, where the peculiarly lithe branches can find support, this plant
does best. Probably nowhere is the Box Thorn so much at home as in
seaside places, it then attaining to sometimes 12 feet in height, and
bearing freely its showy flowers during summer, and the bright scarlet
or orange berries in winter.

L. EUROPAEUM.--European Box Thorn. South Europe, 1730. This is a spiny,
rambling shrub, that may often be seen clambering over some cottage
porch, or used as a fence or wall plant in many parts of England. It
often grows nearly 20 feet long, and is then a plant of great beauty,
with linear-spathulate leaves of the freshest green, and pretty little
pink or reddish flowers. For quickly covering steep, dry banks and
mounds where few other plants could exist this European Box Thorn is
invaluable. Either species will grow in very poor, dry soil, and is
readily propagated by means of cuttings.


LYONIA PANICULATA (_syns L. ligustrina, Andromeda globulifera, A.
pilifera_, and _Menziesia globularis_).--North America, 1806. This
species grows about a yard high, with clustered, ovate leaves, and
pretty, pinky, drooping flowers.


MACLURA AURANTIACA.--Osage Orange, or Bow-wood. North America, 1818.
This is a wide-spreading tree with deciduous foliage, and armed with
spines along the branches. The leaves are three inches long, ovate and
pointed, and of a bright shining green. Flowers rather inconspicuous,
being green with a light tinge of yellow, and succeeded by fruit bearing
a resemblance when ripe to the Seville orange. It is hardy, and grows
freely in rather sandy or gravelly soil.


MAGNOLIA ACUMINATA.--Cucumber Tree. North America, 1736. This is a large
and handsome species, of often as much as 50 feet in height, and with a
head that is bushy in proportion. The leaves are 6 inches long, ovate
and pointed, and of a refreshing shade of green. Flowers
greenish-yellow, sweetly scented, and produced abundantly all over the
tree. They are succeeded by small, roughish fruit, resembling an infant
cucumber, but they usually fall off before becoming ripe.

M. CAMPBELII.--Sikkim, 1868. This is a magnificent Indian species, but,
unfortunately, it is not hardy except in the favoured English and Irish
localities. The leaves are large, and silky on the undersides, while the
flowers are crimson and white, and equally as large as those of the
better-known M. grandiflora.

M. CONSPICUA (_syn M. Yulan_).--Yulan. China, 1789. A large-growing
shrub, with Pea-green, deciduous foliage, and large, pure white flowers
that oft get damaged by the spring frosts. M. conspicua Soulangeana is a
supposed hybrid between M. conspicua and M. obovata. Whatever may be the
origin of this Magnolia, it is certainly a handsome and showy plant of
very vigorous growth, producing freely its white, purple-tinted flowers,
and which last for a long time in perfection. There are several other
varieties, including M. conspicua Soulangeana nigra, with dark purplish
flowers; M. conspicua Alexandrina, M. conspicua Soulangeana speciosa,
and M. conspicua Norbertii.

M. CORDATA, a native of the Southern Alleghanies (1801), is still rare
in collections. It is a small-growing, deciduous species, with yellow
flowers, that are neither scented nor showy.

M. FRASERI (_syn M. auriculata_).--Long-leaved Cucumber Tree. North
America, 1786. This species has distinctly auriculated leaves and large,
yellowish-white, fragrant flowers.

M. GLAUCA.--Laurel Magnolia. North America, 1688. This is one of the
commonest species in our gardens, and at the same time one of the
hardiest. It is of shrub size, with Laurel-like leaves, and
sweetly-scented, small, pure white flowers, produced about the end of

M. GRANDIFLORA.--North America, 1737. One of the handsomest species,
with very large, glossy, evergreen leaves, and deliciously odoriferous,
creamy-white flowers, that are often fully 6 inches across. It is
usually seen as a wall plant, and the slight protection thus afforded is
almost a necessity in so far as the development of the foliage and
flowers is concerned. M. grandiflora exoniensis (Exmouth Magnolia) is a
very handsome form.

M. LENNEI.--This is a garden hybrid between M. conspicua and M. obovata
discolor, and has flowers as large as a goose's egg, of a rosy-purple
colour, and produced profusely.

M. MACROPHYLLA.--North America, 1800. This species has very large leaves
and flowers, larger, perhaps, than those of any other species. They are
very showy, being white with a purple centre. It attains a height of 30

M. OBOVATA DISCOLOR (_syn M. purpurea_).--Japan, 1790. This is a
small-growing, deciduous shrub, with large, dark green leaves, and
Tulip-shaped flowers, that are purple on the outside and almost white

M. PARVIFLORA, from Japan, with creamy-white, fragrant flowers, that are
globular in shape, is a very distinct and attractive species, but cannot
generally be relied upon as hardy.

M. STELLATA (_syn M. Halleana_).--Japan, 1878. A neat, small-growing,
Japanese species, of bushy habit, and quite hardy in this country. The
small, white, fragrant flowers are produced abundantly, even on young
plants, and as early as April. One of the most desirable and handsome of
the small-growing species. M. stellata (pink variety) received an Award
of Merit at the meeting of the Royal Horticultural Society on March 28,
1893. This bids fair to be really a good thing, and may best be
described as a pink-flowered form of the now well-known and popular

M. UMBRELLA (_syn M. tripetala_).--Umbrella Tree. North America, 1752. A
noble species, with large, deep green leaves, that are often 16 inches
long. It is quite hardy around London, and produces its large, white,
fragrant flowers in succession during May and June. The fruit is large
and showy, and of a deep purplish-red colour.


MEDICAGO ARBOREA.--South Europe, 1596. This species grows to the height
of 6 feet or 8 feet, and produces its Pea-shaped flowers from June
onwards. The leaves are broadly oval and serrated at the tips, but they
vary in this respect. It is not hardy unless in warm, sheltered corners
of southern England and Ireland, although it stood unharmed for many
years at Kew. It succeeds best, and is less apt to receive injury, when
planted in rather dry and warm soil.


MENISPERMUM CANADENSE.--Moonseed. North America, 1691. This shrub is
principally remarkable for the large, reniform, peltate leaves, which
are of value for covering pergolas, bowers and walls. The flowers are of
no great account, being rather inconspicuous and paniculate. It is hardy
in most places, and is worthy of culture for its graceful habit and
handsome foliage.


MICROGLOSSA ALBESCENS (_syn Aster albescens_ and _A.
cabulicus_).--Himalayas, 1842. This member of the Compositae family is a
much-branched shrub, with grayish lanceolate foliage, and clusters of
flowers about 6 inches in diameter, and of a bluish or mauve colour. It
is a native of Nepaul, and, with the protection of a wall, perfectly
hardy around London.


MITCHELLA REPENS.--Partridge Berry. North America, 1761. A low-growing,
creeping plant, having oval, persistent leaves, white flowers, and
brilliant scarlet fruit. It is a neat little bog plant, resembling
Fuchsia procumbens in habit, and with bunches of the brightest
Cotoneaster-like fruit. For rock gardening, or planting on the margins
of beds in light, peaty soil, this is one of the handsomest and most
beautiful of hardy creeping shrubs.


MITRARIA COCCINEA.--Scarlet Mitre Pod. Chiloe, 1848. This is only hardy
in the South of England and Ireland, and even there it requires wall
protection. It is a pretty little shrub, with long, slender shoots,
which, during the early part of the summer, are studded with the bright
red, drooping blossoms, which are urn-shaped, and often nearly 2 inches
long. It delights in damp, lumpy, peat.


MYRICA ASPLENIFOLIA (_syn Comptonia asplenifolia_).--Sweet Fern. North
America, 1714. A North American plant of somewhat straggling growth,
growing to about 4 feet high, and with linear, pinnatified,
sweet-smelling leaves. The flowers are of no decorative value, being
small and inconspicuous, but for the fragrant leaves alone the shrub
will always be prized. It grows well in peaty soil, is very hardy, and
may be increased by means of offsets. This shrub is nearly allied to our
native Myrica or Sweet Gale.

M. CALIFORNICA.--Californian Wax Myrtle. California, 1848. In this we
have a valuable evergreen shrub that is hardy beyond a doubt, and that
will thrive in the very poorest classes of soils. In appearance it
somewhat resembles our native plant, but is preferable to it on account
of the deep green, persistent leaves. The leaves are about 3 inches
long, narrow, and produced in tufts along the branches. Unlike our
native species, the Californian Wax Myrtle has no pleasant aroma to the

M. CERIFERA.--Common Candle-berry Myrtle. Canada, 1699. This is a neat
little shrub, usually about 4 feet high, with oblong-lanceolate leaves,
and inconspicuous catkins.

M. GALE.--Sweet Gale or Bog Myrtle. This has inconspicuous flowers, and
is included here on account of the deliciously fragrant foliage, and
which makes it a favourite with cultivators generally. It is a native
shrub, growing from 3 feet to 4 feet high, with deciduous,
linear-lanceolate leaves, and clustered catkins appearing before the
leaves. A moor or bog plant, and of great value for planting by the pond
or lake side, or along with the so-called American plants, for the aroma
given off by the foliage.

The Myricas are all worthy of cultivation, although the flowers are
inconspicuous--their neat and in most cases fragrant foliage, and
adaptability to poor soil or swampy hollows, being extra


MYRTUS COMMUNIS.--Common Myrtle. South Europe, 1597. A well-known shrub,
which, unless in very favoured spots and by the sea-side, cannot survive
our winters. Where it does well, and then only as a wall plant, this and
its varieties are charming shrubs with neat foliage and an abundance of
showy flowers. The double-flowered varieties are very handsome, but they
are more suitable for glass culture than planting in the open.

M. LUMA (_syn Eugenia apiculata_ and _E. Luma_).--Chili. Though
sometimes seen growing out of doors, this is not to be recommended for
general planting, it being best suited for greenhouse culture.

M. UGNI (_syn Eugenia Ugni_).--Valdivia, 1845. A small-growing,
Myrtle-like shrub, that is only hardy in favoured parts of the country.
It is of branching habit, with small, wiry stems, oval, coriacious
leaves, and pretty pinky flowers. The edible fruit is highly ornamental,
being of a pleasing ruddy tinge tinted with white. This dwarf-growing
shrub wants the protection of a wall, and when so situated in warm
seaside parts of the country soon forms a bush of neat and pleasing


NEILLIA OPULIFOLIA (_syn Spiraea opulifolia_).--Nine Bark. North
America, 1690. A hardy shrub, nearly allied to Spiraea. It produces a
profusion of umbel-like corymbs of pretty white flowers, that are
succeeded by curious swollen membraneous purplish fruit. N. opulifolia
aurea is worthy of culture, it being of free growth and distinct from
the parent plant.

N. THYRSIFLORA, Nepaul, 1850, would seem to be quite as hardy as N.
opulifolia, and is of more evergreen habit. The leaves are doubly
serrated and three lobed, and cordate-ovate. Flowers white in spicate,
thyrsoid racemes, and produced rather sparsely.


NESAEA SALICIFOLIA (_syn Heimia salicifolia_).--Mexico, 1821. This can
only be styled as half hardy, but with wall protection it forms a pretty
bush often fully a yard in height. The leaves resemble those of some
species of Willow, being long and narrow, while the showy yellow flowers
are freely produced in August and September. It thrives best when
planted in light, dry soil, and in a sheltered position.


NEVIUSA ALABAMENSIS.--Alabama Snow Wreath. Alabama, 1879. This is a rare
American shrub, with leaves reminding one of those of the Nine Bark,
Neillia opulifolia, and the flowers, which are freely produced along the
full length of the shoots, are white or yellowish-green, with prominent
stamens of a tufted brush-like character. It is usually treated as a
green-house plant, but may be seen growing and flowering freely in the
open ground at Kew.


NUTTALLIA CERASIFORMIS.--Osoberry. California, 1848. This shrub is of
great value on account of the flowers being produced in the early weeks
of the year, and when flowers are few and far between. It grows from 6
feet to 10 feet high, with a thick, twiggy head, and drooping racemes of
white flowers borne thickly all over the plant. Few soils come amiss to
this neglected shrub, it growing and flowering freely even on poor
gravelly clay, and where only a limited number of shrubs could succeed.


OLEARIA HAASTII.--New Zealand, 1872. This Composite shrub is only hardy
in the milder parts of England and Ireland. It is of stiff, dwarf
growth, rarely growing more than 4 feet high, but of neat and compact
habit. Flowering as it does in late summer it is rendered of special
value, the Daisy-like white blossoms being produced in large and flat
clusters at the branch tips. The leaves are neat and of leathery
texture, and being evergreen lend an additional charm to the shrub.

O. MACRODONTA (_syn O. dentata_), from New Zealand, 1886, is tolerably
hardy, and may be seen in good form both at Kew and in the South of
Ireland. The large Holly-like leaves are of a peculiar silvery-green
tint above, and almost white on the under sides. Flowers white, and
produced in dense heads in June and July.

O. Forsterii and O. Gunniana (_syn Eurybia Gunniana_) are nearly hardy
species, the latter, from New Zealand, bearing a profusion of white
Daisy-like flowers on dense, twiggy branches.


ONONIS ARVENSIS.--Restharrow. A native undershrub of very variable size,
according to the position in which it is found growing. It creeps along
the ground, the shoots sending out roots as they proceed, and is usually
found on dry sandy banks. The flowers when at their best are very
ornamental, being bright pink, and with the standard streaked with a
deeper shade. They are abundantly produced, and render the plant very
conspicuous during the summer and autumn months. When planted on an old
wall, and allowed to roam at will, the Restharrow is, perhaps, seen to
best advantage.


OSMANTHUS AQUIFOLIUM ILLICIFOLIUS.--Holly-leaved Osmanthus. Japan. This
is a handsome evergreen shrub, with Holly-like leaves, and not very
conspicuous greenish-white flowers. It is a very desirable shrub, of
which there are varieties named O.A. ilicifolius argenteo-variegatus,
O.A. ilicifolius aureo-variegatus, and O.A. ilicifolius nanus, the
names of which will be sufficient to define their characters.

O.A. ILICIFOLIUS MYRTIFOLIUS.--Myrtle-leaved Osmanthus. A very distinct
and beautiful shrub, with unarmed leaves. It is of dwarf, compact
growth, with small, sharply-pointed leaves, and inconspicuous flowers.
For the front line of a shrubbery this is an invaluable shrub, its
pretty leaves and neat twiggy habit making it a favourite with planters.
The variety rotundifolius is seldom seen in cultivation, but being
distinct in foliage from any of the others is to be recommended. They
grow freely in any good garden soil, but all the better if a little peat
is added at the time of planting.


OSTRYA CARPINIFOLIA (_syn O. vulgaris_).--Common Hop Hornbeam. South
Europe, 1724. A much-branched, round-headed tree, with cordate-ovate,
acuminate leaves. Both this and the following species, by reason of the
resemblance between their female catkins and those of the Hop, and
between their leaves and those of the Hornbeam, have acquired the very
descriptive name of Hop Hornbeam. This is a large-growing tree,
specimens in various parts of the country ranging in height from 50 feet
to 60 feet.

O. VIRGINICA.--Virginian Hop Hornbeam. Eastern United States, 1692.
Resembles the latter, but is of smaller growth, rarely exceeding 40 feet
in height. They grow fairly well in almost any class of soil, and on
account of the long and showy catkins are well worthy of cultivation.


OXYDENDRUM ARBOREUM (_syn Andromeda arborea_).--Sorrel-tree. Eastern
United States, 1752. Unfortunately this species is not often found under
cultivation, being unsuitable generally for our climate. In some
instances, however, it has done well, a specimen in the Knap Hill
Nursery, Surrey, being 30 feet high, and with a dense rounded head. The
flowers are very beautiful, being of a waxy white, and produced
abundantly. It wants a free rich soil, and not too exposed site.


OZOTHAMNUS ROSMARINIFOLIUS.--Australia, 1827. A pretty little Australian
Composite, forming a dense, twiggy shrub, with narrow, Rosemary-like
leaves, and small, whitish, Aster-like flowers which resemble those of
its near relative, the Olearia, and are produced so thickly that the
plant looks like a sheet of white when the blooms are fully developed.
It flowers in June and July. In most parts of the country it will
require protection, but can be classed as fairly hardy. Cuttings root
freely if placed in sandy soil in a cool frame.


PAEONIA MOUTAN.--Moutan Paeony, or Chinese Tree Paeony. China and Japan,
1789. A beautiful shrubby species introduced from China about one
hundred years ago. The first of the kind introduced to England had
single flowers, and the plant is figured in Andrews' _Botanists'
Repository_ (tab. 463) under the name of P. papaveracea. The flowers are
white with a dark red centre. In the _Botanical Magazine_ (tab. 2175),
the same plant is figured under the name of P. Moutan var. papaveracea.
This is perfectly hardy in our gardens, and is the parent of many
beautiful and distinct varieties, including double and single white,
pink, crimson, purple, and striped.


PALIURUS ACULEATUS (_syn P. australis_).--Christ's Thorn, or Garden
Thorn. Mediterranean region, 1596. A densely-branched, spiny shrub, with
small leaves, and not very showy, yellowish-green flowers. It grows and
flowers freely enough in light, peaty earth, but is not very hardy, the
tips of the branches being usually killed back should the winter be at
all severe.


PARROTIA PERSICA.--Persia, 1848. Well known for the lovely autumnal
tints displayed by the foliage when dying off. But for the flowers, too,
it is well worthy of culture, the crimson-tipped stamens of the male
flowers being singularly beautiful and uncommon. In February it is no
unusual sight to see on well-established plants whole branches that are
profusely furnished with these showy flowers. For planting in a warm
corner of a rather dry border it seems to be well suited; but it is
perfectly hardy and free of growth when suited with soil and site. It is
as yet rare in cultivation, but is sure, when better known and more
widely disseminated, to become a general favourite with lovers of hardy


PASSIFLORA CAERULEA.--Passion Flower. Brazil and Peru, 1699. Though not
perfectly hardy, yet this handsome climbing plant, if cut down to the
ground, usually shoots up freely again in the spring. The flowers, which
are produced very freely, but particularly in maritime districts, vary
from white to blue, and the prettily-fringed corona and centre of the
flower render the whole peculiarly interesting and beautiful. P.
caerulea Constance Elliott has greenish-white flowers; and P. caerulea
Colvillei has white sepals and a blue fringe. The latter is of more
robust growth, and more floriferous than the species.


PAULOWNIA IMPERIALIS.--Japan, 1840. This is a handsome, fast-growing
tree, and one that is particularly valuable for its ample foliage, and
distinct and showy flowers. Though perfectly hardy, in other respects it
is unfortunate that the season at which the Paulownia flowers is so
early that, unless the conditions are unusually favourable, the flower
buds get destroyed by the frost. The tree grows to fully 40 feet high in
this country, and is a grandly decorative object in its foliage alone,
and for which, should the flowers never be produced, it is well worthy
of cultivation. They are ovate-cordate, thickly covered with a grayish
woolly tomentum, and often measure, but particularly in young and
healthy trees, as much as 10 inches in length. The Foxglove-like flowers
are purplish-violet and spotted, and borne in terminal panicles. They
are sweetly-scented. When favourably situated, and in cool, sandy loam
or peaty earth, the growth of the tree is very rapid, and when a tree
has been cut over, the shoots sent out often exceed 6 feet in length in
one season, and nearly 2 inches in diameter. There are many fine old
trees throughout the country, and which testify to the general hardihood
of the Paulownia.


PERIPLOCA GRAECA.--Poison Vine. South Eastern Europe, and Orient, 1597.
A tall, climbing shrub, with small, ovate-lanceolate leaves, and
clusters of curious purplish-brown, green-tipped flowers produced in
summer. The long, incurved appendages, in the shape of a crown, and
placed so as to protect the style and anthers, render the flowers of
peculiar interest. Though often used as a greenhouse plant, it is
perfectly hardy, and makes a neat, deciduous wall or arch covering,
thriving to perfection in rich soil that is well-drained. It is readily
propagated from cuttings.


PERNETTYA MUCRONATA (_syn Arbutus mucronata_).--Prickly Heath. Magellan,
1828. This is a dwarf-growing, wiry shrub, with narrow, stiff leaves,
and bears an abundance of white, bell-shaped flowers. It is a capital
wind screen, and may be used to advantage on the exposed side of
rockwork or flower beds, or as an ornamental shrub by the pond or lake
side. The small dark-green leaves, the tiny white flowers, and great
abundance of deep purple berries in winter, are all points that are in
favour of the shrub for extended cultivation. The pretty, pinky shoots,
too, help to make the plant attractive even in mid-winter. Propagation
by layers or seed is readily brought about. To grow this shrub to
perfection, peaty soil or decayed vegetable matter will be found most
suitable. There is a narrow-leaved form named P. mucronata angustifolia,
and another on which the name of P. mucronata speciosa has been

There are many beautiful-berried forms of the Pernettya, but as their
flowers are small can hardly be included in our list.


PHILADELPHUS CORONARIUS.--Mock Orange, or Syringa. South Europe, 1596. A
well-known and valuable garden shrub, of from 6 feet to 10 feet high,
with ovate and serrulated leaves, and pretty racemes of white or
yellowish-white, fragrant flowers. P. coronarius aureo-variegatus is one
of the numerous forms of this shrub, having brightly-tinted, golden
foliage, but the flowers are in no way superior to those of the parent.
It is, if only for the foliage, an extremely pretty and distinct
variety. P. coronarius argenteo-variegatus has silvery-tinted leaves; P.
coronarius flore-pleno, full double flowers; and P. coronarius Keteleeri
flore-pleno is the best double-flowered form in cultivation.

P. GORDONIANUS, an American species (1839), is a well-known and
beautiful shrub, in which the flowers are usually double the size of
those of the common species, and which are not produced till July, while
those of P. coronarius appear in early May.

P. GRANDIFLORUS (_syns P. floribundus, P. latifolius_ and _P.
speciosus_).--Southern United States, 1811. This has rotundate,
irregularly-toothed leaves, and large white, sweetly-scented flowers
produced in clusters. This forms a stout bush 10 feet high, and as much
through. There are two varieties, P. grandiflorus laxus, and P.
grandiflorus speciosissimus, both distinct and pretty kinds.

P. HIRSUTUS.--North America, 1820. Another handsome, small-flowered
species, of dwarf growth, and having hairy leaves.

P. INODOROUS, also from North America (1738), differs little in size
and shape of flowers from P. grandiflorus, but the flowers are without
scent. The leaves, too, are quite glabrous and obscurely toothed.

P. LEMOINEI BOULE D'ARGENT is a cross, raised in 1888, from P. Lemoinei
and the double-flowered form of P. coronarius. The flowers are double
white and with the pleasant, but not heavy, scent of P. microphyllus. P.
Lemoinei Gerbe de Neige bears pleasantly-scented flowers that are as
large as those of the well-known P. speciosissimus. There is an erect
form of P. Lemoinei named erectus that is also worthy of note.

P. LEWISI, from North America, is hardly sufficiently distinct from some
of the others to warrant special notice.

P. MICROPHYLLUS, from New Mexico (1883), is of low growth, and
remarkable for its slender branches, small, Myrtle-like leaves, and
abundance of small, white flowers. It is a decidedly pretty shrub, but
is not so hardy as the others.

P. SATZUMI (_syn P. chinensis_).--Japan, 1851. A slender-growing
species, with long and narrow leaves, and large, white flowers.

P. TRIFLORUS and P. MEXICANUS are other species that might be worthy of
including in a representative collection of these plants.

This is a valuable genus of shrubs, all being remarkable for the
abundance of white, and usually sweet-scented, flowers which they
produce. They require no special treatment, few soils, if at all free
and rich, coming amiss to them; while even as shrubs for shady
situations they are not to be despised. Propagation is effected by means
of cuttings, which root freely if placed in sandy soil.


P. ANGUSTIFOLIA (narrow-leaved Phillyrea), P. ilicifolia (Holly-leaved
Phillyrea), P. salicifolia (Willow-leaved Phillyrea), P. buxifolia
(Box-leaved Phillyrea), and P. ligustrifolia (Privet-leaved Phillyrea),
are all more or less valuable species, and their names indicate their
peculiarities of leafage. P. angustifolia rosmarinifolia (_syn P.
neapolitana_) is a somewhat rare shrub, but one that is well worthy of
culture, if only for its neat habit and tiny little Rosemary-like
leaves. It is from Italy, and known under the synonym of _P.

P. LATIFOLIA (_syn P. obliqua_).--Broad-leaved Phillyrea. South Europe,
1597. This is a compact-growing and exceedingly ornamental shrub, with
bright and shining, ovate-serrulated leaves. For its handsome, evergreen
foliage and compact habit of growth it is, perhaps, most to be valued,
for the small flowers are at their best both dull and inconspicuous. Not
very hardy unless in the sea-coast garden.

P. MEDIA (_syns P. ligustrifolia_ and _P. oleaefolia_).--South Europe,
1597. This is another interesting species, but not at all common in

P. VILMORINIANA (_syns P. laurifolia_ and _P. decora_).--Asia Minor,
1885, This is a grand addition to these valuable shrubs, of which it is
decidedly the best from an ornamental point of view. It is of compact
growth, with large, Laurel-like leaves, which are of a pleasing shade of
green, and fully 4 inches long. They are of stout, leathery texture, and
plentifully produced. That this shrub is perfectly hardy is now a
well-established fact.

The Phillyreas succeed well in light, warm, but not too dry soil, and
they do all the better if a warm and sheltered position is assigned to
them. Being unusually bright of foliage, they are of great service in
planting for shrubbery embellishment, and which they light up in a very
conspicuous manner during the dull winter months. They get shabby and
meagre foliaged if exposed to cold winds.

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