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Germania and Agricola by Caius Cornelius Tacitus

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to the same office. Cf. H. 1, 10.

_Procuratores_. There was but one at a time in each province. There may
have been several however in succession, while A. was Proconsul. Or we
may understand both this clause and the preceding, not of his government
in Aquitania in particular, but as a general fact in the life of A. So E.
For the office, see note, 4; and for an instance of a quarrel between the
Proconsul and the Procurator, Ann. 14, 38.

_Atteri_==vinci as the antithesis shows, though with more of the
implication of dignity _impaired_ (worn off) by conflict with inferiors.

_Minus triennium. Quam_ omitted. See H. 417, 3; Z. 485.

_Comitante opinione. A general expectation attending him_, as it were, on
his return.

_Nullis sermonibus_. Ablative of _cause_.

_Elegit_. Perf. to denote what _has in fact_ taken place.

X. _In comparationem_. Cf. in suam famam, 8, note.

_Perdomita est. Completely subdued_.

_Rerum fide==faithfully and truly_; lit. with fidelity to facts.

_Britannia_. It has generally been supposed (though Gesenius denies it in
his Phenician Paloeography) that Britain was known to the Phenicians,
those bold navigators and enterprising merchants of antiquity, under the
name of the _Cassiterides_, or Tin Islands. Greek authors make early
mention of Albion (plural of Alp?) and Ierne (Erin) as British Islands.
Bochart derives the name (Britain) from the Phenician or Hebrew
Baratanae, "the Land of Tin;" others from the Gallic _Britti_, Painted,
in allusion to the custom among the inhabitants of painting their bodies.
But according to the Welsh Triads, Britain derived its name from Prydain,
a king, who early reigned in the island. Cf. Turner's His. Ang. Sax. 1,
2, seqq. The geographical description, which follows, cannot be
exonerated from the charge of verbiage and grandiloquence. T. wanted the
art of saying a plain thing plainly.

_Spatio ac coelo_. Brit. not only stretches out or lies over against
these several countries in _situation_, but it approaches them also in
_climate_: a circumstance which illustrates the great size of the island
(cf. _maxima_, above) and prepares the way for the description of both

_Germaniae_ and _Hispaniae_ are dat. after _obtenditur_. The mistaken
notion of the relative position of Spain and Britain is shared with T. by
Caesar (B.G. 13), Dion (39, 50), and indeed by the ancients in general.
It is so represented in maps as late as Richard of Cirencester. Cf.
Prichard, III. 3, 9.

_Etiam inspicitur_. It is even _seen_ by the Gauls, implying nearer
approach to Gaul, than to Germany or Spain.

_Nullis terris_. Abl. abs., _contra_ taking the place of the part., or
rather limiting a part. understood.

_Livius_. In his 105th Book; now lost, except in the Epitome.

_Fabius Rusticus_. A friend of Seneca, and writer of history in the age
of Claudius and Nero.

_Oblongae scutulae_. Geometrically a trapezium.

_Et est ea facies. And such is the form, exclusive of Caledonia, whence
the account has been extended also to the whole Island_.

_Sed--tenuatur. But a vast and irregular extent of lands jutting out
here (jam_, cf. note, G. 44) _on this remotest shore_ (i.e. widening
out again where they seemed already to have come to an end), _is
narrowed down as it were into a wedge_. The author likens Caledonia to
a wedge with its apex at the Friths of Clyde and Forth, and its base
widening out on either side into the ocean beyond. _Enormis_ is a
post-Augustan word. _Novissimi_==extreme, remotest. G. 24, note.

_Affirmavit. Established_ the fact, hitherto supposed, but not fully
ascertained. This was done in Agricola's last campaign in Britain,
cf. 38.

_Orcadas_. The Orkneys. Their name occurs earlier than this, but they
were little known.

_Dispecta est. Was seen_ through the mist, as it were; discovered in the
distance and obscurity. Cf. note, H. 4, 55: dispecturas Gallias, etc.

_Thule_. Al. Thyle. What island T. meant, is uncertain. It has been
referred by different critics, to the Shetland, the Hebrides, and even to
Iceland. The account of the island, like that of the surrounding ocean,
is obviously drawn from the imagination.

_Nam hactenus_, etc. _For their orders were_ to proceed _thus far_ only,
_and_ (besides) _winter was approaching_. Cf. _hactenus_, G. 25, and
_appetere_, Ann. 4, 51: _appetente jam luce_. The editions generally have
_nix_ instead of _jussum_. But Rit. and Or. with reason follow the oldest
and best MSS. in the reading _jussum_, which with the slight and obvious
amendment of _nam_ for _quam_ by Rit. renders this obscure and vexed
passage at length easy and clear.

_Pigrum et grave_. See a similar description of the Northern Ocean, G.
25: pigrum ac prope immotum. The modern reader need not be informed, that
this is an entire mistake, as to the matter of fact; those seas about
Britain are never frozen; though the navigators in this voyage might
easily have magnified the perils and hardships of their enterprise, by
transferring to these waters what they had heard of those further north.

_Perinde_. Al. _proinde_. These two forms are written indiscriminately in
the old MSS. The meaning of _ne perinde_ here is _not so much_, sc. as
other seas. Cf. note, G. 5.

_Ne ventis--attolli_. Directly the reverse of the truth. Those seas, are
in fact, remarkably tempestuous.

_Quod--impellitur_. False philosophy to explain a fictitious phenomenon,
as is too often the case with the philosophy of the ancients, who little
understood natural science, cf. the _astronomy_ of T. in 12.

_Neque--ac_. Correlatives. The author assigns two reasons why he does not
discuss the subject of the _tides_: 1. It does not suit the design of his
work; 2. The subject has been treated by many others, e.g. Strab. 3, 5,
11; Plin. N.H. 2, 99, &c.

_Multum fluminum. Multum_ is the object of _ferre_, of which _mare_ is
the subject, as it is also of all the infinitives in the sentence.
_Fluminum_ is not rivers but currents among the islands along the shore.

_Nec littore tenus_, etc. "_The ebbings and flowings of the tide are not
confined to the shore, but the sea penetrates into the heart of the
country, and works its way among the hills and mountains, as in its
native bed_." Ky. A description very appropriate to a coast so cut up by
aestuaries, and highly poetical, but wanting in simplicity.

_Jugis etiam ac montibus. Jugis_, cf. G. 43. _Ac. Atque_ in the common
editions. But _ac_, besides being more frequent before a consonant, is
found in the best MSS.

XI. _Indigenae an advecti_. Cf. _note_, G. 2: _indigenas_.

_Ut inter barbaros_, sc. fieri solet. Cf. ut in licentia, G. 2; and ut
inter Germanos, G. 30.

_Rutilae--asseverant_. Cf. the description of the Germans, G. 4. The
inhabitants of Caledonia are of the same stock as the other Britons. The
conclusion, to which our author inclines below, viz. that the Britons
proceeded from Gaul, is sustained by the authority of modern
ethnologists. The original inhabitants of Britain are found, both by
philological and historical evidence, to have belonged to the Celtic or
Cimmerian stock, which once overspread nearly the whole of central
Europe, but were overrun and pushed off the stage by the Gothic or German
Tribes, and now have their distinct representatives only in the Welsh,
the Irish, the Highland Scotch, and a few similar remnants of a once
powerful race in the extreme west of the continent and the islands of the
sea. Cf. note on the Cimbri, G. 37.

_Silurum_. The people of Wales.

_Colorati vultus. Dark complexion_. So with the poets, colorati Indi,
Seres, Etrusci, &c.

_Hispania_. Nom. subject of _faciunt_, with _crines_, &c.

_Iberos_. Properly a people on the Iberus (Ebro), who gave their name to
the whole Spanish Peninsula. They belonged to a different race from the
Celtic, or the Teutonic, which seems once to have inhabited Italy and
Sicily, as well as parts of Gaul and Spain. A dialect is still spoken in
the mountainous regions about the Bay of Biscay, and called the Basque or
Biscayan, which differs from any other dialect in Europe. Cf. Prichard's
Physical Researches, vol. III. chap. 2.

_Proximi Gallis_. Cf. Caes. B.G. 5, 14: Ex his omnibus longe sunt
humanissimi, qui Cantium (Kent) incolunt, quae regio est maritima omnis,
_neque multum a Gallica differunt consuetudine. Et--also: those nearest
the Gauls are also like them_.

_Durante vi. Either because the influence of a common origin still
continues_, etc.

_Procurrentibus--terris. Or because their territories running out towards
one another_, literally, _in opposite directions_, Britain towards the
south and Gaul towards the north, so as to approach each other. See Rit.,
Doed. in loc., and Freund ad _diversus_.

_Positio--dedit_. The idea of similarity being already expressed in
_similes_, is understood here: their situation in the same climate
(_coelo_) has given them the _same_ personal appearance.

_Aestimanti_. Indef. dat. after _credibile est_, cf. note, G. 6.

_Eorum_ refers to the Gauls. You (indef. subject, cf. quiescas, G. 36)
may discover the religion of the Gauls (among the Britons) in their full
belief of the same superstitions. So Caes. B.G. 6, 13: disciplina in
Britannia reperta atque inde in Galliam translata esse existimatur; and
he adds, that those who wished to gain a more perfect knowledge of the
Druidical system still went from Gaul to Britain to learn. Sharon Turner
thinks, the system must have been introduced into Britain from the East
(perhaps India) by the Phenicians, and thence propagated in Gaul. His.
Ang. Sax., B. 1, chap. 5.

_Persuasione_. See the same use of the word, His. 5, 5: eademque de
infernis persuasio.

_In--periculis_. The same sentiment is expressed by Caesar (B.G. 3, 19).

_Ferociae_. In a good sense, courage, cf. 31: virtus ac ferocia.

_Praeferunt_==prae se ferunt, i.e. _exhibit_.

_Ut quos. Ut qui_, like _qui_ alone, is followed by the subj. to express
a reason for what precedes. It may be rendered by _because_ or _since_
with the demonstrative. So _quippe cui placuisset_, 18. Cf. Z. 565 and H.
519, 3.

_Gallos floruisse_. Cf. G. 28.

_Otio_. Opposed to _bellis, peace.--Amissa virtute_. Abl. abs. denoting
an additional circumstance. Cf. 2: _expulsis--professoribus_, note.--
_Olim_ limits _victis_.

XII. _Honestior. The more honorable_ (i.e. the man of rank) _is the
charioteer, his dependents fight_ (on the chariot). The reverse was true
in the Trojan War.

_Factionibus trahuntur_==distrahuntur in factiones. Dr., and Or. T. is
fond of using simple for compound verbs. See note 22; also numerous
examples in the Index to Notes on the Histories.

_Civitatibus_. Dat. for Gen.--_Pro nobis_. Abl. with prep. for dat.
Enallage. R.--_Conventus. Convention_, meeting.

_Coelum--foedum_. The fog and rain of the British Isles are still
proverbial.--_Dierum spatia_, etc. Cf. Caes. 513.

_Quod si==and if_. From the tendency to connect sentences by relatives
arose the use of _quod_ before certain conjunctions, particularly _si_,
merely as a copulative. Cf. Z. 807. also Freund sub v. The fact alleged
in this sentence is as false as the philosophy by which it is explained
in the next, cf. G. 45: in ortus, note.

_Scilicet--cadit_. This explanation proceeds on the assumption that night
is caused by the shadow of mountains, behind which the sun sets; and
since these do not exist in that level extremity of the earth, the sun
has nothing to set behind, and so there is no night. The astronomy of T.
is about of a piece with his natural philosophy, cf. 10.--_Extrema--
terrarum_. Cf. note, 6: _inania honoris_.

_Non erigunt_, lit. do not elevate the darkness, i.e. do not cast their
shadow so high (_infraque--cadit_), as the sky and the stars; hence they
are bright (_clara_) through the night!! Pliny also supposed the heavens
(above the moon) to be of themselves perpetually luminous, but darkened
at night by the shadow of the earth. N.H. 2, 7.

_Praeter. Beyond_. Hence either _besides_ or _except_. Here the latter.--
_Fecundum_. More than _patiens, fruitful even.--Proveniunt_. Ang. _come

_Fert--aurum_, etc. This is also affirmed by Strabo, 4, 5, 2, but denied
by Cic. ad Att., 4, 16, 7, and ad Div., 7, 7. The moderns decide in favor
of T. and Strabo, though it is only in inconsiderable quantities that
gold and silver have ever been found in Britain.

_Margarita_. The neuter form of this word is seldom used, never by
Cicero. See Freund sub v.

_Rubro mari_. The _Red Sea_ of the Greeks and Romans embraced both the
Arabian and the Persian Gulfs; and it was in the latter especially, that
pearls were found, as they are to this day. Cf. Plin. N.H. 9, 54:
praecipue laudantur (margaritae) in _Persico sinu maris rubri_. For an
explanation of the name (Red Sea), see Anthon's Classical Dictionary.

_Expulsa sint. Cast out_, i.e. _ashore, by the waves_. Subj. in a
subordinate clause of the oratio obliqua. H. 531; Z. 603.

_Naturam--avaritiam_. A very characteristic sentence, both for its
antithesis and its satire.

XIII. _Ipsi Britanni. Ipsi_ marks the transition from the country to the
people, cf. ipsos Germanos, G. 2.

_Obeunt_ properly applies only to _munera_, not to _tributa_ and
_delectum_, which would require _tolerant_ or some kindred verb. Zeugma.
H. 704, I. 2; Z. 775.

_Igitur==now_. In the first sentence of the section the author has
indicated his purpose to speak of the _people_ of Britain. And _now in
pursuance of that design_, he goes back to the commencement of their
history, as related to and known by the Romans. Cf. note, G. 28.

_Divus_. Cf. note, G. 28: D. Julius. For Julius Caesar's campaigns in
Britain, see Caes. B.G. 4, 21. seq.; 5, 5. seq.; Strabo, Lib. 4, &c.

_Consilium_. His _advice_ (to his successor). See Ann. 1, 11.--
_Praeceptum_. A _command_ (of Augustus, which Tib. affected to hold
sacred). Ann. 1, 77; 4, 37.

_C. Caesarem_. Caligula, cf. 4, note.--_Agitasse_, etc. cf. 39. His. 4,
15; Suet. Calig. 44.

_Ni--fuissent_. Cf. _Ni_, 4, note. The ellipsis may be supplied thus: he
meditated an invasion of Brit. and _would have invaded it_, had he not
been _velox ingenio_, etc. But in idiomatic Eng. _ni_==but. Of course
_fuisset_ is to be supplied with _velox ingenio_ and _mobilis
poenitentiae_. Al. poenitentia. But contrary to the MSS. _Mobilis_ agrees
with _poenitentiae_ (cf. Liv. 31, 32: celerem poenitentiam), which is a
qualifying gen. Gr. 211. R. 6. Lit. _of repentance easy to be moved_.
Render: _fickle of purpose_.

_Auctor operis_. Auctor fuit rei adversus Britannos gerendae et feliciter
gestae. Dr. See on the same subject Suet. Claud. 17.--_Assumpto
Vespasiano_, cf. Suet Vesp. 4. II. 3, 44.

_Quod--fuit_. Vespasian's participation in the war against Brit. was the
commencement of his subsequent brilliant fortunes.

_Monstratus fatis_, i.e. a fatis, _by the fates_. The expression is
borrowed perhaps from Virg. Aen. 6, 870: _Ostendent_ terris hunc tantum

XIV. _Consularium_. Cf. note on it, 8.--_Aulus Plautius_. Ann. 13, 32;
Dio. 60, 19.--_Ostorius Scapula_. Ann. 12, 31-39.--_Proxima_, sc. Romae.

_Veteranorum colonia_. Camolodunum. Ann. 12, 32. Now Colchester. Dr.--_Et
reges. Kings also_, i.e. besides other means.--_Ut vetere_, etc. So in
the MSS. and earliest editions. Rhenanus transferred _ut_ to the place
before _haberet_ which it occupies in the common editions. But no change
is necessary. Render: _that in accordance with their established custom,
the Roman people might have kings also as the instruments of reducing_
(the Britons) _to slavery_.

_Didius Gallus_. Cf. Ann. 12, 40: arcere hostem satis habebat.--_Parta a
prioribus. The acquisitions (conquests) of his predecessors_.

_Aucti officii. Of enlarging the boundaries of his government. Officium_
is used in a like sense, Caes. B.C. 3, 5: Toti officio maritimo
praepositus, etc. So Wr.; Or. and Doed. understand by it _going beyond_
the mere performance of his _duty_. It was his duty to protect his
province: he enlarged it.--_Quaereretur_. Subj. in a relative clause
denoting a purpose. H. 500; Z. 567.

_Veranius_. Ann. 14, 29.--_Paullinus_. Ann. 14, 29-30.

_Monam insulam_. Now Anglesey. But the _Mona_ of _Caesar_ is the Isle of
Man, called by Pliny _Monapia_. The Mona of T. was the chief seat of the
Druids, hence _ministrantem vires rebellibus_, for the Druids animated
and led on the Briton troops to battle. T. has given (Ann. 14, 30) a very
graphic sketch of the mixed multitude of armed men, women like furies,
and priests with hands uplifted in prayer, that met Paullinus on his
landing, and, for a time, well nigh paralyzed his soldiers with dismay.
In the same connexion, he speaks also of the human sacrifices and other
barbarous rites, which were practised by our Briton Fathers in honor of
their gods.

XV. _Interpretando. By putting their own_, i.e. _the worst construction
upon them_.

_Ex facili_==facile. A frequent form of expression in T., ad Graecorum
consuetudinem. Dr. See R. Exc. 24.

_Singulos--binos_. Distributives==_one for each tribe--two for each

_Aeque--aeque_. Like Greek correlatives; alike fatal to their subjects
in _either case_. So [Greek: homoios men] and [Greek: homoios de], Xen.
Mem. 1, 6, 13; Plat. Symp. 181. C.

_Alterius manus centuriones, alterius servos_. This is the reading of the
latest editions (Dr. Wr. Or. and R.), and the best MSS., though the MSS.
differ somewhat: _Centurions, the hands_ (instruments) _of the one, and
servants_, the hands _of the other, added insult to injury_. For the use
of _manus_ in the above sense, reference is made to Cic. in Ver. 2, 10,
27: Comites illi tui delecti _manus_ erant tuae. So the _centurions_ of
the _legate_ and the _servants_ of the _procurator_ are said by our
author to have robbed the Briton King Prasutagus of his kingdom and his
palace, Ann. 14, 31, which is the best commentary on the passage before

_Ab ignavis. By_ the feeble and cowardly. Antithetic to _fortiorem. In
battle, it is the braver that plunders us; but now_ (it is a special
aggravation of our sufferings, that) _by the feeble and cowardly_, &c. So
in contempt, they call the veterans, cf. 14: _veteranorum colonia_; 32:
_senum colonia_.

_Tantum_ limits _pro patria_; as if it was for their _country_ only they
knew not how to die.

_Si sese_, etc., i.e. in _comparison_ with their own numbers.

_Patriam--parentes_, sc. _causas belli esse_.

_Recessisset_. Observe the subj. in the subordinate clauses of the oratio
obliqua throughout this chapter. H. 531; Z. 603.

_Neve--pavescerant_. This verb would have been an imperative in the
oratio recta, Z. 603, c. _Neve_ is appropriate either to the imp. or the

XVI. _Instincti_, i.e. furore quodam afflati. Dr. For a fuller account
of this revolt, see Ann. 14, 31-38; Dio. 62, 1-13.

_Boudicea_. Wife of Prasutagus, king of the Iceni. When conquered, she
ended her life by poison, Ann. 14, 37.

_Expugnatis praesidiis. Having stormed the fortresses_. The force of _ex_
in this word is seen in that it denotes the _actual carrying_ of a place
by assault, whereas _oppugnatus_ only denotes the assault itself. So
[Greek: ek-poliorkaetheis]==_taken_ in a siege, [Greek:

_Ipsam coloniam_. Cf. note 14: veteranorum colonia.

_In barbaris_==qualis inter barbaros esse solet. R. Exc. 25.

_Ira et victoria_. Hendiadys. Render: _Nor did they in the excitement of
victory omit_, etc. So Dr. R. and Wr. _Ira_ may, however, refer to their
_long cherished resentment. Ira_ causam, _victoria_ facultatem explendae
saevitiae denotat. Rit.--_Quod nisi. And had not_, etc. Cf. note, 12:
_quod si_.

_Patientiae_. Most Latin authors would have said: ad patientiam. R.
_Patientia_ here==_submission_.

_Tenentibus--plerisque. Though many still retained_, i.e. did not lay
down _their arms_.

_Propius_. Al. _proprius_. But that is purely conjectural. Adv. for adj.,
cf. ultra, 8; longe, 6==propior, like the _propior cura_ of Ovid.
Metamor. 13, 578. Render: _a more urgent fear_. Some would connect
_propius_ with _agitabat_ notwithstanding its remote position.

_Suae quoque_. _His own also_, sc. as well as that of the Empire.

_Durius_, sc. aequo. H. 444, 1. cf. 4: _acrius_, note.

_Delictis--novus_. _A stranger to their faults_. Cf. Sil. Ital. 6, 254:
novusque dolori. Wr. Cf. Boet. Lex. Tac. _Dativus_.

_Poenitentiae mitior_, i.e. mitior erga poenitentiam, or facilior erga
poenitentes. _Poenitentiae_ dat. of object.

_Compositis prioribus_. _Having restored things to their former quiet

_Nullis--experimentis_. _Undertaking no military expeditions_. Or.--
_Castrorum_. Cf. 5, note.

_Comitate--tenuit_. "_Retained the province by a popular manner of
administering the government_." Ky.--_Curandi_. Note, H. 1, 52.

_Ignoscere_. Properly _not to notice_, hence _to view with indulgence, to
indulge in_.

_Vitiis blandientibus_. The reference is to the _luxurious and vicious
pleasures_ of the Romans, which enervated the Britons, cf. 21, at close,
where the idea is brought out more fully.

_Cum--lasciviret_. _Cum==since_. Hence the subj.

_Precario_. Cf. note, G. 44.--_Mox_, cf. note 4.

_Velut pacti_ implies a _tacit_ compact. It was understood between them,
that the army were to enjoy their liberty; the general, his life. Supply
_sunt_ with _pacti_. Doed. and Wr. supply _essent_; but they read _haec_
for _et_ before _seditio_ contrary to the best MSS.

_Et seditio_. _Et==and so_. Al. haec seditio.

_Stetit_. Not stopped, but stood, as in our phrase: stood them in so
much. So Ovid: Multo _sanguine_--victoria _stetit_. And T. His. 3, 53:
Majore _damno_--veteres civium discordias reipublicae _stetisse_. Render:
_cost no blood_. Dr.

_Petulantia_. _Insubordination_.--_Nisi quod_, but, cf. 6.

_Bolanus_. If the reader wishes to know more of the officers named in
this chapter, for Turpilianus, see Ann. 14, 39. His. 1, 6; Trebellius,
His. 1, 60; Bolanus, Ann. 15, 3. His. 2, 65. 79.

_Caritatem--auctoritatis_. "_Had conciliated affection as a substitute
for authority_." Ky.

XVII. _Recuperavit_. Al. _reciperavit_. The two forms are written
indiscriminately in the MSS. The word may express either the recovery of
what was lost, or the restoration to health of what was diseased. Either
would make a good sense here. Cf. chap. 5; also Cic. Phil. 14, 13:
_republica recuperata_. Or. renders _acquired again_, sc. what had
previously belonged, as it were, to him, rather than to the bad emperors
who had preceded him.

_Petilius Cerialis_. Cf. note, 8.--_Brigantum_. Cf. H. 3, 45; Ann. 12,
32. Their territory embraced Cumberland, Westmoreland, Lancashire, Durham
and Yorkshire.

_Aut victoria aut bello_, i.e. _either received their submission after
the victory, or involved them in the calamities of war_. _Aut--aut_
generally adversative==either--or on the contrary. _Vel--vel_ only
disjunctive==whether--or. Cf. note on vel--vel, G. 15.

_Alterius_. Another, than Julius Frontinus, i.e. by implication, one
_different_ from him, _less brave and great_. Cf. His. 2, 90: tanquam
apud alterius civitatis senatum; 3, 13, note. _Alius_ is the word usually
appropriated to express this idea. _Alter_ generally implies a
_resemblance_ between contrasted objects. See Freund, ad v.

_Obruisset--sustinuit_. These words primarily refer to physical energies,
and are exactly counterpart==_crushed--sustained_.

_Quantum licebat_ limits _vir magnus: as great a man, as it was
permitted_ him to be, restricted as he was in his resources, perhaps by
the parsimony of the Emperor. On Julius Frontinus, cf. H. 4, 39. He was
the friend of Pliny the Younger (Plin. Ep. 9, 19) and therefore probably
of Tacitus. His books on Stratagems, and on the Aqueducts of Rome are
still extant.--_Super_, over and above, i.e. _besides_.

XVIII. _Agentem_, sc. excubias or stationem==stationed in, cf. His. 1,
47: copias, quae Lugduni agebant. _Ala_. Cf. note, H. 1, 54.

_Ordovicum civitas_. Situated over against the Island Mona, north of the
Silures, i.e. in the northern part of what is now Wales.

_Ad--verterentur_. _Were turning themselves_ (middle sense) _towards_,
i.e. _looking to or for. Occasionem. An opportunity_, sc. to attack the
Romans in their security. Al. _uterentur_.

_Quibus--erat. They who wished for war_. Greek idiom for qui bellum
volebant. See Kuehner's Greek Gram. 284, 10, c., cf. His. 3, 43:
volentibus fuit, etc., and note, ibid. In Latin, the idiom occurs chiefly
in Sallust and T. See Z. 420, and H. 387, 3.

_Ac--opperiri_. Al. _aut_ by conjecture. But _ac==ac tamen, and yet_. Cf.
Ann. 1, 36: _exauctorari--ac retineri sub vexillo_.

_Transvecta_. Al. transacta. Cf. His. 2, 76: abiit et _transvectum est
tempus_. Only T. uses the word in reference to time.

_Numeri_==cohortes or manipuli, cf. His. 1, 6: multi numeri. This use of
the word is post-Augustan. Cf. note, His. 1, 6.

_Tarda et contraria_. In appos. with the foregoing clauses==
_circumstances calculated to retard and oppose him in commencing war_.

_Plerisque_, sc. of the inferior officers. They thought it best that
those parts of the country, whose fidelity was questionable (_suspecta_)
should be secured by garrisons (_custodiri_). _Potius_ is an adj. and
goes with _videbatur_==_it seemed preferable_.

_Legionum vexillis_. Some understand this of veteran soldiers who had
served out their time (twenty years), but were still _sub vexillis_ (not
dismissed). So R. and W. Others of parts of the legions detached for a
season sub vexillis (under separate standards). So Gronovius. The word
seems to be used in both senses. See note, H. 1, 31.

_In aequum_. Into the plain. Aequus, prim. level, hence aequor, sea.

_Erexit aciem. Led his troops up the steep_. So His. 3, 71: erigunt aciem
per adversum collem.

_Ac--ceteris. And that according as the first_ enterprises _went_ (cf.
note, 5: _cessit_), would be the terror in the rest_ of his engagements.
Cf. H. 2, 20: _gnarus, ut initia belli provenissent, famam in cetera
fore_. Al. _fore universa_.

_Possessione. Taking_ possession, cf. 14. A _possidere_, i.e. occupare,
non a _possidere_, quod est occupatum tenere. Rit. For the abl. without
_a_, cf. H. 2, 79: _Syria remeans_.

_Ut in dubiis consiliis_, sc. fieri solet. Generals are not apt to be
prepared beforehand for enterprises, not contemplated at all in their
original plans.

_Qui--expectabant. Who were looking out for (ex_ and _specto) a fleet,
for ships_, in a word _for the sea_, i.e. naval preparations in general,
instead of an attack by land. The language is highly rhetorical.--
_Crediderint_. Livy, Nepos and Tacitus use the _perf_. subj. after _ut_,
denoting a consequence, when a single, specific past act is expressed;
when a repeated or continued action, the _imp_. subj. Most writers use
the imp. in both cases. See H. 482, 2, and 480; Z. 516; also Z. 504,
Note, and note H. 1, 24: _dederit_.

_Officiorum ambitum. "Compliments of office."_ Ky.

_Placuisset_. Subj. cf. note, 11: _ut quos_.

_Expeditionem--continuisse. He did not call it a campaign or a victory to
have kept the conquered in subjection_.

_Laureatis_ sc. litteris. It was customary to communicate the news of
victory to the Emperor and Senate, by letters bound with bay leaves, cf.
Liv. 5, 28: _litterae_ a Postumio _laureatae_ sequuntur. Without
_litterae_, it occurs only here. Or. So in H. 3, 77. T. avoids the
technical expression and employs the word _laurea_, seldom used in this

_Dissimulatione_. Cf. note, 6.--_Aestimantibus_, cf. aestimanti, 11. The
aspiring, and especially the vain, may learn from this passage a lesson
of great practical value. Compare also Sec. 8, at the close.

XIX. _Aliena experimenta. The experience of others_.

_Nihil_. Ellipsis of _agere_ (which is inserted without MS. authority in
the common editions). So Cic. Phil. 1, 2: Nihil per senatum, etc. Cf. G.
19: _adhuc_, note.

_Ascire_, al. accire. _To receive into regular service_. The reference is
to the transfer of soldiers from the raw recruits to the legions. So W.
followed by Dr. R. and W. The next clause implies, that he took care to
receive into the service none but the best men (_optimum quemque_), whom
he deemed _trustworthy_ (_fidissimum_) just in _proportion_ as they were
_good_. This use of two superlatives mutually related to each other, the
former with _quisque_, is frequent in Latin and resembles the English use
of two comparatives: the better, the more trustworthy. Cf. Z. 710, b.;
also note, 3: _promptissmus quisque_.

_Exsequi_==punire. A sense peculiar to the later Latin. Cic. and Caes.
use _persequi_. For a similar use of the word in the expression of a
similar sentiment, see Suet. Jul. 67: Delicta neque observabat omnia
neque pro modo exsequebatur. Compare our word _execute_. And mark the
sentiment, as a maxim in the science of government.

_Severitatem commodare_. W. with Dr. and R. make this an example of
zeugma. And in its ordinary acceptation (i.e. in the sense _to give_)
the word _commodare_ certainly applies only to _veniam_, and not to
_severitatem_. But _commodare_ in its primary signification means to
_adapt_; and in this sense, it suits both of its adjuncts: _He adapted_
(awarded) _pardon to small offences, severe punishment to great ones_. So
Wr. For the series of infinitives, cf. notes, 5: _nosci_, etc.; G. 30:
_praeponere_, etc.

_Nec poena--contentus esse. Nor was he always content with punishment,
but oftener with repentance_. Mere punishment without reformation did not
satisfy him; reformation without punishment satisfied him better. See
Doed. in loc. Here too some have called in the aid of zeugma.

_Auctionem_. Al. exactionem. The former is the reading of the greater
part of the MSS. and the later German editions. _Auctionem tributorum_
refers to the increased tribute exacted by Vesp. cf. Sueton. Vesp. 16:
_auxisse_ tributa provinciis, nonnullis et _duplicasse_.

_Munerum_. _Duties, burdens.--Circumcisis_. Cf. note, 2: expulsis. etc.,
and 11: amissa virtute.

_Namque--cogebantur_. The best version we can give of this obscure
passage is as follows: _For they were compelled in mockery to sit by the
closed granaries and to buy corn needlessly_ (beyond what was necessary,
cf. note on _ultro_, G. 28, when they had enough of their own) _and to
sell it at a fixed price_ (prescribed by the purchasers). It has been
made a question, whether the granaries of the Britons, or those of the
Romans are here meant. Doed., Dr. and R. advocate the former opinion;
Walch, Wr., Or., and Rit. the latter. According to the former view, the
Britons were often obliged to buy corn of the Romans, because they were
forbidden to use their own, to supply themselves and their families;
according to the latter, because they were required (as explained below)
to carry their contributions to a quarter so distant from their own
granaries, that they were fain to buy the corn rather at some nearer
warehouse of the Romans. The selling at a fixed price is equally
intelligible on either supposition. Or. following the best MSS. reads
_ludere pretio_, which Rit. has amended into _colludere pretio_. _Ultro_
may well enough be rendered _moreover_ or _even_, thus giving emphasis to

_Devortia itinerum_. _Bye roads_, explained by _avia_, as _longinquitas_
is by _remota_. The object of requiring the people to convey their
contributions to such distant and inconvenient points, was to compel them
to buy of the Romans, or to pay almost any sum of money to avoid
compliance. The reader of Cic. will remember in illustration of this
whole passage, the various arts to which Verres is said to have had
recourse to enrich himself, at the expense of the people of his province
(Cic. in Ver. 3, 72, and 82), such as refusing to accept the
contributions they brought, obliging them to buy of him at his own price,
requiring them to carry supplies to points most distant and difficult of
access, _ut vecturae difficultate ad quam vellent aestimationem

_Omnibus_, sc. et incolis et militibus; _paucis_, sc. praefectis aut
publicanis. Dr.

_Donec--fieret_. The subj. here denotes a purpose or object in view, and
theretore follows _donec_ according to the rule. H. 522, II.; Z. 575.
Tacitus however always expresses a repeated past action after _donec_ by
the imp. subj. Cf. note, 37: affectavere; H. 1, 13. 35.

XX. _Statim_. Emphatic, like [Greek: euthus]. Cf. Thucyd. 2, 47: [Greek:
tou therous euthus archomenou]: at the _very_ beginning of summer. So in
Sec. 3.

_Intolerantia_, al. tolerantia, but without MS. authority. _Incuria_ is
_negligence_. Intolerantia_ is _insufferable arrogance, severity_, in a
word _intolerance_. So Cic.: superbia atque intolerantia.

_Quae--timebatur_. And no wonder, since _ubi solitudinem_ faciunt, _pacem_
appellant, 30.

_Multus_, al. militum. _Multus_ in the recent editions.
_Multus_==frequens, cf. Sal. Jug. 84: multus ac ferox instare.--
_Modestiam--disiectos_. These words are antithetic, though one is
abstract and the other concrete. The whole clause may be literally
rendered thus: _ever present in the line of march, he commended
good order (discipline), the disorderly he restrained_.

_Popularetur_, sc. A. _Quominus_, that not==_but: but he ravaged their
country by unexpected invasions_.

_Irritamenta_. _Inducements.--Pacis_. Ang. _to_ or _for peace_.

_Ex aequo egerant_, lit. had acted (lived) on an equality, i.e. _had
maintained their independence_, cf. His. 4, 64: aut ex aequo agetis aut
aliis imperitabitis.

_Iram posuere_. Cf. Hor. Ars Poet.: et _iram_ colligit ac _ponit_ temere.
See also G. 27: ponunt dolorem, etc.

_Ut--transierit_. The clause is obscure. The best that can be made of it
is this: _they were encompassed by forts and garrisons with so much skill
and care that no part of Britain hitherto now went over_ (to the enemy)
_with impunity_ (literally unattacked). For the meaning of _nova_, cf.
22. For _transierit_, cf. _transitio_, H. 2, 99; 3, 61; and Freund, sub
v. This is Walther's interpretation. If, with Ernesti, Dr. and some
others, we might suppose a _sic_, _ita_ or _tam_ to be understood with
_illacessita_, we might obtain perhaps a better sense, viz. _came over_
(to the Romans) _with so little annoyance_ (from the enemy). In the last
edition a meaning was attached to _transierit_ (_remained_, sc.
unattacked), for which I now find no sufficient authority. Among the many
amendments, which have been suggested, the easiest and best is that of
Susius, followed by Wexius, Duebner, Or. and Rit, viz. placing
_Illacessita transiit_ at the beginning of the next chapter. But this
does violence not only to MS. authority, but to Latin usage in making the
adverb _ut, so as, as_, follow _tanta_. In such a connection, _ut_ must
be a conjunction==_so that, that_. See Freund sub v. For the _perf_.
subj. cf. note, 18: _crediderint_.

_Praesidiis castellisque_. Gordon, in his Itinerarium Septentrionale,
found more remains of Roman works in that part of Britain here referred
to, than in any other portion of the Island.

XXI. _Ut--assuescerent_. _In order that they might become habituated_,
etc.--_In bella faciles. Easily inclined to wars_. Cf. Ann. 14, 4:
_facili ad gaudia_. Al. _in bello, bello_, and _in bellum_.--_Otio_. See
note, 11: otio.--_Privatim. As a private individual; publice, by public
authority, and of course from the public treasury_, cf. note G. 39:
publice.--_Jam vero_. _Moreover_, cf. G. 14, note.

_Anteferre_. Wr. takes this word in its primary sense==bear before, i.e.
carry beyond: _he carried (advanced) the native talents of the Britons
beyond the learning of the Gauls_. But there is no authority for such a
use of the word, when followed by the acc. and dat. It is doubtless used
in its more ordinary sense; and the _preference_ which A. expressed for
the genius of the Britons over the learning of the Gauls, _stimulated_
them to greater exertions. It is somewhat curious to observe thus early
that mutual emulation and jealousy, which has marked the whole history of
Britain and France. The national vanity of La Bletterie is sorely wounded
by this remark of T. See his note in loco, also Murphy's.--_Toga_. Cf.
note on _togatos_, 9.

_Ut--concupiscerent_. _Ut==so that_, denoting a consequence. The verb
here denotes a continued or habitual state of mind. Hence the _imp_.
subj. Cf. note, 18: _crediderit_.

_Discessum_, sc. a patrum moribus ad vitia varia. Dr.

_Delenimenta_==illa, quibus animi _leniuntur_. Dr. _Charms,
blandishments_. Cf. H. 1, 77. The word is not found in Cic. or Caes.

_Humanitas. Civilisation, refinement_. Compare the professorships of
_humanity_ in European Universities.

_Pars servitutis_. For the sentiment, cf. His. 4, 64: voluptatibus,
quibus Romani plus adversus subjectos, quam armis valent. _Cum==while,
although_. Hence the subj.

XXII. _Tertius--annus_. _Third campaign_.

_Taum_. The Frith of Tay.--_Nationibus_. Here synonymous with _gentes_;
sometimes less comprehensive, cf. note, G. 2.

_Pactione ac fuga_. Al. _aut_ fuga, but without authority. There are
but two distinct clauses marked by _aut--aut: either taken by assault or
abandoned by capitulation and flight_.

_Nam--firmabantur_. This clause assigns a reason, why the Romans were
_able_ to make frequent sorties (_crebrae eruptiones_), viz. supplies of
provision so abundant, as to be proof against blockade.

_Moras obsidionis. A protracted siege_, or _blockade_.

_Annuis copiis. Supplies for a year_. This is the _primary_ signification
of _annuus_; that of our word _annual_ is _secondary_.

_Intrepida--praesidio_==hiberna quieta ac tuta ab hostibus. Fac. and For.
--_Irritis, baffled_. Seldom applied to _persons_ by prose writers. Cf. H.
4, 32.

_Pensare_. R. remarks a peculiar fondness in T. for the use of the simple
verb instead of the compound, e.g. missa for omissa, sistens for
resistens, flammare for inflammare, etc. So here _pensare==compensare_.
Cf. 12: _trahuntur_, note.

_Avidus_, sc. laudis==per aviditatem laudis et gloriae. E.: A. never in
his eagerness for glory arrogated to himself the honor of the
achievements of others.--_Seu--seu. Every one, whether centurion or
praefect_ (commander of a legion, cf. note, H. 1, 82.), _was sure to have
in him an impartial witness to his deeds_.

_Acerbior_, cf. note on _durius_, 16.--_Apud quosdam_==a quibusdam.

_Secretum et silentium. Reserve and silence_. So W. and Ky. But R. and
Dr.: _private interviews_ (to be summoned to which by some commanders was
alarming), _and neglect of the usual salutations in public_ (which was
also often a token of displeasure on the part of a superior officer). The
former is the more simple and obvious, though it must be confessed that
the latter is favored by the usus loquendi of T., in regard especially to
_secretum_, cf. 39; Ann. 3, 8, where _secreto_ is opposed to _palam_; and
His. 4, 49: incertum, quoniam _secreto eorum_ nemo _adfuit_.

XXIII. _Obtirendis. Securing possession of.--Pateretur_, sc. terminum
inveniri.--_In ipsa Brit_. In the very _nature_ or structure of the
island, as described in the sequel. See Or. in loc.

_Clota et Bodotria_. Frith of Clyde and Frith of Forth.

_Revectae_, i.e. the natural current being driven back by the tide from
the sea on either side. _Angusto--spatio_. It is now cut across by a ship

_Propior sinus_==peninsula on the south side of the Friths, cf, note on
sinus G. 1, and 29. Sinus refers particularly to the _curved border_ on
_this side_ the aestuaries. This border (wherever the friths were so
narrow as to require it), as well as the narrow isthmus, was occupied and
secured (_tenebatur_) by garrisons.

XXIV. _Nave prima_. The first Roman ship that ever visited those shores.
So Br., Dr., etc. _The foremost ship_, sc., A. himself, followed by
others in a line. So Ritter. Wr., and some others understand it of a
voyage from _Rome_, where they suppose him to have passed the winter, and
whence he crossed over to Britain by the _earliest_ vessel in the spring.
W. and R. make _prima_ equivalent to an adv. and render: crossing over
_for the first time_ by ship. Or. also makes _prima==tum primum_.

_Copiis_. Here troops with their equipments==_forces_, cf. 8: majoribus
copiis.--_Medio sita_ lying between, not midway between. E.--_In spem--
formidinem_. More with the hope of invading Ireland, than through fear of
invasion by the Irish.--_Valentissimam partem_, viz. Gaul, Spain and

_Miscuerit_. The subj. here denotes the aim or purpose of the projector:
it would have done so _in his view_.

_Invicem_==an adj. _mutual.--Nostri maris_. The Mediterranean.

_Differunt: in melius_. The authorities differ greatly as to the reading,
the pointing and the interpretation of this passage. Some copies omit
_in_. Others insert _nec_ before it. Some place the pause before _in
melius_, others after. Some read _differt_, others _differunt. Nec in
melius_ would perhaps give the better sense. But the reading is purely
conjectural. I have given that, which, on the whole, seems to rest on the
best authority, and to make the best sense. The sense is: _the soil,
climate, &c., do not differ much from those of Britain. But that the
harbors and entrances to the country are better_ (lit. _differ for the
better, differre in melius), is ascertained through the medium of the
merchants, who resort thither for trade_ (for Ireland had not yet, like
Britain, been explored by a Roman _army_). So Wr. and Doed. On _in
melius_, see note H. 1, 18. Or. and Rit. make the comparison thus: the
harbors and entrances are better known, than the soil, climate, &c. The
common interpretation is: the harbors, &c., of Ireland are better known,
than those of Britain. But neither of these interpretations accounts for
the position of _melius_; and the last is in itself utterly incredible.

_Ex eo_, sc. A. Pass. and Dr. understand it of the Irish chief, and infer
that T. had been in Brit. But A. is the subject of the next sentence
without the repetition of his name, as it would have been repeated, if
this sentence referred to another.

XXV. _Amplexus_. Some supply _bello_, as in 17: bello amplexus. But
better: embracing _in his plan of operations_, i.e. _extending his
operations to those tribes_.

_Hostilis exercitus_. Al. hostili exercitu. But _hostilis exercitus_ in
the MSS. and earliest editions.--_Infesta_ is here active: _hostile
inroads of the enemy's forces_.

_In partem virium_. _For_, i.e. _as a part of his force_.

_Impelleretur_, was borne on with rapid and resistless power.

_Profunda--adversa_. Cf. note, 6: _inania honoris_.

_Mixti copiis et laetitia. Uniting their stores and their pleasures_,
i.e. their respective means of entertainment. For _mixti_, cf. 4:
locum--mixtum. For _copiis_ in this sense, 22: annuis copiis. For the
other sense, viz. forces, 24: copiis, note.

_Hinc--hinc==on this side--on that_. Cf. note G. 14: _illum--illam_.--
_Victus_. Al. _auctus_.

_Ad manus et arma_. Ang. _to arms_.

_Oppugnasse_ depends on _fama_. Their preparations were great. Rumor as
usual (_uti mos_, etc.) represented them still greater; for the rumor
went abroad, that the Caledonians had _commenced offensive operations
(oppugnasse ultra).--Castella adorti_ is the means by which they _metum
addiderant_, i.e. _had inspired additional fear_.

_Pluribus agminibus. In several divisions_. Accordingly it is added:
_diviso et ipse_, A. _himself also_, i.e. as well as the Britons,
_having divided_, etc.

_Agmen_ (from ago), properly a body of men on the march.--_Exercitus_,
under military drill (exerceo.)

XXVI. _Quod ubi_, etc. _When this was known_, etc. Latin writers, as well
as Greek, generally link their sentences, chapters, &c., more closely
together, than English. Hence we are often obliged to render their
relative by our demonstrative. See Z. 803. _Ubi_, here adv. of _time_, as
in 20, 38, et passim.

_Certabant_. Not _fought_ with the enemy, but _vied_ with each other. So
below: utroque--certante. Hence followed by _de_ gloria, not _pro_ gloria,
which some would substitute for it; _secure for_ (in regard to) _safety,
they vied with each other in respect to_ (or _in_) _glory_. With _pro
salute_, cf. His. 4, 58: pro me securior.

_Erupere. Sallied forth_, sc. from the camp.

_Utroque exercitu_. Each of the two _Roman_ armies.

_Quod_. Cf. 12, note.--_Debellatum_, lit. the war would have been fought
_out_, i.e. _ended_.

XXVII. _Cujus_ refers to _victoria_ in the previous section (cf. _quod_
26, note): _inspirited by the consciousness and the glory of this

_Modo cauti_. Compare the sentiment with 25: specie prudentium, etc.

_Arte--rati_, al. arte _usos_ rati by conjecture. But T. is fond of such
ellipses: _The Britons, thinking it was not by superior bravery, but by
favoring circumstances_ (on the part of the Romans) _and the skill of
their commander_ (sc. that they had been defeated). Rit. reads

_Utrimque_. Both the Romans and the Britons; the Romans excited by their
victory, the Britons by their coetibus ac sacrificiis.

_Discessum. They separated_, viz. after the battle and at the close of
the campaign.

XXVIII. _Cohors Usipiorum_. See same story, Dio Cass. 66, 20.

_Adactis. Forced on board.--Remiganto_==gubernante, to avoid sameness,
with _gubernatoribus_, Br. R. supposes that having but one pilot left,
only the vessel on which he sailed was _rowed_, while the others were
towed by it; and this rowing _under his direction_ is ascribed to _him_.
Some MSS. and many editions read _remigrante_, which some translate:
_making his escape_, and others connect with _interfectis_, and suppose
that he also was slain in trying to _bring back_ his boat to shore.
Whether we read _remigante_ or _remigrante_, the signification of either
is unusual.

_Praevehebantur_. Sailed along the coast (in sight of land).

_Inopiae_ is governed by _eo_, which is the old dat.==_to such a degree.
--Ad extremum==at last_.

_Vescerentur_ followed by the acc. H. 419, 4. 1; Z. 466. For the imp.
subj. cf. note 21: _ut--concupiscerent_.

_Amissis--navibus_. This is regarded by some as proof that _all_ the
steersmen were slain or escaped. Dr. answers, that it may refer only to
the _two_ ships that were without steersmen.

_Suevis_. A people of Northern Germany (G. 38, seq.) whither, after
having circumnavigated Britain, the Usipii came.--_Mox, subsequently_,
some having escaped the Suevi.

_Per commercia. In trade_, cf. same in 39.

_Nostram ripam_. The Gallic bank of the Rhine, which was the border of
the Roman Empire, cf. G. passim.

_Quos--indicium--illustravit_. Whom the account of so wonderful an
adventure rendered illustrious. The rule would require the subj. H. 501,
I. 2; Z. 561.

XXIX. _Initio aestatis_, i.e. in the beginning of the _next_ summer (the
7th campaign, cf. 25: _aestate, qua sextum_, etc.), as the whole history
shows. See especially _proximo anno_, 34. Hence the propriety of
commencing a new section here. The common editions begin it below:
_Igitur_, etc.

_Plerique_. Cf. note on it, 1.--_Fortium virorum_. _Military men_.

_Ambitiose, with affected fortitude, stoically_.--_Rursus_==contra, _on
the contrary_, showing the antith. between _ambitiose_ and _per lamenta_.
--_Per lamenta_, cf. 6: per caritatem.--_Igitur_, cf. 13, note.

_Quae--faceret_==ut ea faceret. H. 500; Z. 567. _Incertum_ is explained
by _pluribus locis_. Render: _general alarm_.--_Expedito_==sine
impedimentis, armis solis instructo. Fac. and For.--_Montem Grampium_.
Now _Grampian hills_.

_Cruda--senectus_. Cf. Virg. Aen. 6, 304: sed cruda deo viridisque
senectus. _Crudus_ is rarely found in this sense except in the poets.
_Crudus_ properly==bloody (_cruor, cruidus_); hence the successive
significations, raw, unripe, fresh, vigorous.--_Sua decora_==praemia
ob virtutem bellicam accepta. E. Any and all _badges of distinction_,
especially in _arms_. Wr., Or. and Dod.

XXX. _Causas belli_. Explained by _universi servitutis expertes_ below,
to be the defence of their liberties. In like manner, _nostram
necessitatem_ is explained by _nullae ultra terrae_: there is no retreat
for us, etc.--_Animus, Confidence_.

_Proelium--arma_. T. has a passion for _pairs_ of words, especially
nouns, of _kindred signification_. See examples in Index to Histories;
and in this chapter, _spem ac subsidium_; _recessus ac sinus_; _obsequiam
ac modestiam_.

_Priores pugnae_, sc. in which the Caledonians took no part.--_Pugnae_
is here, by a figure put for the _combatants_ themselves, who are
represented as looking to the Caledonians, as a kind of corps de reserve,
or last resource.

_Eo. For that reason_. The best things are always kept guarded and
concealed in the _penetralia_. There may also be a reference to a _fact_
stated by Caesar (B.G. 5, 12), that the inhabitants of the interior were
aborigines, while those on the coast were immigrants.

_Terrarum--extremos_. _The remotest of men and last of freemen_.
--_Recessus--famae_. _Our very remoteness and obscurity_. This is the
most common and perhaps the most simple translation, making _sinus
famae_==seclusion in respect to fame. Perhaps, however, it accords as
well with the usual signification of the words, and better with the
connexion and spirit of the speech, to take _sinus famae_ in the sense,
_retreat of glory_, or _glorious retreat_. So Wr. His interpretation of
the passage and its connexion is as follows: _our very remoteness and our
glorious retreat have guarded us till this day. But now the furthest
extremity of Brit. is laid open_ (i.e. our retreat is no longer a
safeguard); _and every thing unknown is esteemed great (i.e. this
safeguard also is removed--the Romans in our midst no longer magnify our
strength). Rit. encloses the clause in brackets, as a gloss. He renders
_sinus famae, bosom of fame_, fame being personified as a goddess. R.,
Dr., Or. make _famae_ dative after _defendit_==has _kept back from fame_.

_Sed nulla jam_, etc. But now all the above grounds of confidence--our
remoteness, our glory, our greatness magnified by the imagination of our
enemies, from the very fact that we were unknown to them--all these are
removed; we have none behind us to fall back upon, as our countrymen in
former battles have leaned upon us--and we are reduced to the necessity
of self-defence and self-reliance. The _sed_ seems to be antithetic to
the whole as far back as _priores pugnae_; whereas _nunc_ is opposed only
to the clause which immediately precedes it, and constitutes an
antithesis within an antithesis.

_Infestiores_, sc. quam fluctus et saxa.

_Effugeris_. Cf. note G. 19: _non invenerit_; also _satiaverit_ just

_Et mare_. _Et==also_. Cf. note, G. 11.

_Opes atque inopiam_. Abs. for conc.==rich and poor nations.

_Falsis nominibus_ is by some connected with _rapere_. But better with
_appellant_. _They call things by false names_, viz. _plunder, empire;
and desolation, peace_.

XXXI. _Annos_==annonam, _yearly produce_, cf. G. 14: expectare annum. So
often in the Poets.--_In frumentum. For supplies_. The reading of this
clause is much disputed. The text follows that of W. and R. and is
approved by Freund. For the meaning of _egerunt_, cf. _praedam
egesserunt_, H. 3, 33.

_Silvis--emuniendis_==viis per silvas et paludes muniendis. E.

_Semel_. _Once for all_, G. 19.--_Emit_, sc. tributis pendendis;
_pascit_, sc. frumento praebendo. E.

_Portus, quibus exercendis_. W. and Dr. explain this of collecting
revenue at the ports (i.e. farming them), a thing unknown to the early
Britons; Wr. of rowing, servile labor. Why not refer it to the
_construction_ or _improvement_ of harbors? By rendering _exercendis,
working, improving_, we make it applicable alike to harbors, mines and
fields.--_Reservemur_. Subj. in a relative clause denoting a purpose. H.
500; Z. 567.

_Potuere_. Observe the ind., where we use the potential. It is especially
frequent with _possum, debeo_, &c. Z. 518 and 519.

_Nonne_ implies an affirmative answer. Z. 352, and H. 346, II. 1. 2.

_In poenitentiam_, al. in praesentiam. The general idea is essentially
the same with either reading. _Non in praesentiam==not to obtain our
freedom, for the present merely. Non in poenitentiam==not about to
obtain our freedom merely to regret it_, i.e. in such a manner as the
Brigantes, who forthwith lost it by their _socordia_.

XXXII. _Nisi si_==nisi forte, cf. note, G. 2: nisi si patria.

_Pudet dictu_. The supine after _pudet_ is found only here. Quintilian
however has _pudendum dictu_. Cf. Or. in loc.; and Z. 441. 443.

_Commendent_, etc. _Although they give up their blood to_ (i.e. _shed it
in support of_) _a foreign tyrant_.--_Tamen_ is antithetic to _licet_:
_although_ they give, _yet longer enemies, than slaves_ (of Rome).

_Metus--est_. _It is fear and terror_ (sc. that keep them in subjection),
_weak bonds of affection_.

_Removeris--desierint_. Fut. perf. Cf. note, G. 23: _indulseris_.

_Nulla--aut alia_. Some of the Roman soldiers had lost all attachment to
country and could not be said to have any country; others had one, but it
was not Britain, it was far away.

_Ne terreat_. The third person of the imperative is for the most part
avoided in ordinary language; and the pres. subj. is used in its stead.
Z. 529, Note.

_Nostras manus_, i.e. those ready to join us and aid our arms, viz. (as
he goes on to say), the Gauls and Germans, as well as the Britons now in
the Roman ranks.--_Tamquam_==_just as_ (_tam-quam_). Doed. renders, _just
as certainly as_.

_Vacua.--Destitute of soldiers.--Senum_, sc. veterani et emeriti. Cf.
note, 15. _Aegra==disaffected_. Cf. H. 2, 86.

_Hic dux_, etc. _Here a general, here an army_ (sc. the Roman, awaits
you); _there tributes, mines_, &c. (and you must conquer the former or
endure the latter--these are your only alternatives).

_In hoc campo est_. _Depends on this battle field_.--T. has laid out all
his strength on this speech. It can hardly be matched for martial force
and sententious brevity. It breathes, as it should in the mouth of a
Briton, an indomitable spirit of liberty, and reminds us, in many
features, of the concentrated and fiery eloquence, which has so often
roused our American Indians to defend their altars and revenge their

XXXIII. _Ut barbaris moris_. Al. et barbari moris. But compare 39: ut
Domitiano moris erat; His. 1, 15: ut moris est. Supply _est_ here: _as is
the custom of_ (lit. _to_) _barbarians_. Z. 448, & H. 402, I.

_Agmina_, sc. conspiciebantur.--_Procursu_ is the means by which the
gleam of armor was brought into view.

_Acies_, sc. Britannorum. The _Roman_ army was still within the camp, cf.
_munimentis coercitum_, below.

_Coercitum_==qui coerceri potest. The part, used in the sense of a verbal.
So _monstratus_, G. 31, which, Freund says, is Tacitean. The perf. part.
pass. with negative prefix _in_ often takes this sense. Z. 328. Cf. note,
His. 5, 7: _inexhaustum_.

_Octavus annus_. This was Agricola's _seventh summer_ in Britain. See
note 29: _initio aestatis_. But it being now later in the season, than
when he entered Britain, he was now entering on his _eighth year_. Cf.
Rit. in loc.

_Virtute--Romani_. _By the valor and favoring auspices of the Roman
Empire_. War was formerly carried on auspiciis _Populi_ Rom. But after
Augustus, auspiciis _Imperatoris_ or _Imperii_ Rom.

_Expeditionibus--proeliis_. These words denote the _time_ of _poenituit_
(_in_ or _during_ so many, etc.)--_Patientia_ and _labore_ are abl. after

_Terminos_. Acc. after _egressi_ (H. 371, 4): _having transcended the
limits_. Cf. Z. 387.

_Fama, rumore_. Synonyms. Also _castris, armis_. Cf. note, 30.

_Vota--aperto_. _Your vows and your valor now have free scope_ (are in the
open field), cf. note 1: _in aperto_.

_In frontem_. Antith. to _fugientibus_. Hence==progredientibus.

_Hodie_. _To-day_, i.e. _in our present circumstances of prosperity_.

_Nec--fuerit_. _Nor will it have been inglorious_, sc. when the thing
shall have been _done_ and men shall look _back_ upon our achievements.
The fut. perf. is appropriate to such a conception.

_Naturae fine_. Cf. note, G. 45: _illuc usque natura_.

XXXIV. _Hortarer_. Literally, _I would be exhorting you_. The use of the
imperf. subj. in hypothetical sentences, where we should use a plup. (I
would have exhorted you), is frequent both in Greek and Latin, even when
it denotes a _complete_ past action, cf. Z. 525. When the action is not
complete, as here, the Latin form is at once more lively and more exact
than the English.--_Proximo anno_. This same expression may signify
either the next year, or the last year. Here of course: _the last year_,
referring to the battle described in 26, cf. also note 29: _Initio

_Furto noctis_. Cf. Virg. Aen. 9, 397: fraude noctis.

_Contra ruere_. _Rush forth to meet, penetrantibus_, etc. R. and Wr. take
_ruere_ for perf. 3d pl. instead of _ruerunt_, since T. uses the form in
_ere_ much more than that in _erunt_. Rit. makes it inf. after _solet_
understood, or rather implied in _pelluntur_, which==_pelli solent_.

_Quos--quod_. _Whom, as to the fact that you have at length found (it is
not because) they have taken a stand, but they have been overtaken_. Cf.
Wr. and Or. in loc. On _deprehensi_, cf. note, 7. On _quod==as to this,
that_, see examples in Freund, or in any Lexicon.

_Novissimae--vestigiis_. _The extremity of their circumstances, and their
bodies_ (motionless) _with terror have brought them to a stand for battle
on this spot_, etc. One MS. reads _novissime_ and omits _aciem_, which
reading is followed in the common editions.

_Extremo metu_ is to be closely connected with _corpora_. For the sense
of _defixere_, cf. Ann. 13, 5: pavore defixis.

_Ederetis_. Subj. cf. H. 500, 2; Z. 556, a.

_Transigite cum expeditionibus_==finite expeditiones. Dr. Cf. G. 19:
cum spe--transigitur, note.

_Quinquaginta annis_. So many years, it might be said to be in round
numbers, though actually somewhat _less_ than fifty years, since the
dominion of Rome was first established in Britain under the Emperor
Claudius. Cf. 13, supra.--The speech of A. is not equal to that of
Galgacus. He had not so good a cause. He could not appeal to the sacred
principles of justice and liberty, to the love of home and household
gods. But he makes the best of a bad cause. The speech is worthy of a
Roman commander, and touches with masterly skill all those chords in a
Roman soldier's breast, that were never touched in vain.

XXXV. _Et==both_. Both while he was speaking and after he had ceased, the
soldiers manifested their ardor, etc.

_Instinctos_. Cf. note 16: instincti.

_Aciem firmarent_==aciem firmam facerent, of which use there are examples
not only in T., but in Liv. Dr. The auxiliary foot _formea_ or _made up_
(not merely strengthened) _the centre_.--_Affunderentur. Were attached
to_.--_Pro vallo. On the rampart_; properly on the fore part of it. Cf.
note, H. 1, 29.

_Ingens--decus_. In app. with _legiones--stetere_.

_Bellanti_, sc. Agricolae. Al. bellandi.

_In speciem_. Cf. in suam famam, 8, and in jactationem, 5.

_Aequo_. Supply consisteret to correspond with _insurgeret_. Zeugma. Cf.
note, 18: in aequum.

_Media campi_. _The intervening parts of the plain_, sc. between the two
armies.--_Covinarius_ is found only in T. _Covinarii_==the essedarii of
Caesar. Covinus erat currus Belgarum, a quibus cum Britanni acceperant.

_Pedes_. Nom. sing, in app. with subject of _constitit_.

XXXVI. _Indentibus gladiis_, etc. So below: _parva scuta_, etc. The small
shield and broad sword of the Highlanders.

_Donec--cohortatus est_. Cf. note, G. 37: _affectavere_.--_Batavorum
cohortes_. Al. _tres--cohortes_. But the number is not specified in the
best MSS. In the Histories, eight cohorts of Batavians are often
mentioned as constituting the auxiliaries of the 14th legion, which was
now in Britain. See Rit. in loc.

_Ad mucrones_. The Britons were accustomed to fight with the edge of the
sword, and cut and hew the enemy. The Romans, on the contrary, made use
of the _point_. Of course in a close engagement, they would have greatly
the advantage. Br.--_Ad manus_. The opposite of _eminus_, i.e. _a close
engagement_. The same thing is expressed below by _complexum armorum_.

_In aperto pugnam_. Literally a fight in the open field, i.e. a
_regular_ pitched _battle_, which with its compact masses would be less
favorable to the large swords of the Britons, than a battle on ground
uncleared of thickets and forests. Al. _in arto_.

_Miscere, ferire_, etc. A series of inf. denoting a rapid succession of
events, cf. note, 5: noscere--nosci; G. 30: praeponere.

_Equitum turmae_, sc. Britannorum. The word _turmae_ is applicable to
such a cavalry as theirs, cf. Ann. 14, 34: _Britannorum_ copiae passim
per catervas et _turmas_ exsultabant. Br. Ky. and others here understand
it of the Roman cavalry. But R. Dr. and Wr. apply it to the Britons, and
with reason, as we shall see below, and as we might infer indeed from its
close connexion with _covinarii_, for the _covinarii_ were certainly

_Peditum proelio, hostium agminibus_. These also both refer to the
_Britons_. The covinarii were interspersed among their own infantry, and,
as the Romans advanced, became entangled with them. This is disputed. But
the small number of Romans slain in the whole battle is alone enough to
show, that _their_ cavalry was not routed, nor _their_ infantry broken in
upon by the chariots of the enemy. Moreover, how could T. properly use
the word _hostium_ of his own countrymen?

_Minimeque_, etc. This is one passage, among a few in T., which is so
manifestly corrupt that no sense can be made of it, as it stands in the
MSS. The reading given in the text is the simplest of all the conjectural
readings that have been proposed. It is that of Br. and E., and is
followed by the common editions. Cavalry took a large part in the battle.
But the battle wore little the aspect of an equestrian fight; for the
Britons, after maintaining their position with difficulty for some time,
were at length swept away by the bodies (the _mere uncontrolled bodies_)
of the horses--in short, the riders had no control over horses or
chariots, which rushed on without drivers obliquely athwart, or directly
through the lines, as their fears severally impelled them; all which was
in marked contrast to a Roman's idea of a regular battle of cavalry.

XXXVII. _Vacui. Free from apprehension_.

_Ni_. Cf. note 4: ni.--_Subita belli. Unexpected emergencies_ arising in
the course of the battle. Cf. 6: _inania honoris_.

_Grande et atrox spectaculum_, etc. See a similar description in Sal.
Jug. 101. The series of infinitives and the omission of the connectives
(_asyndeton_) make the succession of events very rapid and animated.
Compare the famous _veni, vidi, vici_, of Caesar.

_Prout--erat_. According to their different natural disposition, i.e.
_the timid, though armed, turned their backs before inferior numbers;
while the brave, though unarmed, met death in the face_.

_Praestare terga_ is an expression found only in T.

_Et aliquando_, etc. _Et==ac tamen. And_ yet (notwithstanding the flight
of crowds and the passive death of some as above) _sometimes to the
conquered also_ there was _anger and bravery_. The language is Virgilian,
cf. Aen. 2, 367.

_Quod_. Cf. note 12.--_Ni frequens--fiduciam foret_. "Had not A., who was
everywhere present, caused some strong and lightly equipped cohorts to
encompass the ground, while part of the cavalry having dismounted, made
their way through the thickets, and part on horseback scoured the open
woods, some disaster would have prcoeeded from this excess of
confidence." Ky.

XXXVIII. _Gaudio praedaque laeta_. Cf. note, G. 7: _cibos et hortamina_.
Observe also the juxtaposition of _tempestate_ and _fama_ in this same

_Separare_, sc. consilia, i.e. _they sometimes act in concert, sometimes
provide only for their individual safety_.

_Pignorum_. Cf. note G. 7: pignora--_Saevisse. Laid violent hands_. "This
picture of rage and despair, of tenderness, fury, and the tumult of
contending passions, has all the fine touches of a master who has studied
human nature." Mur.--_Secreti_==deserti.

_Ubi. When_, cf. 26. Its direct influence extends to _nequibat_, and with
its clause, it expresses the _reason_ why A. drew off his forces into the
country of the Horesti.--_Spargi bellum_==diversis locis, vel diviso
exercitu, vel vagando bellum geri. E.

_Secunda--fama. Favored by the weather and the glory of their past
achievements_ (lit. the weather and fame _following_ them, _secunda

_Trutulensem portum_. Some port, now unknown, probably near the mouth of
the Tay or the Forth. _Unde_ qualifies _lecto_. E. With _redierat_ a
corresponding adv. denoting _whither_, is to be supplied: whence it had
set sail, and whither, after having surveyed all the nearest coast of
Britain, it had now returned. _Had_ returned, i.e. prior to _entering_
the port; the action of _redierat_, was prior to that of _tenuit_. Hence
plup. _Proximo, nearest_, sc. to the scene of Agricola's operations,
i.e. the whole northern coast from the Forth to the Clyde and back again.
This was all that was necessary to prove Britain to be an island (cf.
chap. 10), the southern coast having been previously explored.

XXXIX. _Actum_. Al. auctum, a conjecture of Lipsius. _Actum==treated of,
reported.--Moris erat_. H. 402, I.; Z. 448, N. 1. N. 1.

_Falsum--triumphum_. He had returned without so much as seeing the enemy
(Dio Cass. 67, 4); and yet he bought slaves, dressed them in German
style, had their hair stained red (G. 4: _rutilae comae_) and left long,
so as to resemble Germans, and then marched in triumph into Rome with his
train of pretended captives! Caligula had done the same before him. Suet.
Calig. 47.

_Formarentur_. Subj. in a relative clause denoting a purpose (_quorum==ut
eorum_). H. 500; Z. 567.

_Studia--acta_. Lawyers and politicians, all public men, had been gagged
and silenced by Domitian.

_Alius_. Another than the Emperor.--_Occuparet==pre-occupy_, so as to rob
him of it.

_Utcumque_. Somehow, possibly, perhaps. _Other things perhaps were more
easily concealed; but the merit of a good commander was an imperial

_Quodque--satiatus_. _And what was a proof of some cruel purpose, wholly
absorbed in his retirement_ (where he never plotted any thing but
mischief, and where in early life he is said to have amused himself with
killing flies, Suet. Dom. 3). Cf. Plin. Panegyr. 48: nec unquam ex
solitudine sua prodeuntem, nisi ut solitudinem faceret. The whole passage
in Pliny is a graphic picture of the same tyrant, the workings of whose
heart are here so laid bare by the pen of Pliny's friend Tacitus.
_Secreto--satiatus_ may also be translated: _satisfied with his own
secret_, i.e. keeping to himself his cherished hatred and jealousy.--
_Languesceret_. Subj. after _donec_. Cf. note, G. 37: _affectavere_.

_Reponere odium_. See lexicon under _repono_ for this phrase.

_Impetus--exercitus_. _Until the freshness of his glory, and his
popularity with the army should gradually decline_.

_Etiam tum obtinebat_, i.e. he was still in _possession of the
government_, and of course in command of the army, in Britain.

XL. _Triumphalia ornamenta_. Not a real triumph, which from the reign of
Augustus was conceded only to the Emperor or the princes of the Imperial
Family; but triumphal insignia, such as the _corona, laurea, toga
praetexta, tunica palmata, sella curulis_, &c. Dr.

_Illustris statuae_. Called _laureata_, Ann. 4, 23; _triumphalis_, His.
1, 79.

_Quidquid datur_. Besides the _ornamenta_ above mentioned, sacrifices and
thanksgivings were offered in the name of the victorious commander. Dr.

_Addique_. Al. additque. _Addique_ is the reading of the MSS. and old
editions. And it suits better the genius of Dom.; he did not express the
_opinionem_ himself, for it was not his real intention, but he _ordered_
some one to put it in circulation as if from him, that he might have the
credit of it and yet not be bound by it.--_Destinari_, sc. by Domitian.

_Majoribus reservatam_. _Majoribus_==illustrioribus. Syria was the
richest province in the Empire, and the praefectship of it the most
honorable office.

_Ex secretioribus ministeriis_. _One of his private secretaries, or
confidential agents_.

_Codicillos_. Under the Emperors this word is used to denote an imperial
letter or diploma. Properly a billet, diminutive of _codex_, tablet
(==_caudex_, trunk of a tree).

_Syria dabatur_. Syria was one of the Provinces, that were at the
disposal of the Emperor.

_Ex ingenio principis_. _In accordance with_ (cf. _ex_, G. 7) _the_
(dissimulating) _genius or policy of Domitian_. The design, if not real,
at least imputed to him, was to withdraw Agricola from his province and
his troops at all events, by the offer of the best province in the Empire
if need be; but that object having been secured by Agricola's voluntary
retirement, the offer, and even the ordinary civilities of life,
especially official life, were deemed unnecessary. Compare this with the
concluding sentence of the preceding chapter.

_Celebritate et frequentia_. Hendiadys: _By the number of distinguished
men who might go out to meet him_ (and escort him into the city).

_0fficio_==salutatione. Dr.--_Brevi osculo_, lit. a _hasty kiss_==_cold
and formal salutation_. The kiss was a common mode of salutation among
the Romans, in the age of the Emperors. See Becker's Gallus, p. 54.

_Turbae servientium_. The usual and characteristic associates, as well as
attendants of Domitian. A severe cut, though quite incidental and very

_Otiosos_. Antith. to _militare_. _Men in civil life_, cf. note on
_otio_, II.

_Otium auxit_. Augere otium==sequi altissimum otium. Dr.

_Penitus_==inwardly, i.e. sincerely, _zealously_. So R. But Dr.==
prorsus, omnino, valde.--_Cultu modicus. Simple in dress_, cf. note on
_cultus_, G. 6.--_Comitatus_, passive, so used by Cic. also.--_Uno aut
altero. One or two_.

_Per ambitionem_==ex vitae splendore et numeroso comitatu. Br. cf. note
on _ambitio_, G. 27.

_Quaererent--interpretarentur_. _Many inquired_ (with wonder) _into the
reputation_ (of a man so unassuming), _and few explained_ or _understood_
(the true reason of his humble manner of life). _Interpretarentur_, not
_famam_ but the facts above mentioned, and the necessity A. was under of
living as he did.--_Viso aspectoque. On seeing him and directing their
attention particularly to him_.

XLI. _Crimen==public accusation_.--_Querela==private complaint_.--
_Princeps, gloria, genus_. Supply, as a predicate, _causa periculi_;
these were the causes that put A's life in jeopardy.

_Militares viri_==duces. So Corbulo is called, Ann. 15, 26.

_Expugnati et capti_. _Defeated and taken captive_, For. and Fac.
Properly _expugnare_ is said of a fortress or city. But _ektoliorkein_ in
Greek is used in the same way, of persons. Compare _expugnatis
praesidiis_, 16, note. The wars particularly referred to are those
against Decebalus, leader of the Dacians, which lasted four years and in
which Moesia also was invaded by the Dacians, and several Roman armies
with their commanders were lost (Suet. Dom. 6.); and that of the
Pannonian legions against the German tribes of the Marcomanni and the
Quadi (Dion, 67, 7).

_Hibernis--dubitatum_, i.e. the enemy not only met them on the river
banks, which formed the borders of the empire, but attacked the winter
quarters of their troops, and threatened to take away the territory they
had already acquired.

_Funeribus_, sc. militarium virorum.--_Cladibus_, sc. cohortium. Dr.

_Amore et fide_. _Out of affection and fidelity_ (sc. to their imperial
master).--_Malignitate et livore_. _Out of envy and hatred_ (sc. towards

_Pronum deterioribus_. _Inclined to the worse measures_, or it may be,
to the _worse advisers_.

_In ipsam--agebatur_==invito gloria aucta, simulque pernicies
accelerata. W.

XLII. _Asiae et Africae_. He drew lots, _which_ he should have, _both_
being put into the lot.--_Proconsulatum_. See H. 1, 49. note, on
proconsul. A. had already been consul, 9.

_Sortiretur_. _In which he would, or such that he must, obtain by lot_,
etc. Cf. H. 501, I.; Z. 558.

_Occiso Civica_. Cf. Suet. Dom. 10: complures senatores, et in his
aliquot consulares, interemit, ex quibus _Civicam Cerealem in ipso Asiae

_Nec Agricolae--exemplum_. _A warning was not wanting to A_. (to avoid
the dangerous post); _nor a precedent to Dom_. (for disposing of A. in
the same way if he accepted the office).

_Iturusne esset_. Subj. cf. H. 525; Z. 552.--_Interrogarent_. H. 500;
Z. 567.

_In--excusatione_. _In urging his request_ (before Dom.) _to be excused_.

_Paratus simulatione_. Al. simulationi. _Furnished with deceit, armed_,
as it were, _with hypocrisy_.

_In arrogantiam compositus_. _Assuming a proud demeanor_.

_Beneficii invidia_, lit. _the odium of such a kindness==so odious a
favor_. The idea is, he did not blush to let A. return thanks for a
signal injury, as if it were a real kindness. "A refinement of cruelty
not unfrequently practised by the worst Roman Emperors." Ky. The only
peculiarity in the case of Dom. was, the unblushing impudence with which
he perpetrated the wrong, cf. 45. See a fine commentary on this passage
in Sen. de Benef. 4, 17: Quis est, qui non beneficus _videri_ velit? qui
non inter scelera et injurias opinionem bonitatis affectet? velit quoque
_iis videri beneficium dedisse, quos laesit? gratias itaque agi sibi ab
his, quos afflixere, patiuntur_.

_Salarium_. Properly salt-money, i.e. a small allowance to the soldiers
for the purchase of salt. Cf. _clavarium_, H. 3, 50, note. But after
Augustus, official pay, _salary_.

_Ne--emisse_. _That he might not appear to have purchased a compliance
with his virtual prohibition_ (viz. of A.'s accepting the proconsulship).

_Proprium humani_, etc. Mark the sentiment.

_Irrevocabilior_. _More implacable_. Found in this sense only in T. Cf.
Boet. Lex. Tac.

_Illicita_. Unlawful, i.e. forbidden by the powers that be. Explained by
_contumacia_ and _inani jactatione libertatis_ above. T. is animadverting
upon the conduct of certain stoics and republicans, who obtruded their
opinions upon those in power, and coveted the glory of martyrdom.

_Eo--excedere_. Reach the same height of distinction. _Eo_ Old dat. cf.
_eo inopiae_ 28, note. _Excedere_, lit. come out to, _arrive at_. Cf.
Val. Max. 5, 6, 4: _ad summum imperii fastigium excessit_.

_Per abrupta_. "Through abrupt and dangerous paths." Ky.

_Ambitiosa morte_, i.e. morte ultro adita captandae gloriae causa apud
posteros. For. and Fac.

XLIII. _Luctuosus, afflictive_, is stronger than _tristis, sad_.

_Vulgus_. The lower classes, _the ignorant and indolent rabble_.--
_Populus_. _The common people, tradesmen, mechanics_, and the like.
Hence, _aliud agens_, which implies that they were too busy with
something else of a private nature, to give much attention to public
affairs or the concerns of their neighbors.--_Populus_ and _vulgus_ are
brought together in a similar way, Dial. de Clar. Orat. 7: Vulgus quoque
imperitum et tunicatus hic populus, etc.

_Nobis--ausim_. _I should not dare to affirm that we_ (the friends of A.)
_found any conclusive proof_, that he was poisoned.--_Ceterum_. _But_.
This implies that the circumstantial evidence, which he goes on to
specify, convinced the writer and his friends, as well as the public,
that poison administered by direction of Dom., was really the means of
hastening A. out of the world. Dion Cassius expressly affirms, that he
was poisoned, 66, 20.

_Principatus_. The imperial government in general, i.e. former Emperors.

_Momenta ipsa deficientis_. _Each successive stage of his decline_.
_Ipsa_ is omitted in the common editions. But it rests on good authority
and it adds to the significance of the clause: _the very moments_, as it
were, were reported to Dom.

_Per dispositos cursores_. Dom. appears not to have been at Rome at this
time, but in the Alban Villa (cf. 45), or somewhere else.

_Constabat_. That was an _admitted point_, about which there was entire
_agreement_ (_con_ and _sto_).

_Animo vultuque_. Hendiadys: _he wore in his countenance an expression of
heartfelt grief_.

_Securus odii_. Now, that A. was dead, Dom. had nothing to fear in regard
to the _object of his hatred_, or the _gratification of his hate_.
_Odii_. Gen. of the respect.--_Qui--dissimularet_. _Qui==talis, ut_,
hence the subj. H. 501, I.; Z. 558.

_Lecto testamento_. When A.'s _will was read_.

_Honore judicioque_. As if a mark of honor and esteem. E. says==judicio
honorifico.--_Piissimae_, devoted, affectionate.

_Malum principem_. It was customary for rich men at Rome, who were
anxious to secure any of their property to their heirs, to bequeath a
part of their estates to _bad emperors_ in order to secure the remainder
from their rapacity.

This and several preceding sections present a most graphic _outline_ of
the _life and times_ of Dom., the more to be prized, because the full
_picture_, which T. doubtless drew of him in the Histories, is lost. The
Histories and the Annals are a vast portrait gallery full of such
pictures drawn to the life.

XLIV. _Natus--excessit_. The dates assigned for A.'s birth and death, do
not agree with the age ascribed to him. They may be harmonized in either
of two ways, each of which has its advocates: by reading _primum_ instead
of _tertium_, or, which is perhaps a more probable amendment, since it
only alters the relative position of the two characters, by reading LIV
instead of LVI.

_Quod si_. And if, _now if_.--_Habitum_. _Personal appearance_, cf. G. 5.

_Decentior quam sublimior_. _Well proportioned, rather than tall_. R.

_Nihil metus_. _Nothing to inspire fear in his countenance_. Antith. to
_gratia--supererat_: _kindness of expression rather prevailed_. So Gr. and
R. For this sense of _metus_, see note G. 2: ob metum. Doed. distinguishes
between _vultus_ and _oris_, making the former refer more to the _eyes_
(as if from _volvo_, the rolling of the eye), to which it belongs to
express anger and fierceness; the latter to the mouth, which is more
expressive of kindness.

_Medio--aetatis_. We should hardly say so of a man dying at 56. But in
Dial. de Clar. Orat. T. speaks of 120 years, as _unius hominis aetas_.

_Et vera bona_. T. has here in mind the distinction made by philosophers,
particularly the Stoics, between the virtues, which they called the only
real good, and the gifts of fortune, which they declared to be
indifferent.--_Et--et, both--and_, marks the distinction more strongly.

_Impleverat_. _Had enjoyed to the full_.

_Consulari_. _Having attained to the rank of consul_ (the summit of a
Roman's ambition) _and having been honored with triumphal insignia_. Al.
consularibus. But _consulari_ has the better authority and makes the
better sense.

_Opibus--contigerant_. _Great riches he did not desire; a respectable
property it was his good fortune to possess_, cf. 5: medio rationis atque
abundantiae. Al. non contigerant. But considerable property is implied in
the circumstances attending his will, 43, also in his not asking the
visual salary, 42. Dion Cass. says, however, (66, 20.), that A. spent his
last days in want, as well as in disgrace. For another explanation of
_gaudebat_, cf. n. G. 6.

_Quod--ominabatur_. _Quod_ is omitted in the common editions. But it is
found in the MSS. And it may be explained on the principle of Zeugma, by
supplying with _durare_ and _videre_ a verb implied in _grande solatium
tulit_ thus: _though (sicuti) it would have been a great gratification to
A. to behold the dawn of this auspicious age and see Trajan Emperor, of
which he expressed in my hearing a sort of prophetic anticipation and
desire, yet (ita)_, etc. Cassius affirms (69, 12), that by auguries the
elevation of Trajan to the throne was foretold, as early as A.U.C. 844,
i.e. _two years before the death of A_. The reference to Trajan here, as
in 3, marks clearly the date of the composition, cf. note, 3: augeatque

_Spiramenta_. _Breathing-spells_, i.e. intervals to recover and take
breath in. The word is found only in poetry and post-Augustan prose, and,
in the expressive sense in which it is here used, only in Ammian. Marc.
29, 1. See Or. and Freund.

_Velut uno ictu_. The commentators illustrate the force of this
expression by reference to Caligula's wish (Vid. Sen. de Va. 3, 19), that
the Roman people had but one neck, ut scelera sua in _unum ictum_ et unum
diem cogeret.

XLV. _Non vidit_. Did not see, as he would have done, had he lived a few
years longer. This passage resembles Cic. de Orat. 3, 2, 8, too closely
to be mere coincidence. Imitator tamen, id quod uni Tacito contigit,
auctore suo praestantior. Rit.

_Consularium_. Rhen. collects from Suet. the names of several victims of
Dom.'s displeasure, _who had been consuls_.

_Feminarum_. Pliny has preserved the names of several of this list--
Gratilla, wife of Rusticus, Arria, wife of Thrasea, Fannia, daughter of
Thrasea and betrothed to Helvidius. Their husbands will be remembered as
having been mentioned in 1 and 2.

_Carus Metius_. An infamous informer, cf. Plin. Epist. 7, 19; Juv. 1, 35;
Mart. 12, 25, 5.

_Censebatur_. _Was honored_, ironice. _Censeri_ est aestimari, sive
existimationem consequi. Dr.

_Una--victoria_. He had occasioned the death of but one innocent victim.--
_Adhuc_. Up to the death of A., cf. G. 38: adhuc, note.

_Albanam arcem_. A favorite retreat of Dom. (situated at the foot of the
Alban Mount, about seventeen miles from Rome), where he sometimes
convened the Senate, and held his court with its troop of informers, cf.
note, 43: cursores. Rit. in loc. suggests, that by the use of _arcem_
instead of _palatium_, T. means to represent Domitian as shutting himself
up, like many tyrants, in a fortified castle, and thence sending forth
the emissaries of his jealousy and cruelty.

_Sententia. His voice_, his sentiment expressed in council before Dom.--
_Intra Albanam arcem_, i.e. _privately_, not _publicly_, as afterwards
at Rome.

_Messalini_. Fuit inter principea adulatores et delatores. Dr. cf. Plin.
Epist. 4, 22; Juv. 4, 113, seq.

_Massa Bebius_. Primus inter pares of Domitian's tools. He began his
career under Vesp. cf. His. 4, 50. He was afterwards impeached and
condemned at the instance of the Province of Baetica, Pliny and Senecio
advocates for the impeachment, Plin. Epist 7, 33; 3, 4; 6, 29.--_Jam
tum. At that very time_ on trial, not merely _already at that time_.
Cf. Hand's Tursel. 3, 113.

_Nostra_, sc. of the Senate, of which T. was a member, though abroad
at the time. Helvidius was arrested _in the senate house_, cf. Plin.
Ep. 9, 13. This was Helvidius the _son_, who was put to death by Dom.
(Suet. 10), as his father was by Vesp. (Suet. 15).

_Visus_. Al. divisus. _Visus_==species, adspectus, Wr.--_Perfudit_.
Zeugma. Understand in the first clause _horrore perfudit_ (Dr.) or probro
affecit (R.): _the spectacle of Mauricus and Rusticus_ (hurried away, the
one to exile, the other to death), _filled us with horror; we were
stained by the innocent blood of Senecio_. Of Rusticus and Senecio, see
2, note. Of Mauricus, see Plin. Ep. 4, 22: quo viro nihil firmius, nihil
verius. Also Plin. Ep. 3, 11.

_Videre_, sc. Domitianum.--_Aspici_, sc. a Domitiano. For difference in
the signification in these words, cf. 40: viso aspectoque, note.

_Suspiria--subscriberentur. When our sighs_ (of sympathy with the
condemned) _were registered against us_ (by spies and informers, as a
ground of accusation before the Emperor).

_Rubor_. Redness, referring to the complexion of Dom., which was such as
to conceal a blush, cf. Suet. Dom. 18: vultu ruboris pleno.

_Opportunitate mortis_. An expression of Cic., in the similar passage
above cited (de Orat. 3, 2, 8), touching the death of Crassus.

_Pro virili portione_, lit. for one man's share, referring primarily to
pecuniary assessments. Here: _for thy part--so far as thou wast
concerned_. A. died with a calmness which would scarcely admit of the
supposition, that he felt himself to be a victim of poison and imperial

_Filiaque ejus_. The apostrophe is here dropped to be resumed at _optime
parentum_. So the MSS. For they read _ejus_ here, and _amissus est_
below. Rhenanus omitted _ejus_, and wrote _es_ for _est_; and he has been
followed in the common editions since.

_Conditione_. By the circumstance, or by virtue of our long absence. T.
and his wife had parted with A. four years before his death, and had been
absent from Rome ever since, where or why does not appear.

_Superfuere_. Cf. _superest_, G. 6, note.

XLVI. _Sapientibus_. Cf. _sapientiae professoribus_, 2, note.--_Te
immortalibus laudibus_. I feel constrained to recur to the reading of
Lipsius and Ritter, it is so much more spirited than _quam temporalibus_.
_Potius_ manifestly should refer back to _lugeri_ and _plangi_. The
comparison contained in the more common reading is uncalled for in the
connection, and of little significance in itself. The MSS. read
_temporalibus laudibus_ without _quam_ and this may be more easily
resolved into _te immortalibus_, than _quam_ can be supplied.--
_Similitudine_. Al. aemulatione. For such a use of similitudo, cf. Cic.
Tusc. Quaest. 1, 46, 110: quorum (sc. Curii, Fabricii, Scipionum, etc.),
_similitudinem_ aliquam qui arripuerit, etc.

_Decoremus_. Ennius (cited by Cic. Tusc. Q. 1, 49, 117, and de Senect.
20, 73), uses the same word in expressing the same sentiment: nemo me
lacrumis _decoret_ nec funera fletu faxit. Cf. also G. 28.

_Formam_. This makes the sense so much better (than _famam_), that E. Dr.
Wr. R. and most others have adopted it against the authority of the MSS.
cf. _forma mentis_, below, and Cic. passim.

_Intercedendum. To be prohibited_. Properly said of a _veto interposed_
by the Tribunes; then of any prohibition.--_Non quia==not that_, is
characteristic of late writers. It is followed by the subj. Z. 537, and
note H. 1, 15.

_Manet, mansurumque est_. Cf. Vell. Paterc. 2, 66, 5: vivit, vivetque per
omnem saeculorum memoriam. The periphrastic form (_mansurum est_) differs
however from the future (_manebit_), as our _is to remain_ from _will
remain_. See Z. 498.

_Oblivio obruet_, sc. for want of a historian, carent quia _vate sacro_,
cf. Hor. Od. 4, 9, 25, seq. By _multos veterum_, T. means many ancients
of _real worth_. So _velut_ implies. A. is to be immortalized through his
biographer. This is implied in _narratus et traditus_. Ancient authors
thought it not improper to express a calm consciousness of merit and a
proud confidence of immortality. T. is very modest and delicate in the
manner of intimating his expectations. But the sentiment of these last
words is substantially the same with the line of Horace: Exegi monumentum
aere perennius. The whole peroration of this Biography is one of singular
beauty and moral elevation. Pathetic, yet calm, rich in noble sentiments
and animated by the purest and loftiest spirit, it is a fit topstone to
that monument, in respect to which T. felt so well founded an assurance,
which still _manet mansurumque est in animis hominum, in aeternitate
temporum, fama rerum_. There is scarcely an educated youth in Christendom
who is not as familiar with the name of Agricola, as with that of Aeneas
and Ulysses. And the only reason why we know anything of these heroes, is
the genius of their respective biographers. There had been other
Agricolas before the age of Trajan, as there had been other heroes like
Aeneas, and other wandering sages like Ulysses, before the war of Troy.
But they found no Tacitus, Virgil, and Homer to record their adventurous
and virtuous deeds. It is the prerogative of eminent writers to confer
immortality; and though Alexander would prefer to be Achilles rather than
Homer, we should have known little of his achievements, had he not
encouraged scholars as well as warriors, and rewarded genius no less than


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