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Germania and Agricola by Caius Cornelius Tacitus

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master, _libertinus_==one in the _condition_ of a freedman without
reference to any master. At the time of the Decemvirate, and for some
time after, liberti==emancipated slaves, libertini==the descendants of
such, cf. Suet. Claud. 24.

_Quae regnantur. Governed by kings_. Ex poetarum more dictum, cf. Virg.
Aen. 6, 794: regnata per arva. So 43: Gothones regnantur, and 44:
Suiones. Guen.

_Ingenuos_==free born; _nobiles_==high born.

_Ascendunt_, i.e. ascendere possunt.

_Ceteros_. By synesis (see Gr.) for ceteras, sc. gentes.

_Impares_, sc. ingenuis et nobilibus.

_Libertatis argumentum_, inasmuch as they value liberty and citizenship
too much to confer it on freedmen and slaves. This whole topic of
freedmen is an oblique censure of Roman custom in the age of the
Emperors, whose freedmen were not unfrequently their favorites and prime

XXVI. _Fenus agitare. To loan money at interest_.

_Et in usuras extendere. And to put out that interest again on interest_.
The other explanation, viz. that it means simply to put money at
interest, makes the last clause wholly superfluous.

_Servatur. Is secured_, sc. abstinence from usury, or the non-existence
of usury, which is the essential idea of the preceding clause.

_Ideo--vetitum esset_, sc. ignoti nulla cupido! Cf. 19: boni mores, vs.
bonae leges. Guen. The reader cannot fail to recognize here, as usual, the
reference to Rome, where usury was practised to an exorbitant extent. See
Fiske's Manual, Sec. 270, 4. and Arnold's His. of Rome, vol. 1, passim.

_Universis. Whole clans_, in distinction from individual owners.

_In vices. By turns_. Al vices, vice, vicis. Doed. prefers in vicis; Rit.
in vicos==for i.e. by villages. But whether we translate by turns or by
villages, it comes to the same thing. Cf. Caes. B.G. 6, 22.

_Camporum, arva, ager, soli, terrae_, &c. These words differ from each
other appropriately as follows: _Terra_ is opposed to mare et coelum,
viz. _earth_. _Solum_ is the substratum of any thing, viz. _solid ground
or soil_. _Campus_ is an extensive plain or level surface, whether of
land or water, here _fields_. _Ager_ is distinctively the territory that
surrounds a city, viz. _the public lands_. _Arvum_ is ager _aratus_, viz.
_plough lands_. Bredow.

_Superest_. There is enough, and more, cf. Sec. 6, note.

_Labore contendunt_. They do not strive emulously to equal the fertility
of the soil by their own industry. Passow.

_Imperatur_. Just as frumentum, commeatus, obsides, etc., _imperantur,
are demanded or expected_. Guen.

_Totidem_, sc. quot Romani, cf. idem, 4, note. Tacitus often omits one
member of a comparison, as he does also one of two comparative particles.

_Species. Parts_. Sometimes the logical divisions of a genus; so used by
Cic. and Quin. (Sec. 6, 58): cum genus dividitur in species.

_Intellectum_. A word of the silver age, cf. note on voluntariam, 24.
Intellectum--habent==_are understood and named_. "Quam distortum
dicendi genus!" Guen.

_Autumni--ignorantur_. Accordingly in English, spring, summer and winter
are Saxon words, while autumn is of Latin origin (Auctumnus). See Duebner
in loc. Still such words as Haerfest, Herpist, Harfst, Herbst, in other
Teutonic dialects, apply to the autumnal season, and not, like our word
harvest, merely to the fruits of it.

XXVII. _Funera_, proprie de toto apparatu sepulturae. E. Funeral rites
were performed with great pomp and extravagance at Rome; cf. Fiske's
Man., Sec. 340; see also Mur. in loco, and Beck. Gall. Exc. Sc. 12.

_Ambitio_. Primarily the solicitation of office by the candidate; then
the parade and display that attended it; then _parade_ in general,
especially in a bad sense.

_Certis_, i.e. rite statutis. Guen.

_Cumulant_. Structura est poetica, cf. Virg. Aen. 11, 50: _cumulatque_
altaria donis. K.

_Equus adjicitur_. Herodotus relates the same of the Scythians (4, 71);
Caesar, of the Gauls (B.G. 6, 19). Indeed all rude nations bury with the
dead those objects which are most dear to them when living, under the
notion that they will use and enjoy them in a future state. See
Robertson's Amer. B. 4, &c., &c.

_Sepulcrum--erigit_. Still poetical; literally: _a turf rears the comb_.
Cf. His. 5, 6: Libanum _erigit_.

_Ponunt_==deponunt. So Cic. Tusc. Qu.: ad ponendum dolorem Cf. A. 20:
posuere iram.

_Feminis--meminisse_. Cf. Sen. Ep.: Vir prudens meminisse perseveret,
lugere desinat.

_Accepimus_. Ut ab aliis tradita audivimus, non ipsi cognovimus. K. See
Preliminary Remarks, p. 79.

_In commune_. Cic. would have said, universe, or de universa origine. Gr.
Cic. uses _in commune_, but in a different sense, viz. for the common
weal. See Freund, sub voc.

_Instituta_, political; _ritus_, religious.

_Quae nationes. And what tribes_, etc.; _quae_ for _quaeque_ by
asyndeton, or perhaps, as Rit. suggests, by mistake of the copyist.--
_Commigraverint_. Subj. of the indirect question. Gr. 265, Z. 552.

German critics have expended much labor and research, in defining the
locality of the several German tribes with which the remainder of the
Treatise is occupied. In so doing, they rely not only on historical data,
but also on the traces of ancient names still attached to cities,
forests, mountains, and other localities (cf. note, Sec. 16). These we shall
sometimes advert to in the notes. But on the whole, these speculations of
German antiquarians are not only less interesting to scholars in other
countries, but are so unsatisfactory and contradictory among themselves,
that, for the most part, we shall pass them over with very little
attention. There is manifestly an intrinsic difficulty in defining the
ever changing limits of uncivilized and unsettled tribes. Hence the
irreconcilable contradictions between _ancient authorities_, as well as
modern critiques, on this subject. Tacitus, and the Roman writers
generally, betray their want of definite knowledge of Germany by the
frequency with which they specify the names of mountains and rivers. The
following geographical outline is from Ukert, and must suffice for the
_geography_ of the remainder of the Treatise: "In the corner between the
Rhine and the Danube, are the Decumates Agri, perhaps as far as the
Mayne, 29. Northward on the Rhine dwell the Mattiaci, whose neighbors on
the east are the Chatti, 30. On the same river farther north are the
Usipii and the Tencteri; then the Frisii, 32-34. Eastward of the Tencteri
dwell the Chamavi and the Angrivarii (earlier the Bructeri), and east or
southeast of them the Dulgibini and Chasuarii, 34. and other small
tribes. Eastward of the Frisii Germany juts out far towards the north,
35. On the coast of the bay thus formed, dwell the Chauci, east of the
Frisii and the above mentioned tribes; on the south, they reach to the
Chatti. East of the Chauci and the Chatti are the Cherusci, 36. whose
neighbors are the Fosi. The Cherusci perhaps, according to Tacitus, do
not reach to the ocean; and in the angle of the above bay, he places the
Cimbri, 37. Thus Tacitus represents the western half of Germany. The
eastern is of greater dimensions. There are the Suevi, 38. He calls the
country Suevia, 41. and enumerates many tribes, which belong there.
Eastward of the Cherusci he places the Semnones and Langobardi; north of
them are the Reudigni, Aviones, Anglii, Varini, Eudoses, Suardones and
Nuithones; and all these he may have regarded as lying in the interior,
and as the most unknown tribes, 41. He then mentions the tribes that
dwell on the Danube, eastward from the Decumates Agri: the Hermunduri, in
whose country the Elbe has its source; the Narisci, Marcomanni and Quadi,
41-42. The Marcomanni hold the country which the Boii formerly possessed;
and northward of them and the Quadi, chiefly on the mountains which run
through Suevia, are the Marsigni, Gothini, Osi and Burii, 43. Farther
north are the Lygii, consisting of many tribes, among which the most
distinguished are the Arii, Helvecones, Manimi, Elysii and Naharvali, 43.
Still farther north dwell the Gothones, and, at the Ocean, the Rugii and
Lemovii. Upon islands in the ocean live the Suiones, 44. Upon the
mainland, on the coast, are the tribes of the Aestyi, and near them,
perhaps on islands, the Sitones, 45. Perhaps he assigned to them the
immense islands to which he refers in his first chapter. Here ends
Suevia. Whether the Peucini, Venedi and Fenni are to be reckoned as
Germans or Sarmatians, is uncertain, 46. The Hellusii and Oxonae are

The following paragraph from Prichard's Researches embodies some of the
more general conclusions of _ethnographers_, especially of Zeuss, on whom
Prichard, in common with Orelli and many other scholars, places great
reliance. "Along the coast of the German Ocean and across the isthmus of
the Cimbric peninsula to the shore of the Baltic, were spread the tribes
of the Chauci and Frisii, the Anglii, Saxones and the Teutones or Jutes,
who spoke the _Low-German_ languages, and formed one of the four
divisions of the German race, corresponding as it seems with the
_Ingaevones_ of Tacitus and Pliny. In the higher and more central parts,
the second great division of the race, that of the _Hermiones_, was
spread, the tribes of which spoke _Upper_ or _High-German_ dialects.
Beginning in the West with the country of the Sigambri on the Rhine,
and from that of the Cherusci and Angrivarii near the Weser and the
Hartz, this division comprehended, besides those tribes, the Chatti, the
Langobardi, the Hermunduri, the Marcomanni and Quadi, the Lugii, and
beyond the Vistula the Bastarnae, in the neighborhood of the Carpathian
hills. To the eastward and northward of the last mentioned, near the
lower course of the Vistula and thence at least as far as the Pregel,
were the primitive abodes of the Goths and their cognate tribes, who are
perhaps the _Istaevones_." The fourth division of Prichard embraced the
Scandinavians, who spoke a language kindred to the Germans and were
usually classed with them. Those who would examine this subject more
thoroughly, will consult Adelung, Zeuss, Grimm, Ritter, Ukert, Prichard,
Latham, &c., who have written expressly on the geography or the
ethnography of Germany.

XXVIII. _Summus auctorum_, i.e. omnium scriptorum is, qui plurimum
_auctoritatis fideique_ habet. K. Cf. Sueton. Caes. 56. Though T.
commends so highly the _authority_ of Caesar as a writer, yet he differs
from him in not a few matters of fact, as well as opinion; owing chiefly,
doubtless, to the increased means of information which he possessed in
the age of Trajan.

_Divus Julius. Divus_==deified, _divine_; an epithet applied to the Roman
Emperors after their decease.--_Tradit_. Cf. Caes. B.G. 6, 24: fuit
antea tempus, cum _Germanos Galli_ virtute _superarent_, ultro bella
inferrent, propter hominum multitudinem agrique inopiam trans Rhenum
colonias mitterent. Livy probably refers to the same events, when he says
(Lib. 5, 34), that in the reign of Priscus Tarquinius, two immense bodies
of Gauls migrated and took possession, the one of the Hercynian Forest,
the other of Upper Italy.

_Amnis. The Rhine.--Promiscuas. Unsettled, ill defined_.

_Quo minus_ after a verb of hindering is followed by the subj. H. 499;
Z. 543.

_Nulla--divisas_, i.e. _not distributed among different and powerful

_Hercyniam silvam_. A series of forests and mountains, stretching from
Helvetia to Hungary in a line parallel to the Danube, and described by
Caesar (B.G. 6, 25), as nine day's journey in breadth and more than
sixty in length. The name seems to be preserved in the modern _Hartz_
Forest, which is however far less extensive.

_Igitur--Helvetii_==igitur _regionem_, inter, etc. See note on _colunt_,
16. _Igitur_ seldom stands as the first word in a sentence in Cicero. Cf.
Z. 357; and Kuehner's Cic. Tusc. Qu. 1, 6, 11. Here it introduces a more
particular explanation of the general subject mentioned at the close of
the previous chapter. So in A. 13. When so used, it sometimes stands
first in Cic., always in T. Cf. Freund sub v. Touching the Helvetii, see
Caes. B.G. 1, 1; T. His. 1, 67.

_Boihemi nomen_. Compounded of Boii and heim (home of the Boii), now
Bohemia. _Heim==ham_ in the termination of so many names of towns, e.g.
Framing_ham_, Notting_ham_. The Boii were driven from their country by
the Marcomanni, 42. The fugitives are supposed to have carried their name
into Boioaria, now Bavaria. Cf. Prichard's Physical Researches, Vol. III.
Chap. 1, Sec. 6; and Latham's Germany of Tacitus in loco.

_Germanorum natione_, i.e. German in situation, not in origin, for this
he expressly denies or disproves in 43, from the fact that they spoke
the Pannonian language, and paid tribute. The doubt expressed here has
reference only to their original _location_, not to their original stock,
and is therefore in no way inconsistent with the affirmation in chapter

_Cum==since_. Hence followed by subj. H. 518, I.; Z. 577.

_Utriusque ripae_. Here of the _Danube_, the right or Pannonian bank of
which was occupied by the Aravisci, and the left or German bank by the
Osi. So elsewhere of the _Rhine_, 37, and of both, 17, and 23.

_Treveri_. Hence modern _Treves_.

_Circa_. _In respect to_. A use foreign to the golden age of Latin
composition, but not unfrequent in the silver age. See Ann. 11, 2. 15.
His. 1, 43. Cf. Z. 298, and note, H. 1, 13.

_Affectationem_. _Eager desire_ to pass for native Germans. Ad verbum,
cf. note, II. 1, 80.

_Ultro_. Radically the same with _ultra_==beyond. Properly beyond
expectation, beyond necessity, beyond measure, beyond any thing mentioned
in the foregoing context. Hence unexpectedly, freely, cheerfully, very
much, even more. Here _very_, _quite_. Gr.

_Inertia Gallorum_. T., says Guen., is an everlasting persecutor of the
Gauls, cf. A. 11.

_Haud dubie_==haud dubii. It limits Germanorum populi. _Undoubtedly
German tribes_.

_Meruerint_. Not merely deserved, but _earned_, _attained_. For the subj.
after _quanquam_, cf. note, 35.

_Agrippinenses_. From Agrippina, daughter of Germanicus and wife of
Claudius. Ann. 12, 27. Now Cologne.

_Conditoris_. _Conditor_ with the earlier Latins is an epicene, conditrix
being of later date. Here used of Agrippina. Of course _sui_ cannot agree
with _conditoris_. It is a reflexive pronoun, the objective gen. after
_conditoris_==the founder of _themselves_, i.e. of their state, cf.
_odium sui_, 33.

_Experimento_. Abl. _on_ trial, not _for_; i.e. in consequence of being
found faithful. In reference to the Ubii, cf. His. 4, 28.

XXIX. _Virtute_ sc. bellica.

_Non multum ex ripa_. _A small tract on the bank, but chiefly an island
in the river_. Cf. His. 4, 12: extrema Gallicae orae, simulque insulam,

_Chattorum quondam_. The very name Batavi is thought by some to be a
corrupted or modified form of Chatti. See Rit. in loc.

_Transgressus. When_ is not known, but Julius Caesar found them already
in possession of their new territory. B.G. 4, 10.

_Fierent_. Subj. after _eas--quibus==such that_. H. 500, 2; Z. 556.

_Nec--contemnuntur. Are neither dishonored_. So in His. 4, 17. the
Batavians are called _tributorum expertes_.

_Oneribus. The burdens of regular taxation.--Collationibus. Extraordinary

_Tela_, offensive; _arma_, defensive armor.

_In sua ripa_. On the right or eastern bank of the Rhine. _Agunt_ is to
be taken with _in sua ripa_, as well as with _nobiscum_, which are
antithetic to each other. Meaning: in situation Germans, in feeling

_Mente animoque. In mind and spirit. Mens_ is properly the understanding,
_animus_ the feeling part, and both together comprehend the whole soul.

_Acrius animantur. Made more courageous by the influence of their very
soil and climate even_ (_adhuc_, cf. note, 19).

_Numeraverim_. Subj. cf. note, 2: _crediderim_.

_Decumates--exercent. Exercent_==colunt, So Virg. tellurem, terram, humum,
solum, &c., _exercere_.

_Decumates_==decumanos. Occurs only here. Tithe-paying lands. For their
location, see note, 27.

_Dubiae possessionis_, i.e. _insecure_, till confirmed by _limite acto
promotisque praesidiis_, i.e. _extending the boundary and advancing the
garrisons or outposts_.

_Sinus. Extreme bend_ or _border_. Cf. note, 1. So Virg. (Geor. 2 123)
calls India extremi _sinus_ orbis.

_Provinciae_. A province, not any particular one.

XXX. _Initium inchoant_. Pleonastic. So initio orto, His. 1, 76; initium
coeptum, His. 2, 79; perferre toleraverit, Ann. 3, 3. _Ultra_ is farther
back from the Rhine. Chattorum sedes ubi nunc magnus ducatus et
principatus _Hassorum_, quorum nomen a Chattis deductum. Ritter.
Cha_tt_i==He_ss_ians, as Germ. wa_ss_er==Eng. wa_t_er, and [Greek:

_Effusis. Loca effusa_ sunt, quae _latis campis_ patent. K. This use
belongs to the later Latin, though Horace applies the word with _late_ to
the sea: effusi late maria. Gr.

_Durant siquidem_, etc. On the whole, I am constrained to yield to the
authority and the arguments of Wr., Or., Doed., and Rit., and place the
pause before _durant_, instead of after it as in the first edition.
_Durant_ precedes _siquidem_ for the sake of emphasis, just as _quin
immo_ (chap. 14) and _quin etiam_ (13) yield their usual place to the
emphatic word. These are all departures from established usage. See notes
in loc. cit. _Que_ must be understood, after _paulatim_: it is inserted
in the text by Ritter.

_Rarescunt_. _Become fewer_ and farther apart. So Virg. Aen. 3, 411:
_Angusti rarescent claustra Pelori_.

_Chattos suos_. As if the Chatti were the children of the Forest, and the
Forest emphatically their country. Passow.

_Prosequitur, deponit_. Begins, continues, and ends with the Chatti.
Poetical==is coextensive with.

_Duriora_, sc. solito, or his, cf. Gr. 256, 9.--_Stricti, sinewy,
strong_, which has the same root as _stringo_.

_Ut inter Germanos_, i.e. pro ingenio Germanorum, Guen. So we say
elliptically: _for Germans_.

_Praeponere_, etc. A series of infinitives without connectives, denoting
a hasty enumeration of particulars; elsewhere, sometimes, a rapid
succession of events. Cf. notes, A. 36, and H. 1, 36. The particulars
here enumerated, all refer to _military_ proceedings.

_Disponere--noctem_. _They distribute the day_, sc. as the period of
various labors; _they fortify the night_, sc. as the scene of danger.
Still highly poetical.

_Ratione_. _Way, manner_. Al. _Romanae_.

_Ferramentis_. _Iron tools_, axes, mattocks, &c.--_Copiis_. _Provisions_.

_Rari_. Predicate of _pugna_, as well as _excursus_.--_Velocitas_ applies
to cavalry, _cunctatio_ to infantry; _juxta_==connected with, allied to,
cf. juxta libertatem, 21.

XXXI. _Aliis--populis_. Dat. after _usurpatum_, which with its adjuncts
is the subject of _vertit_. See same construction, His. 1, 18: observatum
id antiquitus comitiis dirimendis non terruit Galbam, etc., cf. also A.
1.--_Audentia_ occurs only thrice in T. (G. 31. 34. Ann. 15, 53), and
once in Pliny (Ep. 8, 4). It differs from _audacia_ in being a _virtue_.

_Vertit_. Intrans. Not so found in Cic., but in Liv., Caes., and Sall.,
not unfrequent. Gr. Cic. however uses _anno vertente_.

_In consensum vertit_. _Has become the common custom_.

_Ut primum_. _Just as soon as_. A causal relation is also implied; hence
followed by the subj.

_Crinem--submittere_. We find this custom (_of letting the hair and beard
grow long_) later among the Lombards and the Saxons, cf. Turn. His. Ang.
Sax., App. to B. 2.

_Super--spolia_, i.e. _over the bloody spoils_ of a slain enemy.

_Revelant_, i.e. they remove the hair and beard, which have so long
_veiled_ the face.

_Retulisse==repaid, discharged their obligations to those who gave them

_Squalor_. This word primarily denotes roughness; secondarily and usually
filth: here the deformity of unshorn hair and beard.

_Insuper_, i.e. besides the long hair and beard. The proper position of
_insuper_ is, as here, between the adj. and subs., cf. 34: immensos
_insuper_ lacus; see also _insuper_, 12.

_Absolvat_. Subj. after _donec_. So _faciat_ below. See note, 1.

_Hic--habitus_, sc. _ferreum annulum_, cf. 17. _Plurimis_==permultis,

_Placet_. Antithetic to _ignominiosum genti_. Very many of the Chatti are
_pleased_ with that which is esteemed a disgrace by most Germans, and so
pleased with it as to retain it to old age, and wear it as a badge of
distinction (_canent insignes_).

_Nova_. Al. _torva. Strange, unusual_. Placed in the _van_ (_prima
acies_), because as the author says, Sec. 43: primi in omnibus proeliis
_oculi_ vincuntur.

_Mansuescunt_. Primarily said of wild beasts, _accustomed to the hand of
man_ or _tamed_. So _immanis_, _not_ handled, wild, savage. The clause
introduced by _nam_ illustrates or enforces _visu nova_, and may be
rendered thus: _for not even in time of peace do they grow gentle_ and
put on _a milder aspect_.

_Exsanguis_. Usually lifeless or pale. Here _languid, feeble_.

XXXII. _Alveo_==quoad alveum. Abl. of respect, H. 429; Z. 429.

_Certum. Fixed, well defined_, i.e. not divided and diffused, (so as to
form of itself no sufficient border or boundary to the Roman Empire) as
it was nearer its source among the Chatti. So this disputed word seems to
be explained by the author himself in the following clause; _quique
terminus esse sufficiat==and such that it suffices to be a boundary_.
_Qui==talis ut_; hence followed by the subj. H. 500, I.; Z. 558. So Mela
(3, 2) contrasts _solidus et certo alveo lapsus_ with _huc et illuc

_Tencteris_==apud Tencteros, by _enallage_, cf. note on _ad patrem_, 20,
and other references there. The Tencteri and Usipii seem to have been at
length absorbed into the mass of people, who appear under the later name
of Alemanni. Cf. Prichard.

_Familiam. Servants_, cf. note on same word, 15. See also Beck Gall.,
Exc. 1. Sc. 1.--Penates==our _homestead_.

_Jura succesionum==heir looms_, all that goes down by hereditary

_Excipit_. Here in the unusual sense of _inherits.--Cetera_, sc. _jura

_Bello_. Abl. and limits both _ferox_ and _melior_. Meaning: _The horses
are inherited, not, like the rest of the estate, by the eldest son, but
by the bravest_.

XXXIII. _Occurrebant. Met the view, presented themselves_. Almost the
sense of the corresponding English word. The structure of _narratur_
(as impers.) is very rare in the earlier authors, who would say:
_Chamavi narrantur_. Cf. His. 1, 50. 90. The _Chamavi_, &c., were
joined afterwards to the Franks. Cf. Prichard. The present town of
_Ham_ in Westphalia probably preserves the name and gives the
_original_ locality of the _Chamavi_, the present _Engern_ that of the
_Angrivarii_. The termination varii or uarii probably==inhabitants of.
Thus angrivarii==inhabitants of Engern. Chasuarii==Inhabitants of the
river Hase. The same element is perhaps contained in the termination of
Bruct_eri_ and Tenct_eri_. See Latham in loco.

_Nos, se_. Romanos. _Erga_==inclined to (cf. vergo), _towards_.

_Spectaculo_. Ablative. Invidere is constructed by the Latins in the
following ways: invidere alicui aliquid, alicui alicujus rei, alicui
aliqua re, alicui in aliqua re. Hess. The construction here (with the
abl. of the thing, which was the object of envy) belongs to the silver
age. Cf. Quint. (Inst. 9, 3, 1) who contrasts it with the usage of
Cicero, and considers it as illustrating the fondness of the age for
_figurative_ language.

_Oblectationi oculisque_. Hendiadys for ad oblectationem oculorum. The
author here exults in the promiscuous slaughter of the German Tribes by
each other's arms, as a brilliant spectacle to Roman eyes--a feeling
little congenial to the spirit of Christianity, but necessarily nurtured
by the gladiatorial shows and bloody amusements of the Romans, to say
nothing of the habitual hostility which they waged against all other
nations, that did not submit to their dominion.

_Quaeso_, sc. _deos_. Though _fortune_ is spoken of below, as controlling
the destiny of nations. This passage shows clearly that Tacitus, with all
his partiality for German manners and morals, still retains the heart of
a Roman patriot. He loves his country with all her faults, and bears no
good-will to her enemies, however many and great their virtues. The
passage is important, as illustrating the spirit and design of the whole
Treatise. The work was not written as a blind panegyric on the Germans,
or a spleeny satire on the Romans. Neither was it composed for the
purpose of stirring up Trajan to war against Germany; to such a purpose,
such a clause, as _urgentibus imperii fatis_, were quite adverse. Least
of all was it written for the mere pastime and amusement of Roman
readers. It breathes the spirit at once of the earnest patriot, and the
high-toned moralist.

_Odium sui_. Cf. note, 28: _conditor. Hatred of themselves_; i.e. of one
another. So in Greek, the reflexive pronoun is often used for the

_Quando==since_; a subjective reason. Cf. note, His. I, 31; and Z. 346.
--_Urgentibus--fatis_, sc. to discord and dissolution, for such were the
forebodings of patriotic and sagacious minds ever after the overthrow of
the Republic, even under the prosperous reign of Trajan.

XXXIV. _A tergo_, i.e. further back from the Rhine, or towards the East--
_A fronte_, nearer the Rhine or towards the West. Both are to be referred
to the Angrivarii and Chamavi, who had the Dulgibini and the Chasuarii in
their rear (on the east), and the Frisii on their front (towards the west
or northwest).--_Frisii_, the Frieslanders.

_Majoribus--virium. They have the name of Greater or Less Frisii,
according to the measure of their strength_. For this sense of _ex_
see note 7. For the case of _majoribus minoribusque_ see Z. 421, and
H. 387, 1.

_Praetexuntur. Are bordered by the Rhine_ (hemmed, as the toga
_praetexta_ by the purple); or, as Freund explains, are covered by it,
i.e. lie behind it--_Immensos lacus_. The bays, or arms of the sea, at
the mouth of the Rhine (Zuyder Zee, etc.), taken for lakes by T. and
Pliny (Ann. 1, 60. 2, 8. N.H. 4, 29). They have been greatly changed by
inundations. See Mur. in loco.

_Oceanum_, sc. Septentrionalem.--_Sua_, sc. parte.--_Tentavimus,

_Herculis columnas_. "Wherever the land terminated, and it appeared
impossible to proceed further, ancient maritime nations feigned pillars
of Hercules. Those mentioned in this passage some authors have placed at
the extremity of Friesland, and others at the entrance of the Baltic."
Ky. cf. note, 3.

_Adiit_, i.e. vere adiit, _actually_ visited that part of the world.

_Quicquid--consensimus_. This passage is a standard illustration of the
_Romana interpretatione_ (Sec. 43), the Roman construction, which the Romans
put upon the mythology and theology of other nations. It shows that they
were accustomed to apply the names of their gods to the gods of other
nations on the ground of some resemblance in character, history, worship,
&c. Sometimes perhaps a resemblance in the _names_ constituted the ground
of identification.

_Druso Germanico_. Some read Druso _et_ Germanico; others Druso,
Germanico, as a case of asyndeton (Gr. 323, 1 (1.)); for both Drusus and
Germanicus sailed into the Northern Ocean, and it is not known that
Germanicus (the son of Drusus and stepson of Tiberius, who is by some
supposed to be meant here) is ever called _Drusus Germanicus_. But
Drusus, the father of Germanicus, is called Drusus Germanicus in the
Histories (5, 19), where he is spoken of as having thrown a mole or dam
across the Rhine; and it is not improbable that he is the person here
intended. So K., Or. and Wr.

_Se_, i.e. the Ocean. See H. 449, II.; Z. 604.

_Inquiri_. Impersonal==_investigation to be made. E_. suggests
_inquirenti_, agreeing with _Germanico_. But T., unlike the earlier Latin
authors, not unfrequently places an infin. after a verb of hindering.

_Credere quam scire_. T. perhaps alluded to the precept of the
Philosopher, who said: Deum cole, atque crede, sed noli quaerere.

XXXV. _In Septentrionem_, etc. _On the North, it falls back_, sc. into
the Ocean, _with_ an immense _bend_ or peninsula. The _flexus_ here
spoken of is called _sinus_ in chap. 37, and describes the Cimbric
Chersonesus, or Danish Peninsula. See Doed., Or. and Rit. in loc.--_Ac
primo statim. And first immediately_, sc. as we begin to trace the
northern coast.--_Lateribus_, sc. the eastern.

_Quanquam_ followed by the subj., seldom in Cic., but usually in T.,
Z. 574, Note. Cf. note, His. 5, 21.--_Sinuetur_, sc. southwards.
_Donec--sinuetur_. Cf. note, 1: _erumpat_.

_Inter Germanos_. Considered among the Germans, _in the estimation of the

_Quique--tueri_. A clause connected to an _adj_. (nobilissimus), cf.
certum, quique, 32. _Qui_ in both passages==talis, ut. Hence followed by
subj. H. 501, I.; Z. 558.

_Impotentia, ungoverned passion, [Greek: akrateia]. Impotentia_ seldom
denotes want of power, but usually that unrestrained passion, which
results from the want of ability to control one's self.

_Ut--agant_ depends on _assequuntur_. Subj. H. 490; Z. 531, _a_.

_Si res poscat_. Some copies read: si res poscat _exercitus_. But posco
and postulo seldom have the object expressed in such clauses, cf. 44: ut
res poscit; 6: prout ratio poscit. So also Cic. and Sall., pass.
_Exercitus_ is subject nom., _promptus_ being understood, as pred.; and
_plurimum virorum equorumque_ explains or rather enforces _exercitus:
and, if the case demand, an army, the greatest abundance of men and

_Quiescentibus_, i.e. bellum non gerentibus; _eadem_, i.e. the same, as
if engaged in war.

XXXVI. _Cherusci_. It was their chief, Arminius (Germ. Hermann), who,
making head against the Romans, was honored as the Deliverer of Germany,
and celebrated in ballad songs, which are preserved to this day. See his
achievements in Ann. B. 1, and 2. This tribe became afterwards the head
of the Saxon confederacy.

_Marcentem. Enervating_. So _marcentia pocula_, Stat. Silv. 4, 6, 56. It
is usually intransitive, and is taken here by some in the sense of
languid, enervate (literally withered).--_Illacessiti_ is a post-Augustan
word. Cf. Freund.

_Impotentes_. Cf. impotentia, 35.

_Falso quiescas_. Falleris, dum quiescis. Dilthey. Cf. note, 14:

_Ubi manu agitur_. Where matters are decided by might rather than right.
Cf. _manu agens_, A. 9.

_Nomina superioris. Virtues_ (only) _of the stronger party_, the
conqueror. They are deemed vices in the weaker.

_Chattis--cessit: while to the Chatti_, who were _victorious, success
was imputed for wisdom_. The antithetic particle at the beginning of the
clause is omitted. Cf. note, 4: _minime_.

_Fuissent_. Subj. after _cum_ signifying _although_. H. 516, II.

XXXVII. _Sinum. Peninsula_, sc. the Cimbric. Cf. note, 35: _flexu_; 81:

_Cimbri_. The same with the Cimmerii, a once powerful race, who,
migrating from western Asia, that hive of nations, overran a large part
of Europe, but their power being broken by the Romans, and themselves
being overrun and conquered by the Gothic or German Tribes, they were
pushed to the extreme western points of the continent and the British
Isles, where, and where alone, distinct traces of their language and
literature remain to this day. They have left their name indelibly
impressed on different localities in their route, e.g. the Cimmerian
Bosphorus, the Cimbric Chersonesus (now Jutland, occupied by the Cimbri
in the days of T.), Cumberland (Cumbria, from Cimbri) &c. The ancient
name of the Welsh was also Cymri, cf. Tur. His. Ang. Sax. 1. 2.

_Gloria_ is abl. limiting _ingens_.

_Castra ac spatia_. In apposition with _lata vestigia_==spatiosa castra
or castrorum spatia, H. 704, II. 2; Z. 741.

_Utraque ripa_, sc. of the Rhine, _the_ river and river bank by eminence.

_Molem manusque. The mass of their population, and the number of their
armies_. Observe the alliteration, as if he had said: measure the mass
and might.

_Exitus_, i.e. _migrationis_. Often used in this sense, cf. Caes. B.C.
3, 69: Salutem et _exitum_ sibi pariebant.--_Fidem, proof_.

_Sexcentesimum--annum_. T. follows the Catonian Era. According to
the Varronian Era, received by the moderns, the date would be A.U.C.
641 = A.C. 113.

_Alterum--consulatum_. The second consulship of Trajan (when he was also
Emperor) was, after the reckoning of Tacitus, A.U.C. 850, according to
modern computation, 851 = A.D. 98. This year doubtless marks the time when
this treatise was written, else why selected?

_Vincitur_. So long is Germany in being conquered. (The work was never
completed.) Cf. Liv. 9, 3: quem per annos jam prope _triginta vincimus_.

_Medio--spatio. In the intervening period_, sc. of 210 years.

_Samnis--Galliaeve_. The Romans had fought bloody, and some times
disastrous battles with the Samnites (at the Caudine Forks, Liv. 9, 2.),
with the Carthaginians (in the several Punic Wars), with the Spaniards
under Viriathus and Sertorius (Florus, Lib. 2.), with the Gauls (Caes.
B.G. pass.). But none of these were so sanguinary as their wars with the

_Admonuere_, sc. vulneribus, cladibus==castigavere.

_Regno--libertas_. Liberty and monarchy in studied antithesis. T. means to
imply that the former is the stronger principle of the two.

_Arsacis_. The family name of the Parthian kings, as Pharaoh and Ptolemy
of the Egyptian, Antiochus of the Syrian, &c.

_Amisso et ipse_, sc. _oriens_; the East _itself also lost_ its prince
(Pacorus), in the engagement, as well as the Romans their leader
(Crassus).--_Objecerit, reproach us with_. Subj. Cf. n. G. 2: _peteret_.

_Ventidium_. Commander under Anthony, and conqueror of the Parthians in
three battles, A.U.C. 715. He was raised from the lowest rank and the
meanest employment, hence perhaps the expression, _dejectus infra,
humbled beneath Ventidius_.

_Carbone--Manlio_, Cneius Papirius Carbo defeated at Noreja, A.U. 641
(Liv. Epit. 63.), L. Cassius Longinus defeated and slain, 647 (Caes. B.G.
1, 7. 12.), M. Aurelius Scaurus defeated and taken captive, 648 (Liv.
Epit. 67.), Servilius Caepio and M. Manlius defeated with great slaughter
at Tolosa, 649 (Liv. Epit. 67.), Quintilius Varus defeated and slain, 762
(Suet. Oct. 23.)--all these victories over the Romans in their highest
strength and glory--either in the time of the _Republic (Populo Romano)_,
or of the _Empire_ under Augustus (_Caesari_)--all these attested the
courage and military prowess of the Germans; and they were still, for the
most part, as free and as powerful as ever.

_Caius Marius_ almost annihilated the Cimbri at Aquae Sextiae, A.U.C.

_Drusus_. Claudius Drusus invaded Germany four times, 742-3, and finally
lost his life by falling from his horse on his return, cf. Dio. Libb. 54.

_Nero_, commonly known as Tiberius (brother of Drusus and stepson of
Augustus), had the command in Germany at three different times, 746-7,
756-9, 764-5, cf. Suet. Tib. 9. seq.

_Germanicus_, son of Drusus, made four campaigns in Germany, A.D. 14-16,
cf. Ann. B. 1. and 2.

_C. Caesaris_. Caligula, cf. Suet. Calig.; T. His. 4, 15.

_Discordiae--armorum_. The civil wars after the death of Nero under
Galba, Otho, and Vitellius.

_Expugnatis--hibernis_. By the Batavians under Civilis. His. 4, 12 seq.;
A. 41.

_Affectavere. Aspired to the government of_, cf. note on affectationem,
28. After _donec_, T. always expresses a single definite past action by
the perf. ind., cf. A. 36: _donec--cohortatus est_; a repeated, or
continued past action by the imp. subj. cf. note, A. 19: _donec--fieret_;
and a present action, which is in the nature of the case also a continued
action, by the pres. subj. cf. note, 1: _separet_.

_Triumphati_. Poetice, cf. Virg. Aen. 6, 837: Triumphata Corintho; Hor.
Od. 3, 3, 43: Triumphati Medi. The reference here is to the ridiculous
triumph of Domitian, A. 39, in which slaves, purchased and dressed out
for the purpose, were borne as captives through the streets.

XXXVIII. _Suevis_. In the time of T. a powerful confederacy, embracing
all the tribes enumerated in 39-45, and covering all the eastern and
larger half of Germany. But the confederacy was soon dissolved and seldom
appears in subsequent history. We still have a trace of their name in the
Modern _Suabia_. The name is supposed by some philologists (e.g. Zeuss)
to denote _unsettled wanderers_ (Germ. Schweben, to wave, to hover, cf.
Caes. B.G. 4, 1: Suevis non longius anno remanere uno in loco, etc.); as
that of the Saxons does settlers, or _fixed residents_ (Germ. Sassen),
and that of the Franks, _freemen_. See Rup. in loc. An ingenious Article
in the North American Review (July, 1847), makes the distinction of Suevi
and non-Suevi radical and permanent in the religion and the language of
the Germans; the Suevi becoming Orthodox Catholics, and the non-Suevi
Arians in Ecclesiastical History, and the one High-Dutch and the other
Low-Dutch in the development of their language.

_Adhuc_. Cf. note on it, 19. As to position, cf. _insuper_ 31, and 34.
The Suevi are _still (adhuc)_ divided into distinct tribes bearing
distinct names, though united in a confederacy. Cf. Hand's Tursellinus,
1, 163. Doed. renders _besides_, sc. the general designation of Suevi.

_In commune. In common_. Not used in this sense by Cic., Caes. and Liv.,
though frequent in T. Gr. Cf. note on the same, 27.

_Obliquare. To turn the hair back, or comb it up_ contrary to its natural
direction--and then fasten it in a knot on the top of the head
(_substringere nodo_); so it seems to be explained by the author himself
below: _horrentem capillum retro sequuntur ac in ipso solo vertice
religant_. Others translate _obliquare_ by _twist_. Many ancient writers
speak of this manner of tying the hair among the Germans, cf. Sen. de
Ira. 3, 26.; Juv. 13, 164.

_A servis separantur. Separantur_==distinguuntur. Servants among the
Suevi seem to have had their hair shorn. So also it was among the Franks
at a later date. Vid. Greg. Tur. 3, 8.

_Rarum et intra_, etc. Enallage, cf. note _certum quique_, 32.

_Retro sequuntur_, i.e. _follow it back_, as it were, in its growth, and
_tie it up on the very crown of the head only_, instead of letting it
hang down, as it grows (submittere crinem). So K., Or. and many others.
Passow and Doed. take sequuntur in the sense of _desire, delight in_ (our
word _seek_). The word bears that sense, e.g. 5: argentum magis quam
aurum _sequuntur_. But then what is _retro_ sequuntur? for _retro_ must
be an adjunct of _sequuntur_ both from position, and because there is no
other word which it can limit. _Saepe_ implies, that sometimes they made
a knot elsewhere, but _often they fasten_ it there, and there _only_. See
Or. in loc. This whole passage illustrates our author's disposition to
avoid technical language. Cf. note, II. 2, 21.

_Innoxiae. Harmless_, unlike the beauty cultivated among the _Romans_ to
dazzle and seduce.

_In altitudinem_, etc. _For the sake of_ (increased) _height and terror_,
i.e. to appear tall and inspire terror. Cf. note, A, 5: _in
jactationem_; A. 7: _in suam famam_. The antithetic particle is omitted
before this clause as it often is by our author.

_Ut hostium oculis_, to strike with terror the eyes of the enemy, for
primi in omnibus proeliis _oculi_ vincuntur, 43.

XXXIX. _Vetustissimos. Oldest_. _Vetus_ is _old_, of long _duration_
([Greek; etos], aetas). _antiquus, ancient_, belonging to a _preceding_
age (ante). _Recens_ (fresh, young) is opposed to the former: _novus_
(new, modern), to the latter. See Ramshorn and Freund.

_Fides antiquitatis. Antiquitatis_ is objective gen.==_the belief, or
persuasion of their antiquity_.

_Auguriis--sacram_. The commentators all note the hexameter structure of
these words, and many regard them as a quotation from some Latin poet.
The words themselves are also poetical, e.g. _patrum_ for _majorum_, and
_formidine_ for _religione_. The coloring is Virgilian. Cf. Aen. 7, 172;
8, 598. See Or. in loc. and Preliminary Remarks to the Histories, p. 234.

_Legationibus coeunt_. Just as we say: _convene by their delegates_, or

_Publice_==publica auctoritate, cf. same word, 10.

_Primordia_. Initiatory rites.

_Minor_, sc. numine. _Inferior to the god_.

_Prae se ferens. Expressing in his external appearance, or bearing in his
own person an acknowledgment of the power of the divinity_.

_Evolvuntur_==se evolvunt, cf. Ann. 1, 13: cum Tiberii genua
advolveretur; also _lavantur_, 22.

_Eo--tanquam. Has reference to this point, as if_, i.e. to this opinion,
viz. that thence, etc. Cf. _illuc respicit tanquam_, 12.--_Inde_ From the
grove, or the god of the grove. Cf. 3: _Tuisconem ... originem gentis_.

_Adjicit auctoritatem_, sc. isti superstitioni.

_Magno corpore_==reipublicae magnitudine. _Corpore_, the body politic. So
His. 4, 64: redisse vos in corpus nomenque Germanorum.--_Habitantur_. Al.
habitant and habitantium, by conjecture. The subject is the Semnonian
_country_ implied in _Semnonum: the Semnonians inhabit a hundred
villages_, is the idea.

XL. _Langobardos_. The Lombards of Mediaeval history; so called probably
from their long beards (Germ, lang and bart). First mentioned by
Velleius, 2, 106: gens etiam Germana feritate ferocior. See also Ann. 2,
45, 46, 62-64.--_Paucitas_ here stands opposed to the _magno corpore_ of
the Semnones in 39.

_Per--periclitando_. Three different constructions, cf. notes 16, 18.

_Reudigni_. Perhaps the Jutes, so intimately associated with the Angles
in subsequent history. See Or. in loc. In like manner, Zeuss identifies
the _Suardones_ with the Heruli, and the _Nuithones_ with the Teutones.
_Suardones_ perhaps==_sword_-men.

_Anglii_. The English reader will here recognize the tribe of Germans
that subsequently invaded, peopled, and gave name to England
(==_Angl-land_), commonly designated as the Anglo-Saxons. T. does not
mention the _Saxons_. They are mentioned by Ptolemy and others, as
originally occupying a territory in this same part of Germany. They
became at length so powerful, as to give their name to the entire
confederacy (including the Angles), which ruled northern Germany, as the
Franks (the founders of the French monarchy) did southern. The Angles
seem to have dwelt on the right bank of the Elbe, near its mouth, in the
time of T.

_Nerthum_. This is the reading of the MSS. and the old editions. It
cannot be doubted that T. speaks of Hertha (see Turn. His. Ang. Sax.,
App. to B. 2. chap. 3). "But we must take care not to correct our author
himself." Passow. Grimm identifies this deity with Nioerdhr of the Edda,
and derives the name from Nord (North).--_Terram matrem_. The Earth is
worshipped by almost all heathen nations, as the mother of men and the
inferior gods. See Mur. in loco. Cf. 2: Tuisconem Deum, _terra editum_;
also note, 9. Isidi.

_Insula_. Scholars differ as to the Island. Probabilities perhaps are in
favor of Rugen, where the _secretus lacus_ mentioned below is still
shown, still associated with superstitious legends.

_Castum. Polluted by nothing profane_. So Hor: _castis lucis_.

_Penetrali_, viz. _the sacred vehicle_.

_Dignatur_. _Deems worthy_ of her visits.

_Templo_, sc. the sacred grove. Templum, like [Greek: temenos], denotes
any place _set apart_ (from [Greek: temno]) for sacred purposes, cf. 9.

_Numen ipsum. The goddess herself_, not an image of her; for the Germans
have no images of their gods, 9. _Abluitur_, as if contaminated by
intercourse with mortals.

_Perituri_, etc. _Which can be seen only on penalty of death_.

XLI. _Propior_, sc. to the Romans.--_Hermundurorum_. Ritter identifies
the name (_Hermun_ being omitted, and _dur_ being==_thur_) and the people
with the _Thur_ingians. Cf. note 2: _Ingaevones_.

_Non in ripa. Not only_ (or _not so much_) _on the border_ (the
riverbank), but also within the bounds of the Roman Empire.

_Splendidissima--colonia_. This flourishing colony had no distinctive
name in the age of T.; called afterwards Augusta Vindelicorum, now

_Passim_. Wherever they chose--_Sine custode_. Not so others. Cf. His. 4,
64: ut inermes ac prope nudi, _sub custode_ et pretio coiremus.

_Cum--ostendamus. Cum==while, although_. Hence the subj.

_Non concupiscentibus. Since they were not covetous_, Guen. Gr renders:
_though they were not equally desirous of it_.

_Notum--auditur_. The Elbe had been _seen_ and _crossed_ by Drusus
Domitius, and Tiberius. But now it was known only by _hearsay_. See a
like patriotic complaint at the close of 37.

XLII. _Marcomanni_==men of the marches. See Latham in loc--_Sedes_, sc.
Bohemia.--_Pulsis olim Boiis_, cf. 28.

_Degenerant_, sc. _a reliquorum virtute_, i.e. the Narisci and Quadi
_are not unworthy, do not fall short_ of the bravery of their neighbors.
the Marcomanni.

_Peragitur_. Al. _protegitur, porrigitur_, &c. Different words are
supplied as the subject of _peragitur_, e.g. Passow _iter_.; Rit.
_cursus_; K. _frons_. The last is preferable. The meaning is: _This
country_ (sc. of these tribes) _is the front_, so to speak (i.e. the
part _facing the Romans_) _of Germany, so far as it is formed by the
Danube_, i.e. so far as the Danube forms the boundary between Germany
and the Roman Empire.

_Marobodui_. Cf. Ann. 2, 62; Suet. Tib. 37.

_Externos_, sc. reges, viz. the kings of the Hermunduri. Ann. 2, 62.--
_Potentia. Power_ irrespective of right. _Potestas_ is lawful
_authority_. See note, 7

_Nec minus valent_, sc. being aided by our money, than they would be if
they were reinforced by our arms. This clause in some copies stands at
the beginning of 43.

XLIII. _Retro. Back_ from the Danube and the Roman border.--_Referunt.
Resemble_. Poetical, cf. 20.

_Et quod patiuntur_, sc. proves that they are not of German origin. They
paid tribute as _foreigners_. The Gothini were probably a remnant of the
expelled Boii. Cf. note, 28, and Prichard, as there cited. Hence their
Gallic language.

_Quo magis pudeat_. They have iron beyond even most of the Germans (cf.
6), but (shame to tell) do not know how to use it in asserting their
independence. Subj. H. 497; Z. 536.

_Pauca campestrium_. Poetical, but not uncommon in the later Latin. So
41: secretiora Germaniae; His. 4, 28: extrema Galliarum. H. 396, III.
2. 3; Z. 435.

_Jugum. A mountain chain.--Vertices. Distinct summits_.

_Insederunt_. This word usually takes a dat., or an abl., with _in_. But
the poets and later prose writers use it as a transitive verb with the
acc.==_have settled, inhabited_. Cf. H. 371, 4; Z. 386; and Freund sub
voce. Observe the comparatively unusual form of the perf. 3d plur. in
_-erunt_ instead of _-ere_. Cf. note, His. 2, 20.

_Nomen_==gens. So nomen Latinum==Latins. Liv. pass.

_Interpretatione Romana_. So we are every where to understand Roman
accounts of the gods of other nations. They transferred to them the names
of their own divinities according to some slight, perhaps fancied
resemblance. Cf. note, 34: _quicquid consensimus_.

_Ea vis numini_, i.e. these gods render the same service to the Germans,
as Castor and Pollux to the Romans.

_Alcis_, dat. pl. Perhaps from the Slavonic word holcy==kouros, Greek
for Castor and Pollux. Referable to no German root.

_Peregrinae_, sc. Greek or Roman.--_Tamen_. Though these gods bear no
visible trace of Greek or Roman origin, _yet_ they are worshipped as
brothers, as youth, like the _Greek_ and _Roman Twins_.--
_Superstitionis_==religionis. Cf. notes, His. 3, 58; 5, 13.

_Lenocinantur. Cherish_, increase. Used rhetorically; properly, _to
pander_.--_Arte_, sc. nigra scuta, &c.--_Tempore_, sc. atras noctes, &c.

_Ipsaque formidine_, etc. _And by the very frightfulness and shadow of
the deathlike army. Umbra_ may be taken of the literal _shadows_ of the
men in the night, with Rit., or with Doed. and Or., of the general _image_
or _aspect_ of the army. _Feralis_, as an adj., is found only in poetry
and post-Augustan prose. See Freund.

_Gothones_. Probably the Getae of earlier, and the Goths of later
history. See Or. in loc. and Grimm and other authorities as there cited.
The _Rugii_ have perpetuated their name in an island of the Baltic

_Adductius_. Lit. with tighter rein, _with more absolute power_ cf. His.
3, 7: adductius, quam civili bello, imperitabat. The adv. is used only in
the comp.; and the part. adductus is post-Augustan. _Jam_ and _nondum_
both have reference to the writer's progress in going over the tribes of
Germany, those tribes growing less and less free as he advances eastward:
_already_ under more subjection than the foregoing tribes, but _not yet_
in such abject slavery, as some we shall soon reach, sc. in the next
chapter, where see note on _jam_.

_Supra_. So as to _trample down_ liberty and destroy it.

_Protinus deinde ab_, etc. _Next in order, from the ocean_, i.e. with
territory beginning from or at the ocean.

XLIV. _Suionum. Swedes_. Not mentioned under this name, however, by any
other ancient author.

_Ipso_. The Rugii, &c., mentioned at the close of the previous section,
dwelt _by_ the ocean (_ab_ Oceano); but the _Suiones in_ the ocean (_in_
Oceano). _Ipso_ marks this antithesis.

_In Oceano_. An island in the Baltic. Sweden was so regarded by the
ancients, cf. 1, note.

_Utrimque prora. Naves biprorae_. Such also had the Veneti, Caes. B.G.
3, 13. Such Germanicus constructed, His. 3, 47. So also the canoes of the
N. Am. Indians.

_Ministrantur_, sc. naves==_the ships are not furnished with sails_, cf.
His. 4, 12: _viros armaque ministrant_. Or it may be taken in the more
literal sense: are served, i.e. worked, mannged. Cf. Virg. Aen. 6, 302:
velisque ministrat.--_In ordinem. For a row_, i.e. so as to form a row,
cf. Z. 314: also Rit. and Doed. in loc. The northmen (Danes and Swedes)
became afterwards still more famous for navigation and piratical
excursions, till at length they settled down in great numbers in France
and England.

_In quibusdam fluminum_. Rivers with steep banks require the oars to be
removed in order to approach the bank.

_Est--honos_. Contrary to the usual fact in Germany, cf. 5.

_Exceptionibus_. _Limitations_.--_Jam_. Now, i.e. _here_, opposed to the
_foregoing_ accounts of _free states_ and _limited monarchies_.

_Precario_. Properly: _obtained by entreaty_. Hence: _dependent on the
will of another_, cf. A. 16.--_Parendi_. A gerund with passive sense,
lit. _with no precarious right of being obeyed_. So Pass., K., Wr. and

_In promiscuo_. The privilege of wearing arms is not conceded to the mass
of the people.--_Et quidem_==et eo, _and that too_.

_Otiosa--manus_. Al. _otiosae_ by conjecture. But _manus_, a collective
noun sing. takes a pl. verb, cf. H. 461, 1; Z. 366.

_Regia utilitas est_==regibus utile est.

XLV. _Pigrum_. Cf. A. 10: pigrum et grave. The Northern or Frozen Ocean,
of which T. seems to have heard, though some refer it to the northern
part of the Baltic. See Ky. in loc.

_Hinc_. _For this reason_, viz. _quod extremus_, etc.

_In ortus_. _Till the risings_ (pl.) _of the sun_, i.e. from day to day
successively. It was known in the age of T. that the longest day grew
longer towards the north, till at length it became six months (cf. Plin.
N.H. 2, 77), though T. supposed it to be thus long at a lower latitude
than it really was, cf. A. 12.

_Sonum--aspici_. The aurora borealis, some suppose.

_Persuasio adjicit_. _The common belief adds_, i.e. _it is further
believed_, cf. His. 5, 5. 13: persuasio inerat.

_Illuc--natura_. _Tantum_ is to be connected with _illuc usque_. _Thus far
only nature extends_. So thought the ancients. Cf. A. 33: _in ipso
terrarum ac naturae fine_. _Et vera fama_ is parenthetic. The _author_
endorses this part of the story.

_Ergo_ marks a return from the above digression.

_Suevici maris_. _The Baltic_.

_Aestyorum_==eastern men, modern Esthonians. Their language was probably
neither German nor Briton, but Slavonic.

_Matrem Deum_. Cybele, as the Romans interpreted it, cf. 43.

_Insigne--gestant_. Worn, as _amulets_.

_Frumenta laborant_, i.e. labor _for_, or _to produce_, corn. Cf. Hor.
Epod. 5, 60. _Laborare_ is transitive only in poetry and post-Augustan
prose. _Elaborare_ would imply too much art for the author's purpose. See
Rit. in loc.

_Succinum_. _Amber_, an important article of commerce in early ages,
combining some vegetable juice (hence the Latin name, from _succus_) with
some mineral ingredients.--_Glesum_. This name was transferred to
_glass_, when it came into use. The root is German. Compare [Greek:
chalaza.] Doed.

_Nec_==non tamen. _Yet it is not_, etc.

_Ut barbaris_. Cf. ut inter barbaros, A. 11. _Barbaris_ is dative in
apposition with _iis_, which is understood after _compertum_.

_Quae--ratio_. _What power or process of nature_.

_Donec--dedit_. Cf. note, 87: _affectavere_.

_Plerumque_. _Often_; a limited sense of the word peculiar to
post-Augustan Latin. Cf. G. 13: _ipsa plerumque fama bella profligant_;
and Freund ad v.

_Quae--expressa_==quorum _succus_ expressus, etc.

_In tantum_. _To such a degree_. Frequent only in late Latin.

_A servitute_. They fall short of liberty in not being free, like most of
the Germans; and they fall below slavery itself, in that they are slaves
to a woman.

XLVI. _Venedorum et Fennorum_. Modern _Vends and Finns_, or Fen-men. Cf.
Latham in loc.--_Ac torpor procerum_. _The chief men are lazy and
stupid_, besides being filthy, like all the rest.

_Foedantur_. Cf. infectos, 4.--_Habitum_, here personal appearance, cf.
note, 17.--_Ex moribus_, sc. Sarmatarum.

_Erigitur_. Middle sense. _Raise themselves_, or _rise_, cf. evolvuntur,

_Figunt_. Have _fixed habitations_, in contrast with the Sarmatians, who
lived in carts. Cf. Ann. 13, 54: _fixerant domos Frisii_. Al. _fingunt_.

_Sarmatis_. The stock of the modern Russians, cf. 1. note.

_Cubile_. We should expect _cubili_ to correspond with _victui_ and
_vestituti_. But cf. note 18: referantur; 20: ad patrem, &c.

_Comitantur_, i.e. feminae comitantur viris.

_Ingemere--illaborare_. _Toil and groan upon houses and lands_, i.e. _in
building and tilling them_; though some understand _domibus_ and _agris_
as the places in which they toil.

_Versare_. _To be constantly employed_ in increasing the fortune of
themselves and others, agitated meanwhile by hope and fear.

_Securi_. Because they have nothing to lose.

_Illis_. Emphatic. _They_, unlike others, have no need, &c. Cf. _apud
illos_, 44.

_In medium relinquam_. Leave for the public, i.e. undecided.

_Relinquere in medio_ is the more common expression. Boetticher in his
Lex. Tac. explains it, as equivalent by Zeugma to _in medium vocatum
relinquam in medio_. So in Greek, _en_ and _eis_ often interchange.


The Biography of Agricola was written early in the reign of Trajan (which
commenced A.U.C. 851. A.D. 98), consequently about the same time with the
Germania, though perhaps somewhat later (cf. notes on Germania). This
date is established by inference from the author's own language in the 3d
and the 44th sections (see notes). In the former, he speaks of the dawn
of a better day, which opened indeed with the reign of Nerva, but which
is now brightening constantly under the auspices of Trajan. The use of
the past tense (_miscuerit_) here in respect to Nerva, and of the present
(_augeat_) in respect to Trajan, is quite conclusive evidence, that at
the time of writing, the reign of Nerva was past, and that of Trajan had
already begun.

The other passage is, if possible, still more clearly demonstrative of
the same date. Here in drawing the same contrast between past tyranny and
present freedom, the author, without mentioning Nerva, records the desire
and hope, which his father-in-law expressed in his hearing, that he might
live to see Trajan elevated to the imperial throne--language very proper
and courtly, if Trajan were already Emperor, but a very awkward
compliment to Nerva, if, as many critics suppose, he were still the
reigning prince.

It is objected to this date, that if Nerva were not still living, Tacitus
could not have failed to attach to his name (in Sec. 3.) the epithet
_Divus_, with which deceased Emperors were usually honored. And from the
omission of this epithet in connection with the name of _Nerva_, together
with the terms of honor in which _Trajan_ is mentioned, it is inferred
that the piece was written in that brief period of three months, which
intervened between the adoption of Trajan by Nerva, and Nerva's death
(see Brotier and many others). But the application of the epithet in
question, was not a matter of necessity or of universal practice. Its
omission in this case might have been accidental, or might have proceeded
from unknown reasons. And the bare absence of a single word surely cannot
be entitled to much weight, in comparison with the obvious and almost
necessary import of the passages just cited.

The primary object of the work is sufficiently obvious. It was to honor
the memory of the writer's excellent father-in-law, Agricola (cf. Sec. 3:
honori Agricolae, mei soceri, destinatus). So far from apologizing for
writing the life of so near a friend, he feels assured that his motives
will be appreciated and his design approved, however imperfect may be its
execution; and he deems an apology necessary for having so long delayed
the performance of that filial duty. After an introduction of singular
beauty and appropriateness (cf. notes), he sketches a brief outline of
the parentage, education, and early life of Agricola, but draws out more
at length the history of his consulship and command in Britain, of which
the following summary, from Hume's History of England, may not be
unprofitable to the student in anticipation: "Agricola was the general,
who finally established the dominion of the Romans in this island. He
governed it in the reigns of Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian. He carried
his victorious arms northward; defeated the Britons in every encounter,
pierced into the forests and the mountains of Caledonia, reduced every
state to subjection in the southern parts of the island, and chased
before him all the men of fiercer and more intractable spirits, who
deemed war and death itself less intolerable than servitude under the
victors. He defeated them in a decisive action which they fought under
Galgacus; and having fixed a chain of garrisons between the friths of
Clyde and Forth, he cut off the ruder and more barren parts of the island
and secured the Roman province from the incursions of the more barbarous
inhabitants. During these military enterprises, he neglected not the arts
of peace. He introduced laws and civility among the Britons; taught them
to desire and raise all the conveniences of life; reconciled them to the
Roman language and manners; instructed them in letters and science; and
employed every expedient to render those chains which he had forged both
easy and agreeable to them." (His. of Eng. vol. 1.)

The history of Agricola during this period is of course the history of
Britain. Accordingly the author prefaces it with an outline of the
geographical features, the situation, soil, climate, productions and, so
far as known to the Romans, the past history of the island. Tacitus
possessed peculiar advantages for being the historian of the early
Britons. His father-in-law was the first to subject the whole island to
the sway of Rome. He traversed the country from south to north at the
head of his armies, explored it with his own eyes, and reported what he
saw to our author with his own lips. He saw the Britons too, in their
native nobleness, in their primitive love of liberty and virtue; before
they had become the slaves of Roman arms, the dupes of Roman arts, or the
victims of Roman vices. A few paragraphs in the concise and nervous style
of Tacitus, have made us quite acquainted with the Britons, as Agricola
found them; and on the whole, we have no reason to be ashamed of the
primaeval inhabitants of the land of our ancestry. They knew their
rights, they prized them, they fought for them bravely and died for them
nobly. More harmony among themselves might have delayed, but could not
have prevented the final catastrophe. Rome in the age of Trajan was
irresistible; and Britain became a Roman province. This portion of the
Agricola of Tacitus, and the Germania of the same author, entitle him to
the peculiar affection and lasting gratitude of those, whose veins flow
with Briton and Anglo-Saxon blood, as the historian, and the contemporary
historian too, of their early fathers. It is a notable providence for us,
nay it is a kind providence for mankind, that has thus preserved from the
pen of the most sagacious and reflecting of all historians an account,
too brief though it be, of the origin and antiquities of the people that
of all others now exert the widest dominion whether in the political or
the moral world, and that have made those countries which were in his day
shrouded in darkness, the radiant points for the moral and spiritual
illumination of our race. "The child is father to the man," and if we
would at this day investigate the elements of English law, we have it on
the authority of Sir William Blackstone, that we must trace them back to
their founders in the customs of the Britons and Germans, as recorded by
Caesar and Tacitus.

With the retirement of Agricola from the command in Britain, the author
falls back more into the province of biography. The few occasional
strokes, however, in which the pencil of Tacitus has sketched the
character of Domitian in the background of the picture of Agricola are
the more to be prized, because his history of that reign is lost.

In narrating the closing scenes of Agricola's life, Tacitus breathes the
very spirit of an affectionate son, without sacrificing the impartiality
and gravity of the historian, and combines all a mourner's simplicity and
sincerity with all the orator's dignity and eloquence.

How tenderly he dwells on the wisdom and goodness of his departed father;
how artlessly he intersperses his own sympathies and regrets, even as if
he were breathing out his sorrows amid a circle of sympathizing friends!
At the same time, how instructive are his reflections, how noble his
sentiments, and how weighty his words, as if he were pronouncing an
eulogium in the hearing of the world and of posterity! The sad experience
of the writer in the very troubles through which he follows Agricola,
conspires with the affectionate remembrance of his own loss in the death
of such a father, to give a tinge of melancholy to the whole biography;
and we should not know where to look for the composition, in which so
perfect a work of art is animated by so warm a heart. In both these
respects, it is decidedly superior to the Germania. It is marked by the
same depth of thought and conciseness in diction, but it is a higher
effort of the writer, while, at the same time, it gives us more insight
into the character of the man. It has less of satire and more of
sentiment. Or if it is not richer in refined sentiments and beautiful
reflections, they are interwoven with the narrative in a manner more easy
and natural. The sentiments seem to be only the language of Agricola's
virtuous heart, and the reflections, we feel, could not fail to occur to
such a mind in the contemplation of such a character. There is also more
ease and flow in the language; for concise as it still is and studied as
it may appear, it seems to be the very style which is best suited to the
subject and most natural to the author. In another writer we might call
it labored and ambitious. But we cannot feel that it cost Tacitus very
much effort. Still less can we charge him with an attempt at display. In
short, an air of confidence in the dignity of the subject, and in the
powers of the author, pervades the entire structure of this fine specimen
of biography. And the reader will not deem that confidence ill-grounded.
He cannot fail to regard this, as among the noblest, if not the very
noblest monument ever reared to the memory of any individual.

"We find in it the flower of all the beauties, which T. has scattered
through his other works. It is a chef-d'oeuvre, which satisfies at once
the judgment and the fancy, the imagination and the heart. It is justly
proposed as a model of historical eulogy. The praises bestowed have in
them nothing vague or far-fetched, they rise from the simple facts of the
narrative. Every thing produces attachment, every thing conveys
instruction. The reader loves Agricola, admires him, conceives a passion
for him, accompanies him in his campaigns, shares in his disgrace and
profits by his example. The interest goes on growing to the last. And
when it seems incapable of further increase, passages pathetic and
sublime transport the soul out of itself, and leave it the power of
feeling only to detest the tyrant, and to melt into tenderness without
weakness over the destiny of the hero." (La Bletterie.)

* * * * *

I. _Usitatum_. A participle in the acc. agreeing with the preceding
clause, and forming with that clause the object of the verb omisit.--
_Nequidem_. Cf. G. 6, note.

_Incuriosa suorum_. So Ann. 2, 88: dum vetera extollimus, recentium
incuriosi. _Incuriosus_ is post-Augustan.

_Virtus vicit--vitium_. Alliteration, which is not unfrequent in T. as
also homoeoteleuta, words ending with like sounds. Dr.

_Ignorantiam--invidiam_. The gen. _recti_ limits both subs., which
properly denote different faults, but since they are usually associated,
they are here spoken of as one (_vitium_).

_In aperto_. Literally, _in the open_ field or way; hence, _free from
obstructions_. Sal. (Jug. 5) uses it for _in open_ day, or clear light.
But that sense would be inappropriate here. _Easy_. Not essentially
different from _pronum_, which properly means _inclined_, and hence
_easy_. These two words are brought together in like manner in other
passages of our author, cf. 33: vota virtusque _in aperto_, omniaque
_prona_ victoribus. An inelegant imitation may be thus expressed in
English: down-hill and open-ground work.

_Sine gratia aut ambitione. Without courting favor or seeking preferment.
Gratia_ properly refers more to the present, _ambitio_ to the future. Cf.
Ann. 6, 46: Tiberio non perinde gratia praesentium, quam in posteros
ambitio. _Ambitio_ is here used in a bad sense (as it is sometimes in
Cic.) For still another bad sense of the word, cf. G. 27.

_Celeberrimus quisque_. Such men as Pliny the elder, Claudius Pollio,
and Julius Secundus, wrote biographies. Also Rusticus and Senecio. See
chap. 2.

_Plerique_. Not most persons, but _many_, or _very many_. Cf. His. 1, 86,
and 4, 84, where it denotes a less number than _plures_ and _plurimi_, to
which it is allied in its root (ple, ple-us, plus, plerus. See Freund ad

_Suam ipsi vitam. Autobiography_. Cic. in his Epist. to Lucceius says: If
I cannot obtain this favor from you, I shall perhaps be compelled to
write my own biography, _multorum exemplo et clarorum virorum_. When
_ipse_ is joined to a possessive pronoun in a reflexive clause, it takes
the case of the subject of the clause. Cf. Z. 696, Note; H. 452, 1.

_Fiduciam morum_. _A mark of conscious integrity_; literally confidence
of, i.e. in their morals. _Morum_ is objective gen. For the two
accusatives (one of which however is the clause _suam--narrare_) after
_arbitrati sunt_, see Z. 394; H. 373. A gen. may take the place of the
latter acc., _esse_ being understood, Z. 448.

_Rutilio_. Rutilius Rufus, consul A.U.C. 649, whom Cic. (Brut. 30, 114.)
names as a profound scholar in Greek literature and philosophy, and
Velleius (2, 13, 2.) calls the best man, not merely of his own, but of
any age. He wrote a Roman history in Greek. Plut. Mar. 28. His
autobiography is mentioned only by Tacitus.

_Scauro_. M. Aemilius Scaurus, consul A.U.C. 639, who wrote an
autobiography, which Cic. (Brut. 29, 112.) compares favorably with the
Cyropaedia of Xenophon.

_Citra fidem_. Cf. note G. 16.--_Aut obtrectationi_. Enallage, cf. note,
G. 15. Render: _This in the case of Rutilius and Scaurus did not impair_
(public) _confidence or incur_ (public) _censure_.

_Adeo_. _To such a degree_, or _so true it is_. _Adeo_ conclusiva, et in
initio sententiae collocata, ad _mediam_ latinitatem pertinet. Dr. Livy
uses _adeo_ in this way often; Cic. uses _tantum_.

_At nunc_, etc. _But now_ (in our age so different from those better
days) _in undertaking to write_ (i.e. if I had undertaken to write) _the
life of a man at the time of his death, I should have needed permission;
which I would not have asked_, since in that case _I should have fallen
on times so cruel and hostile to virtue_. The reference is particularly
to the time of Domitian, whose jealousy perhaps occasioned the death of
Agricola, and would have been offended by the very asking of permission
to write his biography. Accordingly the historian proceeds in the next
chapter to illustrate the treatment, which the biographers of eminent men
met with from that cruel tyrant. _Opus fuit_ stands instead of _opus
fuisset_. Cf. His. 1, 16: _dignus eram_; 3, 22: _ratio fuit_; and Z. 518,
519. The concise mode of using the future participles _narraturo_ and
_incursaturus_ (in place of the verb in the proper mood and with the
proper conjunctions, if, when, since) belongs to the silver age, and is
foreign to the language of Cicero. Such is the interpretation, which
after a thorough reinvestigation, I am now inclined to apply to this much
disputed passage. It is that of Ritter. It will be seen that the text
also differs slightly from that of the first edition (_in-cursaturus_
instead of _ni cursaturus_). Besides the authority of Rit., Doed., Freund
and others, I have been influenced by a regard to the usage of Tacitus,
which lends no sanction to a transitive sense of _cursare_. Cf. Ann. 15,
50; His. 5, 20. In many editions, _mihi_ stands before _nunc narraturo_.
But _nunc_ is the emphatic word, and should stand first, as it does in
the best MSS.

II. _Legimus_. Quis? Tacitus ejusdemque aetatis homines alii. Ubi? In
actis diurnis. Wr. These _journals_ (Fiske's Man. p. 626., 4. ed.)
published such events (cf. Dio. 67, 11), and were read through the empire
(Ann. 16, 22). T. was absent from Rome when the events here referred to
took place (cf. 45: longae absentiae). Hence the propriety of his saying
_legimus_, rather than _vidimus_ or _meminimus_, which have been proposed
as corrections.

_Aruleno Rustico_. Put to death by Domitian for writing a memoir or
penegyric on Paetus Thrasea, cf. Suet. Dom. 10.

_Paetus Thrasea_. Cf. Ann. 16, 21: Trucidatis tot insignibus viris, ad
postremum Nero _virtutem ipsam_ exscindere concupivit, interfecto Thrasea

_Herennio Senecioni_. Cf. Plin. (Epist. 7, 19), where Senecio is said to
have written the life of Helvidius at the request of Fannia, wife of
Helvidius, who was also banished, as accessory to the crime, but who bore
into exile the very books which had been the cause of her exile. For the
dat. cf. note, G. 3: _Ulixi_.

_Priscus Helvidius_, son-in-law of Thrasea and friend of the younger
Pliny, was put to death by Vespasian. Suet. Vesp. 15; His. 4, 5; Juv.
Sat. 5, 36.

_Laudati essent_. The imp. and plup. subj. are used in narration after
_cum_, even when it denotes time merely. Here however a causal connection
is also intended. H. 518, II.; Z. 577, 578.

_Triumviris_. The Triumviri at Rome, like the Undecimviri (_oi endeka_)
at Athens, had charge of the prisons and executions, for which purpose
they had eight lictors at their command.

_Comitio ac foro_. The comitium was a _part_ of the forum. Yet the words
are often used together (cf. Suet. Caes. 10). The _comitium_ was the
proper place for the punishment of criminals, and the word _forum_
suggests the further idea of the publicity of the book-burning in the
presence of the assembled people.

_Conscientiam_, etc. _The consciousness_, i.e. _common knowledge of
mankind_; for _conscientia_ denotes what one knows in common with others,
as well as what he is conscious of in himself. Cf. His. 1, 25:
_conscientiam facinoris_; Cic. Cat. 1. 1: _omnium horum conscientia_. In
his Annals (4, 35), T. ridicules the stupidity of those who expect by any
_present_ power, to extinguish the memory also of the _next_ generation.
The sentiment of both passages is just and fine.

_Sapientiae professoribus. Philosophers_, who were banished by Domitian,
A.D. 94, on the occasion of Rusticus's panegyric on Thrasea. T. not
unfrequently introduces an _additional circumstance_ by the abl. abs., as

_Ne occurreret. Ne_ with the subj. expresses a negative intention; _ut
non_ a negative result. H. 490; Z. 532.

_Inquisitiones. A system of espionage_, sc. by the Emperor's tools and
informers.--_Et_==etiam, _even_. Cf. note, 11. Al. _etiam_.

_Memoriam--perdidissemus_, i.e. we should not have _dared_ to remember, if
we could have helped it.

III. _Et quanquam. Et_ pro _sed_. So Dr. But _nunc demum animus redit_
implies, that confidence is hardly restored yet; and the reason for so
slow a recovery is given in the following clause. Hence _et_ is used in
its proper copulative or explicative sense. So Wr. _Demum_ is a
lengthened form of the demonstrative _dem_. Cf. i-_dem_, tan-_dem_,
_dae_. _Nunc demum_==_nun dae_. Freund.

_Primo statim. Statim_ gives emphasis: _at the very commencement_, etc.;
cf. note, 20.--_Dissociabiles, incompatible_.

_Augeatque--Trajanus_. This marks the date of the composition early in
the reign of Trajan, cf. G. 37; also p. 139 supra.

_Securitas publica. "And public security has assumed not only hopes and
wishes, but has seen those wishes arise to confidence and, stability.
Securitas publica_ was a current expression and wish, and was frequently
inscribed on medals." Ky.

_Assumpserit_. This word properly belongs only to _fiduciam ac robur.
Spem ac votum_ would require rather _conceperit_. Zeugma.

_Subit_. _Steals in_, lit. creeps under. Cf. note, H. 1, 13.

_Invisa primo--amatur_. The original perhaps of Pope's lines Vice is a
monster, &c.

_Quindecim annos_. The reign of Domitian from A.D. 81, to A.D. 96.

_Fortuitis casibus_. Natural and ordinary death, as opposed to death by
violence, _saevitia principis_.--_Promptissimus quisque. The ablest, or
all the ablest_. _Quisque_ with a superlative, whether singular or
plural, is in general equivalent to _omnes_ with the positive, with the
additional idea however of a reciprocal comparison among the persons
denoted by _quisque_, Z. 710, 6.

_Ut ita dixerim_. An apology for the strong expression _nostri
superstites: survivors not of others only, but so to speak, of ourselves
also_; for we can hardly be said to have _lived_ under the tyranny of
Dom., and our present happy life is, as it were, a renewed existence,
after being buried for fifteen years. A beautiful conception! The use of
_dixerim_ in preference to _dicam_ in this formula is characteristic of
the later Latin. Cf. Z. 528. The _et_ before this clause is omitted by
some editors. But it is susceptible of an explanation, which adds spirit
to the passage: A few of us survive, _and that_ not merely ourselves, but
so to speak, others also. In the Augustan age _superstes_ was, for the
most part, followed by the dative.

_Tamen_. Notwithstanding the unfavorable circumstances in which I write,
after so long a period of deathlike silence, in winch we have almost lost
the gift of speech, _yet_ I shall not regret to have composed _even in
rude and inelegant language_, etc. For the construction of _pigebit_, cf.
Z. 441, and H. 410, 6.

_Memoriam--composuisse_. Supposed to refer to his forthcoming history,
written, or planned and announced, but not yet published. Some understand
it of the present treatise. But then _interim_ would have no meaning; nor
indeed is the language applicable to his _Agricola_.

_Interim_, sc. _editus_ or vulgatus, _published meanwhile_, i.e. while
preparing the history.

The reader cannot but be struck with the beauty of this introduction. It
is modest, and at the same time replete with the dignity of conscious
worth. It is drawn out to considerable length, yet it is all so pertinent
and tasteful, that we would not spare a sentence or a word. With all the
thoughtful and sententious brevity of the exordiums of Sallust, it has
far more of natural ease and the beauty of appropriateness.

IV. _Cnaeus Julius Agricola_. Every Roman had at least three names: the
nomen or name of the gens, which always ended in _ius_ (Julius); the
praenomen or individual name ending in _us_ (Cnaeus); and the cognomen or
family name (Agricola). See a brief account of A. in Dion Cassius 66, 20.
Mentioned only by Dion and T. Al. Gnaeus, C. and G. being originally

_Forojuliensium colonia_. Now _Frejus_. A walled town of Gallia
Narbonensis, built by Julius Caesar, and used as a _naval station_ by
Augustus (cf. His. 3, 43: _claustra maris_). Augustus sent thither the
beaked ships captured in the battle of Actium, Ann. 4, 5. Hence perhaps
called _illustris_.

_Procuratorem Caesarum_. Collector of imperial revenues in the Roman

_Quae equestris--est_, i.e. the procurator was, as we say, ex officio, a
Roman knight. The office was not conferred on senators.

_Julius Graecinus_. Cf. Sen. de Benef. 2, 21: Si exemplo magni animi opus
est, utemur _Graecini Julii_, viri egregii, quem C. Caesar occidit ob hoc
unum, quod melior vir esset, quam esse quemquam tyranno expediret.

_Senatorii ordinis_. Pred. after _fuit_ understood, with ellipsis of
_vir_. H. 402, III.; Z. 426.

_Sapientiae. Philosophy_, cf. 1.--_Caii Caesaris_. Known in English
histories by the name of Caligula.

_Marcum Silanum_. Father-in-law of Caligula, cf. Suet. Calig. 23: Silanum
item _socerum_ ad necem, secandasque novacula fauces compulit.

_Jussus_. Supply _est_. T. often omits _est_ in the first of two passive
verbs, cf. 9: detentus ac statim ... revocatus est. In Hand's Tursellinus
(2, 474) however, jussus is explained as a participle, and _quia
abnuerat_ as equivalent to another participle==_having been commanded
and having refused_.

_Abnuerat_, lit. _had_ refused, because the refusal was prior to the
slaying. We, with less accuracy, say _refused_. Z. 505.

_Rarae castitatis_. Ellipsis of _mulier_. H. 402, III.; Z. 426.

_In--indulgentiaque. Brought up in her bosom and tender love. Indulgentia_
is more frequently used to denote excessive tenderness.

_Arcebat_ has for its subject the clause, _quod statim_, etc. He was
guarded against the allurements of vice by the wholesome influences
thrown around him in the place of his early education.

_Massiliam_. Now Marseilles. It was settled by a colony of Phocaeans.
Hence _Graeca comitate_. Cf also Cicero's account of the high culture and
refinement of Massilia (Cic. pro Flacco, 26).--_Provinciali parsimonia.
Parsimonia_ in a good sense; _economy_, as opposed to the luxury and
extravagance of Italy and the City.

_Locum--mixtum_. Enallage for _locus_, in quo mixta erant, etc. H. 704,
III., cf. 25: mixti copiis et laetitia.--_Bene compositum_ denotes _a
happy combination_ of the elements, of which _mixtum_ expresses only the

_Acrius_, sc. aequo==too eagerly. H. 444, 1, and Z. 104, 1. note.

_Concessum--senatori_. Military and civil studies were deemed more
appropriate to noble Roman youth, than literature and philosophy.
_Senatori_ must of course refer, not to the office of A., but to his rank
by birth, cf. _senatorii ordinis_ above.

_Hausisse, ni--coercuisset_. An analysis of this sentence shows, that
there is an ellipsis of _hausurum_ fuisse: _he imbibed_, and would have
continued to imbibe, _had not_, &c. In such sentences, which abound in T.
but are rarely found in Cic., _ni_ is more readily translated by _but_.
Cf. Z. 519. _b_; and note, His. 3, 28. For the application of _haurire_
to the eager study of philosophy, cf. Hor. Sat. 2, 4, 95: _haurire vitae
praecepta beatae_, and note, His. 1, 51: _hauserunt animo_.

_Prudentia matris_. So Nero's mother deterred him from the study of
philosophy. Suet. Ner. 52.

_Pulchritudinem ac speciem. The beautiful image_, or beau ideal, by
hendiadys. Cf. Cic. Or. 2: _species pulchritudinis_. See Rit. in loc.

_Vehementius quam caute_. For _vehementius quam cautius_, which is the
regular Latin construction. T. uses both. Cf. Z. 690, and note, His. 1,

_Mox_. In T. subsequently, not presently. R.

_Retinuitque--modum. And, what is most difficult, he retained from
philosophy moderation_--moderation in all things, but especially in
devotion to philosophy itself, where moderation is difficult in
proportion to the excellence of the pursuit, as was shown by the
extravagance of the Stoics and some other Grecian sects. As to the sense
of _modum_, cf. Hor. Sat. 1, 1, 106: _est modus in rebus_; and for the
sentiment, Hor. Ep. 1, 6, 15: _Insani sapiens nomen ferat, aequus iniqui,
ultra quam satis est virtutem si petat ipsam_.

V. _Castrorum_. This word is used to express whatever pertains to
military life, education, &c., as the context may require. Every Roman
youth who aspired to civil office, must have a military education.

_Diligenti ac moderato. Careful and prudent_, cf. our author's character
of the same commander, His. 2, 25: _cunctator natura_, etc.

_Approbavit_==fecit, ut ei probarentur. Dr. It is a constructio
praegnans. He obtained the first rudiments of a military education under
Paullinus, and he gained his approbation.

_Electus--aestimaret. Having been chosen as one whom he would estimate_
(i.e. test his merit) _by tenting together_, i.e. by making him his
companion and aid. Young men of rank and promise were thus associated
with Roman commanders. Cf. Suet., Caes. 2. T., as usual, avoids the
technical way of expressing the relation. Ad verbum, _contubernium_, cf.
note, His. 1, 43. Others make _aestimaret==dignum aestimaret_, and
_contubernio_ abl. of price. Cf. Doed. and Dr.

_Licenter--segniter_, sc. agens. _Licenter_ refers to _voluptates,
segniter_ to _commeatus.--Commeatus==furloughs, absence from duty.--
Inscitiam_, sc. tribunatus==_ignorance of his official duty or
inexperience in war.--Retulit. Referre ad_ is used very much like the
corresponding English, viz. to _refer to_ an object, or devote to an end.
Sense: _He did not take advantage of his official standing and his
military inexperience, to give up his time to ease and pleasure_. Wr.
takes _retulit_ in the more ordinary sense of brought back, thus: A. did
not bring back (to Rome) the empty name of Tribune and no military
experience, there to give himself up to leisure and pleasure. The former
version accords better with the language of the whole passage. Wr.
questions the authority for such a use of _referre_. But it may be found,
e.g. Plin. Epist. 1, 22: nihil _ad_ ostentationem, omnia _ad_
conscientiam _refert_.

_Noscere--nosci_, etc. T. is fond of such a series of inf. depending on
some _one_ finite verb understood, and hence closely connected with each
other, cf. G. 30: _praeponere_, etc. _note_. Here supply from _retulit_
in the preceding number the idea: _he made it his business or aim to
know_, etc. The author's fondness for antithesis is very observable in
the several successive pairs here: _noscere--nosci; discere--sequi;
appetere--recusare; anxius--intentus_.

_In jactationem_. Al. jactatione. _In_ denoting the object or purpose, Z.
314: _he coveted no appointment for the sake of display; he declined none
through fear_.

_Anxius_ and _intentus_ qualify _agere_ like adverbs cf. R. Exc. 23, 1.
_He conducted himself both with prudence and with energy_.

_Exercitatior_==agitatior. So Cic. Som. Scip. 4: agitatus et exercitatus
animus; and Hor. Epod. 9, 31: Syrtes Noto exercitatas.

_Incensae coloniae_. Camalodunum, Londinium and Verulamium. Cf. Ann. 14,
33, where however the historian does not expressly say, the last two were

_In ambiguo_==ambigua, in a critical state. R.

_Alterius_, sc. ducis.--_Artem et usum_. Military _science and

_Summa ... cessit. The general management_ (cf. notes, H. 1, 87. 2, 16.
33) _and the glory of recovering the province went to the general_ (to
his credit). The primary meaning of _cedere_ is _to go_. See Freund sub
v.--_Juveni_, sc. A.

_Tum_, sc. while veterani trucidarentur, etc.--_Mox_, sc. when Paullinus
and A. came to the rescue.

_Nec minus_, etc. A remark worthy of notice and too often true.

VI. _Magistratus_. The regular _course_ of offices and honors at Rome.

_Per--anteponendo_. Enallage, cf. G. 15, note. _Per_ here denotes manner,
rather than means (cf. _per lamenta_, 28); and _anteponendo_
likewise==anteponentes. R. Render: _mutually loving and preferring one
another.--Nisi quod==but_. Cf. _ni_, 4. There is an ellipsis before _nisi
quod_, which R. would supply thus: greatly to the credit of both parties
--_but more praise belongs to the good wife_, etc. _Major_ sc. quam in
bono viro. So, after _plus_ supply quam in malo viro: _But more praise
belongs to a good wife_, than to a good husband, _by as much as more
blame attaches to a bad wife_, than to a bad husband.

_Sors quaesturae_. The Quaestors drew _lots_ for their respective
provinces. Their number increased with the increase of the empire, till
from two they became twenty or more. As at first a Quaestor accompanied
each Consul at the head of an army, so afterwards each Proconsul, or
Governor of a province, had his Quaestor to collect and disburse the
revenues of the province. The Quaestorship was the first in the course of
Roman honors. It might be entered upon at the age of twenty-four.

_Salvium Titianum_. Brother of the Emperor Otho. See His. B. 1 and 2.
pass. For the office of Proconsul, &c., see note, His. 1, 49.

_Parata peccantibus. Ready for wicked_ rulers, i.e. affording great
facilities for extortion in its corrupt and servile population. _Paratus_
With a dat. of the thing, for which there is a preparation, is peculiar
to poetry and post-Augustan prose. Cf. Freund ad v. Ad rem. cf. Cic.
Epist. ad Quint. 1, 1, 6: tam corruptrice provincia, sc. Asia; and pro
Mur. 9.

_Quantalibet facilitate_. Any indulgence (license) however great.

_Redempturus esset_. Subj. in the apodosis answering to a protasis
understood, sc. if A. would have entered into the plot. Cf. H. 502.
Observe the use of _esset_ rather than _fuisset_ to denote what the
proconsul would have been ready to do _at any time_ during their
_continuance_ in office. Cf. Wr. in loc.

_Dissimulationem_. Concealment (of what is true); simulatio, on the
other hand, is an allegation of what is false.

_Auctus est filia_. So Cic. ad Att. 1, 2: filiolo me auctum scito.

_Ante sublatum. Previously born_. For this use of _sublatum_, see
Lexicon.--Brevi amisit, he lost shortly after_; though R. takes _amisit_
as perf. for plup. and renders lost a short time before.

_Mox inter_, etc., sc. _annum_ inter, supplied from _etiam ipsum ...
annum_ below.

_Tenor et silentium_. Hendiadys for continuum silentium, or tenorem
silentem. R.

_Jurisdictio. For the administration of justice in private cases had not
fallen to his lot_. Only two of the twelve or fifteen Praetors, viz. the
Praetor Urbanus (see note H. 1, 47) and the Praetor Peregrinus (who
judged between foreigners and citizens) were said to exercise
_jurisdictio_. The adjudication of criminal causes was called _quaestio_,
which was now for the most part in the hands of the senate (Ann. 4, 6),
from whom it might be transferred by appeal to the Praefect of the City
or the Emperor himself. The Praetors received the _jurisdictio_ or the
_quaestio_ by lot; and in case the former did not fall to them, the
office was almost a sinecure; except that they continued to preside over
the public games. See further, on the name and office of Praetor, His. 1,
47, note. For the plup. in _obvenerat_, see note, 4: _abnuerat_.

_Et_==et omnino. _The games and in general the pageantry of office
(inania honoris)_ expected of the Praetor. Observe the use of the neuter
plural of the adj. for the subst., of which, especially before a gen., T.
is peculiarly fond.

_Medio rationis_. The text is doubtful. The MSS. vacillate between _medio
ratinois_ and _modo rationis_; and the recent editions, for the most
part, follow a third but wholly conjectural reading, viz. _moderationis_.
The sense is the same with either reading: _He conducted the games and
the empty pageantry of office in a happy mean_ (partaking at once) _of
prudence and plenty_. See Freund ad _duco_.

_Uti--propior. As far from luxury, so_ (in the same proportion) _nearer to
glory_, i.e. the farther from luxury, the nearer to glory. Cf. Freund ad

_Longe--propior_. Enallage of the adv. and adj. ef. G. 18: _extra_.

_Ne sensisset. Would not have felt_, etc., i.e. he recovered all the
plundered offerings of the temple, but those which had been
sacrilegiously taken away by _Nero_ for the supply of his vicious
pleasures. This explanation supposes a protasis understood, or rather
implied in _quam Neronis_. (Cf H. 503, 2. 2). The plup. subj. admits
perhaps of another explanation, the subj. denoting the end with a view to
which _Agricola labored_ (H. 531; Z. 549), and the plup. covering all the
past down to the time of his labors: he labored that the republic might
not have experienced, and _he_ virtually _effected that it had not
experienced_, since he restored everything to its former state, the
plunder of Nero alone excepted. See Wr. and Or. in loc. Perhaps this
would not be an unexampled _praegnantia_ for Tacitus. For _sentire_ in
the sense of _experiencing_ especially _evil_, see Hor. Od. 2, 7, 10, and
other examples in Freund sub v.

VII. _Classis Othoniana_. Ad rem. cf. His. 2, 12, seqq.--_Licenter vaga.
Roaming in quest of plunder.--Intemelios_, Cf. note, 2, 13.--_In
praediis suis. On her own estates. Praedia_ includes both lands and

_Ad solemnia pietatis. To perform the last offices of filial affection_.

_Nuntio deprehensus_. Supply _est_, cf. 4: jussus. _Was overtaken
unexpectedly by the news of Vespasian's claim (nomination) to the
throne.--Affectati_. Cf. note, G. 28.--_In partes_, to his (Vesp.)

_Principatus_, sc. Vespasiani.--_Mucianus regebat_. Vesp. was detained in
Egypt for some time after his troops had entered Rome under Mucianus;
meanwhile Mucianus exercised all the imperial power, cf. His. 4, 11. 39:
vis penes Mucianum erat.

_Juvene--usurpante_. Dom. was now eighteen years old, cf. His. 4, 2:
nondum ad curas intentus, sed _stupris et adulteriis filium principis

_Is_, sc. Mucianus.--_Vicesimae legioni_. One of three legions, at that
time stationed in _Britain_, which submitted to the government of Vesp.
_tarde_ and _non sine motu_ (His. 3, 44).

_Decessor. Predecessor_. It was Roscius Coelius. His. 1, 60.

_Legatis--consularibus. Governors_ or Proconsuls. The provinces were
governed by men who had been consuls (_consulares_), and as _legatus_
meant any commissioned officer, these were distinguished as _legati
consulares_. With reference to this consular authority, the same were
called _proconsules_. Cf. note, H. 1, 49. Trebellius Maximus and Vettius
Bolanus are here intended. Cf. 16. and His. 1, 60. 2, 65. _Nimia_==justo
potentior. Dr.

_Legatus praetorius==legatus legionis, commander of the legion_. Cf.
note, His. 1, 7. Here the same person as _decessor_.

_Invenisse quam fecisse_, etc., involves a maxim of policy worth noting.

VIII. _Placidius. With less energy_. See more of Bolanus at close of 16.

_Dignum est_. A general remark, applicable to any such province. Hence
the present, for which some would substitute _erat_ or _esset_.

_Ne incresceret_, sc. ipse: _lest he should become too great_, i.e. rise
above his superior and so excite his jealousy. Referred by W. to
_ardorem_ for its subject. But then _ne incresceret_ would be

_Consularem_, sc. Legatum==Governor, cf. 7, note.

_Petilius Cerialis_. Cf. 17. Ann. 14, 32. His. 4, 68.

_Habuerunt--exemplorum. Had room for exertion_ and so for _setting a good
example_, cf. Ann. 13, 8: videbaturque locus virtutibus patefactus. The
position of _habuerunt_ is emphatic, as if he had said: _then had
virtues_, etc. See Rit. in loc.

_Communicabat_, sc. cum A.--_Ex eventu_, from _the event_, i.e. _in
consequence of his success_.

_In suam famam_. Cf. in jactationem, 5, note.

_Extra gloriam_ is sometimes put for _sine gloria_, especially by the
late writers. His. 1, 49: _extra vitia_. Hand's Turs. 2, 679.

IX. _Revertentem_, etc. Returning from his command in Britain.--_Divus_.
Cf. notes, G. 28; His. 2, 33.

_Vesp.--ascivit_. By virtue of his office as Censor, the Emperor claimed
the right of elevating and degrading the rank of the citizens. Inasmuch
as the families of the aristocracy always incline to run out and become
extinct, there was a necessity for an occasional re-supply of the
patrician from the plebeian ranks, e.g. by Julius Caesar, Augustus and
Claudius (Ann. 11, 25), as well as by Vespasian (Aur. Vic. Caes. 9. Suet.
9.)--_Provinciae--praeposuit_. Aquitania was one of seven provinces, into
which Augustus distributed Gaul, and which with the exception of Narbonne
Gaul, were all subject to the immediate disposal and control of the
Emperor himself. It was the south-western part of Gaul, being enclosed by
the Rhone, the Loire, the Pyrenees and the Atlantic.

_Splendidae--destinarat. A province of the first importance both in its
government_ (in itself considered), _and the prospect of the consulship,
to which he_ (Vesp.) _had destined him_ (A.), sc. as soon as his office
should have expired.

_Subtilitatem_==calliditatem, nice discernment, _discrimination_.--
_Exerceat_, Observe the subj. to express the views of others, not of the
author. H. 531; Z. 511.

_Secura--agens. _Requiring less anxious thought and mental acumen_, and
_proceeding more by physical force. Secura_==minus anxia. Dr. Cf. note,
His. 1, 1. _Obtusior_==minus acuta.

_Togatos. Civilians_ in distinction from military men, like A. The _toga_
was the dress of civil life to some extent in the _provinces_ (cf. 21,
His. 2, 20), though originally worn only in _Rome_. (Beck. Gall., Exc.
Sc. 8.)

_Remissionumque_. The Greeks and Romans both used the pl. of many
abstracts, of which we use only the sing. For examples see R. Exc. 4. For
the principle cf. Z. 92.

_Curarum--divisi_. This clause means not merely, that his time was
divided between business and relaxation; but that there was a broad
line of demarcation between them, as he proceeds to explain.
_Divisa_==diversa inter se. Dr. So Virg. Georg. 2, 116: divisae
arboribus patriae==countries are _distinguished from_ each other by
their trees. _Jam vero_. Cf. note, G. 14.

_Conventus_, sc. juridici==_courts_. The word designates also the
districts in which the courts were held, and into which each province was
divided. Cf. Smith's Dict. of Ant.: Conventus. So Pliny (N.H. 3; 3.)
speaks of juridici conventus. Tacitus, as usual, avoids the technical

_Ultra_. Adv. for adj., cf. _longe_, 6.--_Persona_. 1. A mask (_per_ and
_sono_). 2. Outward show, as here.

_Tristitiam--exuerat_. Some connect this clause by zeugma with the
foregoing. But with a misapprehension of the meaning of exuerat,
which==_was entirely free from_; lit. had divested himself of. Thus
understood, the clause is a _general_ remark touching the character of
A., in implied contrast with other men or magistrates with whom those
vices were so common. So in Ann. 6, 25, Agrippina is said to have
divested herself of vices (_vitia exuerat_) which were common among
women, but which never attached to her. _Facilitas_. Opposed to
_severitas_==kindness, indulgence.

_Abstinentiam_. This word, though sometimes denoting temperance in food
and drink, more properly refers to the desire and use of money.
_Abstinentia_ is opposed to _avarice; continentia_ to _sensual pleasure_.
Cf. Plin. Epis. 6, 8: alieni abstinentissimus. Here render honesty,

_Cui--indulgent_. See the same sentiment, His. 4, 6: quando etiam
sapientibus cupido gloriae novissima exuitur.

_Ostentanda--artem_, cf. 6: _per--anteponendo_; also G. 15, note.

_Collegas_. The governors of other provinces. The word means _chosen
together_; hence either those chosen at the same election or those chosen

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