Part 6 out of 7
attitude of Spain, 135;
relations with Barbary States, 136;
mission of Gouverneur Morris to sound English feeling, 137;
assertion by Washington of non-intervention policy toward Europe,
issue of neutrality proclamation, 147, 148;
its importance, 148;
mission of Genet, 148-162;
guarded attitude of Washington toward emigres, 151;
excesses of Genet, 151;
neutrality enforced, 153, 154;
the Little Sarah episode, 154-157;
recall of Genet demanded, 158;
futile missions of Carmichael and Short to Spain, 165, 166;
successful treaty of Thomas Pinckney, 166-168;
question as to binding nature of French treaty of commerce, 169-171;
irritating relations with England, 173-176;
Jay's mission, 177-184;
the questions at issue, 180, 181;
terms of the treaty agreed upon, 182;
good and bad points, 183;
ratified by Senate, 184;
signing delayed by renewal of provision order, 185;
war with England prevented by signing, 205;
difficulties with France over Morris and Monroe, 211-214;
doings of Monroe, 212, 213;
United States compromised by him, 213, 214;
Monroe replaced by Pinckney, 214;
review of Washington's foreign policy, 216-219;
mission of Pinckney, Marshall, and Gerry to France, 284;
the X.Y.Z. affair, 285.
drives Griffin out of New Jersey, i. 180;
killed at Fort Mercer, 217.
letters of Washington to, i. 294, 329.
describes enthusiasm of people for Washington, i. 288.
connection with Braddock's expedition, i. 84, 87.
arrives in Virginia as governor, i. 122;
on friendly terms with Washington, 122, 123;
dissolves assembly, 123.
Duplaine, French consul,
exequatur of revoked, ii. 159.
peace commissioner, i. 233.
a typical New England American, ii. 309.
Emerson, Rev. Dr.,
describes Washington's reforms in army before Boston, i. 140.
Washington's treatment of, ii. 151, 253.
honors Washington, i. 20;
arrogant behavior toward colonists, 80, 81, 82, 148;
its policy towards Boston condemned by Virginia, 119, 121, 123, 126;
by Washington, 124, 125,126;
sends incompetent officers to America, 155, 201, 202, 233;
stupidity of its operations, 203, 205, 206, 265;
sincerity of its desire for peace doubted by Washington, 324, 325;
arrogant conduct of toward the United States after peace, ii. 24, 25;
stirs up the Six Nations and Northwestern Indians, 92, 94, 101;
folly of her policy, 102;
sends Hammond as minister, 169;
its opportunity to win United States as ally against France, 171, 172;
adopts contrary policy of opposition, 172, 173;
adopts "provision order," 174;
incites Indians against United States, 175;
indignation of America against, 176;
receives Jay well, but refuses to yield points at issue, 180;
insists on monopoly of West India trade, 180;
and on impressment, 181;
later history of, 181;
renews provision order, 185;
danger of war with, 193;
avoided by Jay treaty, 205;
Washington said to sympathize with England, 252;
his real hostility toward, 254;
Washington's opinion of liberty in, 344.
Ewing, General James,
fails to help Washington at Trenton, i. 180.
hunts with Washington, i. 115;
remonstrates with Washington against violence of patriots, 124;
Washington's replies to, 124, 126, 127;
letter of Washington to in Revolution, ii. 366.
married to Miss Cary, i. 55;
accompanies Washington on surveying expedition, 58;
letter of Washington to, 133.
letter of Washington to, ii. 367.
Fairfax, Thomas, Lord,
his career in England, i. 55;
comes to his Virginia estates, 55;
his character, 55;
his friendship for Washington, 56;
sends him to survey estates, 56;
plans a manor across the Blue Ridge, 59;
secures for Washington position as public surveyor, 60;
probably influential in securing his appointment as envoy to
hunts with Washington, 115;
his death remembered by Washington, ii. 366.
amuses Washington, ii. 374.
Farewell Address, ii. 248, 249.
letter of, incriminating Randolph, ii. 195,196, 202.
love affair of Washington with, i. 97.
Fauquier, Francis, Governor,
at Washington's wedding, i. 101.
suggested by Washington, i. 150.
circulated by Washington, ii. 40.
begun by Hamilton's controversy with Jefferson, ii. 230;
supports Washington for reelection, 235;
organized in support of financial measures, 236;
Washington looked upon by Democrats as its head, 244, 247;
only its members trusted by Washington, 246, 247, 259, 260, 261;
becomes a British party, 255;
Washington considers himself a member of, 269-274;
the only American party until 1800, 273;
strengthened by X, Y, Z affair, 285;
dissensions in, over army appointments, 286-290;
its horror at French Revolution, 294, 295;
attempts of Washington to heal divisions in, 298.
used by Hamilton against the "National Gazette," ii. 230.
Finances of the Revolution,
effect of paper money on war, i. 258, 262;
difficulties in paying troops, 258;
labors of Robert Morris, 259, 264, 312;
connection of Washington with, 263;
continued collapse, 280, 290, 312.
bad condition in 1789, ii. 105;
decay of credit, paper, and revenue, 106;
futile propositions, 106;
Hamilton's report on credit, 107;
debate over assumption of state debt, 107;
bargain between Hamilton and Jefferson, 108;
establishment of bank, 109;
other measures adopted, 112;
protection in the first Congress, 112-115;
the excise tax imposed, 123;
opposition to, 123-127;
"Whiskey Rebellion," 127-128.
nomination rejected by Senate, ii. 63.
Fontanes, M. de,
delivers funeral oration on Washington, i. 1.
renews attack on French in Ohio, i. 93.
describes impressiveness of Washington, ii. 389.
Fox, Charles James,
understands significance of Washington's leadership, i. 202.
pays honors to Washington, i. I, 6;
war with England, see French and Indian war;
takes possession of Ohio, 65;
considers Jumonville assassinated by Washington, 74;
importance of alliance with foreseen by Washington, 191;
impressed by battle of Germantown, 200;
makes treaty of alliance with United States, 241;
sends D'Estaing, 243;
declines to attack Canada, 256;
sends army and fleet, 274, 277;
relations of French to Washington, 318, 319;
absolute necessity of their naval aid, 318, 319;
Revolution in, applauded by America, ii. 138, 139, 142;
real character understood by Washington and others, 139-142, 295;
debate over in America, 142;
question of relations with United States, 143, 144;
warned by Washington, 144, 145;
neutrality toward declared, 147;
tries to drive United States into alliance, 149;
terms of the treaty with, 169;
latter held to be no longer binding, 169-171;
abrogates it, 171;
demands recall of Morris, 211;
mission of Monroe to, 211-214;
makes vague promises, 212, 213;
Washington's fairness toward, 253;
tries to bully or corrupt American ministers, 284;
the X, Y, Z affair, 285;
war with not expected by Washington, 291;
danger of concession to, 292, 293;
progress of Revolution in, 294.
gets wagons for Braddock's expedition, i. 84;
remark on Howe in Philadelphia, 219;
national, like Washington, 252, ii. 8;
despairs of success of Constitutional Convention, 35;
his unquestioned Americanism, 309;
respect of Washington for, 344, 346, 364.
Frederick II., the Great,
his opinion of Trenton campaign, i. 183;
of Monmouth campaign, 239.
French and Indian war, i. 64-94;
inevitable conflict, 65;
efforts to negotiate, 66, 67;
hostilities begun, 72;
the Jumonville affair, 74;
defeat of Washington, 76;
Braddock's campaign, 82-88;
ravages in Virginia, 90;
carried to a favorable conclusion by Pitt, 93, 94.
brought to Philadelphia and given clerkship by Jefferson, ii. 227;
attacks Adams, Hamilton, and Washington in "National Gazette," 227;
makes conflicting statements as to Jefferson's share in the paper,
the first to attack Washington, 238.
commands a Virginia regiment against French and Indians, i. 71;
dies, leaving Washington in command, 75.
GAGE, GENERAL THOMAS,
conduct at Boston condemned by Washington, i. 126;
his treatment of prisoners protested against by Washington, 145;
sends an arrogant reply, 147;
second letter of Washington to, 147, 156.
connection with Whiskey Rebellion, ii. 129.
visits Mt. Vernon, his character, i. 132;
refuses to cooperate with Washington at Trenton, 180;
his appointment as commander against Burgoyne urged, 208;
chosen by Congress, 209;
his part in defeating Burgoyne, 210;
neglects to inform Washington, 211;
loses his head and wishes to supplant Washington, 215;
forced to send troops South, 216, 217;
his attitude discovered by Washington, 221;
makes feeble efforts at opposition, 221, 223;
correspondence with Washington, 221, 223, 226;
becomes head of board of war, 221;
quarrels with Wilkinson, 223;
sent to his command, 226;
fears attack of British on Boston, 265;
sent by Congress to command in South, 268;
defeated at Camden, 281, 294;
loses support of Congress, 294.
Genet, Edmond Charles,
arrives as French minister, ii. 148;
his character, 149;
violates neutrality, 151;
his journey to Philadelphia, 151;
reception by Washington, 152;
complains of it, 153;
makes demands upon State Department, 153;
protests at seizure of privateers, 153;
insists on sailing of Little Sarah, 155;
succeeds in getting vessel away, 157;
his recall demanded, 158;
reproaches Jefferson, 158;
remains in America, 158;
threatens to appeal from Washington to Massachusetts, 159;
demands denial from Washington of Jay's statements, 159;
loses popular support, 160;
tries to raise a force to invade Southwest, 161;
prevented by state and federal authorities, 162;
his arrival the signal for divisions of parties, 237;
hurts Democratic party by his excesses, 241;
suggests clubs, 241.
Washington's opinion of, ii. 346.
quarrels with Creeks, asks aid of United States, ii. 90;
becomes dissatisfied with treaty, 91;
disregards treaties of the United States, 103.
notifies Washington of return of D'Estaing, i. 246.
battle of, i. 199.
on special mission to France, ii. 284;
disliked by Washington, 292.
attacks Washington in Congress, ii. 251, 252.
accompanies Washington on his mission to French, i. 66;
wishes to shoot French Indians, 68.
letter of Washington to, i. 227.
sent to relieve Cornwallis, i. 312; defeated by De Grasse, 312.
hunts with Washington, i. 115; letter to, ii. 22.
battle of, i. 307.
Greene, General Nathanael,
commands at Long Island, ill with fever, i. 164;
wishes forts on Hudson held, 174;
late in attacking at Germantown, 199;
conducts retreat, 200;
succeeds Mifflin as quartermaster-general, 232;
selected by Washington to command in South, 268;
commands army at New York in absence of Washington, 282;
appointed to command Southern army, 295;
retreats from Cornwallis, 302;
fights battle of Guilford Court House, 302;
clears Southern States of enemy, 302;
strong position, 304;
reinforced by Washington, 322;
letter to, 325;
his military capacity early recognized by Washington, ii. 334;
amuses Washington, 374.
dances three hours with Washington, ii. 380.
denies that ministry has incited Indians against United States,
receives Jay, 180;
declines to grant United States trade with West Indies, 181.
commissioner to treat with Creeks, ii. 90.
fails to help Washington at Trenton, i. 180.
the "Lowland Beauty," love affair of Washington with, i. 95;
marries Henry Lee, 96.
HALDIMAND, SIR FREDERICK,
leads Indians against colonists, i. 325.
Hale, Nathan, compared with Andre, i. 288.
kept to English alliance by Washington, i. 68;
his criticism of Washington's first campaign, 76.
forces Gates to send back troops to Washington, i. 216, 217;
remark on councils of war before Monmouth, 234;
informs Washington of Arnold's treason, 284;
sent to intercept Arnold, 285;
writes letters on government and finance, 298;
leads attack at Yorktown, i. 316;
requests release of Asgill, 329;
aids Washington in Congress, 333;
only man beside Washington and Franklin to realize American future,
letters of Washington to on necessity of a strong government, 17, 18;
writes letters to Duane and Morris, 19;
speech in Federal Convention and departure, 35;
counseled by Washington, 39;
consulted by Washington as to etiquette, 54;
made secretary of treasury, 66;
his character, 67;
his report on the mint, 81;
on the public credit, 107;
upheld by Washington, 107, 108;
his arrangement with Jefferson, 108;
argument on the bank, 110;
his success largely due to Washington, 112;
his report on manufactures, 112, 114, 116;
advocates an excise, 122;
fails to realize its unpopularity, 123;
accompanies expedition to suppress Whiskey Rebellion, 128;
comprehends French Revolution, 139;
frames questions to cabinet on neutrality, 147;
urges decisive measures against Genet, 154;
argues against United States being bound by French treaty, 169;
selected for English mission, but withdraws, 177;
not likely to have done better than Jay, 183;
mobbed in defending Jay treaty, 187;
writes Camillus letters in favor of Jay treaty, 206;
intrigued against by Monroe, 212;
causes for his breach with Jefferson, 224;
his aristocratic tendencies, 225;
attacked by Jefferson and his friends, 228, 229;
disposes of the charges, 229;
retorts in newspapers with effect, 230;
ceases at Washington's request, 230, 234;
resigns from the cabinet, 234;
desires Washington's reelection, 235;
selected by Washing, ton as senior general, 286;
appeals to Washington against Adams's reversal of rank, 286;
fails to soothe Knox's anger, 288;
report on army organization, 290;
letter of Washington to, condemning Adams's French mission, 293;
fears anarchy from Democratic success, 295;
approves Alien and Sedition Acts, 296;
his scheme of a military academy approved by Washington, 299;
Washington's affection for, 317, 362;
his ability early recognized by Washington, 334, 335;
aids Washington in literary points, 340;
takes care of Lafayette's son, 366.
protests against violations of neutrality, ii. 151;
his arrival as British minister, 169;
his offensive tone, 173;
does not disavow Lord Dorchester's speech to Indians, 176;
gives Fauchet letters to Wolcott, 195;
intrigues with American public men, 200.
compared with Washington, ii. 312, 313.
disappointed at Washington's receiving command of army, i. 135;
his character, ii. 74;
refuses to call first on Washington as President, 75;
apologizes and calls, 75, 76.
twice surprised and defeated by Indians, ii. 93.
invades Indian country, ii. 92;
attacks the Miamis, 93;
sends out unsuccessful expeditions and retreats, 93;
court-martialed and resigns, 93.
letters of Washington to, i. 259, 261; ii. 10.
admired by Washington, i. 95.
Heard, Sir Isaac,
Garter King at Arms, makes out a pedigree for Washington, i. 30, 31.
checks Howe at Frog's Point, i. 173;
left in command at New York, 311.
his resolutions supported by Washington, i. 119;
accompanies him to Philadelphia, 128;
his tribute to Washington's influence, 130;
ready for war, 132;
letters of Conway cabal to against Washington, 222;
letter of Washington to, 225;
appealed to by Washington on behalf of Constitution, ii. 38;
an opponent of the Constitution, 71;
urged by Washington to oppose Virginia resolutions, 266-268, 293;
a genuine American, 309;
offered secretaryship of state, 324;
friendship of Washington for, 362.
Hertburn, Sir William de,
ancestor of Washington family, i. 31, 33.
in Revolution, i. 194.
hanged for plotting to murder Washington, i. 160.
Hobby,----, a sexton,
Washington's earliest teacher, i. 48.
letter of Washington to, ii. 3.
Houdon, J.A., sculptor,
on Washington's appearance, ii. 386.
arrives at New York with power to negotiate and pardon, i. 161;
refuses to give Washington his title, 161;
tries to negotiate with Congress, 167;
escapes D'Estaing at Delaware, 244;
attacks D'Estaing off Newport, 244.
Howe, Sir William,
has controversy with Washington over treatment of prisoners, i. 148;
checked at Frog's Point, 173;
attacks cautiously at Chatterton Hill, 173;
retreats and attacks forts on Hudson, 174;
takes Fort Washington, 175;
goes into winter quarters in New York, 177, 186;
suspected of purpose to meet Burgoyne, 194, 195;
baffled in advance across New Jersey by Washington, 194;
goes by sea, 195;
arrives at Head of Elk, 196;
defeats Washington at Brandywine, 197;
camps at Germantown, 199;
withdraws after Germantown into Philadelphia, 201;
folly of his failure to meet Burgoyne, 205, 206;
offers battle in vain to Washington, 218;
replaced by Clinton, 232;
tries to cut off Lafayette, 233.
captured by English, hanged by Tories, i. 327.
letters of Washington to, ii. 13, 339;
at opening of Congress, 78;
commissioner to treat with Creeks, 90;
anecdote of, 375.
asks Washington's aid in Christianizing Indians, ii. 4.
right of, maintained by England, ii. 181.
not wished, but foreseen, by Washington, i. 131, 156;
declared by Congress, possibly through Washington's influence, 160.
wars with in Virginia, i. 37, 38;
in French and Indian war, 67,68;
desert English, 76;
in Braddock's defeat, 85, 86, 88;
restless before Revolution, 122;
in War of Revolution, 266, 270;
punished by Sullivan, 269;
policy toward, early suggested by Washington, 344;
recommendations relative to in Washington's address to Congress,
the "Indian problem" under Washington's administration, 83-105;
erroneous popular ideas of, 84, 85;
real character and military ability, 85-87;
understood by Washington, 87, 88;
a real danger in 1788, 88;
situation in the Northwest, 89;
difficulties with Cherokees and Creeks, 89, 90;
influence of Spanish intrigue, 90;
successful treaty with Creeks, 90, 91;
wisdom of this policy, 92;
warfare in the Northwest, 92;
defeats of Harmar and Hardin, 93;
causes for the failure, 93, 94;
intrigues of England, 92, 94, 175, 178;
expedition and defeat of St. Clair, 95-97;
expedition of Wayne, 100, 102;
his victory, 103;
success of Washington's policy toward, 104, 105.
appointed to Supreme Court, ii. 73.
accompanies Washington to opening of Congress, ii. 78.
forwards Andrews letter to Arnold, i. 284;
receives orders from Washington, 285.
on opposition in Congress, to Washington, i. 222;
consulted by Washington as to etiquette, ii. 54;
appointed chief justice, 72;
publishes card against Genet, 159;
appointed on special mission to England, 177;
his character, 177;
instructions from Washington, 179;
his reception in England, 180;
difficulties in negotiating, 181;
concludes treaty, 182;
burnt in effigy while absent, 186;
execrated after news of treaty, 187;
hampered by Monroe in France, 213.
Jay treaty, ii. 180-184;
opposition to and debate over signing, 184-201;
reasons of Washington for signing, 205.
his flight from Cornwallis, i. 307;
discusses with Washington needs of government, ii. 9;
adopts French democratic phraseology, 27;
contrast with Washington, 27, 28, 69;
criticises Washington's manners, 56;
made secretary of state, 68;
his previous relations with Washington, 68;
his character, 69;
supposed to be a friend of the Constitution, 72;
his objections to President's opening Congress, 79;
on weights and measures, 81;
letter of Washington to on assumption of state debts, 107;
makes bargain with Hamilton, 108;
opposes a bank, 110;
asked to prepare neutrality instructions, 146;
upholds Genet, 153;
argues against him publicly, supports him privately, 154;
notified of French privateer Little Sarah, 155;
allows it to sail, 155;
retires to country and is censured by Washington, 156;
assures Washington that vessel will wait his decision, 156;
his un-American attitude, 157;
wishes to make terms of note demanding Genet's recall mild, 158;
argues that United States is bound by French treaty, 170, 171;
begs Madison to answer Hamilton's "Camillus" letters, 206;
his attitude upon first entering cabinet, 223;
causes for his breach with Hamilton, 224;
jealousy, incompatibility of temper, 224;
his democratic opinions, 225;
skill in creating party catch-words, 225;
prints "Rights of Man" with note against Adams, 226;
attacks him further in letter to Washington, 226;
brings Freneau to Philadelphia and gives him an office, 227;
denies any connection with Freneau's newspaper, 227;
his real responsibility, 228;
his purpose to undermine Hamilton, 228;
causes his friends to attack him, 229;
writes a letter to Washington attacking Hamilton's treasury measures,
fails to produce any effect, 230;
winces under Hamilton's counter attacks, 230;
reiterates charges and asserts devotion to Constitution, 231;
continues attacks and resigns, 234;
wishes reelection of Washington, 235;
his charge of British sympathies resented by Washington, 252;
plain letter of Washington to, 259;
Washington's opinion of, 259;
suggests Logan's mission to France, 262, 265;
takes oath as vice-president, 276;
regarded as a Jacobin by Federalists, 294;
jealous of Washington, 306;
accuses him of senility, 307;
a genuine American, 309.
Tory leader in New York, i. 143.
peace commissioner, i. 233.
Jumonville, De, French leader,
declared to have been assassinated by Washington, i. 74,79;
really a scout and spy, 75.
condemned by Washington, ii. 266-268.
his opinion that Washington was not American, ii. 308.
publishes card exposing Genet, ii. 159.
fight at, i. 170.
fight at, i. 168.
Kirkland, Rev. Samuel,
negotiates with Six Nations, ii. 101.
brings artillery to Boston from Ticonderoga, i. 152;
accompanies Washington to meet De Rochambeau, 283;
at West Point, 285;
sent by Washington to confer with governors of States, 295;
urged by Washington to establish Western posts, ii. 7;
letters of Washington to, 30, 39;
made secretary of war, 65;
his character, 65;
a Federalist, 71;
deals with Creeks, 91;
urges decisive measure against Genet, 154, 155;
letters of Washington to, 260;
selected by Washington as third major-general, 286;
given first place by Adams, 286;
angry at Hamilton's higher rank, 288;
refuses the office, 289;
his offer to serve on Washington's staff refused, 289;
Washington's affection for, 317, 362.
LAFAYETTE, Madame de,
aided by Washington, ii. 366;
letter of Washington to, 377.
Lafayette, Marquis de,
Washington's regard for, i. 192;
his opinion of Continental troops, 196;
sent on fruitless journey to the lakes by cabal, 222, 253;
encouraged by Washington, 225;
narrowly escapes being cut off by Clinton, 233;
appointed to attack British rear, 235;
superseded by Lee, 235;
urges Washington to come, 235;
letter of Washington to, regarding quarrel between D'Estaing and
regard of Washington for, 249;
desires to conquer Canada, 254;
his plan not supported in France, 256;
works to get a French army sent, 264;
brings news of French army and fleet, 274;
tries to get De Rochambeau to attack New York, 280;
accompanies Washington to meet De Rochambeau, 283;
told by Washington of Arnold's treachery, 285;
on court to try Andre, 287;
opinion of Continental soldiers, 293;
harasses Cornwallis, 307;
defeated at Green Springs, 307;
watches Cornwallis at Yorktown, 308;
reinforced by De Grasse, 312;
persuades him to remain, 315;
sends Washington French wolf-hounds, ii. 2;
letters of Washington to, 23, 26, 118, 144, 165, 222, 261;
his son not received by Washington, 253;
later taken care of, 277, 281, 366;
his worth, early seen by Washington, 334;
Washington's affection for, 365;
sends key of Bastile to Mt. Vernon, 365;
helped by Washington, 365,366.
letter of Conway cabal to, making attack on Washington, i. 222;
letters of Washington to, 254, 288;
sent to Paris to get loans, 299.
Lauzun, Duc de,
repulses Tarleton at Yorktown, i. 317.
Washington's secretary, ii. 263;
his account of Washington's last illness, 299-303, 385;
letters to, 361, 382.
example of Virginia gentleman educated abroad, i. 23.
visits Mt. Vernon, his character, i. 132;
accompanies Washington to Boston, 136;
aids Washington in organizing army, 140;
disobeys orders and is captured, 175;
objects to attacking Clinton, 234;
first refuses, then claims command of van, 235;
disobeys orders and retreats, 236;
rebuked by Washington, 236, 237;
court martial of and dismissal from army, 237;
his witty remark on taking oath of allegiance, ii. 375.
Lee, Henry, marries Lucy Grymes,
Washington's "Lowland Beauty," i. 96.
son of Lucy Grymes, Washington's "Lowland Beauty," i. 96; ii. 362;
captures Paulus Hook, i. 269;
letters of Washington to, ii. 23, 26, 149, 235, 239, 242, 252;
considered for command against Indians, 100;
commands troops to suppress Whiskey Rebellion, 127;
Washington's affection for, 362.
Lee, Richard Henry,
unfriendly to Washington, i. 214;
letter of Washington to, ii. 160.
at opening of Congress, ii. 78;
takes social duties at Mt. Vernon, 280.
Liancourt, Duc de,
refused reception by Washington, ii. 253.
compared with Washington, i. 349; ii. 308-313.
sent by Washington against Burgoyne, i. 210;
fails to understand Washington's policy and tries to hold Charleston,
commissioner to treat with Creeks, ii. 90.
orders hanging of Huddy, i. 327;
acquitted by English court martial, 328.
the affair of, 155-157.
administers oath at Washington's inauguration, ii. 46.
moves call for papers relating to Jay treaty, ii. 207.
Logan, Dr. George,
goes on volunteer mission to France, ii. 262;
ridiculed by Federalists, publishes defense, 263;
calls upon Washington, 263;
mercilessly snubbed, 263-265.
battle of, i. 164,165.
disappoints Washington by his inefficiency, i. 91.
follows the Adamses in opposing Washington, i. 214;
wishes to supplant him by Gates, 215;
writes hostile letters, 222.
letter of Washington to, i. 130.
begins to desire a stronger government, ii. 19, 29;
letters of Washington to, 30, 39, 53;
chosen for French mission, but does not go, 211.
betrayed at Fort Washington, i. 175.
Washington's pet colt, beaten in a race, i. 99, 113; ii. 381.
Chief Justice, on special commission to France, ii. 284;
tells anecdote of Washington's anger at cowardice, 392.
Maryland, the Washington family in, i.36.
discusses political outlook with Washington, i. 119;
letter of Washington to, 263;
an opponent of the Constitution, ii. 71;
friendship of Washington for, 362;
debates with Washington the site of Pohick Church, 381.
communicates Jay treaty to Bache, ii. 185.
Massey, Rev. Lee,
rector of Pohick Church, i. 44.
letter of Washington to, i. 294.
makes raids in Virginia, i. 269.
defeated at Princeton, i. 182.
chief of the Creeks, ii. 90;
his journey to New York and interview with Washington, 91.
at West Point, i. 284;
letters to, 325, ii. 22, 278, 287, 384;
becomes secretary of war, 246;
advised by Washington not to appoint Democrats, 260, 261.
McKean, Thomas, given letters to Dr. Logan, ii. 265.
McMaster, John B.,
calls Washington "an unknown man," i. 7, ii. 304;
calls him cold, 332, 352;
and avaricious in small ways, 352.
Meade, Colonel Richard,
Washington's opinion of, ii. 335.
killed at Princeton, i. 182.
president of Directory, interview with Dr. Logan, ii. 265.
wishes to supplant Washington by Gates, i. 216;
member of board of war, 221;
put under Washington's orders, 226;
replies to Washington's surrender of commission, 349;
meets Washington on journey to inauguration, ii. 44;
notified of the Little Sarah, French privateer, 154;
orders its seizure, 155.
abandon Continental army, i. 167;
cowardice of, 168;
despised by Washington, 169;
leave army again, 175;
assist in defeat of Burgoyne, 211.
Mischianza, i. 232.
battle of, i. 235-239.
appointed minister to France, ii. 211;
his character, 212;
intrigues against Hamilton, 212;
effusively received in Paris, 212;
acts foolishly, 213;
tries to interfere with Jay, 213;
upheld, then condemned and recalled by Washington, 213, 214;
writes a vindication, 215;
Washington's opinion of him, 215, 216;
his selection one of Washington's few mistakes, 334.
Montgomery, General Richard,
sent by Washington to invade Canada, i. 143.
sent against Burgoyne by Washington, i. 208;
at Saratoga, 210;
wins battle of Cowpens, joins Greene, 301.
letters of Washington to, i. 248, 263;
efforts towards financial reform, 264;
quotes speech of Washington at Federal convention in his eulogy,
discussion as to his value as an authority, 32, note;
goes to England on unofficial mission, 137;
balked by English insolence, 137;
comprehends French Revolution, 139;
letters of Washington to, on the Revolution, 140,142,145;
recall demanded by France, 211;
letter of Washington to, 217,240, 254;
Washington's friendship for, 363.
letter of Washington to, i. 187;
helps Washington to pay troops, 259;
efforts towards financial reform, 264;
difficulty in helping Washington in 1781, 309, 312;
considered for secretary of treasury, ii. 66;
his bank policy approved by Washington, 110;
Washington's friendship for, 363.
demands private access to Washington, ii. 59;
refused, 59, 60.
Murray, Vans, minister in Holland,
interview with Dr. Logan, ii. 264;
nominated for French mission by Adams, 292;
written to by Washington, 292.
trains Washington in tactics and art of war, i. 65.
orders public mourning for Washington's death, i. 1.
letter of Washington to, i. 257.
addresses, ii. 335.
character of people, i. 138;
attitude toward Washington, 138, 139;
troops disliked by Washington, 152;
later praised by him, 152, 317, 344;
threatened by Burgoyne's invasion, 204;
its delegates in Congress demand appointment of Gates, 208;
and oppose Washington, 214;
welcomes Washington on tour as President, ii. 74;
more democratic than other colonies before Revolution, 315;
disliked by Washington for this reason, 316.
Newenham, Sir Edward,
letter of Washington to on American foreign policy, ii. 133.
Washington's first visit to, i. 99, 100;
defense of, in Revolution, 159-169;
abandoned by Washington, 169;
Howe establishes himself in, 177;
reoccupied by Clinton, 264;
Washington's journey to, ii. 44;
inauguration in, 46;
rioting in, against Jay treaty, 187.
letter of Washington to, ii. 259.
urges Washington to establish a despotism, i. 337.
Noailles, Vicomte de, French emigre,
referred to State Department, ii. 151, 253.
Washington's friendship with, ii. 318.
Organization of the national government,
absence of materials to work with, ii. 51;
debate over title of President, 52;
over his communications with Senate, 53;
over presidential etiquette, 53-56;
appointment of officials to cabinet offices established by Congress,
appointment of supreme court judges, 72.
letter of Washington to, i. 84.
his "Rights of Man" reprinted by Jefferson, ii. 226.
says Washington was harsh to slaves, i. 105;
contradicts statement elsewhere, 106;
tells stories of Washington's pecuniary exactness, ii. 353, 354, 382;
his character, 355;
his high opinion of Washington, 356.
considers Washington as good but commonplace, ii. 330, 374.
letter of Washington to, i. 92.
Virginia delegate to Continental Congress, i. 128.
refuses to fight the French, i. 72,83;
fails to help Washington, 225;
remonstrates against his going into winter quarters, 229;
condemned by Washington, 229;
compromises with mutineers, 292.
brief love-affair of Washington with, i. 99, 100.
commands British troops in Virginia, i. 303;
death of, 303.
Pickering, Colonel, quiets Six Nations, ii. 94.
letter of Washington to, on French Revolution, ii. 140;
on failure of Spanish negotiations, 166;
recalls Washington to Philadelphia to receive Fauchet letter, 195;
succeeds Randolph, 246;
letters of Washington to, on party government, 247;
appeals to Washington against Adams's reversal of Hamilton's rank,
letters of Washington to, 292, 324;
criticises Washington as a commonplace person, 307.
Pinckney, Charles C.,
letter of Washington to, ii. 90;
appointed to succeed Monroe as minister to France, 214;
refused reception, 284;
sent on special commission, 284;
named by Washington as general, 286;
accepts without complaint of Hamilton's higher rank, 290;
Washington's friendship with, 363.
sent on special mission to Spain, ii. 166;
unsuccessful at first, 166;
succeeds in making a good treaty, 167;
credit of his exploit, 168;
letter of Washington to, 325.
his conduct of French war, i. 93, 94.
battle of, i. 181-3.
sent out by Washington, i. 150.
favored in the first Congress, ii. 113-115;
arguments of Hamilton for, 114, 115;
of Washington, 116-122.
of Americans, i. 193;
with regard to foreign officers, 193, 234, 250-252;
with regard to foreign politics, ii. 131, 132, 163, 237, 255.
escapes with difficulty from New York, i. 169;
fails to help Washington at Trenton, 180;
warned to defend the Hudson, 195;
tells Washington of Burgoyne's surrender, 211;
rebuked by Washington, 217;
amuses Washington, ii. 374.
defeated and killed at Trenton, i. 181.
letter of Washington to, ii. 30, 39;
relations with Washington, 64;
appointed attorney-general, 64;
his character, 64, 65;
a friend of the Constitution, 71;
opposes a bank, 110;
letter of Washington to, on protective bounties, 118;
drafts neutrality proclamation, 147;
vacillates with regard to Genet, 154;
argues that United States is bound by French alliance, 170;
succeeds Jefferson as secretary of state, 184;
directed to prepare a remonstrance against English "provision order,"
opposed to Jay treaty, 188;
letter of Washington to, on conditional ratification, 189, 191, 192,
guilty, apparently, from Fauchet letter, of corrupt practices, 196;
his position not a cause for Washington's signing treaty, 196-200;
receives Fauchet letter, resigns, 201;
his personal honesty, 201;
his discreditable carelessness, 202;
fairly treated by Washington, 203, 204;
his complaints against Washington, 203;
letter of Washington to, concerning Monroe, 213;
at first a Federalist, 246.
on early disappearance of Virginia colonial society, i. 15.
commands British forces in South, too distant to help Cornwallis,
letters of Washington to, i. 151, 260.
Revolution, War of,
foreseen by Washington, i. 120, 122;
Lexington and Concord, 133;
Bunker Hill, 136;
siege of Boston, 137-154;
organization of army, 139-142;
operations in New York, 143;
invasion of Canada, 143, 144;
question as to treatment of prisoners, 145-148;
causes of British defeat, 154, 155;
campaign near New York, 161-177;
causes for attempted defense of Brooklyn, 163, 164;
battle of Long Island, 164-165;
escape of Americans, 166;
affair at Kip's Bay, 168;
at King's Bridge, 170;
at Frog's Point, 173;
battle of White Plains, 173;
at Chatterton Hill, 174;
capture of Forts Washington and Lee, 174, 175;
pursuit of Washington into New Jersey, 175-177;
retirement of Howe to New York, 177;
battle of Trenton, 180, 181;
campaign of Princeton, 181-183;
its brilliancy, 183;
Philadelphia campaign, 194-202;
British march across New Jersey prevented by Washington, 194;
sea voyage to Delaware, 195;
battle of the Brandywine, 196-198;
causes for defeat, 198;
defeat of Wayne, 198;
Philadelphia taken by Howe, 199;
battle of Germantown, 199;
its significance, 200, 201;
Burgoyne's invasion, 203-211;
Washington's preparations for, 204-206;
Howe's error in neglecting to cooperate, 205;
capture of Ticonderoga, 207;
battles of Bennington, Oriskany, Fort Schuyler, 210;
battle of Saratoga, 211;
British repulse at Fort Mercer, 217;
destruction of the forts, 217;
fruitless skirmishing before Philadelphia, 218;
Valley Forge, 228-232;
evacuation of Philadelphia, 234;
battle of Monmouth, 235-239;
its effect, 239;
cruise and failure of D'Estaing at Newport, 243, 244;
failure of D'Estaing at Savannah, 247, 248;
storming of Stony Point, 268, 269;
Tory raids near New York, 269;
standstill in 1780, 272;
siege and capture of Charleston, 273, 274, 276;
operations of French and Americans near Newport, 277, 278;
battle of Camden, 281;
treason of Arnold, 281-289;
battle of Cowpens, 301;
retreat of Greene before Cornwallis, 302;
battle of Guilford Court House, 302;
successful operations of Greene, 302, 303;
Southern campaign planned by Washington, 304-311;
feints against Clinton, 306;
operations of Cornwallis and Lafayette in Virginia, 307;
naval supremacy secured by Washington, 310, 311;
battle of De Grasse and Graves off Chesapeake, 312;
transport of American army to Virginia, 311-313;
siege and capture of Yorktown, 315-318;
masterly character of campaign, 318-320;
petty operations before New York, 326;
treaty of peace, 342.
on Washington's doubts of constitutionality of Bank, ii. 110.
speaker of Virginia House of Burgesses, his compliment to Washington,
loyalist, i. 282.
the inventor, asks Washington's consideration of his steamboat, ii. 4.
describes Washington's impressiveness, ii. 389.
letter of Washington to, i. 281;
nomination rejected by Senate, ii. 63;
nominated to Supreme Court, 73.
ST. CLAIR, Arthur,
removed after loss of Ticonderoga, i. 208;
appointed to command against Indians, ii. 94;
receives instructions and begins expedition, 95;
his character, 99;
fair treatment by Washington, 99;
popular execration of, 105.
St. Pierre, M. de,
French governor in Ohio, i. 67.
St. Simon, Count,
reinforces Lafayette, i. 312.
calls all Yankees cowards, i. 155.
anecdote concerning, i. 202.
characteristics of his portrait of Washington, i. 13.
siege of, i. 247.
amuses Washington, ii. 374.
accompanies Washington to Boston, i. 136;
appointed military head in New York, 136;
directed by Washington how to meet Burgoyne, 204;
fails to carry out directions, 207;
value of his preparations, 209.
Scott, Charles, commands expedition against Indians, ii. 95.
its necessity seen by Washington, i. 283, 303, 304, 306, 310, 318, 319.
deplored by Washington, ii. 222.
offers Washington a company, i. 80;
Washington's reply to, 81.
comments of Washington and Jefferson upon, ii. 26, 27.
makes sarcastic remark about Wilkinson, i. 220.
Shirley, Governor William,
adjusts matter of Washington's rank, i. 91, 97.
Short, William, minister to Holland,
on commission regarding opening of Mississippi, ii. 166.
make satisfactory treaties, ii. 88;
stirred up by English, 94;
but pacified, 94, 101.
in Virginia, i. 20;
its evil effects, 104;
Washington's attitude toward slaves, 105;
his condemnation of the system, 106, 107;
gradual emancipation favored, 107, 108.
letter of Washington to, ii. 340.
instigates Indians to hostilities, ii. 89, 94, 101;
blocks Mississippi, 135;
makes treaty with Pinckney opening Mississippi, 167, 168;
angered at Jay treaty, 210.
his alterations of Washington's letters, ii. 337, 338.
asks Washington's opinion of Alien and Sedition Acts, ii. 297.
Washington's opinion of, i. 119, 120.
leads attack at Trenton, i. 181.
States, in the Revolutionary war,
appeals of Washington to, i. 142, 186, 204, 259, 277, 295, 306, 323,
324, 326, 344;
issue paper money, 258;
grow tired of the war, 290;
alarmed by mutinies, 294;
try to appease soldiers, 295, 296;
their selfishness condemned by Washington, 333; ii. 21, 23;
thwart Indian policy of Congress, 88.
late in attacking at Germantown, i. 199.
Washington's appreciation of, i. 192, 249;
drills the army at Valley Forge, 232;
annoys Washington by wishing higher command, 249;
sent on mission to demand surrender of Western posts, 343;
his worth recognized by Washington, ii. 334.
defeated and captured at Long Island, i. 165.
letter of Washington to, ii. 349.
tells stories of Washington's closeness, ii. 353, 354.
letters of Washington to, ii. 107, 221, 222, 258.
his portrait of Washington contrasted with Savage's, i. 13.
Sullivan, John, General,
surprised at Long Island, i. 165;
attacks at Trenton, 180;
surprised and crushed at Brandywine, 197, 198;
unites with D'Estaing to attack Newport, 243;
angry at D'Estaing's desertion, 244;
soothed by Washington, 244;
sent against Indians, 266, 269.
appointed by Washington, ii. 72.
kindness of Washington toward, ii. 367.
eulogistic report to Napoleon on death of Washington, i. 1, note;
remark on Hamilton, ii. 139;
refused reception by Washington, 253.
Tarleton, Sir Banastre,
tries to escape at Yorktown, i. 317.
on Washington's appearance when taking command of army, i. 137.
complimented by Washington on retiring from secretary-ship of
Continental Congress, ii. 350.
hated by Washington, i. 156;
his reasons, 157;
active in New York, 158;
suppressed by Washington, 159;
in Philadelphia, impressed by Continental army, 196;
make raids on frontier, 266;
strong in Southern States, 267;
raids under Tryon, 269.
his incompetence in dealing with Indians and French, i. 72.
Trenton, campaign of, i. 180-183.
letter of Washington to, refusing to stand for a third term,
other letters, 298.
on New England army before Boston, i. 139.
his message on better government praised by Washington, ii. 21;
letters to, 42;
Washington's friendship for, 363.
Tory leader in New York, i. 143;
his intrigues stopped by Washington, 158, 159;
conspires to murder Washington, 160;
makes raids in Connecticut, 269.
Continental Army at, i. 228-232.
Van Braam, Jacob,
friend of Lawrence Washington, trains George in fencing, i. 65;
accompanies him on mission to French, 66.
requests release of Asgill, i. 329, 330;
letter of Washington to, 330;
proposes to submit disposition of a subsidy to Washington, 332.
Virginia, society in,
before the Revolution, i. 15-29;
its entire change since then, 15, 16;
population, distribution, and numbers, 17, 18;
absence of towns, 18;
and town life, 19;
trade and travel in, 19;
social classes, 20-24;
slaves and poor whites, 20;
planters and their estates, 22;
their life, 22;
habits of governing, 24;
luxury and extravagance, 25;
apparent wealth, 26;
agreeableness of life, 27;
aristocratic ideals, 28;
vigor of stock, 29;
unwilling to fight French, 71;
quarrels with Dinwiddie, 71;
thanks Washington after his French campaign, 79;
terrified at Braddock's defeat, 88;
gives Washington command, 89;
fails to support him, 89, 90, 93;
bad economic conditions in, 104,105;
local government in, 117;
condemns Stamp Act, 119;
adopts non-importation, 121;
condemns Boston Port Bill, 123;
asks opinion of counties, 124;
chooses delegates to a congress, 127;
prepares for war, 132;
British campaign in, 307, 315-318;
ratifies Constitution, ii. 40;
evil effect of free trade upon, 116, 117;
nullification resolutions, 266;
strength of its aristocracy, 315.
in command at West Point after Arnold's flight, i. 285.
letter of Washington to, ii. 257.
letters of Washington to, i. 262, ii. 118.
ancestry, i. 30-40;
early genealogical researches concerning, 30-32;
pedigree finally established, 32;
origin of family, 33;
various members during middle ages, 34;
on royalist side in English civil war, 34, 36;
character of family, 35;
emigration to Virginia, 35, 36;
career of Washingtons in Maryland, 37;
in Virginia history, 38;
their estates, 39.
Washington, Augustine, father of George Washington,
birth, i. 35;
his estate, 41;
ridiculous part played by in Weems's anecdotes, 44, 47.
Washington, Augustine, half brother of George Washington,
keeps him after his father's death, i. 48.
refused appointment as attorney by Washington, ii. 62;
educated by him, 370.
honors to his memory in France, i. 1;
in England, 2;
grief in America, 3, 4;
general admission of his greatness, 4;
its significance, 5, 6;
tributes from England, 6;
from other countries, 6, 7;
yet an "unknown" man, 7;
minuteness of knowledge concerning, 8;
has become subject of myths, 9;
development of the Weems myth about, 10, 11;
necessity of a new treatment of, 12;
significant difference of real and ideal portraits of, 13;
his silence regarding himself, 14;
underlying traits, 14.
origin of Weems's anecdotes about, 41-44;
their absurdity and evil results, 45-48;
early schooling, 48;
plan to send him to sea, 49, 50;
studies to be a surveyor, 51;
his rules of behavior, 52;
his family connections with Fairfaxes, 54, 55;
his friendship with Lord Fairfax, 56;
surveys Fairfax's estate, 57, 58, 59;
made public surveyor, 60;
his life at the time, 60, 61;
influenced by Fairfax's cultivation, 62;
goes to West Indies with his brother, 62;
has the small-pox, 63;
observations on the voyage, 63, 64;
returns to Virginia, 64;
becomes guardian of his brother's daughter, 64.
_Service against the French and Indians_.
Receives military training, 65;
a military appointment, 66;
goes on expedition to treat with French, 66;
meets Indians, 67;
deals with French, 67;
dangers of journey, 68;
his impersonal account, 69, 70;
appointed to command force against French, 71, 72;
his anger at neglect of Virginia Assembly, 73;
attacks and defeats force of Jumonville, 74;
called murderer by the French, 74;
surrounded by French at Great Meadows, 76;
recklessness of his expedition, 77, 78;
effect of experience upon, 79;
gains a European notoriety, 79;
thanked by Virginia, 79;
protests against Dinwiddie's organization of soldiers, 80;
refuses to serve when ranked by British officers, 81;
accepts position on Braddock's staff, 82;
his treatment there, 82;
advises Braddock, 84;
rebuked for warning against surprise, 85;
his bravery in the battle, 86;
conducts retreat, 86, 87;
effect of experience on him, 87;
declines to solicit command of Virginia troops, 88;
accepts it when offered, 88;
his difficulties with Assembly, 89;
and with troops, 90;
settles question of rank, 91;
writes freely in criticism of government, 91, 92;
retires for rest to Mt. Vernon, 93;
offers services to General Forbes, 93;
irritated at slowness of English, 93, 94;
his love affairs, 95, 96;
journey to Boston, 97-101;
at festivities in New York and Philadelphia, 99;
meets Martha Custis, 101;
his wedding, 101, 102;
elected to House of Burgesses, 102;
confused at being thanked by Assembly, 102;
his local position, 103;
tries to farm his estate, 104;
his management of slaves, 105, 106, 108, 109;
cares for interests of old soldiers, 109;
rebukes a coward, 110;
cares for education of stepson, 111;
his furnishing of house, 112;
hunting habits, 113-115;
punishes a poacher, 116;
participates in colonial and local government, 117;
enters into society, 117, 118.
_Congressional delegate from Virginia_.
His influence in Assembly, 119;
discusses Stamp Act with Mason, 119;
foresees result to be independence, 119;
rejoices at its repeal, but notes Declaratory Act, 120;
ready to use force to defend colonial rights, 120;
presents non-importation resolutions to Burgesses, 121;
abstains from English products, 121;
notes ominous movements among Indians, 122;
on good terms with royal governors, 122, 123;
observes fast on account of Boston Port Bill, 123;
has controversy with Bryan Fairfax over Parliamentary policy,
124, 125, 126;
presides at Fairfax County meeting, 126;
declares himself ready for action, 126;
at convention of counties, offers to march to relief of Boston, 127;
elected to Continental Congress, 127;
his journey, 128;
silent in Congress, 129;
writes to a British officer that independence is not
desired, but war is certain, 130, 131;
returns to Virginia, 132;
aids in military preparations, 132;
his opinion after Concord, 133;
at second Continental Congress, wears uniform, 134;
made commander-in-chief, 134;
his modesty and courage in accepting position, 134, 135;
political motives for his choice, 135;
his popularity, 136;
his journey to Boston, 136, 137;
receives news of Bunker Hill, 136;
is received by Massachusetts Provincial Assembly, 137.
_Commander of the Army_.
Takes command at Cambridge, 137;
his impression upon people, 137, 138, 139;
begins reorganization of army, 139;
secures number of troops, 140;
enforces discipline, his difficulties, 140, 141;
forced to lead Congress, 142;
to arrange rank of officers, 142;
organizes privateers, 142;
discovers lack of powder, 143;
plans campaigns in Canada and elsewhere, 143, 144;
his plans of attack on Boston overruled by council of war, 144;
writes to Gage urging that captives be treated as prisoners of war,
skill of his letter, 146;
retorts to Gage's reply, 147;
continues dispute with Howe, 148;
annoyed by insufficiency of provisions, 149;
and by desertions, 149;
stops quarrel between Virginia and Marblehead soldiers, 149;
suggests admiralty committees, 150;
annoyed by army contractors, 150;
and criticism, 151;
letter to Joseph Reed, 151;
occupies Dorchester Heights, 152;
begins to like New England men better, 152;
rejoices at prospect of a fight, 153;
departure of British due to his leadership, 154;
sends troops immediately to New York, 155;
enters Boston, 156;
expects a hard war, 156;
urges upon Congress the necessity of preparing for a long struggle,
his growing hatred of Tories, 156, 157;
goes to New York, 157, 158;
difficulties of the situation, 158;
suppresses Tories, 159;
urges Congress to declare independence, 159, 160;
discovers and punishes a conspiracy to assassinate, 160;
insists on his title in correspondence with Howe, 161;
justice of his position, 162;
quiets sectional jealousies in army, 162;
his military inferiority to British, 163;
obliged by political considerations to attempt defense of New York,
assumes command on Long Island, 164;
sees defeat of his troops, 165;
sees plan of British fleet to cut off retreat, 166;
secures retreat of army, 167;
explains his policy of avoiding a pitched battle, 167;
anger at flight of militia at Kip's Bay, 168;
again secures safe retreat, 169;
secures slight advantage in a skirmish, 170;
continues to urge Congress to action, 170, 171;
success of his letters in securing a permanent army, 171;
surprised by advance of British fleet, 172;
moves to White Plains, 173;
blocks British advance, 174;
advises abandonment of American forts, 174;
blames himself for their capture, 175;
leads diminishing army through New Jersey, 175;
makes vain appeals for aid, 176;
resolves to take the offensive, 177;
desperateness of his situation, 178;
pledges his estate and private fortune to raise men, 179;
orders disregarded by officers, 180;
crosses Delaware and captures Hessians, 180, 181;
has difficulty in retaining soldiers, 181;
repulses Cornwallis at Assunpink, 181;
outwits Cornwallis and wins battle at Princeton, 182;
excellence of his strategy, 183;
effect of this campaign in saving Revolution, 183, 184;
withdraws to Morristown, 185;
fluctuations in size of army, 186;
his determination to keep the field, 186, 187;
criticised by Congress for not fighting, 187;
hampered by Congressional interference, 188;
issues proclamation requiring oath of allegiance, 188;
attacked in Congress for so doing, 189;
annoyed by Congressional alterations of rank, 189;
and by foreign military adventurers, 191;
value of his services in suppressing them, 192;
his American feelings, 191, 193;
warns Congress in vain that Howe means to attack Philadelphia, 193;
baffles Howe's advance across New Jersey, 195;
learning of his sailing, marches to defend Philadelphia, 195;
offers battle at Brandywine, 196, 197;
out-generaled and beaten, 197;
rallies army and prepares to fight again, 198;
prevented by storm, 199;
attacks British at Germantown, 199;
exposes himself in battle, 200;
real success of his action, 201;
despised by English, 202;
foresees danger of Burgoyne's invasion, 203;
sends instructions to Schuyler, 204;
urges use of New England and New York militia, 304;
dreads northern advance of Howe, 205;
determines to hold him at all hazards, 206, 207;
not cast down by loss of Ticonderoga, 207;
urges New England to rise, 208;
sends all possible troops, 208;
refuses to appoint a commander for Northern army, 208;
his probable reasons, 209;
continues to send suggestions, 210;
slighted by Gates after Burgoyne's surrender, 211;
rise of opposition in Congress, 212;
arouses ill-feeling by his frankness, 212, 213;
distrusted by Samuel and John Adams, 214;
by others, 214, 215;
formation of a plan to supplant him by Gates, 215;
opposed by Gates, Mifflin, and Conway, 215, 216;
angers Conway by preventing his increase in rank, 216;
is refused troops by Gates, 217;
defends and loses Delaware forts, 217;
refuses to attack Howe, 218;
propriety of his action, 219;
becomes aware of cabal, 220;
alarms them by showing extent of his knowledge, 221;
attacked bitterly in Congress, 222;
insulted by Gates, 223;
refuses to resign, 224;
refuses to notice cabal publicly, 224;
complains privately of slight support from Pennsylvania, 225;
continues to push Gates for explanations, 226;
regains complete control after collapse of cabal, 226, 227;
withdraws to Valley Forge, 227;
desperation of his situation, 228;
criticised by Pennsylvania legislature for going into winter quarters,
his bitter reply, 229;
his unbending resolution, 230;
continues to urge improvements in army organization, 231;
manages to hold army together, 232;
sends Lafayette to watch Philadelphia, 233;
determines to fight, 234;
checked by Lee, 234;
pursues Clinton, 235;
orders Lee to attack British rearguard, 235;
discovers his force retreating, 236;
rebukes Lee and punishes him, 236, 237;
takes command and stops retreat, 237;
repulses British and assumes offensive, 238;
success due to his work at Valley Forge, 239;
celebrates French alliance, 241;
has to confront difficulty of managing allies, 241, 242;
welcomes D'Estaing, 243;
obliged to quiet recrimination after Newport failure, 244;
his letter to Sullivan, 244;
to Lafayette, 245;
to D'Estaing, 246;
tact and good effect of his letters, 246;
offers to cooperate in an attack on New York, 247;
furnishes admirable suggestions to D'Estaing, 247;
not dazzled by French, 248;
objects to giving rank to foreign officers, 248, 249;
opposes transfer of Steuben from inspectorship to the line, 249;
his thoroughly American position, 250;
absence of provinciality, 251, 252;
a national leader, 252;
opposes invasion of Canada, 253;
foresees danger of its recapture by France, 254, 255;
his clear understanding of French motives, 255, 256;
rejoices in condition of patriot cause, 257;
foresees ruin to army in financial troubles, 258;
has to appease mutinies among unpaid troops, 258;
appeals to Congress, 259;
urges election of better delegates to Congress, 259;
angry with speculators, 260, 261;
futility of his efforts, 261, 262;
his increasing alarm at social demoralization, 263;
effect of his exertions, 264;
conceals his doubts of the French, 264;
watches New York, 264;
keeps dreading an English campaign, 265;
labors with Congress to form a navy, 266;
plans expedition to chastise Indians, 266;
realizes that things are at a standstill in the North, 267;
sees danger to lie in the South, but determines to remain himself near
New York, 267;
not consulted by Congress in naming general for Southern army, 268;
plans attack on Stony Point, 268;
hatred of ravaging methods of British warfare, 270;
again has great difficulties in winter quarters, 270;
unable to act on offensive in the spring, 270, 272;
unable to help South, 272;
advises abandonment of Charleston, 273;
learns of arrival of French army, 274;
plans a number of enterprises with it, 275, 276;
refuses, even after loss of Charleston, to abandon Hudson, 276;
welcomes Rochambeau, 277;
writes to Congress against too optimistic feelings, 278, 279;
has extreme difficulty in holding army together, 280;
urges French to attack New York, 280;
sends Maryland troops South after Camden, 281;
arranges meeting with Rochambeau at Hartford, 282;
popular enthusiasm over him, 283;
goes to West Point, 284;
surprised at Arnold's absence, 284;
learns of his treachery, 284, 285;
his cool behavior, 285;
his real feelings, 286;
his conduct toward Andre, 287;
its justice, 287, 288;
his opinion of Arnold, 288, 289;
his responsibility in the general breakdown of the Congress and army,
obliged to quell food mutinies in army, 291, 292;
difficulty of situation, 292;
his influence the salvation of army, 293;
his greatness best shown in this way, 293;
rebukes Congress, 294;
appoints Greene to command Southern army, 295;
sends Knox to confer with state governors, 296;
secures temporary relief for army, 296;
sees the real defect is in weak government, 296;
urges adoption of Articles of Confederation, 297;
works for improvements in executive, 298,299;
still keeps a Southern movement in mind, 301;
unable to do anything through lack of naval power, 303;
rebukes Lund Washington for entertaining British at Mt. Vernon, 303;
still unable to fight, 304;
tries to frighten Clinton into remaining in New York, 305;
succeeds with aid of Rochambeau, 306;
explains his plan to French and to Congress, 306;
learns of De Grasse's approach, prepares to move South, 306;
writes to De Grasse to meet him in Chesapeake, 308;
fears a premature peace, 308;
pecuniary difficulties, 309;
absolute need of command of sea, 310;
persuades De Barras to join De Grasse, 311;
starts on march for Chesapeake, 311;
hampered by lack of supplies, 312;
and by threat of Congress to reduce army, 313;
passes through Mt. Vernon, 314;
succeeds in persuading De Grasse not to abandon him, 315;
besieges Cornwallis, 315;
sees capture of redoubts, 316;
receives surrender of Cornwallis, 317;
admirable strategy and management of campaign, 318;
his personal influence the cause of success, 318;
especially his use of the fleet, 319;
his management of Cornwallis through Lafayette, 319;
his boldness in transferring army away from New York, 320;
does not lose his head over victory, 321;
urges De Grasse to repeat success against Charleston, 322;
returns north, 322;
saddened by death of Custis, 322;
continues to urge Congress to action, 323;
writes letters to the States, 323;
does not expect English surrender, 324;
urges renewed vigor, 324;
points out that war actually continues, 325;
urges not to give up army until peace is actually secured, 325;
failure of his appeals, 326;
reduced to inactivity, 326;
angered at murder of Huddy, 327;
threatens Carleton with retaliation, 328;
releases Asgill at request of Vergennes and order of Congress,
disclaims credit, 330;
justification of his behavior, 330;
his tenderness toward the soldiers, 331;
jealousy of Congress toward him, 332;
warns Congress of danger of further neglect of army, 333, 334;
takes control of mutinous movement, 335;
his address to the soldiers, 336;
its effect, 336;
movement among soldiers to make him dictator, 337;
replies to revolutionary proposals, 337;
reality of the danger, 339;
causes for his behaviour, 340, 341;
a friend of strong government, but devoid of personal ambition, 342;
chafes under delay to disband army, 343;
tries to secure Western posts, 343;
makes a journey through New York, 343;
gives Congress excellent but futile advice, 344;
issues circular letter to governors, 344;
and farewell address to army, 345;
enters New York after departure of British, 345;
his farewell to his officers, 345;
adjusts his accounts, 346;
appears before Congress, 347;
French account of his action, 347;
makes speech resigning commission, 348, 349.