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Gardening for the Million by Alfred Pink

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a few days the nest may be dug up. The fumes of the spirit first
stupefies and eventually destroys the insects.

Water-cress.--Sow in prepared places, during spring, in sluggish
brooks and moist situations; or it may be grown on a shady border if
kept moist by frequent waterings. It may also be grown in a frame in
September from cuttings placed 6 in. apart, sprinkling them daily, but
keeping the frame closed for two or three weeks, then watering once a
week. Give all the air possible in fine weather, but cover the frame
with mats during frosts. It is best when grown quickly.

Watsonia.--Plant the bulbs during January in sandy loam with a little
peat. They flower in April. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Weeds in Paths.--These may be destroyed by strong brine, applied when
hot. Or mix 1/2 lb. of oil of vitriol with 6 gallons of water, and
apply, taking care not to get the vitriol on the hands or clothes.

Weigelia.--Free-flowering, hardy, deciduous shrubs, the flowers being
produced in profusion along the shoots in April, and varying in colour
from white to deep crimson. The plants will grow in any soil, and
require no special culture. All the varieties force well, and may be
increased by cuttings. Height, 6 ft.

White Scale.--_See_ "Scale."

Whitlavia.--A hardy annual, needing no special treatment. It may be
sown in autumn, and protected during winter in a frame, or it may be
raised in spring in the open ground, where it will bloom in June.
Height, 2 ft.

Whortleberry.--_See_ "Vaccineum."

Wigandia Caraccasana.--A stove deciduous shrub which thrives best in a
mixture of loam and peat. Cuttings in sand will strike if placed under
glass and in heat. It flowers in April. Height, 10 ft.

Windflowers.--_See_ "Anemones."

Winter Aconite (_Eranthis Hyemalis_).--This is one of the very first
of flowers to bloom, being in advance of the Snowdrop. In the bleakest
days of winter this little flower covers the ground with its gilt
spangles. Plant in early autumn. Any soil or situation suits it, but
it does best in a light mould and a moist, shady position, or under
trees. Most effective when planted in masses. The tubers may remain
permanently in the ground, or they may be lifted and divided in
summer, as soon as the foliage dies down. Flowers are produced from
December to February.

Winter Cherry.--_See_ "Physalis."

Winter Heliotrope.--_See_ "Tussilago."

Wire-worms.--Before using mould for potting purposes it is advisable
to examine it carefully and pick out any Wire-worms that are in it.
For the border the best traps are small potatoes with a hole cut in
them, buried at intervals just beneath the surface of the soil.

Wistaria.--This noble wall plant may be abundantly produced, as a long
layer will root at every joint. It will also grow from cuttings of the
plant and root. Though of slow growth at first, when well established
it is very free-growing and perfectly hardy. It may also be grown as a
small tree for the lawn or centres of large beds by keeping the long
twining shoots pinched in.

Witch Hazel.--_See_ "Hamamelis."

Withania Origanifolia (_Pampas Lily-of-the-Valley_).--A hardy climbing
plant, attaining a height of 20 or 30 ft. in a very short period. The
foliage is small, but very dense and of a dark green, the flowers
being white. It may be raised from seed, and when once established the
roots may remain undisturbed for any length of time, merely removing
the stems as soon as they are destroyed by frost.

Wolf's Bane.--_See_ "Aconite."

Wood, to Preserve.--In order to prevent wooden posts, piles, etc.,
from rotting, dip the parts to be sunk in the earth in the following
composition:--Fine, hard sand, three hundred parts; powdered chalk,
forty parts; resin, fifty parts; linseed oil, four parts. Heat these
together in a boiler, then add red lead, one part; sulphuric acid, one
part. Mix well together, and use while hot. If too thick, more linseed
oil may be added. This composition when dry attains the consistency of
varnish, and becomes extremely hard.

Wood Lily.--_See_ "Trillium."

Woodruff.--_See_ "Asperula."

Worms, to Destroy.--To each 5 lbs. of newly-slaked lime add 15 gallons
of water. Stir it well, let it settle, draw off the clear portion, and
with it water the surface of the lawn, etc. The Worms will come to the
top and may be swept up. Worms in pots may be brought to the top by
sprinkling a little dry mustard on the surface of the soil, and then
giving the plant a good watering.

Wulfenia Carinthiaca.--A pretty and hardy perennial from the
Corinthian Alps, suitable alike for rock-work or the border, throwing
up spikes of blue flowers from May to July. During winter place it in
a frame, as it is liable to rot in the open. It needs a light, rich,
sandy soil and plenty of moisture when in growth. Cuttings will strike
in sand; it may also be propagated by seeds or division. Height, 1 ft.


Xeranthemum.--These charming everlasting annuals retain, in a dried
state, their form and colour for several years. They are of the
easiest culture, merely requiring to be sown in spring in light, rich
soil to produce flowers in July. Height, 2 ft.

Xerophyllum Asphodeloides (_Turkey's Beard_).--A showy hardy perennial
with tufts of graceful, curving, slender foliage. From May to July,
when it bears spikes of white flowers, it is very handsome. It does
best in a peat border, and may be increased by well-ripened seed or by
division. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Xerotes.--Herbaceous plants, which thrive well in any light, rich
soil, and are readily increased by dividing the roots. They flower in
June. Height, 2 ft.


Yew (_Taxus_).--For landscape gardening the old gold-striped (_Baccata
Aurea Variegata_) is most effective. The Japanese variety, T.
Adpressa, is a pleasing evergreen having dark green leaves and large
scarlet berries; it is very suitable for the front of large borders.
The Common Yew (_Baccata_) grows dense and bushy, and is excellent for
hedges. The dark green leaves of the Irish Yew (_Baccata Fastigiata_)
make a fine contrast with lighter foliage. Dovastonii is a fine
Weeping Yew with long dark green leaves and extra large red berries.
There are many other good sorts. The Yew likes shade and moisture,
but it is not very particular as to soil, loams and clays suiting it

Yucca.--This plant, popularly known as Adam's Needle thrives best in
dry, sandy loam. It is quite hardy, and does well on rock-work, to
which it imparts a tropical aspect, Yucca Recurva has fine drooping
leaves, and is suitable for vases, etc. It bears a white flower.
Yuccas are mostly evergreen shrubs, are very beautiful, and have the
habit of palm-trees. A light, rich soil suits them all. They are
increased by suckers from the root. They make handsome plants for
lawns, terraces, ornamental vases, the centre of beds, or sub-tropical
gardens, and bloom in September. Height, 2 ft.


Zauschneria.--A Californian half-hardy perennial plant which bears
a profusion of scarlet tube-shaped flowers from June to October. It
grows freely in a sunny position in any dry, light, gravelly, rich
soil, and is increased by division of roots or by cuttings. Height, 1

Zea (_Indian Corn_).--This is best raised in a hotbed early in spring,
but it will germinate in ordinary soil in May. It requires a sunny
situation. Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Zea Japonica Variegata (_Striped Japanese Maize_).--A fine half-hardy
annual ornamental grass, the foliage being striped green and white,
and growing to the height of 3 ft. The cultivation is the same as the

Zephyranthes (_Swamp Lilies_).--Plant on a warm border in a rather
sandy, well-drained soil. Give protection in severe weather, and
supply with water during the growing season. Take up and divide every
second or third year. The flowers are produced in July. Height, 9 in.

Zinnia.--A genus of very pretty annuals, well deserving of
cultivation. The seeds must be raised on a gentle hotbed in spring,
and planted out in June 1 ft. apart in the richest of loamy soil and
warmest and most sheltered position. Height 1 ft. to 11/2 ft.

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