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Gardening for the Million by Alfred Pink

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but well-drained position. It is increased by layers in September,
which should not be disturbed for a year. It is a good plan to mulch
the roots with leaf-mould or well-rotted manure. Height, 5 ft.

Petunias.--These ornamental half-hardy perennials prefer a mixture of
sandy loam and vegetable mould, but will grow in any rich, light
soil. Seeds sown in March or April, at a temperature of from 65 to 75
degrees, make fine bedding plants for a summer or autumn display.
As the seeds are very minute, they should be covered merely with a
dusting of the finest of soil. Moisture is best supplied by standing
the pots up to the rims in water. Pot off singly, harden off, and
plant out at the end of May. May also easily be raised from cuttings,
which will strike at any season in heat, but care must be taken that
they do not damp off. They flower in July and August. Height, 1-1/2
ft. to 2 ft.

Phacelia Campanularia.--A superb, rich blue, hardy annual. It will
grow in any soil, and is easily raised from seed sown in spring.
Flowers are borne in June. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Phalaris.--P. Arundinacea is the well-known perennial Ribbon Grass;
it is easily grown from seed, and the root allows division. P.
Canariensis is the useful canary seed: it may be propagated from seed
on any soil. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Philadelphus.--Among the best of our flowering shrubs, producing a
wealth of sweetly-scented flowers. For cultivation, _see_ "Syringa."

Philesia.--An American evergreen shrub which grows best in peat, but
will thrive in any light soil. It should occupy a cool position, but
be well sheltered from winds. It is increased by suckers. Flowers in
June. Height, 4 ft.

Phillyrea.--This effective border evergreen will grow in any ordinary
garden soil, and may be increased either by layers or cuttings. It has
dark green shining leaves, and is quite hardy. Height, 6 ft.

Phlomis (_Lion's Tail_).--This effective hardy perennial will grow in
any rich, light soil in a warm position, and is a fine lawn plant.
Flowers are produced from June to August. It may be increased by seed
or division. Protect the plant from damp in winter. Height, 3 ft.

Phlox.--For richness of colour and duration of bloom there are few
plants that can rival either the annual or perennial Phlox. The
trailing kinds are very suitable for small pots or rock-work, C.
Drummondi for beds, and the French perennials, P. Decussata, for mixed
borders. A rich, loamy soil suits them best, and they must never
lack moisture. They are easily raised in spring from seed, and the
perennials may be increased by cuttings placed under glass, or by
division. Flower in July. Height, 1 ft. to 2 ft.

Phormium Tenax.--A greenhouse herbaceous plant which succeeds best in
rich loam. It flowers in August, and may be propagated by dividing the
roots. Height, 3 ft.

Phygelius Capensis.--A greenhouse perennial bearing carmine and yellow
flowers in June, but is hardy enough to be grown on a warm border. It
is increased by off-sets from the root, taken off in May. Height, 2

Physalis (_Winter Cherry_).--A rich, light soil is most suitable for
the stove and greenhouse kinds, cuttings of which root freely under
glass. The hardy kinds will grow in any soil, and are increased by
seed. P. Francheti produces seed-pods over 2 in. in diameter, the
Cherry-like fruit of which is edible and makes a fine preserve. It is
larger than that of the old Winter Cherry, P. Alkekengi. They flower
in August. Height, 1 ft. to 2 ft.

Physianthus Albens.--This evergreen climber is a good plant for
training to the rafters of a greenhouse. It grows well in a mixture
of sandy loam and peat, and should receive bold treatment. Its white
flowers are produced in July. The plant is propagated by seeds, also
by cuttings. Height, 20 ft.

Physostegia.--Ornamental hardy herbaceous plants, ranging in colour
from white to purple. They like a rich soil, and can be raised from
seed sown in March. They also bear division. July and August are their
flowering months. Height, from 1 ft. to 5 ft.

Phyteuma Hallierii.--A very pretty hardy perennial. It will thrive in
any soil, blooms from May to August, and can be readily increased by
seed or division. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Phytolacca Decandra (_Virginian Poke_).--A very fine herbaceous plant,
bearing bunches of pretty black berries. It requires a rich soil and
plenty of room for its widespreading branches. Cuttings will strike
under glass, or the seed may be sown in autumn. It flowers in August.
Height, 6 ft.

Picotees.--_See_ "Carnations."

Pimelias.--Very beautiful, compact, and free-growing greenhouse
everlasting shrubs. The most suitable soil consists of three parts
sandy peat and one part loam, with good drainage. June or July is
their flowering season. They may be grown from seed or young cuttings
2 in. long, placed in sandy peat, with a little bottom heat. Do not
give too much water. Height, 2 ft. to 4 ft.

Pimpernel.--_See_ "Anagallis."

Pinguicula Grandiflora (_Great Irish Butterwort_).--This handsome,
hardy bog-plant produces deep violet-blue flowers in August and
September. It may be grown in any damp soil and increased by division.
Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Pinks.--Will live in almost any soil, but if large blooms are required
rich earth is essential. They are increased by pipings taken in May
or June. These should be planted out in October, but must be given a
well-drained position, as too much wet is injurious to them. Do not
set the roots too deep, but let the collar of the plant be on a level
with the soil.

Pinus.--As a tall specimen tree nothing is more graceful than the
Corsican Pine (_Pinus Laricio_). P. Strobus Nana is a curious dwarf
variety, rarely exceeding 3 ft. in height. The Argentea Aurea is also
of dwarf habit. Its leaves, which are green in summer, change to a
bright golden colour in winter. The Umbrella Pine (_Sciadopitys_) is a
very striking conifer, and does well everywhere. It gets its name from
its leaves being set at regular intervals round the branches, like
the ribs of an umbrella. The Pinus may be increased by layers, or by
sowing the cones in spring, after they have opened out, in rather
sandy soil, covering them lightly.

Piping.--This consists in drawing out the young grass, or shoots, from
the joints of Pinks, etc., from May to July being the time for doing
so. Place them in light, sandy soil, and cover them with a hand-glass.
Towards the end of September they may be planted out in beds or potted
off in rich, light loam. In either case they must not be planted too
deeply. The crust of the soil should be level with the collar of the
plant. If the pots are put into a frame the plants will require very
little water during winter, but as much air should be given as is
possible. In March re-pot them, using 8-1/2-in. pots.

Platycodon (_Japanese Balloon Flower_).--Hardy and elegant herbaceous
plants, requiring a sandy soil. They may be raised either from seeds
or from cuttings of the young growth; they flower in July. Height, 1

Platystemon Californicus.--Pretty hardy annuals which thrive in a
sandy soil. They are easily raised from seed sown in March or April,
and bring forth their flowers in August. Height, 1 ft.

Pleroma Elegans.--A beautiful evergreen shrub for a greenhouse. Pot in
equal parts of loam, peat, and sand. It flowers in July. Cuttings may
be struck in peat in a rather warm temperature. Height, 4 ft.

Plumbago.--These pretty evergreens will grow in any soil, and can be
propagated in September by cuttings of half-ripened wood having
a heal, planted in a sandy soil, and kept near the glass in a
greenhouse. They flower in June. Height, 3 ft. P. Occidentalis is
a charming greenhouse climber. P. Capensis Alba is a greenhouse
evergreen shrub, flowering in November, and growing to a height of 2
ft. P. Larpentae is good for a sunny border, in light soil: it bears
terminal clusters of rich violet-purple flowers in September. Height,
1 ft. Plumbagoes require very little attention in winter.

Plums.--Almost any soil will grow this useful fruit. Young trees may
be planted at any time, when the ground is friable, from November to
March, but the earlier it is done the better. The situation should be
somewhat sheltered. In exposed positions protection may be afforded
by a row of damson trees. Many varieties are suitable for growing on
walls or sheds, where they are trained into fans, as cordons, and
other decorative designs; but it must not be overlooked that until the
trees are well established a great deal of fruit is necessarily lost
by the severe pruning and disbudding which is required to bring the
tree into shape. A pyramid-shaped tree is useful, and is easily
grown by training one straight, central shoot, which must be stopped
occasionally so that fresh side branches may be thrown out, which of
course must be kept at the desired length. A bush tree about 7 ft. in
height is undoubtedly the best form of growth, and needs but a minimum
amount of attention. In pruning wall trees the main object is to get
the side-shoots equally balanced, and to prevent the growth advancing
in the centre. The bush form merely require the removal of any dead
wood and of cross-growing branches. This should be done late in the
summer or in the autumn. The trees are frequently attacked by a small
moth, known as the Plum Fortrix, which eats its way into the fruit
and causes it to fall. In this case the fallen unripe fruit should be
gathered up and burned, and the trees washed in winter with caustic
potash and soda. For growing on walls the following kinds may be
recommended: Diamond, White Magnum Bonum, Pond's Seedling, and Belle
de Louvain for cooking; and Kirke, Coe's Golden Drop, and Jefferson
for dessert. For pyramids and bushes, Victoria, Early Prolific, Prince
Engelbert, Sultan, and Belgian Purple are good sorts. In orchards
Plums should stand 20 ft. apart.

Poa Trivalis.--A very pretty, dwarf-growing, variegated grass. Plant
in a moist situation in a rich, light, loamy soil. It is increased
either by seed or division.

Podocarpus.--_See_ "Cephalotaxus."

Podolepis.--Hardy annuals bearing yellow and red and white flowers. A
mixture of loam and peat is most suitable for their growth. They are
easily raised from seed sown in March, and bloom from June to August.
Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Podophyllum Peltatum (_Duck's Foot, or May Apple_).--Grown chiefly
for its foliage and berries, this hardy herbaceous perennial forms a
pleasing spectacle when planted in moist soil under trees; it likewise
makes a splendid pot-plant. A mixture of peat and chopped sphagnum is
what it likes. The pots are usually plunged in wet sand or ashes on
a northern border. It is propagated by cutting the roots into pieces
several inches in length, with a good bud or crown on each. During May
and June the plant produces small white Dog-rose-like flowers. Height,
1 ft.

Poinsettia Pulcherrima.--A stove evergreen shrub which produces lovely
crimson bracts in the winter. Plant in sandy loam, give plenty of
water to the roots, and syringe the leaves frequently. In early spring
cut down the branches to within three or four eyes of the old wood.
These cuttings, if laid aside for a day to dry and then planted under
glass, will form new plants. It flowers in April. Height, 2 ft.

Polemonium (_Jacob's Ladder_).--Hardy perennial border plants of an
ornamental character and of the easiest culture. Any soil suits them,
and they merely require sowing in the open either in spring or autumn.
P. Richardsoni is most commonly met with, its blue flowers being
produced in early autumn. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Polyanthus.--Sow the seed late in autumn in well-drained boxes of
light, rich mould; cover it very lightly, place under glass, and water
sparingly, but give enough to keep the plants moist. The seed requires
no artificial heat to germinate it. The roots should be divided each
year as soon as they have flowered, and fresh soil given. The single
varieties only are florists' flowers. The Polyanthus is a species of
primrose, grows best in a rather shady position in a loam and peat
compost, and produces its flowers in May. Height, 6 in.

Polygala Chamaesbuxus.--A hardy evergreen trailing plant requiring
a peat soil in which to grow. It may be increased from seed or by
division of the roots. May is the time at which it blooms. Height, 6

Polygala Dalmaisiana.--This showy evergreen shrub needs a greenhouse
treatment. Soil--three parts peat, one part turfy loam, and a little
sand. It flowers in March. To increase it, top the shoots, which will
cause it to throw out new ones. Take the new growth off when it is 3
in. long, and place it under glass in a propagating house. Height, 1

The hardy annual varieties of Polygala are obtained by seed sown in
peat. These flower at midsummer. (_See also_ "Solomon's Seal.")

Polygonatum.--These pretty herbaceous plants are quite hardy. The
flowers, which are borne in May or June, are mostly white. Plants
succeed best in a rich soil. They may be raised from seed, or the
roots can be divided. Height, 1ft. to 3 ft.

Polygonum Brunonis (_Knotweed_).--This strong-growing creeping
perennial plant is not particular as to soil so long as it can enjoy
plenty of sunshine. The shoots root of themselves and must be kept in
check, else they will choke other things. It flowers in August, after
which the leaves assume beautiful autumnal tints. Height, 1 ft.

Pomegranate.--This requires a deep, loamy soil and a warm, airy
situation. May be propagated by cuttings of the shrubs or the root,
putting the cuttings into light, rich soil, or by layers. The double
kinds of Punica, or Pomegranate, should be grafted on to the single
ones. There is a dwarf kind, bearing scarlet flowers in August, which
requires heat.

Poppies.--_See_ "Papaver" _and_ "Stylophorum."

Portulaca.--The seeds of the hardy annual species of this genus may be
sown in a sheltered open spot in spring. The half-hardy annuals should
be sown thinly in boxes during March and placed in gentle heat. Harden
off and plant out in May, as soon as the weather permits, in a light,
dry soil where it can get a good amount of sunshine. Its brilliant
and striking colour admirably adapts it for small beds, edgings, or
rock-work; and it will succeed in dry, hot sandy positions where
scarcely any other plant would live. It flowers in June. Height, 6 in.

Potatoes.--Ground intended for Potatoes should be dug deeply in the
autumn, thoroughly drained, well manured and trenched, and left rough
on the surface during the winter. At the beginning of February stand
the tubers on end in shallow boxes, and expose them to the light to
induce the growth of short, hard, purple sprouts. Allow one sprout to
each tuber or set, rubbing off the rest. They may be planted at any
time from the end of February to the end of March in rows 1-1/2 to
2-1/2 ft. asunder, placing the sets 6 in. deep and from 6 to 9 in.
apart. As soon as growth appears keep the ground well stirred with the
hoe to prevent the growth of weeds, and when the tops are 4 to 6 in.
high ridge the earth up about them. Directly flower appears, pick it
off, as it retards the growth of the tubers. They should be taken up
and stored in October. If short of storage room dig up every other row
only, and give the remaining ridges an additional covering of earth.
They keep well this way.

Potentilla.--Handsome herbaceous plants with Strawberry-like foliage.
They will grow in any common soil, and may be increased by dividing
the roots or by seeds treated like other hardy perennials. The
shrubby kinds are well adapted for the fronts of shrubberies, and are
propagated by cuttings taken in autumn and planted in a sheltered
situation. They flower at midsummer. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Potting.--Great attention must be paid to this important gardening
operation. It is necessary that the pots used be perfectly clean, and,
if new, soaked in water for several hours previously, otherwise they
would absorb the moisture from the soil to the detriment of the roots.
At the bottom of the pots place a few layers of crocks, and on these
some rough mould so as to ensure perfect drainage. For all delicate,
hard-wooded plants one-third of each pot should be occupied with
drainage, but a depth of 1-1/2 in. is sufficient for others. Lift the
plant carefully so as not to break the ball of earth round the roots,
and fill in with mould round the sides. In order to supply water
readily the pots must not be filled up to the rim. Pot firmly, and in
the case of hard-wooded plants ram the earth down with a blunt-pointed
stick; soft-wooded ones may be left rather looser. Give shade till the
plants have recovered themselves. The soil used for potting should be
moist, but not clammy. A rather light, rich loam is most suitable for
strong-growing plants; peat for slow-growing, hard-wooded ones, like
Ericas, Camellias, etc.; and a mixture of light loam, one-third its
bulk of leaf-soil, and silver sand in sufficient quantity to make
the whole porous for quick-growing, soft-wooded plants, such as
Pelargoniums, Calceolarias, Fuchsias etc.

Pratia Repens (_Lobelia Pratiana_).--This pretty little creeping
perennial is very suitable for the front of rock-work. It requires
a well-drained vegetable soil and all the sun it can get. It is
self-propagating. Though pretty hardy, it is safer to pot it off in
autumn and place it in a cold frame throughout the winter. Flowers are
produced in June, and are succeeded till cut off by frost.

Primroses.--_See_ "Primulas," _and_ "Streptocarpus."

Primulas.--This genus embraces the Auricula, the Polyanthus, and the
Primrose. The greenhouse varieties are among the most useful of our
winter-flowering plants. The seed may be sown at any time from March
to July in a pot of two-year-old manure, leaf-mould, or fine, rich
mould, but not covering it with the soil. Tie a sheet of paper over
the pot and plunge it in a hotbed. Sufficient moisture will be
communicated to the seed by keeping the paper damp. When the plants
make their appearance remove the paper and place the pot in the shady
part of the greenhouse. When they are strong enough to handle, pot off
into 4-1/2 in. pots, and stand them near the glass. The roots may be
divided as soon as the plants have done flowering. The hardy kinds may
be sown in the open. It should be borne in mind that the seed must
be new, as it soon loses its germinating properties. These flower in
March or April. Height, 6 in.

Prince's Feather.--An ornamental hardy annual, producing tall
spikes of dark crimson flowers and purple-tinted foliage. It is not
particular as to soil, and merely requires sowing in the open in
spring to produce flowers in July. Height, 2 ft.

Privet.--_See_ "Ligustrum."

Prophet's Flower.--_See_ "Arnebia."

Prunella Grandiflora.--A pretty hardy perennial, suitable for a front
border or rock-work, bearing dense spikes of flowers from May to
August. It grows well in any ordinary soil, and is propagated by
division. Height, 6 in.

Pruning.--The main objects to bear in mind in Pruning any kind of bush
or tree are to prevent a congested growth of the branches, to remove
any shoots that cross each other, as well as all useless and dead
wood, and to obtain a well-balanced head. It may be done either in
August or in the winter when the sap is at rest, after the worst of
the frosts are over, the end of February being usually suitable;
but the former period is generally acknowledged to be the better,
especially for fruit-trees. The cuts should be clean and level, and
when a saw is used should be made smooth with a chisel and covered
with grafting wax. In all cases as little wound as possible should
be presented. Root-pruning has for its object the suppression of
over-vigorous growth and the restoration of old trees to a bearing
condition. It consists in taking off all the small fibres, shortening
the long roots to within 6 or 8 in. of the stem, and cutting away any
bruised or injured roots before the trees are first planted out. The
mode of procedure in the case of old or unproductive trees is to
open the earth in autumn 3 ft. from the stem of the tree, and to saw
through two-thirds of the strongest roots. The opening is then filled
in with fresh mould. Should the growth still be too vigorous, the soil
must be opened again the following season and the remaining roots cut
through, care being taken not to injure the young fibrous roots.

Prunus.--Beautiful early-flowering trees, which will grow in any soil,
and can be increased by seeds or suckers.

Ptelia Trifoliata (_Hop Tree_).--This is very suitable for planting on
the borders of still waters, where its long frond-like leaves, which
turn to a golden yellow in autumn, produce a fine effect. It blooms in
June, and is propagated by layers. Height, 10 ft.

Pulmonarias (_Lungworts_).--Hardy perennials that require but little
attention; may be grown in any common soil, and propagated by division
at any time. They flower in April and May. Height, 1 ft.

Pumilum.--_See_ "Heleniums."

Pumpkins.--Valuable for soups and pies in winter, and in summer the
young shoots are an excellent substitute for Asparagus. For their
cultivation, _see_ "Gourds."

Punica Granata Nana.--A greenhouse deciduous shrub which flowers in
August. The soil in which it is placed should be a light, rich loam.
It can be most freely multiplied by layers, and cuttings will strike
in sand under glass. Height, 4 ft.

Puschkinia (_Striped Squills_).--This charming bulbous plant may be
grown in any light, rich mould, provided it is drained well. The bulbs
may be separated when the clumps get overcrowded, late in summer,
after the tops have died down, being the most suitable time to do so.
If planted in a warm position it will begin to flower in March, and
continue in bloom till May. Height, 8 in.

Pyrethrum.--The greenhouse kinds grow in any rich soil, and young
cuttings planted under glass root readily. The hardy kinds are not
particular as to soil so long as it is not cold and wet, and are
increased by seeds sown in heat in February if wanted for early use,
or in the open during March and April for later growth. The crowns may
be divided either in autumn or spring: each eye or bud will make a
fresh plant. Young plants produced in this way in the autumn require
the protection of a frame during the winter. They flower in July.
Height varies from 6 in. to 3 ft.

Pyrola.--A handsome hardy plant, suitable for a moist, shady
situation. It is raised from seed, or will bear dividing, but is
rather hard to grow. Height, 6 in.

Pyrus Japonica.--_See_ "Cydonia."


Quaking Grass.--_See_ "Briza."

Quercus Ilex.--A handsome evergreen Oak, delighting in a deep, loamy
soil. It is propagated by seed sown as soon as it is ripe.

Quinces.--Plant in autumn in a moist but well-drained soil. Cuttings
of stout stems 6 or 8 in. long, firmly and deeply planted in a shady
situation, mulched with leaf-mould, and kept watered in dry weather,
will take root; but the surest method of propagation is by layers,
pegged down in the soil and detached the following year. A good
watering with liquid manure will swell the fruit to a large size. Keep
the branches well thinned out and cut them regular, so as to let in
light and air and form nicely shaped trees. The pruning should be done
as soon as the leaves fall. In orchards they should stand 1 rod apart.


Radish.--For an early supply sow on a gentle hotbed under a frame in
January, February, and March. For succession sow thinly on a warm and
sheltered border early in March. Follow on with sowings in the open
till the middle of September. The Black Spanish and China Rose should
be sown during August and September for winter use. Lift in November,
and store in sand in a cool place. Radishes should be liberally
watered in dry weather, and the soil made rich and light some time
before sowing commences.

Ragged Robin.--_See_ "Lychnis."

Ragwort.--_See_ "Jacobaea."

Ramondia Pyrenaica.--A pretty dwarf perennial, suitable for moist
interstices of rock-work. It should be planted in a slanting position,
so that the roots, while absorbing plenty of moisture, will not rot
through being continually in stagnant water. Peat soil suits it best.
It may be increased by division in spring. If grown from seed it takes
two years before flowers are produced. During the height of summer it
is in full beauty.

Rampion.--The roots are used in cooking, and also for salads. For
winter use sow in April in rows 12 in. apart, covering the seeds
lightly with fine mould, and thin out to 4 in. apart. Sow at intervals
for a succession.

Ranunculus.--These prefer a good stiff, rather moist, but well-drained
loam, enriched with well-rotted cow-dung, and a sunny situation.
February is probably the best time for planting, though some prefer to
do it in October. Press the tubers (claws downwards) firmly into the
soil, placing them 2 or 3 in. deep and 4 or 5 in. apart. Cover them
with sand, and then with mould. Water freely in dry weather. Protect
during winter with a covering of dry litter, which should be removed
in spring before the foliage appears. They flower in May or June.
Seeds, selected from the best semi-double varieties, sown early in
October and kept growing during the winter, will flower the next
season. They may likewise be increased by off-sets and by dividing the
root. The claws may be lifted at the end of June and stored in dry
sand. The plants are poisonous. Height, 8 in. to 12 in.

Raphiolepis Ovata.--Beautiful evergreen shrubs, producing long spikes
of white flowers in June. A compost of loam, peat, and sand is their
delight. Cuttings will strike in sand under glass. Height, 4 ft.

Raspberries.--A rich, moist, loamy soil is most suitable for their
cultivation. Suckers are drawn by the hand from the old roots any time
between October and February, and set in groups of three in rows 6 ft.
apart. If taken in October, the young plants may be pruned early in
November. It is usual to cut one cane to the length of 3 ft., the
second one to 2 ft., and the third to within a few inches of the
ground. As soon as the year's crop is gathered, the old bearing shoots
are cut clean away, the young canes are drawn closer together, and at
the end of August the tops of the tall ones are pinched off. When the
leaves have fallen all the suckers are drawn out and the canes pruned
(about four being left to each root). The canes are then tied and
manure applied. About May they are, if necessary, thinned out again,
and the suckers that are exhausting both soil and plant removed. They
produce their fruit on one-year-old canes, which wood is of no further
use. The general way of training them is by tying the tops together,
or by training them in the shape of a fan on a south wall, but perhaps
the best way is to tic them about equal distances apart round hoops
supported by light sticks. Seed may be separated from the fruit,
dried, and sown early in February on a gentle hotbed. Prick off into
good rich mould, harden off by the middle of May, and plant in rich
soil. Train them and keep down suckers. When they are grown tall
pinch off the tops. Red Antwerp, Yellow Antwerp, Prince of Wales,
Northumberland Filbasket, Carter's Prolific, and White Magnum Bonum
are all good sorts.

Red-hot Poker.--_See_ "Tritoma."

Red Scale.--_See_ "Scale."

Red Spiders.--These troublesome pests which appear in the heat of
summer, may be got rid of by constantly syringing the plants attacked,
and by occasionally washing the walls, etc., with lime or sulphur.

Retinospora Filifera.--A large-growing, hardy evergreen shrub. It may
be grown in any light soil, and increased by seed, or by cuttings
planted under glass in the shade. It flowers in May.

Rhamnus (_Buckthorn_).--Fine evergreen shrubs, of hardy habit and
quick growth. They may be grown in any soil, but prefer a sheltered
situation, and are very suitable for planting near the sea. R.
Latifolius has handsome broad leaves. Some, such as R. Alaternus and
R. Catharticus, attain large proportions, the former reaching 30 ft.
and the latter 10 ft. in height. They may be propagated by layers or
by seed.

Rheum Palmatum.--This species of rhubarb makes an effective plant for
the back portion of a border. It does well in rich loam, flowering in
June, and is increased by dividing the root. Height, 5 ft.

Rhodanthe (_Swan River Everlasting_).--These beautiful everlasting
flowers are half-hardy annuals and are suitable for beds or ribbons,
and make most graceful plants for pot culture, placing four plants in
a 5-in. pot. They thrive best in fibrous peat or a rich, light soil,
and prefer a warm situation. Used largely for winter bouquets, and are
perfect gems for pot culture. A succession of bloom may be obtained
by sowings made in August, October, and March. The temperature of the
seed-pots should be kept at from 60 to 70 degrees, and the soil
kept constantly damp with water of the same heat. After potting the
seedlings remove them to a cooler house and keep them near the glass.
Those sown in March may be planted in the open in June, where they
will flower in autumn. Height, 1 ft.

Rhodochiton--This evergreen climber makes a fine plant for
trellis-work. It is more suitable for the greenhouse, though it may be
grown in the open in summer. A light, rich, well-drained soil is its
delight, and it may be propagated by seed or by cuttings under glass.
In the greenhouse it should not be placed near the pipes. July is its
time for flowering. Height, 10 ft.

Rhododendrons.--Plant in October in peat, or in a compost of sandy,
turfy loam, with a good proportion of decayed leaves and charred
refuse. The best position for them is a sheltered one where they can
get a moderate amount of sunshine to develop the flower-buds. They
like plenty of moisture, but the ground must be well drained. If it is
desired to shift their position spring is the best time, the next best
being October. They are propagated by layers or seeds, and the small
wooded kinds by slips torn off close to the stems, planted in sand,
and placed under glass in heat. The seed should be sown early in
spring in pans of peat soil, and covered very lightly. Place the pans
in a frame, and when the soil becomes dry stand the pans in water
nearly up to the rims until the surface is moist. Pot off when strong
enough to handle, and keep close in the frame till fresh roots are
produced, then harden off. Rhododendrons may, when desired, be
transplanted in spring, even after the flower-buds are well advanced,
if care be taken not to break the ball of earth round their roots.
They bloom at the end of May. Height, 4 ft.

Rhubarb.--Seed may be sown thinly during April in drills 1 ft. apart.
Thin out the plants 12 in. from each other, and let them grow on
till the following April, then plant them out 4 ft. apart in deeply
trenched ground into which a good quantity of well-rotted manure has
been worked. Large roots may be divided in autumn or early spring;
every portion of the root that has a crown will make a fresh plant.
When the last of the crop has been pulled, fork in a dressing of old
manure. It may be forced out of doors by covering the ground thickly
with stable manure, and placing large flower-pots over the plants to
bleach them; but if forced in a frame the light need not be excluded.
None but the earliest kinds should be selected for forcing.

Rhubarb, Chilian.--_See_ "Gunnera."

Rhus (_Sumach_).--Lovely shrubs, growing in any ordinary soil. The
young shoots of R. Cotinus are clothed with round leaves which
change to bright crimson and orange, surmounted with fluffy pink
seed-vessels, while R. Glabra Laciniata resembles a tree fern. They
may be propagated either by layers or cuttings. Height, 8 ft. to 10

Rhynchospermum (Trachelospermum) Jasminoides.--A pretty, evergreen,
woody climber for the conservatory, which succeeds best in a compost
of light loam and peat; is of easy culture, and readily increased by
cuttings. It is a fine plant for rafters or trellis, and produces in
July deliciously fragrant white flowers at the ends of the branches.
Height, 10 ft.

Ribes (_Flowering Currants_).--Well-known shrubs, growing in any soil,
and flowering early in spring. The colours vary from crimson to white.
They may be raised from cuttings either in autumn or early spring.
Height, 4 ft.

Richardia Aethiopica.--A fine herbaceous perennial with very bold
leaves. It needs a good supply of water, and on dry soils should be
planted in trenches. A light, rich mould is best for it, and it should
have sufficient sun to ripen the wood. Lift it in September and winter
in the greenhouse. It is increased from off-sets from the root, and
flowers in March. Height, 2 ft.

Ricinus, or Palma Christi (_Castor-oil Plant, etc._).--The foliage of
these half-hardy annuals is very ornamental. The plants like a rich
soil. Sow the seed early in spring in a slight heat, harden off
gradually, and put out at the end of May in a warm, sheltered spot.
They may also be propagated by cuttings. Height, 3 ft. to 6 ft.

Robinia.--All these shrubs have fine, Fern-like foliage which changes
colour in autumn. The Pea-shaped flowers vary in colour from cream to
purple, and while in bloom the plants are very handsome. They grow
in any soil, flower in May and onwards, and are increased by layers.
Height varies, the Rose Acacia _(Hispida)_ reaching 10 ft., while the
Locust Tree (_Pseudo-Acacia_) grows to the height of 40 ft.

Rock Cress.--_See_ "Arabis."

Rocket (_Hesperis_).--The hardy perennials like a light, rich soil,
and need to be frequently divided. The best time to divide them is
just after they have done flowering, when they should be potted off,
planting them out again in the spring. The annual and biennial kinds
merely require to be sown in the open border. Most of the Rockets give
forth greater fragrance towards evening. Their flowering season is
June. Height, 1 ft. to 1-1/2 ft.

Rock Rose.--_See_ "Cistus" _and_ "Helianthemum."

Rodgersia Podophylla.--A hardy perennial having immense bronze
foliage. It thrives best in a moist, peaty soil; flowers from May to
July, and may readily be increased either by seed or division. Height,
3 ft.

Rogiera Gratissima.--A pretty evergreen stove shrub, which is often
trained to a single stem so as to form a standard. It succeeds in
sandy loam and peat. It may be sunk in the flower-border during the
height of summer, but must be taken indoors before frost sets in.
Cuttings placed in sand under a hand-glass in heat will strike. It
flowers in June. Height, 3 ft.

Romneyi Coulteri.--This grand white-flowered Poppy Tree is quite
hardy, and will grow in any light, rich soil. It blooms in August and
September, and may be increased by seed or by division. Height, 4 ft.

Rose Campion.--A pretty hardy perennial which may be grown from seed
sown in autumn, choosing a sheltered site, or in March in a frame or
under a hand-glass, transplanting it in the autumn into a light, rich,
loamy soil. Height, 2 ft.

Rosemary (_Rosmarinus Officinalis_).--This hardy evergreen shrub
should occupy a dry and sheltered position. Its fragrant purple
flowers are produced in February. Cuttings of the ripened wood, if
planted in spring, will strike root freely. Height, 2 ft.

Roses.--A good, deep, loamy soil, well drained, but which retains a
certain amount of moisture, is the most suitable. The position should
be sheltered, yet open and exposed to the sun. The latter part of
October or November is the most favourable time for planting, but
it may be continued with safety until the commencement of March. A
fortnight before planting the holes should be dug out 1-1/2 or 2 ft.
deep, and plenty of old manure thrown in and trodden down. On this a
good layer of fine mould should be placed, so that the roots do not
come in contact with the manure. Great care must be taken not to
expose the roots to the cold air. When the ground is quite ready for
their reception dip the roots in a pail of water, then spread them out
carefully on top of the mould, fill in the earth, and tread it
firmly. If the plants are standards they require to be firmly staked.
Precaution is necessary not to plant too deeply, keeping them as near
as possible at the depth at which they were previously grown, in no
case exceeding 1 in. above the mark which the earth has left on the
stem. Three weeks after planting tread the earth again round the
roots. Pruning should be done in March, except in the case of those
planted in spring, when the beginning of April will be early enough.
Cut away all of the wood that is unripe, or exhausted and dead. Dwarf
growers should be cut back to within two or three buds of the previous
year's growth, but five or six eyes may be left on those of stronger
growth. The majority of climbing and pillar roses do not require to
be cut back, it being only necessary to take out the useless wood. In
pruning standards aim at producing an equally balanced head, which
object is furthered by cutting to buds pointing outwards. At the
first sign of frost the delicate Tea and Noisette Roses need to be
protected. In the case of standards a covering of bracken fern or
straw must be tied round the heads; dwarfs should have the soil drawn
up over the crowns, or they may be loosely covered by straw. Apply a
top-dressing of farm-yard manure to the beds before the frosts set in,
as this will both nourish and protect the roots. Fork it in carefully
in the spring. Cow manure is especially valuable for Tea Roses. After
the first year of planting most of the artificial manures may, if
preferred, be used; but nothing is better than farmyard stuff. If the
summer be dry, water freely in the evening. Roses may be propagated by
cuttings in the summer or autumn. The slips should be 5 or 6 in. long,
of the spring's growth, taken with 1 in. of the previous year's
wood attached. A little bottom-heat is beneficial. They may also be
increased by grafting or by separating the suckers. Keep a sharp
look-out for maggots in the spring, which will generally be
found where the leaves are curled up. These must be destroyed by
hand-picking. Green fly can be eradicated with tobacco wash. Mildew
may be cured by sprinkling the leaves with sulphur while dew is on

Rose of Heaven.--_See_ "Viscaria Coeli Rosa."

Rose of Sharon.--_See_ "Hibiscus Syriacus."

Rubus.--_See_ "Blackberries."

Rudbeckia (_Cone Flower._)--Hardy annuals yielding yellow flowers in
July. They are readily grown from seed sown early in spring, and will
grow in any garden soil, but naturally succeed best in deeply-worked,
well-manured ground. They may be increased by division in October or
November, as well as in spring-time. Height, 3 ft.

Ruscus Aculeatus (_Butchers Broom_).--A hardy evergreen shrub which
thrives in any rich soil, and may be increased by division of the
root. Height, 1 ft.

Ruta Graveolens.--This hardy evergreen shrub is a species of Rue.
It enjoys a good, rich soil, in which it flowers freely in August.
Cuttings may be struck under a hand-glass. Height, 3 ft.

Ruta Patavina (_Rue of Padua_).--For rock-work this hardy perennial is
very useful. It likes a dry yet rich and light soil. At midsummer it
produces an abundance of greenish-yellow flowers. It can be raised
from seed, or cuttings may be struck under a hand-glass. Height, 6 in.


Saffron, Spring.--_See_ "Bulbocodium."

Sage.--This useful herb likes a rich, light soil, and is propagated by
division of the root, by cuttings, or by seed.

Saintpaulia Ionantha.--The leaves of this plant spread themselves
laterally just over the soil, forming a rosette, in the centre of
which spring up large violet-like flowers. It is a continuous bloomer.
A rather light, rich soil or vegetable mould suits it best. The seed,
which is very minute, should be sown early in spring, in gentle heat:
to prevent it being washed away, the pots may stand up to the rims in
water for a while when the ground wants moisture. Height, 1 ft.

St. John's Wort.--_See_ "Hypericum."

Salix Reticulata.--A dwarf creeping plant whose dark green leaves
eminently fit it for the rock-work or carpet bedding. It will grow in
any soil, but prefers a moist one, and produces unattractive brown
flowers in September. Propagated in spring by detaching rooted
portions from the parent plant and planting them in moist, sandy loam.
Height, 2 in.

Salpiglossis.--Very beautiful half-hardy annuals which are greatly
prized for cut bloom. A light but not over-rich soil suits them best.
The seed may be sown in the open border early in spring, or preferably
on a hotbed at the same period. For early flowering raise the plants
in the autumn, and winter them in a frame or greenhouse. Flowers are
produced in July and August. Height, 2 ft.

Salsafy (_Vegetable Oyster_).--Sow the seed in any good garden
soil--deep sandy loam is best--towards the end of April in drills 1
ft. apart, and thin the plants out to a distance of 6 in. from each
other. The roots may remain in the ground till required for use, or be
lifted in October and stored in the same way as Beet or Carrots. They
are prepared for table in the same manner as Parsnips, and are also
used for flavouring soups.

Salvia.--Very showy flowers, well worth cultivating, and easily grown
in a rich, light soil. The annuals and biennials may be sown in the
open early in spring. The herbaceous kinds are increased by dividing
the roots; the shrubby varieties by cuttings of the young wood planted
under glass in March; while the stove species require to be placed in
heat. They flower in August in the open. Heights vary, according to
the kinds, but S. Coccinea and S. Patens, which are most commonly met
with in gardens, grow to a height of 2 ft.

Sambucus (_The Elder_).--Useful deciduous shrubs. S. Nigra Aurea
has golden foliage, and is suitable for town gardens. The silvery
variegated variety (Variegata), is fine for contrasting with others.
They may all be propagated by cuttings or by division. Flower in June.

Sand Wort.--_See_ "Arenaria."

Sanguinaria Canadensis (_Bloodroot_).--A hardy perennial, curious
both in leaf and flower. It requires a light, sandy soil, shade, and
moisture; is propagated by seed sown in July, also by division of the
tuberous roots, and it blooms in March. The tubers should be planted 5
in. deep and 3 in. apart. Height, 6 in.

Santolina.--This hardy evergreen shrub grows freely in any soil. It
flowers in July, and is increased by cuttings. Height, 2 ft.

Sanvitalia.--Interesting, hardy annual trailers, which may be readily
raised from seed sown in March or April, and merely require ordinary
treatment. They produce their golden and brown and yellow flowers in
July. Height, 1 ft.

Saponaria.--These grow best in a mixture of sandy loam and peat or
decayed vegetable soil. The annuals may be sown either in autumn,
and wintered in a frame, or in the open in April. The perennials are
increased by seed or by division of the root, and young cuttings
of the branching species root freely if planted under glass. S.
Ocymoides, on account of its trailing nature, and S. Calabrica make
fine rock-work plants. The leaves of S. Officinalis, or Soap Plant, if
stirred in water form a lather strong enough to remove grease spots.
They bloom in June and July. Height, 6 in. to 2 ft.

Sarracenia.--Curious herbaceous plants, requiring to be grown in pots
of rough peat, filled up with sphagnum moss, in a moderately cool
house having a moist atmosphere. They flower in June, and are
increased by division. Height, from 9 in. to 1 ft.

Sauromatum Guttatum.--This makes a good window or cool greenhouse
plant. Pot the tuber in good loam and leaf-soil, and keep the mould
only just damp until the foliage, which follows the flowers, appears.
When the foliage fails, keep the tubers dry till spring. If grown out
of doors the tubers must be lifted before frost sets in.

Savoys.--Sow the seed in March or April, and when the plants are 2 in.
high remove them to a nursery-bed, selecting the strongest first. Let
them remain till they are about 6 in. high, then transplant them, 18
in. apart, in well-manured soil. Their flavour is greatly improved if
they are frozen before being cut for use.

Saxifrage.--These beautiful Alpine perennials delight in a light,
sandy soil, and are easily propagated by seed or division. It is most
convenient to grow the rare and tender kinds in pots, as they require
the protection of a frame in winter. Saxifraga Sibthorpii is very
suitable for the lower and damper parts of rock-work; it is hardy, and
sheds its seed freely. S. Umbrosa (London Pride) makes a neat border,
and is also useful for rock-work. S. Sarmentosa (Mother-of-Thousands)
is a fine hanging plant for greenhouse or window. They flower in
April. Height, mostly 4 in. to 6 in., but some grow as high as 1-1/2

Scabious.--Ornamental and floriferous hardy biennials, which grow
freely in common soil. The seed may be sown at any time between March
and midsummer; transplant in the autumn. They bloom in June. Height, 1
ft to 3 ft. (_See also_ "Cephalaria.")

Scale.--Red Scale may be easily overcome with a strong solution of
soft soap applied with a sponge. White Scale is harder to deal with.
Syringe frequently with strong soapsuds heated to 120 degrees. If the
plant is badly attacked it is best to destroy it.

Schizanthus.--Extremely beautiful and showy annuals. A rather poor,
light soil is most suitable for their growth. For early flowering sow
the seed in autumn, and keep the young plants in a frame or greenhouse
throughout the winter. For a succession of bloom sow in the open
border early in the spring. They flower in July and August. Height, 2

Schizopetalum.--This singular and delightfully fragrant annual
does best in a mixture of loam, peat, and sand, or sandy loam and
leaf-mould. Sow the seed in pots in the spring, place in a greenhouse,
and when large enough to handle, plant out in the open border, or it
may be kept in an airy part of the house, where it will bloom in June.
Height, 1 ft.

Schizostylis Coccinea (_Crimson Flag, or Kaffre Lily_).--A most lovely
autumn-blooming plant, producing abundant spikes of Izia-like flowers
about 2 ft. high. It is suitable for pot-culture or planting outdoors,
and is quite hardy. It requires a rich, light soil.

Scillas (_Squills_).--Very useful spring-flowering bulbs. They are
hardy, and do well in any position in light soil. When mixed with
Crocuses and Snowdrops they produce a very charming effect. To get
perfection of bloom they require deep planting. S. Siberica especially
looks well when grown in pots with Snowdrops. Scilla roots are
poisonous. General height, 1 ft.

Scorzonera.--Sow in March in light soil in rows 18 in. apart. Thin
the plants out to about 7 in. one from the other. They may perhaps be
ready for use in August, but to have large roots they should be left
till they are two years old. They may remain in the ground till wanted
for use, or they may be lifted in October and stored like Beet, etc.
This vegetable is scraped and thrown into cold water for a few hours,
then boiled in the same way as Carrots and Parsnips.

Scutellaria.--These plants will grow in any good soil. The hardy
perennials flower in July. The greenhouse varieties merely require
protecting in the winter. They all bear division of the root, and are
easily raised from seed. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Scyphanthus.--An elegant and curious trailer, which is best grown in
a loamy soil. It may be increased from seed sown in April, and it
flowers in August. Height, 2 ft.

Sea Cabbage.--_See_ "Crambe Cordifolia."

Seakale.--The readiest way of propagating this useful vegetable is by
off-sets, but it may be raised from seed sown in March or April in
rows 1 ft. apart. Thin out the young plants to 6 in. in the rows, and
transplant in February or March into well-trenched, deep, rich soil in
rows 2 ft. apart and the plants 15 in. asunder. Keep the plants to one
crown, or shoot, and remove all flower-shoots as they appear. In
dry weather give a liberal quantity of liquid manure. Cropping may
commence after the roots have been planted two years.

Sea Lavender.--_See_ "Statice."

Sea Milkweed.--_See_ "Glaux."

Sedum (_Stonecrop_).--This well-known hardy perennial is suitable for
pots or rock-work. It delights in a light, sandy soil, and is readily
increased by division or cuttings. It flowers in June or July. Height,
3 in.

Seed-Sowing.--Two of the most important points in the sowing of seed
are the proper condition of the ground and the regular and uniform
depth at which the seed is sown. Seeds require light, heat, air, and
moisture for their germination. The ground should be light, and in
such a condition that the young roots can easily penetrate it, and in
all cases should be freshly dug so as to communicate air and moisture:
it should be neither too wet nor too dry. The most favourable time for
seed-sowing is just before a gentle rain. If sown too early on cold,
wet ground, the seed is apt to rot; when sown too shallow in a dry
time, there may not be sufficient moisture to cause it to sprout. The
seed should be sown evenly. The size of a seed is a nearly safe guide
as to the depth at which it should be sown. For instance, Beans and
Peas of all kinds should be sown about a couple of inches deep, while
very small flower-seeds merely require to be just covered. As to the
time for sowing, _see_ "Annuals," "Biennials," and "Perennials."

Seeds, the Protection of.--In order to protect seeds against birds,
insects, and rodents, soak them in water containing 20 or 25 per cent,
of mineral oil. Vegetable seeds, such as Haricot Beans and Peas,
should be soaked for twelve hours, and the pips of Apples and Pears
for double that time. For soaking the finer seeds, bitter liquids,
such as that of Quassia and Gentian, should be used.

Sempervivum (_Houseleek_).--The hardy kinds are well known, and may
often be seen growing on the roofs of cottages and on walls. They make
good rock-work plants, and are easily increased by off-sets. The more
tender kinds are suitable for the greenhouse. These should be planted
in sandy loam and old brick rubbish. They require but very little
water; more may be given when they are in flower. Cuttings, after
being laid aside for a day or two to dry, will soon make root. Height,
6 in.

Senecio Pulcher (_Noble Crimson Groundsel_).--A warm position and a
deep, rich, well-drained soil are needed for this flower. It may be
propagated by cutting the roots into pieces 5 or 6 in. long, and
dibbling them into light soil. It is also increased by the rootlets,
which send up small growths in spring. Protect from damp and frost,
and keep a sharp look-out for slugs. The flowers are produced in
autumn. Height, 3 ft.

Senna, Bladder.--_See_ "Colutea."

Sensitive Plant.--_See_ "Mimosa."

Shallots.--Plant the bulbs in November, or in February or March, in
rows 9 in. apart, and the bulbs 6 in. one from the other. In July,
when the tops are dying down, lift the bulbs, lay them in the sunshine
to dry, then store them in a cool place.

Shamrock.--_See_ "Trifolium Repens."

Sheep Scabious.--_See_ "Jasione."

Shortia Galacifolia.--A hardy, creeping Alpine evergreen, having oval
leaves, slightly notched at the margins, which turn to a brilliant
crimson during the autumn and winter months. In April and May it
produces pearly-white flowers, somewhat Campanulate in form. It may be
planted in early autumn or spring. A light, rich soil suits it best,
and it delights in partial shade. It is a lovely plant for rock-work.
Height, 6 in.

Shrubs.--Deciduous shrubs may be transplanted at any time during late
autumn or winter when the ground is not too wet. Evergreen shrubs may
be moved either early in autumn or in April or May, damp, warm, but
not sunny weather being most suitable for the operation. They rejoice
in a clean, healthy soil, such as good loam; animal manure does not
agree with them, but wood ashes, or charcoal powder with a little
guano, may be used. Cuttings of shrubs or trees may be taken in
September, placed in a mixture of sandy loam and leaf-mould with 1/2
in. of sand on top, and covered with a hand-glass; 5 to 8 in. is a
good length for the cuttings, all of which, with the exception of
about 1 in., should be buried, and preferably with a heel of old wood.
Keep the soil just damp and give shade.

Shrubs for Lawns.--Monkey Puzzle (_Araucaria Imbricata_)--mix wood
ashes and burnt refuse with the soil; Thujopsis Delabrata, Thujopsis
Borealis (of taller growth), Irish Yews, Cupressus Lawsoniana Erecta
Viridis, Thujas Orientalis, Vervaeneana, Semperaurescens, Standard
Rhododendrons, Standard and Pyramid Hollies, Yucca Gloriosa (a perfect
picture), Yucca Recurva (the best hardy plant for vases). The Cercis
tree is also well adapted for lawns.

Sicyos.--This hardy annual somewhat resembles the Cucumber, but is
scarcely worth growing except as a curiosity. The seeds are sown on a
hotbed in spring, potted off when strong enough, and transferred to
the open border early in June. It is a climber, and flowers in August.
Height, 3 ft.

Sidalcea.--Very pretty hardy perennials, of easy culture. S. Candida
has pure white flowers closely arranged on the upper part of the
stems. S. Malvaeflora bears beautifully fringed, satiny pink flowers.
They will grow in any good soil from seed sown in autumn and protected
during the winter, or they may be increased by division of the roots.
Height, 3 ft.

Silene _(Catchfly_).--Elegant plants, delighting in a light, rich
soil. Sow the seeds of the annual varieties early in April where they
are intended to bloom. Silene Pendula, when sown in the autumn, makes
a pleasing show of pink flowers in the spring. The roots of the
herbaceous kinds may be divided in spring. The shrubby sorts are
increased by cuttings planted under a hand-glass. The dwarfs make fine
rock-work ornaments. Flowers are produced in June and July. Height, 2
in. to 1-1/2 ft.

Silphium Aurantiacum.--A good and hardy border perennial, which
produces during July and August large deep orange-yellow flowers
resembling a Sunflower. It is very useful for cutting, will grow
anywhere, and can be increased by dividing the root. Height, 4 ft.

Sisyrinchium Grandifolium(_Satin Flower, or Rush Lily_).--A light loam
suits this plant, which is moderately hardy. The soil should be moist,
but not wet. It does not like being disturbed, but when necessary the
crowns may be divided in autumn, taking care to spread the roots well
out. It blooms in April or May. Height, 1 ft.

Skimmia.--Neat-growing, dwarf evergreen shrubs having Laurel-like
leaves, and producing a profusion of scarlet berries in winter. They
succeed in any ordinary soil, but thrive best in peat and loam; and
are propagated by cuttings placed in heat under glass.

Slugs.--A sharp watch should be kept over all slugs, and constant
visits paid to the garden at daybreak for their destruction. If
fresh cabbage leaves are strewed about in the evening the slugs will
congregate under them, and in the morning they may be gathered up and
dropped into strong brine. The ground may also be dusted with fresh
lime, which is fatal to them, but in wet weather the lime soon loses
its power.

Smilax.--A greenhouse climbing plant that is admired for its foliage
rather than its bloom. A mixture of peat and loam or leaf-mould and
sandy loam suits it. Train the shoots up string, and freely water the
plant in summer; during the autumn and winter it does not need
much moisture. Keep the temperature of the house up to 60 degrees
throughout the winter. It is readily increased by cuttings. It flowers
in July. Fine for table decoration. Height, 4 ft.

Snails.--To prevent snails crawling up walls or fruit trees daub the
ground with a thick paste of soot and train oil. There is no remedy so
effectual for their destruction as hand-picking.

Snake's Head Lilies.--_See_ "Fritillarias."

Snapdragon.--_See_ "Antirrhinum."

Sneezewort.--_See_ "Achillea."

Snowball Tree.--_See_ "Viburnum."

Snowberry.--_See_ "Symphoricarpus."

Snowdrops _(Galanthus)._--These are most effective in clumps. They may
be planted at any time from September to December, and left alone for
three or four years, when they may be taken up and divided. They grow
best in a light, rich soil.

Snowdrop Tree.--_See_ "Halesia."

Snowflake.--_See_ "Leucojum."

Snow in Summer.--_See_ "Arabis."

Soil and its Treatment.--Loam is a mixture of clay and sand. When
the former predominates it is termed heavy loam, and when the latter
abounds it is called light.

Marl is a compound of chalk and clay, or chalk and loam. Though
suitable for certain fruit-trees and a few other things, few flowers
will grow in it.

Drainage is one of the most important considerations in the
cultivation of flowers. Should the soil be clayey, and hold water,
make V-shaped drains, 3 ft. below the surface, and let 2-in. pipes
lead to a deep hole made at the lowest part of the garden and filled
with brick rubbish, or other porous substances, through which the
water may drain; otherwise the cold, damp earth will rot the roots of
the plants.

Trenching is the process of digging deep, so as to loosen and expose
the soil as much as possible to the action of the air. If this is done
in the autumn or early winter to a new garden, it is best to dig it
deep, say about 2 ft, and leave it in large clods to the pulverising
action of the frost, after which it is easily raked level for spring
planting. If the clods are turned over the grass will rot and help to
improve the ground; new land thus treated will not require manuring
the first year. Should the ground be clayey, fine ashes or coarse sand
thrown over the rough clods after trenching will greatly improve it.

Digging should be done when the ground is fairly dry, and about one
spade deep. Avoid treading it down as much as possible.

Hoeing must be constantly attended to, both to prevent the soil
becoming exhausted of its nourishment by the rapid growth of weeds,
and because when the surface becomes hard and cracked the rain runs
through the deep fissures, leaving the surface soil dry and the roots
of the plants unnourished.

Mulching consists in spreading a layer of stable manure, about 3 in.
deep, over the roots of trees and plants in the autumn to keep them
warm and moist. The manure may be forked into the soil in the spring.

Watering the plants carefully is of great consequence. Evening or
early morning is the best time, and one copious application is far
better than little and often. Water may be given to the _roots_ at any
time, but should not be sprinkled over the leaves in a hot sun nor in
cold weather. Plants having a soft or woolly foliage should never be
wetted overhead, but those with hard and shiny leaves may be freely
syringed, especially when in full growth.

Solanum.--Showy greenhouse shrubs, some of which have ornamental
foliage. The soil in which they are grown should be light and rich.
Cuttings planted in sand under glass strike readily. The tender annual
varieties may be sown on a hotbed in spring, and placed in the border
at the end of May in a dry, sheltered situation, where they will
flower in June. Height, 1 ft. and upwards.

Soldanellas.--These small herbaceous perennials should find a place in
all Alpine collections. They grow best in sandy peat, or in leaf-mould
with a liberal addition of sand, and they require a moderate amount of
moisture. They may be increased by dividing the roots in April. They
flower from March to May. Height, 4 in. or 5 in.

Solidago (_Golden Rod_).--A useful hardy perennial for the back of
borders. Throughout late summer and autumn it produces masses of
golden flowers. It is not over-particular as to soil, and may be
increased by dividing the root in the spring. It increases very
rapidly. Height, 2 ft. to 6 ft.

Solomon's Seal (_Polygonatum Multiflorum_).--A graceful hardy plant
bearing white pendulent flowers on long curving stems. Plant freely
in light, rich soil, in a shady position or under trees. The plants
should not be disturbed, even by digging among the roots. Flowers in
May. Height, 2 ft.

Soot-Water.--For room and window plants soot-water has this advantage
over coarse animal manures, that while the latter are unhealthy and
apt to taint the air, the former is purifying and has no unpleasant
smell. It is easily made by tying a little soot in a coarse canvas bag
and immersing it in a pail of water. It should be applied in a clear,
thin state to plants in bud or in full growth during the summer

Sorrel.--Sow in March or April in any garden soil, thin out to 1 ft.
apart. It is desirable to cut away the flower-stems and to divide the
roots every two or three years. The plants may be forced for winter

Southernwood (_Artemisia Arborea_).--Any soil suits this odoriferous
bush, and it is readily increased by cuttings or by division.

Sparaxis.--Closely allied to the Ixias, equally beautiful and varied
in colour, but rather dwarfer and compact in growth. Invaluable for
pot-culture. For outdoor cultivation plant them early in September,
5 or 6 in. deep, on a sheltered border, in rich, well-drained, loamy
soil. Protect from frost and wet in the winter, but keep the roots
moist while they are growing. For indoor cultivation plant four to six
bulbs in a 5-in. pot, plunge in ashes in a cold frame, withholding
water till the plants appear. When making full growth remove them to
a sunny window or conservatory, and water them carefully. They will
bloom in March or April. Height, 3 ft.

Sparmannia Africana.--An exceedingly handsome and attractive
greenhouse evergreen shrub, thriving best in loam and peat. Cuttings
may be struck in sand under glass. May is its flowering season.
Height, 10 ft.

Spartium Junceum(_Yellow Broom_).--A hardy evergreen shrub which will
grow in any soil, and is propagated by seeds. It flowers in August.
Height, 6 ft.

Specularia Speculum.--_See_ "Venus's Looking-Glass."

Spergula Pilfera.--May be grown in any moist situation in sandy soil.
It is of little value.

Sphenogyne Speciosa.--An elegant hardy annual. Sow the seed early in
spring on a gentle hotbed in loam and peat, harden off, and transplant
at the end of May to a soil composed of loam and leaf-mould, if peat
cannot be obtained. The bloom is produced in July. Height, 1 ft.

Spider Wort.--_See_ "Commelina" _and_ "Tradescantia."

Spigelia Marilandica.--From August to October this hardy perennial
produces tubular crimson and yellow flowers. It finds a congenial home
in damp peat, shaded from the sun, and may be propagated by cuttings
in loam and peat under glass. Height, 1 ft.

Spinach.--For summer use sow the round-seeded kinds at intervals of
two or three weeks from February to the end of July in rows 1 ft.
apart, cover with the finest of soil, and thin out to a distance of 3
or 4 in. In dry weather give a liberal supply of manure water. Pull
before it runs to seed. For winter use sow the prickly-seeded variety
in August and September, and thin the plants out 9 in. apart. If the
ground is hot and dry, the seed should be soaked for twenty-four hours
before it is sown. New Zealand Spinach may be sown in the open during
May, choosing the warmest spot for its growth; but it is best to
sow it in heat in March, keeping the soil fairly moist, and, after
hardening it off, to plant it out in June, 3 ft. apart Sow Perpetual
Spinach or Spinach Beet in March in drills 1 ft. apart. Cut the leaves
frequently, when a fresh crop will be produced.

Spiraeas.--Placed in the open ground these make splendid plants, and
are not particular as to soil, though a moist, rich one is preferable.
For forcing, plant the clumps in 6-in. pots, and keep them in a cool
frame until they are well rooted. They may then be removed indoors
and forced rapidly, supplying them with an abundance of water.
Their elegant flower spikes are invaluable for bouquets and table
decoration. The shrubby kinds are increased by layers or cuttings of
the young wood, the herbaceous varieties by division of the roots
in autumn. Spiraea Aruncus, if potted early in the autumn, is very
valuable for winter decoration. Spiraeas bloom at different periods,
from May to August, and vary in height, 3 or 4 ft. being the general

Spruce Firs.--_See_ "Abies."

Stachys Coccinea.--This scarlet hardy annual is fine for bees. It may
be grown in any soil from seed sown in March or April. Height, 1 ft.

Stachys Lanata.--A hardy perennial which will grow in any soil, and
bears division. It flowers in July. Height, 2 ft.

Staphylea Colchica_(Mexican Bladder Nut)._--This beautiful
free-flowering shrub will grow in any garden soil, and produces
bunches of fragrant, delicate white flowers in June. It forces well,
and may be made to flower at Easter by potting it in rich, light soil,
placing it in a cold frame till the middle of January, keeping
the roots moist, then bringing it into the warm house. It may be
propagated by suckers from the roots, by layers, or by cuttings taken
in autumn.

Star Flower.--_See_ "Trientalis."

Star of Bethlehem.--_See_ "Ornithogalum."

Statice _(Sea Lavender)._--The greenhouse and frame varieties succeed
best in sandy loam and peat, and may be increased by cuttings placed
under a bell-glass or in a warm pit. The hardy herbaceous kinds are
very suitable for the front of flower borders, and may be freely
increased by seeds or division. The annuals, if sown in March, will
produce flowers in July. Statices require a good amount of water, but
thorough drainage must be ensured. If the flowers are dried they will
keep their colour for a considerable time. Height, 1 ft. to 1-1/2 ft.

Stauntonia Latifolia.--A greenhouse evergreen climbing plant, which
needs a peat and loam soil and plenty of room for its roots. It
flowers in April, and is increased by cuttings planted in sand under
glass, with a gentle heat. Height, 10 ft.

Stenactis (_Fleabane_).--Showy hardy perennials which make fine
bedding plants. They may be grown from seed, which is produced in
great quantities, and merely requires the same treatment as other
perennials, or they may be propagated by dividing the plants. They
bloom in July. Height, 2 ft.

Stephanotis.--This pretty evergreen twining plant is most suitable for
the greenhouse, and flourishes in a mixture of loam and leaf-mould. It
flowers in May, and is increased by cuttings struck in heat. Height,
10 ft.

Sternbergia Lutea.--A hardy perennial which produces bright yellow
flowers in August. It likes a rich soil, and is propagated by
off-sets. Height, 6 in.

Stipa Pennata (_Feather Grass_).--One of the most graceful of our
ornamental grasses, and most attractive in the border. The seed may be
sown early in March, keeping the ground moist until it has germinated,
and it is also increased by division. Height, 2 ft.

Stobaea Purpurea.--A hardy border plant with long spiny foliage, and
bearing from July to September large light blue flowers. It requires a
light, rich soil. Young cuttings may be struck in sand. Height, 1 ft.


_ANNUAL, OR TEN WEEKS' STOCKS_.--Sow the seeds in February, March,
April, and May for succession; those sown in May will continue to
flower till Christmas. The soil should be rich, and occasionally a
little manure-water may be given. Another sowing may be made in August
and September. When the plants have several leaves pot off singly in
vegetable loam and river sand. Height, 1 ft. to 1-1/2 ft.

_BROMPTON_.--Sow very thinly during the first week in May in a rich,
light, sandy border, with an eastern aspect. When 2 or 3 in. high,
thin out to 9 in. apart. Those taken out may be re-planted in the
flower border, 9 in. from each other. In transplanting reject those
plants having a long tap-root: they generally prove to be single. If
the following winter be severe they must be protected with mats. Any
desirable varieties may be propagated by cuttings, which root readily
under glass if kept shaded. Should it be desirable to transplant them
to another part of the garden, March or April will be found the best
time to remove them. Shade the plants till they are established, and
use liquid manure till they begin to flower.

_GREENHOUSE OR SHRUBBY_ species grow best in a mixture of light soil
and sand, and cuttings of these Stocks root readily under glass.

_NIGHT-SCENTED STOCKS_.--_See_ "Mathiola Bicornis." If Emperor,
Imperial, or Intermediate Stocks are sown in March or April, they will
flower in the autumn; if sown in June or July they will flower during
the following June, and throughout the summer and autumn.

Stokesia Cyanea.--A handsome herbaceous perennial which is quite
hardy, but owing to the late period at which it flowers its blooms are
liable to be cut off by frosts. It is therefore more suitable for a
cool house than the open air, unless the warmest and most sheltered
position be assigned to it. A rich, sandy soil is indispensable for
its growth. It may be increased by dividing the roots in spring. The
flowers are produced from October to December. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Stonecrop.--_See_ "Sedum."

Strawberries.--The soil most suitable for the growth of this fruit is
a rich, deep, adhesive loam. July or early in August is the best time
to make new beds, but if the ground be not then available runners from
the old plants may be planted in peat on a north border and lifted
with good balls of earth to their permanent bed in the spring. Set
them firmly in rows 2 ft. apart and 18 in. from plant to plant. Spread
out the roots and avoid deep planting. Remove from the old plants
all runners not required for new beds before they take root, as they
exhaust the crown. In dry seasons liquid manure is highly beneficial.
Some growers give supports to the fruit by means of forked-shaped
pegs, while others lay straw down to keep the fruit free from grit.
Keep a sharp look-out for snails and slugs. King of the Earlies,
Auguste Nicaise, Royal Sovereign, Vicomtesse Hericart de Thury, Gunton
Park, President, Sir Joseph Paxton, Lord Suffield, Noble, and Samuel
Bradley are excellent sorts. For Ornamental Strawberries, _see_
"Fragaria Indica."

Strawberry Tree.--_See_ "Arbutus."

Streptocarpus (_Cape Primrose_).--This plant is a greenhouse
perennial, showing great variety of colours, from white to violet
and crimson, and is of neat habit. A light and rather rich soil or
vegetable mould suits it best. Seed sown in February in slight heat
will produce plants for flowering in July; that sown in March or April
will flower in August and September. Grow slowly in small pots, and
in February put them in their flowering pots. Give plenty of air and
shade them from the sun. It may also be increased by division, or
leaf-cuttings may be taken under a bell-glass. The plants like plenty
of water, but need good drainage. Height, 9 in.

Streptosolen Jamesoni.--A good compost for this greenhouse evergreen
shrub is two parts sandy loam, one part leaf-mould, and a little
silver sand. During growth it needs a liberal supply of water and to
be kept near the glass; only a small amount of moisture should be
given in winter. In March cut it into shape, and re-pot it as soon as
new growth starts. During the summer syringe it frequently to keep off
red spider, and during winter maintain a temperature of 55 degrees.

Stylophorum _(Celandine Poppy, or Poppywort)._--During May and June
this hardy and handsome plant produces fine yellow flowers. It
accommodates itself to any soil, but prefers a rich, light one, and
can be increased by seed sown in autumn or early spring. Height, 1-1/2

Styrax.--Ornamental shrubs requiring a light soil for their
cultivation. S. Japonica has Snowdrop-like flowers, and S. Obasa
Lily-of-the-Valley-like scented flowers. They are best propagated by
layers. Height, 4 ft. to 10 ft.

Sunflower.--_See_ "Helianthus."

Swainsonia Galegifolia Alba.--A graceful and charming cool greenhouse
plant, with Fern-like evergreen foliage and pure white flowers, which
are borne from April to November. The soil most suitable for it is a
mixture of loam and sandy peat. Cuttings of the young growth planted
in sand under glass strike readily. Height, 2 ft.

Swallow Wort.--_See_ "Asclepias."

Swamp Lilies.--_See_ "Zephyranthes."

Swan River Daisy.--_See_ "Brachycome."

Sweet Alyssum.--_See_ "Alyssum."

Sweet Flag.--_See_ "Acorus."

Sweet Peas.--_See_ "Peas, Sweet."

Sweet Rocket.--_See_ "Rocket."

Sweet Scabious.--_See_ "Scabious."

Sweet Sultan.--Sweet-scented, Thistle-shaped hardy annual flowers,
which are very useful for cutting. They may be raised in any garden
soil from seed sown in March or April, and will flower in August.
Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Sweet William.--Well-known hardy perennials, and deservedly favourite
border plants, which may be grown in any good soil; but to have them
to perfection they should be placed in light, loamy ground mixed with
a little old manure and sand. They can be raised with little trouble
from seed sown thinly at any time between March and midsummer where
they are to bloom, and may also be increased by dividing the old
plants in spring. They produce their flowers in July. Height, 1-1/2

Symphoricarpus (_Snowberry_).--A handsome species of St. Peter's Wort.
The shrubs will grow in any ordinary soil, are hardy, and readily
propagated by suckers, which are produced abundantly; or cuttings may
be taken either in spring or autumn. They bloom in August. Height, 4

Symphytum Caucasicum.--Hardy perennials. They will grow in any soil
or situation, even thriving under the shade of trees, and may be
increased by division. June is the month in which they flower. Height,
3 ft.

Syringa (_Lilac_.)--There are many choice varieties of these favourite
shrubs, but any of them may be grown in a tolerably good soil. They
are propagated by layers or by suckers from the root. They bloom in
May or June. Height varies from 4 ft. to 12 ft.


Tacsonia.--A beautiful twining shrub belonging to the Passiflora
family. It should be provided with a rich soil, and, as the flowers
are produced upon the lateral shoots, it requires frequent stopping.
Syringe frequently in warm weather to induce a quick growth. It is
a quick grower, and, when properly treated, a profuse bloomer, the
flowers being produced in July, August, and September. Cuttings of
young shoots placed under glass in a sandy soil will strike. Height,
20 ft.

Tagetes (_French and African Marigolds_).--Half-hardy annuals, very
elegant when in flower, and deserve a place in the garden. The seed
should be sown on a hotbed in March or April, the plants gradually
hardened off, and placed in the open at the end of May in a rich,
light soil, when they will flower in August. Height, 1 ft. to 2-1/2

Tamarix.--Neat feathery plants, very suitable for banks and thriving
at the seaside, as is evidenced by its luxuriant growth along the
parades at Eastbourne. The hardy kinds will grow in any soil, and may
be propagated by cuttings planted in the open either in spring or
autumn. The greenhouse and stove varieties require a soil of loam and
peat. Cuttings of these should be placed in sand under glass. They
flower in June and July. Height, 8 ft. to 10 ft.

Tansy.--A feathery-foliaged hardy perennial, useful for mixing with
cut blooms. No special treatment is required. Height, 11 ft.

Taxus.--_See_ "Yew."

Tecoma.--Ornamental evergreen shrubs of a twining nature, needing a
greenhouse for their cultivation. They require a rich, loamy soil
mixed with a little sand, or loam and peat, and rejoice in shade and
moisture. T. Radicans will grow in the open against a wall, but a
warm situation is needed to make it flower. They may be propagated
by cuttings of the roots placed in sand under a hand-glass, and by
layers. Their flowers are produced in July and August. Height, 6 ft.
to 30 ft.

Telekia.--_See_ "Buphthalmum."

Tellima Grandiflora.--A hardy and very ornamental perennial with round
bronzy foliage and spikes of white flowers at midsummer. It succeeds
best in peat, but will grow in any rich, light soil. To increase it,
divide the roots. Height, 1 ft.

Tetratheca.--Pretty greenhouse evergreen shrubs which produce
pink flowers in July. They flourish in a soil consisting of equal
proportions of loam, peat, and sand. Cuttings of the young wood
planted under glass in a sandy soil will strike. Height, 1 ft.

Teucrium Scorodonia.--This hardy herbaceous plant will grow in any
ordinary garden soil. It flowers in July, and is easily raised from
seed or increased by division. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Thalictrum.--Hardy Fern-like perennials, suitable for the backs of
borders. They grow well in any light soil from seed sown in spring or
autumn, and may also be increased by division.

Thermopsis Montana_(Fabacea)._--This hardy perennial produces spikes
of yellow Lupin-like flowers from June to September. The soil should
be light and rich. As the plants suffer by division, it is best to
raise them by seed, which may be sown either in autumn or spring.
Height, 2 ft.

Thladianthe Dubia.--A fine climbing plant with handsome foliage and an
abundance of fine yellow flowers. Quite hardy. Sow on a hotbed early
in spring, and when sufficiently large and strong, pot off, place in a
cold frame to harden, and plant out at the end of May in rich soil.

Thrift.--_See_ "Armeria."

Thumbergia.--These slender, rapid-growing climbers are extremely
pretty when in bloom during June, but they are only half-hardy; they
therefore need greenhouse care, or to be planted in a warm situation.
They flourish best in a mixture of sandy loam and leaf-mould, and may
be grown from seed sown in heat (65 to 75 degrees) early in spring.
Cuttings strike readily. Height, 4 ft.

Thuya (_Arbor Vitae_).--Very decorative conifers, mostly of conical
shape, and indispensable to the shrubbery. They thrive in any soil,
but prefer a moist situation. For sheltered positions, where a
small dome-shaped bush is required, the Chinese Arbor Vitae _(Biota
Orientalis)_ is most desirable; it delights in a heavy soil. The Biota
Elegantissima is one of the most unique hardy shrubs cultivated, and
presents a bright golden appearance. Another effective yellow variety
is the Semperaurescens, which retains its colour throughout the
winter, and makes a fine pot-plant. One of the most beautiful of all
evergreens is the Thuyopsis Dolabrata; its flat, spray-like leaves are
bright green above and silvery below. The China varieties are somewhat
tender, and require protection from frost. They may all be propagated
from seed or by cuttings.

Thymus.--Effective little perennials for rock-work, growing best in
a light, dry, sandy soil. The hardy kinds like an exposed position;
rarer kinds should be grown in pots, as they need protection in
winter. They are easily increased by seed sown in spring, by cuttings
or division. Height, 3 in. to 6 in.

Tiarella.--These hardy herbaceous plants are very suitable for
rock-work or the front of a border. They are not particular as to
soil; they flower in April, and may be propagated by seed or division.
Height, 9 in. to 1 ft.

Tiarella Cordifolia (_Foam Flower_).--A hardy herbaceous perennial,
having fine foliage. It will grow in any good soil, but likes shade
and moisture. It may be increased by dividing the roots at the end of
the summer. The blooms are produced during May and June. Height, 1 ft.

Tigridia (_Ferraria; Mexican Tiger Flower, popularly called the Tiger
Iris_).--A gorgeous flower of exceptional beauty. Plant the bulbs in
the sunniest spot out of doors during March, April, or May, in a sandy
loam enriched with a liberal amount of leaf-mould, placing them 3 in.
deep and 6 in. apart, and putting a little silver sand round each bulb
before covering it with the soil. Shelter from cutting winds. The
blossoms appear in July or August. Each bloom lasts only one day, but
is succeeded on the next by fresh ones, so that a continuance of bloom
is maintained. Protect them in winter with a covering of dead leaves,
or, better still, take them up when they have done flowering, and keep
them dry and free from frost. For pot-culture plant the bulbs in sandy
loam and peat, plunge them in a cold frame, and withhold water until
the foliage appears. They may be increased by off-sets or seeds.
Height, 1 ft.

Tobacco Plants.--_See_ "Nicotiana."

Tobacco-Water.--Boil 2 oz. of shag, or other strong tobacco, in a pint
of water. Apply with a soft brush. This is a deadly poison to insects.

Tomatoes (_Love Apples_).--Those intended to be grown in the open
should be raised from seed sown the first week in March in pots of
very rich, light mould. Place them in a cucumber-house or other gentle
heat, and when the second leaf appears, pot them off singly, keeping
them near the glass and well watered. Towards the end of May remove
them to a cold frame to harden off, and plant out as soon as fear of
frost is over, in deeply-dug and moderately manured ground, against a
south wall fully exposed to the sun. Train to a single stem and remove
all lateral growths. When the plants are 3 or 4 ft. high pinch off
the tops to prevent further growth and throw strength into the fruit.
Watering should cease as soon as the blossom-buds appear, except in
periods of very severe drought. When grown under glass Tomatoes need
to be trained in much the same way as Grape Vines. Constant attention
must be given to removing all useless shoots and exposing the fruit
to air and light. An average temperature of 60 degrees should be
maintained, with a rather dry and buoyant atmosphere.

Toothwort.--_See_ "Dentaria."

Torch Lily.--_See_ "Tritoma."

Torenia.--These stove and greenhouse plants require a rich soil. They
may be increased by seed or division. They flower during June and
July. Height, 6 in. to 9 in.

Tournefort.--_See_ "Crambe Cordifolia."

Tradescantia Virginica (_Spider Wort_).--A hardy herbaceous plant. In
a light, rich soil it will flower in July. Height, 1 ft. There are
other varieties of Tradescantia; they all make good border plants,
thrive in any situation, and are continuous bloomers.

Transplanting.--Plants may be transplanted as soon as they are large
enough to handle. They must be lifted carefully with a small trowel,
or if they are very small, such as Golden Feather, with a still
smaller blunt article, disturbing the roots as little as possible. It
should be done when the ground is wet, and preferably in the evening.
In dry weather they should be well watered twelve hours before they
are disturbed. Shade them from sun for one or two days. Cabbages,
Lettuces, Cauliflowers, Broccoli, Kale, and other members of the
Brassica family _must_ be transplanted, or they will be a failure.
Root crops such as Carrots, Parsnips, Turnips, etc., must not be
transplanted, but thinned out. Celery may be transplanted in June or

Traveller's Joy (_Clematis Viorna_).--This hardy climbing plant grows
best in a light soil, flowers in August, and is increased by layers of
the young shoots in summer. Height, 12 ft.

Trees, Plants that Flourish under.--Ivy, St. John's Wort (Hypericum
Calycinum), early-flowering White Aconite.

Tricyrtis.--These greenhouse herbaceous plants bloom in May. A rich,
light soil suits them. Height, 6 in.

Trientalis Europaea (_Star Flower_).--To grow this native perennial
to advantage, it should be planted in leaf-mould with which a large
proportion of sand has been mixed. Confine the roots to a narrow
compass by means of slates placed just beneath the surface of the
soil. Let the ground be kept moist, but well drained. The bloom is
produced during May and June, and it is propagated by runners. Height,
6 in. to 8 in.

Trifolium Repens Pentaphyllum.--A showy, hardy, deciduous perennial.
It thrives in ordinary soil, puts forth its white flowers in June, and
is propagated by seed or division. Height, 6 in.

Trillium Erectum (_Wood Lily_).--This tuberous perennial is quite
hardy, and flourishes in partial shade. The soil must be light and
rich, yet moist. The plant does not increase very fast, but the roots
of good-sized plants may be divided. It flowers in May and June.
Height, 6 in.

Tritelia.--A charming spring-flowering plant, bearing pretty white
star-like flowers on slender stalks. It is used largely for edgings.
It looks well in clumps on the front of borders. Plant in autumn, and
divide the bulbs every two or three years. Height, 6 in.

Tritoma (_Red-hot Poker, or Torch Lily_).--Requires a rich, sandy
soil, and to be protected in a frame from wet and frost in the winter.
Increase by division or by suckers from the root. The flower spikes
grow 18 to 27 in. long. The crown of the plant should not be more than
11/2 in. in the soil, which should be dug deeply and mixed with rotted
manure. In winter, if it is left in the ground, surround the plant
with 2 in. of sawdust, well trodden. Remove this in May, and water
liberally with liquid manure till it blooms. The best time to plant is
March or October. By many it is considered advisable not to disturb
the plant too often.

Tritonias.--These somewhat resemble miniature Gladioli, and are
among the most useful bulbs for pot-culture. Plant from September
to December, placing five or six bulbs in a 5-in. pot, and using a
compost of loam, leaf-mould, and silver sand. Plunge the pots in ashes
in a cold pit or frame, and keep them dry until the plants appear.
When in full growth they may be removed to the conservatory, placing
them near the glass, and giving careful attention to watering. For
outdoor cultivation choose a sunny, sheltered position, with a light,
rich, sandy soil. Give protection in frosty weather by covering with
dry litter.

Trollius Altaiense (_Globe Flower_).--A pretty, hardy herbaceous
plant, with very handsome foliage. It likes a light but moist soil,
may be increased by seed or by dividing the root, and flowers in May.
Height, 9 in. to 2 ft.

Trollius Asiaticus.--A very pretty herbaceous plant, suitable for the
border. It may be raised from seed sown in the autumn, and grown on in
light, moist soil. The plant is hardy and flowers in May. Height, 1


_JARRATTI_ (_scarlet, orange, and black_) are remarkable for a slender
and graceful growth. Well adapted for covering wire globes, trellises,

_LOBBIANUM_ (_various colours_).--Elegant dwarf climbers, suitable
either for the conservatory or for outdoor culture. They may also be
used for bedding if planted thinly and kept pegged down; or may be
grown in window-boxes. Height, 6 ft.

_PENTAPHYLLUM_ (_red_) is slender and graceful, and an elegant

_POLYPHYLLUM_ (_yellow_) succeeds best against a south wall. It is
hardy, has rich abundant glaucous foliage, and is a particularly fine

_SPECIOSUM_ (_scarlet_).--Of wild, graceful, luxuriant and slender
growth. Fine for covering walls and fences, festooning arches, etc.
Plant at the beginning of October in an eastern aspect or at the base
of a north wall, the soil and atmosphere being moderately moist. Bury
the roots 4 in. deep.

_TUBEROSUM_ (_yellow and red_) is quite hardy, and may be planted in
any situation.

Generally a light, rich soil is most suitable. The greenhouse
varieties may be increased by cuttings placed in sandy soil under
glass. The tuberous-rooted kinds should be taken up in winter and kept
in sand till spring, when they may be planted in a sheltered part
of the garden. The annuals merely require to be sown in the open in
spring. They flower in July, August, and September. Height, 1 ft. to
10 ft. (_See also_ "Canary Creeper.")

Trumpet Flower.--_See_ "Bignonia."

Tuberose.--Plant the bulbs in January in a mixture of sandy loam and
rotten dung, or leaf-mould, using a small pot for each bulb. Plunge
them in a hotbed, taking care that the temperature does not fall below
60 degrees, and withhold water until the foliage appears, when a
moderate amount should be given. When the pots are full of roots,
shift the plants into larger ones, and grow on in a house with a
uniform high temperature and moist atmosphere. For a succession of
bloom place the roots in a cold frame and cover with cocoanut fibre
until growth begins, then remove the fibre, water moderately, and
transfer the most forward plants to the conservatory. Bloom may be had
all the year round by planting in succession from September to June.

Tulips.--Drainage may be considered as the chief means of success in
the cultivation of these showy spring flowers. The soil they like best
is well-rotted turf cut from pasture land and mixed with a moderate
amount of sand, but they will thrive in any ground that is well
drained. The bulbs should be planted during October and November about
3 in. deep and 5 in. apart, either in lines or groups, and they retain
their bloom longest in a shady situation. As soon as the leaves begin
to decay the bulbs may be taken up, dried, and stored away, keeping
the colours separate. For pot-culture the single varieties are best.
Put three bulbs in a 5-in. pot and six in a 6-in. one, and treat in
the same manner as the Hyacinth. They may, if desired, be forced as
soon as the shoots appear. When required to fill vases, etc., it is
a good plan to grow them in shallow boxes, and transfer them when in
flower to the vases or baskets. By this method exactitude of height
and colouring is ensured. Tulips are divided into three classes: (1)
Roses, which have a white ground, with crimson, pink, or scarlet
marks; (2) Byblomens, having also a white ground, but with lilac,
purple, or black marks; and (3) Bizarres, with a yellow ground having
marks of any colour.

Tunica.--Same treatment as "Dianthus."

Turkey's Beard.--_See_ "Xerophyllum."

Turnips.--To obtain mild and delicately-flavoured Turnips a somewhat
light, sandy, but deep, rich soil is necessary. For a first crop sow
the Early White Dutch variety in February or the beginning of March on
a warm border. For succession sow Early Snowball at intervals of three
weeks until the middle of July. For winter use sow Golden Ball, or
other yellow-fleshed kinds, early in August. Thin each sowing out so
that the bulbs stand 9 in. apart. To ensure sound, crisp, fleshy roots
they require to be grown quickly, therefore moist soil and liberal
manuring is necessary, and the ground kept free from weeds. If fly
becomes troublesome, dust the plants with quicklime early in the day,
while the dew is on them, and repeat the operation as often as is

Tussilago Fragrans (_Winter Heliotrope_).--A very fragrant hardy
perennial, flowering in January and February. It will grow in any good
garden soil and bears division. Height, 1 ft.

Twin Flower.--_See_ "Bravoa."


Ulex Europaeus Flore Pleno (_Double Furze_).--This elegant, hardy,
evergreen shrub likes a rich, sandy soil, and may be increased by
cuttings planted in a shady border and covered with a hand-glass.
Height, 5 ft.

Umbilicus Chrysanthus.--This little Alpine plant should occupy a warm,
sheltered, and dry situation, and be protected with an overhead screen
in wet seasons. The soil it most enjoys is a mixture of peat and
coarse sand. Its procumbent stalks emit roots. This new growth may be
transplanted in the spring or early summer months. Height, 6 in.

Uvularia.--Beautiful hardy perennials, producing drooping flowers from
May to July. They succeed best in a light, sandy soil, and may be
increased by dividing the roots. Height, 1 ft.


Vaccineum Myrtillus and V. Uliginosum.--Attractive deciduous shrubs.
They require to be grown in peat or very sandy loam. In April or May
they produce flowers. They can be increased by dividing the creeping
roots. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Vaccineum Vitis-Idaea (_Red Whortleberry_).--A neat native shrub
which, with its flowers and clusters of bright red berries, is very
attractive in autumn. A rich, light, sandy soil, moist but well
drained, is necessary, and the position should be sunny so as to ripen
the berries. It may be increased at any time by division. It flowers
from May to October. Height, 9 in.

Valeriana.--An ornamental hardy perennial. It will succeed in any
garden soil, and merely requires the same treatment as ordinary
perennials. It is readily increased by dividing the roots, and
produces its flowers in July. Height, 1 ft.

Vegetable Marrow.--Sow in pots during March or April, and place in a
cucumber frame or on a hotbed, and cover with a hand-glass. Harden
off, and plant out about the third week in May in ground previously
prepared with a heavy dressing of good stable or farmyard manure,
protecting the plants at night for the first week or so with a
handglass or large flower-pot. Do not allow the roots to feel the want
of water, and keep a sharp look-out for slugs. Seed may also be sown
in May in the open. The best way of proceeding in this case is to
dig a pit 2 ft. deep and the same in width, fill it with fermenting
manure, and put 1 ft. of light mould on top. Let it remain for a week
so that the soil may get warm, then sow the seed, and cover it with a
hand-glass. Train the shoots so that they may have plenty of room, and
pinch off the tops when the plant has attained its desired length.

Venidium.--Hardy annuals, which are best raised from seed sown early
in March on a slight hotbed, and grown in turfy loam, or loam and
peat. They bloom in May. Height, 1 ft.

Venus's Car.--_See_ "Dielytra."

Venus's Looking-Glass (_Specularia Speculum_).--A pretty hardy annual,
bearing a profusion of Campanula-like flowers in July. Suitable for
beds, pots, hanging baskets, or rock-work. It flourishes most in a
compost of sandy loam and peat. The seeds are best sown in autumn and
wintered in a greenhouse, but they may be raised on a hotbed early in
spring. Cuttings of the young wood planted under glass root freely.
Height, 9 in.

Venus's Navel Wort.--A charming hardy annual for rock-work. The seed
should be sown early in spring in good garden mould. Height, 6 in.

Veratum.--Handsome foliage plants. They are quite hardy, and delight
in a rich soil. July is the month in which they flower. They may be
raised from seed, or propagated by division. Height, 5 ft.

Verbascum.--A hardy annual, which produces a profusion of showy
flowers in July, and is very suitable for the backs of borders. It
will thrive in any soil, and is easily raised from seed sown early in
spring. Height, 3 ft.

Verbena.--This charming half-hardy perennial succeeds best in light,
loamy soil. It seeds freely, and roots rapidly by being pegged down.
It is usual to take the cuttings in February, as spring-struck plants
prove best both for growth and flowering. Place a score of cuttings in
a 48-sized pot containing 1/3 of drainage material, covered with 1 in.
of rough leaf-mould, then filled to within 1-1/2 in. of the rim with
equal parts of loam, leaf-mould, or peat and sand, with 1/3 in. of
sand on the top. Make the soil firm at the base of the cuttings, and
water level. It is, however, more easily obtained from seed raised
on a gentle hotbed, and the plants thus raised are more robust and
floriferous. It flowers in July. Height, 1 ft.

Verbena, Lemon-scented.--_See_ "Aloysia."

Veronica.--This graceful evergreen, commonly called Speedwell, bears
handsome spikes of autumn flowers, and makes a good conservatory or
sitting-room plant. It stands the winter out of doors in a sheltered
position with a dry sub-soil. The annual varieties may be sown in
autumn for spring flowering. Any light, rich, moist soil suits them.
The hardy perennial kinds are increased by dividing the roots, and
the greenhouse varieties by seeds or cuttings. The different species
flower from July to October. Height, 1 ft. to 10 ft.

Vesicaria Graeca.--A small hardy evergreen shrub, suitable for
rock-work or edgings. It likes a light, dry soil and an open
situation. It may be propagated by seeds, which are freely produced;
but the readiest way to increase it is by cuttings of the side-shoots,
taken as early as possible so as to become well rooted before cold
weather sets in. It flowers from April to June. Height, 6 in. to 8 in.

Viburnum Opulus(_Guelder Rose_, or _Snowball Tree_).--A very elegant
and hardy deciduous shrub, which will grow in any soil, and may be
increased by layers, or by cuttings planted in the shade under glass.
It blooms in June. Height, 12 ft.

Viburnum Tinus (_Laurestinus_).--This well-known and much-admired
evergreen shrub produces masses of white flowers through the winter
months, at which season it is especially ornamental. It is generally
propagated by layers, but where a number of the plants are required
they may be obtained from autumn cuttings planted in the shade and
covered with a hand-glass. Height, 5 ft.

Vicia Pyrenaica.--A hardy and good perennial for rock-work, having
compact tufts of green growth and producing deep crimson flowers in
May and June. It will grow in any soil, and is of easy culture. It is
increased by seed, also by division of the roots. Height, 1 ft.

Vinca (_Periwinkle_).--Many of these are variegated and very showy as
rock-work plants, and will grow in any moist soil, enjoying a shady
situation. They may be raised from seed sown early in spring in a warm
situation, or may be increased by runners, which strike root at the
joints like the Strawberry. They may be planted under the shade of
trees. Many choice greenhouse evergreens bearing fine circular flowers
and shining foliage are also included under the name of Vinca. Height,
2 ft.

Vines.--_See_ "Grapes."

Violas.--The hardy perennials are suitable for the front of flower
borders or rock-work, but the smaller species succeed best when grown
in pots in a mixture of loam, peat, and sand. The herbaceous kinds are
increased by seed or division of the roots, the shrubby varieties by
cuttings planted under glass, and the annuals by seed sown in the open
in spring. Height, 3 in. to 6 in.

Violets.--Plant the runners or off-sets in May in loam and leaf-mould,
choosing a damp, shady situation. Russian and Neapolitan Violets may
be made to flower throughout the winter and early spring by placing
them in a stove or warm pit. Dog-toothed Violets will grow in any
light soil. Autumn is the best time to plant them, and 1 in. of silver
sand round the roots prevents decay; they are hardy and early, but
will not bloom unless planted 9 in. deep. White Violets like a chalky
soil. One of the best manures for Violets is the ash from bonfires.
They may be multiplied to any extent by pegging down the side-shoots
in April. The common Violet flowers in March and April. Height, 6 in.

Virgilia.--For the most part greenhouse shrubs, requiring to be grown
in a compost of loam, peat, and sand. Young cuttings planted in sandy
loam and covered with glass will strike. The hardy kinds, such as V.
Lutea, grow in any light soil, and are increased by laying down shoots
in autumn or spring. July is the month in which they flower. Height,
from 2 ft. to 12 ft.

Virginian Creeper (_Ampelopsis Hederacea_).--May be propagated by
layers or cuttings, and will grow in any common garden soil. The
plant is also known as the Five-leaved Ivy, is a rapid grower, and a
favourite for covering unsightly walls.

Virginian Stock.--This pretty little hardy annual is readily raised
from seed sown on a border in autumn or spring. It is not particular
as to soil. Height, 9 in.

Virgin's Bower.--_See_ "Clematis."

Viscaria Coeli Rosa (_the Rose of Heaven_).--Sow in April, or on a
warm, dry, sheltered spot in September. Other varieties of Viscaria
are graceful and effective in beds, masses, or lines, and only require
the usual care bestowed upon hardy annuals. The flowers are produced
in June and July. Height, 1 ft.

Vitis Heterophylla.--These vines are hardy, and will grow in any
rich soil. They are propagated by cuttings, and also by layers. V.
Purpureus has purple leaves, which are very effective. V. Coignettae,
or the Chinese Vine, has very noble foliage.


Wahlenbergia.--The hardy perennial kinds thrive best in pots, the soil
in which should be kept moist. The annuals, which are raised on a
hotbed in March, may be planted out in May in a warm situation.

Waitzia.--Very beautiful half-hardy annuals, but more suitable for the
greenhouse than the open flower-bed. They require a sandy peat and
leaf-mould, and the pots to be well drained, as too much water is as
destructive to them as too little. They may be had in flower from May
to August by making two sowings, one in September and the other in
February, and keeping them in the greenhouse. When large enough to
handle, pot off into 3-in. pots, putting two plants in each pot close
to the sides, and shift them into larger ones when they have made
sufficient growth. Place them in a dry and airy situation and near the
glass. They are unable to stand the least frost, therefore, if they
are planted out, it should not be done before the beginning of June.
Height, 11/2 ft.

Waldsteina Fragarioides.--A hardy and pretty trailing rock plant, with
deep green foliage. From March to May it bears yellow Strawberry-like
flowers. Any soil suits it, and it may be increased by seed or
division. Height, 6 in.

Wall-flower (_Cheiranthus_).--These favourite hardy perennials prefer
a rich, light, sandy soil, and a dry situation. The seed may be sown
where it is intended for them to bloom either in autumn or spring.
Thin out to 2 ft. apart. They may also be increased by shoots torn
from the stems of old plants. As well as flowering early in spring,
they often bloom in the autumn. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Walnuts.--The Nuts for raising young trees may be planted at any time
between October and the end of February, 3 in. deep and 1-1/2 ft.
apart. Train to a single stem 8 to 10 ft. high, removing all the side
branches as soon as they make an appearance. The following year they
may be planted in their permanent position, which should be high,
yet sheltered from frost. Two of the best tall-growing varieties are
Thin-shelled and Noyer a Bijou. The Dwarf Prolific makes a good bush

Wand Plant.--_See_ "Galax."

Wasps.--To destroy Wasps rinse a large bottle with spirits of
turpentine, and thrust the neck into the principal entrance to their
nest, stopping up all the other holes to prevent their escape. In

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