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Gardening for the Million by Alfred Pink

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for stuffing, meats, and sauces.

_SAVORY_, Summer.--Hardy annual. Used for flavouring soups and salads.

_SAVORY_, Winter.--Hardy evergreen shrub. Its aromatic flavour makes
it valuable as a pot herb.

_SCURVY GRASS_.--The small leaves are eaten as watercress.

_SKIRRET_.--Hardy perennial. Sweet, white, and pleasant; the tubers
are boiled and served up with butter.

_SORREL_, Broad-Leaved.--Hardy perennial. Imparts an acid flavour to
salads and soups.

_THYME_, Broad-Leaved.--Hardy perennial. Young leaves and tops used
for stuffing, also in soups and sauces.

_TARRAGON_.--Hardy perennial. For flavouring vinegar; also used in
salads, soups, and pickles.

_WORMWOOD_.--A hardy shrub. Beneficial to horses and poultry, and is
used for medical purposes.

Herniaria Glabra.--These dwarf carpeting plants are of easy culture.
Grow from seed in spring and transplant into sandy soil. Height, 1-1/2

Hesperis.--_See_ "Rocket."

Heuchera.--Very neat, but not showy, hardy American perennials. They
may be grown in any ordinary light garden soil, are increased by
dividing the root, and bloom in May. Height, 1 ft. to 2 ft.

Hibbertia Dentata.--An evergreen twining plant, requiring a greenhouse
for its cultivation and a soil of sandy loam and peat. It flowers in
July, and is increased by cuttings taken in spring or summer and kept
under glass. Height, 6 ft.

Hibiscus Africanus.--A handsome hardy annual Mallow. Sow in March
in slight heat, and plant out in May 10 in. apart. Grows best in a
mixture of loam and peat. Blooms in June. Height, 2 ft.

Hibiscus Syriacus (_Rose of Sharon_).--A hardy, deciduous,
autumn-flowering shrub, which will grow in common soil, and may be
propagated by seeds, layers, or cuttings planted under glass. Height,
6 ft.

Hieracium (_Hawkweed_).--A free-growing hardy perennial, suitable for
a sunny bank or border. It is not particular as to soil. From June to
September it produces orange-brown flowers. It grows freely from seed,
and the roots bear division. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Hippeastrums.--_See_ "Amaryllis."

Hippocrepis.--Very pretty hardy trailing perennials, covered from May
to July with golden Pea-shaped flowers. They will grow in any light,
sandy soil, and may be increased by cuttings, which root readily under
glass. Height, 3 in. to 6 in.

Hippophae.--Ornamental shrubs, thriving in ordinary soil, and
increased by layers or cuttings of the roots. H. Rhamnoides (Sea
Buckthorn) flowers in May. Height, 12 ft.

Holboellia Latifolia.--_See_ "Stauntonia Latifolia."

Holly (_Ilex_).--This pleasing hardy evergreen shrub thrives best on
a deep, sandy loam, but will grow in any good soil, provided the
position is dry. It succeeds well in the shade. Cuttings of young
shoots having 1 in. of the old wood attached will strike root, but the
plant is of very slow growth, and takes at least four years to grow
into a good bush. Choice varieties may be grafted or budded on to the
common sorts in June or July. To grow Holly from seed, gather the
berries when ripe, crush them, and mix them up with a little sandy
loam, bury them in a hole 3 ft. deep, and cover with litter. Dig them
up and sow them in March. Big bushes are best moved at the end of
August, mixing the earth to a puddle before planting. The less pruning
they receive the better. They may be trimmed in spring.

Hollyhock.--May be raised from seed or cuttings. Sow the seed about
the second week of March in very rich soil, and cover it with 1 in. of
dry earth. In June (having soaked the bed thoroughly overnight) remove
the young plants to a nursery-bed, setting them 6 in. apart. Press the
earth firmly round the roots, and water plentifully until settled. In
the autumn plant them where they are to bloom. Cuttings may be taken
as soon as the flowers appear, or from the old plants in autumn. Each
joint having an eye will furnish a plant. Select side branches having
two or three joints and leaves. Cut the shoots through just under the
lower joint, leaving the leaf entire; cut it also about 2 in. above
the joint. Plant in equal parts of loam, gritty sand, and leaf-mould;
shelter from the sun, and sprinkle them every day in fine weather with
water. If the cuttings are taken in autumn pot them off in 60-sized
pots, and keep them in a cold frame till the spring, when they may be
planted out. Flowers in August. Height, 6 ft.

Homerias.--Beautiful little South African plants. For out-door
cultivation plant the bulbs in a dry, warm situation, from October
to January, 3 in. deep, and the same distance apart, in rich, light,
well-drained soil, and protect them from heavy rains with a good layer
of leaves. For pot culture put four or five bulbs in a 5-in. pot,
place in a cold frame, and cover with cocoa-nut fibre until the growth
appears. Water moderately, and when the flowers fade abstain from
supplying moisture. The bulbs are not quite hardy, therefore they
should be removed indoors before frosts appear.

Homogyne Alpina.--Hardy herbaceous plants flowering in April. Any soil
is suitable for them, and they may be increased by division. Height, 6

Honesty (_Lunaria_).--Interesting hardy biennials. When dried, the
shining seed-pods make a handsome addition to winter bouquets, mixed
with ornamental grass. Any common soil suits them. Sow the seed any
time from April to June, and transplant them to the border in the
autumn for flowering the following May. Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 3 ft.

Honeysuckles.--These rapid twiners thrive in any loamy soil, and may
be increased by putting down layers in the autumn, after the leaves
begin to fall. They can also be propagated by cuttings taken in the
autumn and planted in a shady, sheltered spot. Caprifolium Brachypoda
and the evergreen C. Sempervirens are handsome, free-flowering kinds,
suitable for almost any situation. C. Aurea-reticulata has beautifully
variegated leaves, which render it very ornamental. Height, 6 ft. to 8

Hop.--A useful hardy climber for covering verandahs, summer-houses,
etc. Plant in rich, loamy soil, and increase by dividing the roots.
(_See also_ "Humulus Japonicus.")

Hordeum Jubatum (_Squirrel-tail Grass)_.--A very pretty species
resembling miniature barley. Sow seed in March, covering it very
lightly, and keep the surface of the soil moist till the grass
appears. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Horminum Pyrenaicum.--This hardy perennial produces erect white
flowers with blue corolla in June or July. It will grow in any
ordinary soil, but needs protection in winter, as it is apt to be
injured by damp. It may be propagated either by seed or division.
Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Horn Poppy.--_See_ "Glaucium."

Horseradish.--Plant in October or February in deep, rich soil; or it
may be grown on a heap of cinder-ashes, or on any light ground through
which the roots can make their way readily. The best way to increase
it is by slips taken from the roots. It requires little or no
attention beyond pinching out the tops when running to seed and
keeping the ground hoed.

Hotbeds, to Make.--Take dead leaves and stable-straw, with the dung,
in the proportion of two double loads for a three-light frame. Turn it
over four or five times during a fortnight, watering it if it is dry.
Then mark out the bed, allowing 1 ft. or more each way than the size
of the frame. Shake the compost well up, and afterwards beat it down
equally with the fork. Place the frame on the bed, leaving the lights
off for four or five days to allow the rank steam to escape. Keep a
thermometer in the frame, and as soon as the temperature falls below
70 degrees apply a lining of fresh dung to the front and one side of
the bed, and when this again declines, add another lining to the back
and other side, and so on from time to time as occasion requires. The
mats used for covering the frames in frosty weather should be made to
fit the top, and not hang over the sides.

Houseleek.--_See_ "Sempervivum."

Houstonia Coerulea.--These hardy little evergreens are more generally
known as Bluets. They make charming ornaments for rock-work, planted
between large stones, but in this position they need protection from
severe frosts. When planted in pots and placed in a cold frame they
show to most advantage. A mixture of leaf-mould and sand, and a
moist but well-drained situation is what they delight in. They bloom
continuously from April to July. Height, 3 in.

Hovea Celsi.--A greenhouse shrub, which is evergreen and elegant when
in flower in June. A sandy loam and peat soil is most suitable, and
it may be increased by cuttings planted in sand under a hand-glass.
Height, 3 ft.

Humea.--A remarkably handsome and graceful plant, the leaves of which
when slightly bruised yield a strong odour. It is equally suitable for
the centre of beds or large borders, and placed in pots on terraces or
the lawn it is very effective. The seed should be raised on a gentle
hotbed, then potted off and kept in the greenhouse till the second
year, when it may be turned out into a warm situation. It generally
succeeds better in such a position than in the greenhouse. Flowers in
July. Height, 6 ft. to 8 ft.

Humulus Japonicus.--(_Japanese Hop_).--A hardy annual Hop of rapid
growth, the leaves of which are splashed with white. Useful for
covering arbours, verandahs, etc. A deep, loamy soil suits it best.
Increased by seed sown in gentle heat in February, and gradually
hardened off. Flowers in July. Height, 20 ft.

Hutchinsia Alpina.--This small alpine creeper is a profuse bloomer,
its glistening white flowers being produced at all seasons. It grows
in moist vegetable mould, and bears transplanting at any season. Care,
however, is required to prevent its roots over-running and choking
other things. Height, 2 in.

Hyacinths.--May be grown in pots, in glasses, or in beds and borders.
The soil should be rich and light. Good loam mixed with old manure and
a little leaf-mould and sand suits them very well. If intended to be
grown in pots the best time to begin potting is early in September,
putting more in at intervals of two or three weeks until the end of
December. One bulb is sufficient for a 5-in. or 6-in. pot, or three
may be placed in an 8-in. pot. The soil under the bulb should not be
pressed down. The top of the bulb should be just above the surface.
Place the pots on a bed of ashes in a cold frame, put a small inverted
pot over the top of the bulb, and cover the whole with cocoa-nut fibre
or cinder-ashes to the depth of about 4 in. In about a month roots
will have formed with about 1 in. of top growth. The plants may then
be taken out, gradually exposed to the light, and finally removed to
the conservatory or sunny window. The doubles do best in pots.

For growing in glasses select the firmest and best-shaped bulbs.
Those with single blossoms are preferable, as they are of stronger
constitution than the doubles. Fill the glasses with pure pond or rain
water, so that the bulbs just escape touching it, and put a piece
of charcoal in each glass, and change the water when it becomes
offensive, taking care that the temperature is not below that which is
poured away. Stand the glasses in a cool, dark place for three or four
weeks until the roots have made considerable progress, then gradually
inure to the full light. September is a good time to start the growth.

When planted in beds or borders, place the bulbs about 4 in. deep and
6 in. apart, putting a little silver sand below each one. This may be
done at any time from October till frost sets in. They succeed fairly
well in any good garden soil, but give greatest satisfaction when the
ground is rich and light.

Hyacinthus (_Muscari_).--A very hardy race of spring-flowering bulbs.
Though the varieties are very dissimilar in appearance, they all
produce a good effect, especially when planted in good large clumps.
Plant from September to December. A sandy soil suits them best.
The following are well-known varieties:--_BOTRYOIDES_ (_Grape
Hyacinth_).--Very pretty and hardy, bearing fine spikes of deep,
rich blue flowers in compact clusters on a stem 6 to 9 in. high.
Sweet-scented, and blooms about May. The _Alba_, or white, variety is
also sweet-scented.


_CANDICANS_ (_Galtonia_).--The white Cape Hyacinth, or Spire Lily.
A hardy, summer-flowering, bulbous plant 3 ft. to 4 ft. in height,
gracefully surmounted with from twenty to fifty pendent, bell-shaped
snow-white flowers. Thrives in any position and equally suitable for
indoor or outdoor decoration.

_MOSCHATUS_ (_Musk Hyacinth_).--Bears very fragrant purplish flowers.

_PLVMOSUM_ (_Feather Hyacinth_).--A fine, hardy, dwarf plant suitable
for any soil. Its massive sprays of fine blue flowers, arranged in
curious clusters, 5 to 6 in. in length, resemble much-branched slender

_RACEMOSUM_ (_Starch Hyacinth_).--Rich dark-blue or reddish-purple
flowers. Very free-flowering and fine for massing. It is similar to
the Cape Hyacinth, but flowers in denser spikes.

Hydrangea.--This shrub delights in a moist, sheltered position and
rich soil. It may be increased at any time from cuttings of the young
side-shoots, 2 or 3 in. long, under glass, in sandy soil. The old
stems will also strike if planted in a sheltered situation. The plants
should be cut back when they have done flowering, and protected from
frost; or they may be cut down to the root and covered with manure.
They are well suited for the front of shrubberies, and also make fine
plants for pot cultivation. The flowers are produced in June and July.
Height, 3 ft.

Hymenanthera Crassifolia.--Ornamental evergreen shrubs, thriving best
in a compost of loam and peat. They are increased by cuttings planted
in sand and subjected to a little heat. Height, 6 ft.

Hymenoxys.--Pretty little hardy annuals that may be easily raised
from seed sown early in March in any garden soil. They bloom in June.
Height, 1 ft.

Hypericum (_St. John's Wort_).--Favourite dwarf shrubs. Any soil suits
the hardy kinds, but they prefer shade and moisture. These may be
increased by seed or division. The greenhouse varieties thrive best in
a mixture of loam and peat. Young cuttings placed in sand under glass
will strike. July is their flowering season. Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 2


Iberis.--_See_ "Candytuft."

Ice Plants.--_See_ "Mesembryanthemum."

Ilex.--_See_ "Holly."

Impatiens Sultani.--Half-hardy perennials. May be raised from seed
sown early in spring on a hotbed, or later on in a shady spot in the
open border; greenhouse culture, however, is more suitable. They bloom
in August. Height, 11/2 ft.

Incarvilleas.--Ornamental hardy herbaceous plants, of easy culture.
They are suitable for the border or the rockery, and will grow in any
soil if not too dry and exposed. The tuberous roots may be planted at
any time in autumn, 4 in. deep. I. Delavayi makes a fine solitary or
lawn plant, its leaves being from 1 to 3 ft. long; the soft rose-pink,
Mimulus-shaped flowers, which are carried on stout stems well above
the foliage, appearing in May. Care should be taken not to disturb it
in spring, and it is advisable to cover the roots in winter with a
pyramid of ashes, which may be carefully removed at the end of April.
Incarvilleas may be propagated by seed sown, as soon as it is ripe,
in light, well-drained soil, giving the young plants protection in a
frame during the first winter, with enough water merely to keep them
moist. Height, 2 ft.

Indian Corn.--_See_ "Zea."

Indian Shot.--_See_ "Canna."

India-rubber Plants.--_See_ "Ficus."

Indigofera.--Beautiful evergreen shrubs. I. Australis has elegant,
fern-like foliage and racemes of pink or purple Pea-shaped flowers in
April. I. Decora Alba bears its white flowers in July. They require a
sandy loam or peat soil, and greenhouse culture. Cuttings of the young
wood planted in sand under glass will strike. Height, 21/2 ft.

Insects on Plants.--To destroy insects on plants wash the plant with
Tobacco-Water (_which see_). Or put 1 oz. of quassia chips in a muslin
bag, pour on some boiling water, and make it up to I gallon; dissolve
1 oz. of soft soap, add it to the chips, and stir well. Use it two or
three times during spring and early summer.

Inula Royleana (_Fleabane_).--A hardy perennial which flowers in
November. It will grow in any garden soil, and can be increased by
seeds, or by division of the roots. Height, 3 ft.

Ionopsidium.--These hardy annuals grow freely in any rich, damp soil;
a shady position is indispensable. Height, 1/8 ft.

Ipomoea.--These beautiful climbing plants are very suitable for
covering trellis-work, or for the pillars or rafters of the
stove-house. The seed is generally sown in April on a hotbed or under
glass, and the young plants set out in the border of the house in May
in light, rich soil. Success is mainly secured by allowing plenty of
root-room. The perennial kinds are increased from cuttings taken from
the small side-shoots placed in sand in a brisk bottom-heat. If grown
in the open they often shed their seed, and come up year after year
with but little attention. They make a good contrast to Canariensis.
The Ipomoea Horsfalliae, with its bright scarlet flowers, has a
lovely appearance, but must be treated as a stove evergreen. This is
propagated by layers, or by grafting on some strong-growing kind. It
thrives in loam and peat mixed with a little dung, and flowers in July
or August. Height, 6 ft. to 10 ft.

Ipomopsis.--A very beautiful half-hardy biennial, but difficult to
cultivate. Some gardeners steep the seed in hot water before sowing
it; but the best way seems to be to sow it in July in 3-in. pots in
equal parts of sandy peat and loam, ensuring good drainage, and place
it in a cold frame, giving it very little water. When the leaves
appear, thin out the plants to three or four in each pot. Replace them
in the frame for a week or so, then remove them to a light, airy part
of the greenhouse for the winter. During this period be careful not
to over-water them. In spring shift them into well-drained 4-1/2-in.
pots, using the same kind of soil as before, and taking great care not
to injure the roots; still give the least possible amount of water. If
plenty of light and air be given, they will flower in July or August.
Height, 2 ft.

Iresines.--Take cuttings of these greenhouse plants in autumn; insert
them thinly in 48-size pots filled with coarse sand, loam, and
leaf-mould, and place in a uniform temperature of 60 or 70 degrees.
When they have taken root place them near the glass. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Iris.--The Iris is the orchid of the flower garden; its blossoms are
the most rich and varied in colour of hardy plants. For cutting, for
vases, table decoration, etc., it is exceedingly useful, as it is very
free-flowering, and lasts a long time in water. It thrives in almost
any soil, though a sandy one suits it best, and is strikingly
effective when planted in clumps. It soon increases if left
undisturbed. The English Iris blooms in June and July, bearing large
and magnificent flowers ranging in colour from white to deep purple,
some being self-colours, while others are prettily marbled. The German
Iris is especially suitable for town gardens. The Spanish Iris blooms
a fortnight before the English. Its flowers, however, are smaller,
and the combinations of colours very different. The Leopard Iris
(_Pardanthus Chinensis_)is very showy, its orange-yellow flowers,
spotted purple-brown, appearing in June and July. They are quite
hardy. The best time for planting them is October or November,
selecting a sunny position. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Isopyrums--Hardy herbaceous plants of great beauty, nearly related to
the Thalictrums. They will grow in any ordinary soil, but flourish
best in vegetable mould, and in a moist, yet open, situation. They
are readily raised from seed, or may be propagated by division of the
roots in autumn. They flower in July. Height, 1 ft. to 1-1/2 ft.

Ivy (_Hedera_).--A deep, rich soil suits the common Ivy; the more
tender kinds require a lighter mould. To increase them, plant slips in
a north border in sandy soil. Keep them moist through the autumn,
and plant them out when well rooted. The following are the principal
choice sorts:--Aurea Spectabilis, palmate-leaved, blotched with
yellow; Cavendishii, a slender-growing variety, leaves margined with
white, with a bronzy shade on the edge; Conglomerata, crumpled leaves;
Elegantissima, slender-growing, with silvery variegated leaves; Irish
Gold-Blotch, large leaves, blotched with yellow; Latifolia Maculata,
large white-blotched leaves; Lee's Silver, silver variegated;
Maderiensis Variegata, leaves broadly marked with white; Marmorata,
small leaves blotched and marbled with white; Pupurea, small leaves
of a bright green changing to bronzy-purple; Rhomboides Obovata, deep
green foliage; Rhomboides Variegata, greyish-green leaves, edged with
white; and Silver Queen, a good hardy variety.

Ixias.--Plant out of doors from September to December, in a
sunny, sheltered position, in light, rich, sandy soil. For indoor
cultivation, plant four bulbs in a 5-in. pot in a compost of loam,
leaf-mould, and silver sand. Plunge the pot in ashes in a frame or
cold pit, and withhold water until the plants appear. When making free
growth remove them to the conservatory or greenhouse, placing them
near the glass, and give careful attention to the watering. Ixias are
also known under the name of African Corn Lilies.


Jacobaea (_Ragwort_).--May be raised from cuttings in the same way as
Verbenas, and will grow freely from seeds sown in autumn or spring.
It delights in a rich, light soil. The purple Jacobaea is a great
favourite of the public. Flowers in August. Height, 1 ft.

Jacob's Ladder.--_See_ "Polemonium."

Jasione Perennis (_Sheep Scabious_).--A hardy perennial which produces
a profusion of heads of blue flowers in June, and continues to bloom
till August. It enjoys a peat soil, and should have the protection of
a frame during the winter. It can be propagated by seeds, cuttings, or
division. Height, 1 ft.

Jasminum.--These are favourite plants for training over arbours or
trellis-work, and for growing against walls. The hardy kinds will
flourish in ordinary soil. The stove and greenhouse sorts should
be provided with a mixture of sandy peat and loam. They may all be
increased by cuttings of ripened wood planted in a sandy soil under
glass. J. Nudifolium produces an abundance of bright flowers after
its leaves have fallen, and is very suitable for town gardens. J.
Unofficinale is likewise adapted for town, bearing confinement well,
and has very sweet flowers. J. Revolutum needs protection in severe
weather. They bloom in July. Height, 12 ft.

Job's Tears.--_See_ "Coix Lachryma."

Jonquils.--These are quite hardy, and may be grown in the open in the
same manner as Hyacinths. Five or six bulbs in a 5-in. pot make a
very pretty bouquet. They are excellent early flowers, and very
odoriferous. Plant in autumn, placing sand round the bulbs. Best not
disturbed too often. The leaves should not be cut off when withering,
but allowed to die down. They bloom in April. Height, 1 ft.

Joss Flower.--_See_ "Chinese Sacred Narcissus."

Juniper (_Juniperus_).--These useful conifers prefer dry chalk or
sandy soils, but will thrive in any ground that is not too heavy.
J. Japonica, Sabina, and Tamariscifolia do well on steep banks and
rock-work. They may be propagated by seeds, grafting, or by cuttings
of firm young shoots planted in a sandy compost, kept shaded, and
covered with a hand-glass.


Kadsura Japonica.--This is a beautiful creeper for a south or west
aspect. It thrives best in loam and sandy peat. Cuttings may be struck
in sand, placed under a glass, and subjected to heat.

Kale.--_See_ "Borecole."

Kalmia Latifolia.--This hardy, dwarf evergreen shrub is deservedly a
great favourite. It produces a wealth of flowers in large clusters. It
requires to be grown in peat or good leaf-mould, and needs pure air.
It is increased by pegging down the lower branches, which soon become
rooted. The flowers are produced from June to August. Height, 2 ft.

Kalosanthes.--Showy greenhouse succulent plants. A light, turfy loam
is suitable for them, and they may be increased by placing cuttings of
the young shoots in a sandy soil on a slight hotbed in spring. Pinch
them back so as to produce a bushy growth, and give support to the
heavy heads of bloom. The cuttings should be left for twenty-four
hours to dry before they are planted. The plants require very little
water, and they flower in July. Height, 6 in. to 1 ft.

Kaulfussia.--Sow this pretty hardy annual in April in the open border,
or in March in slight heat. It may also be sown in autumn for early
flowering. It will succeed in any light soil, blooming in July.
Height, 6 in.

Kennedya Marryattae.--A greenhouse evergreen twining plant of a very
beautiful order, which thrives best in a compost of sandy loam and
peat. Cuttings of the young wood planted in sand, and having a
bottom-heat, will strike. It produces its flowers in May. Height, 4
ft. Other varieties of Kennedyas range from 2 to 10 ft. They all need
to be well drained and not to stand too near the pipes.

Kerria (_Corchorus_).--Beautiful hardy shrubs, which may be grown in
any garden soil, and can be propagated by cuttings of the young wood,
taken at a joint, and placed under glass. They flower at midsummer.
Height, 4 ft.

Koelreuteria Paniculata.--This is an ornamental tree bearing long
spikes of yellow flowers in July. It will grow in any soil, but
requires a sheltered position, and may be increased by layers or root
cuttings. Height, 10 ft.

Kohl Rabi (_Turnip-rooted Cabbage_).--Though mostly grown as a farm
crop, this vegetable is strongly recommended for garden cultivation,
as it is both productive and nutritious, and is delicious when cooked
while still very small and young. Sow in March, and transplant to
deeply-dug and liberally manured ground, at a distance of 15 in. from
each other.


Lachenalia. (_Cape Cowslips_).--Charming greenhouse plants for pot
or basket culture. Pot in December in a compost of fibrous loam,
leaf-mould, and sand; place as near the glass as possible, and never
allow the soil to become dry, but maintain good drainage, and only
give a little water till they have produced their second leaves. No
more heat is required than will keep out the frost.

Lactuca Sonchifolia. (_Sow Thistle-Leaved Lettuce_).--An ornamental,
but not handsome, hardy perennial, with leaves 1 ft. in length and
9 in. in breadth. It is of neat habit and enjoys the sunshine. A
deeply-dug, sandy loam suits it, and it may be increased by seed or
division of the roots. The flowers are produced from September till
frost sets in. Height, 2 ft.

Ladies' Slipper Orchid.--_See_ "Cypripedium."

Lady's Mantle.--_See_ "Alchemilla."

Lagurus Ovatus.--This hardy annual is commonly known as Hare's-Tail
Grass. It is distinctly ornamental, producing elegant egg-shaped tufts
of a silvery-white hue, and is fine for ornamenting bouquets. Sow in
March, and keep the ground moist till the seed germinates. Height, 1

Lallemantia Canescens.--Bees are very fond of this blue hardy annual,
which may readily be grown from seed sown in the spring. Height, 1 ft.

Lamium.--These plants are mostly of a hardy herbaceous description and
of little value. They will grow well in any kind of soil, flowering
from March to July, according to their varieties, and can be
propagated by seed or division. Height, 6 in. to 1 ft.

Lantana.--These dwarf, bushy, half-hardy perennial shrubs bear
Verbena-like blossoms. They like a dry and warm situation and rich,
light soil. The seed is sown in March to produce summer and autumn
blooming plants. If cuttings are placed in sand, in heat, they will
take root easily. Height, 1 ft. to 1-1/2 ft.

Lapageria Rosea.--A beautiful climbing plant which bears large
rose-coloured flowers in May. It can be grown in any light, rich soil,
but a compost of leaf-mould, sand, and peat suits it best. It makes
a very desirable greenhouse plant, and can be increased either by
cuttings or by division. Lapagerias require partial shade, plenty of
water, and good drainage. Height, 10 ft.

Lardizabala Biternata.--This climbing shrub has fine ornamental
foliage. It is most suitable for a south or west aspect, where it
proves hardy; in other positions protection should be afforded. It
will grow in any good soil. May is the month in which it flowers.
Height, 20 ft.

Larkspur.--The Stock-flowered Larkspur is of the same habit as the
Dutch Rocket, but has longer spikes and larger and more double
flowers. The Hyacinth-flowered is an improved strain of the Rocket.
Among other of the hardy annual varieties may be mentioned the
Candelabrum-formed, the Emperor, and the Ranunculi-flowered. They are
charming flowers for beds or mixed borders, and only require the same
treatment as ordinary annuals, when they will flower in June. Height,
1 ft. to 2-1/2 ft. For perennial Larkspurs, _see_ "Delphinium."

Lasiandra.--Stove evergreen shrubs, flourishing best in a mixture of
equal parts of loam, peat, and sand. They are propagated by cuttings
of the young wood, plunged in heat. July is their flowering month.
Height, 5 ft.

Lasthenia.--A hardy annual of a rather pretty nature, suitable for
flower-beds or borders. Autumn is the best time for sowing the seed,
but it may also be sown early in the spring. It blooms in May. Height,
1 ft.

Lathyrus.--Handsome plants when in flower, the larger kinds being well
adapted as backgrounds to other plants in the shrubbery, where they
will require supports. They may be planted in any garden soil, and can
be increased by seed, and some of the perennial kinds by division of
the root. L. Latifolia (Everlasting Pea) flowers in August, other
varieties at different times, from May onwards. Height, 1 ft. to 8 ft.

Laurel.--Laurels will grow in any good garden soil. They are grown
both as bushes and standards, and require but little attention beyond
watering. The standards are produced by choosing a young Portugal
plant and gradually removing the side-shoots on the lower part of the
stem, and when the desired height is reached a well-balanced head is
cultivated, any eyes that break out on the stem being rubbed off
with the thumb. Lauro Rotundifolia is beyond dispute the best of all
Laurels; it is of free growth and of dense habit, and its leaves are
roundish and of a lively green. (_See also_ "Epigaea.") All Laurels
may be propagated by cuttings and by layers, the latter being the plan
usually adopted.

Laurestinus.--_See_ "Viburnum Tinus."

Laurus.--_See_ "Bay, Sweet."

Lavatera.--The greenhouse and frame kinds grow in any light soil, and
are increased by cuttings of the ripened wood, under glass. The hardy
herbaceous species grow well in any common soil, and are propagated by
seeds or division. The annuals are sown in the open in spring. Some
bloom in June, others as late as August. Height, 2 ft. to 5 ft.

Lavender (_Lavandula Spied_).--A hardy shrub whose sweetly-scented
flowers, which are produced in August, are much prized. A dry,
gravelly soil is what it likes best. Young plants should be raised
every three years. It is readily propagated from seed sown in spring.
Cuttings about 8 in. long, taken in autumn and planted 4 in. deep
under a hand-light or in a shaded, sheltered position, will strike.
Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Lawns--To make or renovate Lawns sow the seed on damp ground during
March or April, if possible, but in any case not later than September,
as the young plants are easily ruined by frost. Rake the seed in
lightly, afterwards roll with a wooden roller, and carefully weed the
ground until the grass is well established. To form a thick bottom
quickly on new Lawns sow 60 lbs., or 3 bushels, to the acre; for
improving old ones, 20 lbs. per acre. Frequent cutting and rolling is
essential to success. If the grass is inclined to grow rank and coarse
it will be much improved by a good dressing of sand over it; if it has
an inclination to scald and burn up, sprinkle it with guano or soot
just before a shower of rain. An accumulation of moss upon a lawn can
only be cured by under-draining.

Lawns, Shrubs for.--_See_ "Shrubs for Lawns."

Layering.--_See under_ "Carnations."

Ledum (_Labrador Tea_).--Low-growing American evergreen shrubs,
thriving best in sandy peat, and may be increased by layers.

Leek.--Sow early in March, and prick out the plants in rich soil, in a
sheltered position, to strengthen. As soon as they are large enough,
plant them out in very rich, light ground in drills 6 in. between each
plant and the rows 18 in. apart. For large exhibition Leeks sow in
boxes in February, under glass. Plant out in June in trenches 15 in.
wide and 18 in. deep, with plenty of old manure at the bottom of the
trench and 6 in. of good light mould on the top of it. Gradually earth
up as the stems grow. Water liberally in dry weather, and give a
little weak liquid manure occasionally.

Leontopodium.--Hardy perennials, succeeding best in peat soil. They
are most suitable for rock-work, and may be increased by seed or
division of the roots. Bloom is produced in June. Height, 6 in.

Leopard's Bane.--_See_ "Doronicum."

Leptosiphon.--Charming hardy annuals which make nice pot-plants. The
seed should be sown in rich, light soil--peat for preference. If this
is done in autumn they will flower in April and May; if sown in
spring they will bloom in autumn. They are very attractive in beds or
ribbons, and also on rock-work. Height, 3 in. to 1 ft.

Leptospermum.--Neat greenhouse evergreen shrubs, most at home in equal
portions of loam, peat, and sand. Cuttings may be struck in sand under
glass. They flower in June. Height, 4 ft. to 5 ft.

Leschenaultia.--Elegant greenhouse shrubs, delighting in a mixture of
turfy loam, peat, and sand. They are evergreen, flower in June, and
are propagated by cuttings of the young wood under glass. Height, 1

Lettuce.--Sow early in February on a slight hotbed, and prick out into
a well-manured and warm border, having the soil broken down fine on
the surface. For early summer supplies sow outdoors in March, and at
intervals till the middle of September for later crops. Some of the
plants raised in September should be wintered in a cold frame, and the
remainder transplanted to a dry, sheltered border, or protected with
hand-lights. The June and July sowings may be made where the plants
are intended to remain. They should stand from 6 to 9 in. apart. A
north border is a suitable position in the summer months, as they are
less exposed to the sun, and do not run to seed so quickly. The Cos
Lettuce requires to be tied up to blanch; this should be done ten days
before it is wanted for use. Cabbage Lettuce does not need to be tied.

Leucanthemum (_Hardy Marguerites_).--Same treatment as Chrysanthemum.

Leucojum (_Snowflake_).--Also known as St. Agnes' Flower. Handsome
plants. The flowers are pure white, every petal being tipped with
green, dropping in a cluster of from six to eight blooms, each nearly
1 in. long. They grow freely in almost any soil, sandy loam being
preferable. Increased by off-sets from the bulb, or by seed as soon as
it is ripe. The spring snowflake blooms in March, the summer variety
in June. The latter is a much more vigorous plant than the former.
Height, 12 in. to 18 in.

Leucophyton Browni.--A popular white-foliaged bedding plant, which may
be increased by dibbling cuttings in sandy soil and placing them in a
cool frame.

Lewisia Rediviva.--This makes a pretty rock-plant. It is a perennial
and quite hardy, but requires plenty of sun. During April and May it
produces large flowers varying in colour from satiny rose to white.
The most suitable soil is a light loam mixed with brick rubbish. It
is increased by division of the root, or it may be raised from seed.
Height, 3 in.

Leycesteria Formosa.--Ornamental plants, the flowers resembling Hops
of a purple colour. They will grow in any soil, but need protection in
winter. They are multiplied by cuttings. Height, 3 ft.

Liatris Pycnostachya.--A curious old herbaceous perennial, now seldom
met with, sending up late in summer a dense cylindrical purple spike
2 ft. high. It needs a rich, light, sandy soil, and to be protected
during the winter with a thick covering of litter. The roots may be
divided in the spring. Height, 3 ft.

Libertia Formosa.--The narrow foliage and spikes of pure white
flowers, produced in May and June, render this hardy perennial very
ornamental. The soil should consist of equal parts of loam and peat.
It is propagated by dividing the roots. Height, 1 ft.

Libonia Floribunda.--This is a winter-flowering plant, and is easily
grown in a cool greenhouse. It is very useful for table decoration,
its slender red and yellow tubes of bloom being very effective, but it
does not do to keep it for any length of time in a room where there
is gas. When flowering has ceased, encourage new growth by giving it
plenty of water, air, and sunlight. The new shoots should be cut back
in May, and the tips of them used as cuttings, which strike readily in
good mould. Height, 2 ft.

Ligustrum _(Privet)._--L. Ovalifolium is a handsome hardy evergreen,
of very rapid growth, and one of the best ornamental hedge plants in
cultivation, especially for towns or smoky situations. L. Japonicum is
likewise ornamental and hardy: Tricolor is considered one of the
best light-coloured variegated plants grown. L. Coriaceum is a
slow-growing, compact bush with very dark, shining green leaves,
which are round, thick, and leathery. Privet will grow in any soil or
situation, and is readily increased by cuttings planted in the shade
in spring.

Lilac--_See_ "Syringa."

Lilium.--The Lily is admirably adapted for pot culture, the
conservatory, and the flower border, and will flourish in any light
soil or situation. To produce fine specimens in pots they should be
grown in a mixture of light turfy loam and leaf-mould. Six bulbs
planted in a 12-in. pot form a good group. The pots should have free
ventilation, and the bulbs be covered with 1 in. of mould. For outdoor
cultivation plant the bulbs 4 to 5 in. deep, from October to March.
After once planting they require but little care, and should not be
disturbed oftener than once in three years, as established plants
bloom more freely than if taken up annually. Give a thin covering of
manure during the winter. Lilium seed may be sown in well-drained pots
or shallow boxes filled with equal parts of peat, leaf-mould, loam,
and sand. Cover the seeds slightly with fine mould and place the boxes
or pots in a temperature of 55 or 65 degrees. A cold frame will
answer the purpose, but the seeds will take longer to germinate. The
Lancifolium and Auratum varieties have a delicious fragrance.


_CANDIDUM_ (the Madonna, or White Garden Lily) should be planted
before the middle of October, if possible, in groups of three, in
well-drained, highly-manured loam. Should they decline, take them up
in September and re-plant at once in fresh, rich soil, as they will
not stand being kept out of the ground long. They are increased by
off-sets. As soon as these are taken from the parent bulb, plant them
in a nursery-bed; after two years they may be transferred to the
garden. This Lily is quite hardy, and needs no protection during

_LANCIFOLIUM_ make very fine pot-plants, or they may be placed in a
sunny situation in the border, but in the latter case they must have
a thick covering of dry ashes in winter. If grown in pots place them,
early in March, in rich, sandy soil. Three bulbs are sufficient for an
11-in. pot. Give very little water, but plenty air in mild weather.
Let them grow slowly. When all frost is over place pans under them,
mulch the surface with old manure, and supply freely with air and
water. They are propagated by off-sets.

_MARTAGON_ (or Turk's Cap) requires the same treatment as the
Candidum, with the exception that a little sand should be added to the

_TIGRINUM_ (Tiger Lily) also receives the same treatment as the
Madonna. When the flower-stems grow up they throw out roots. A few
lumps of horse manure should be placed round for these roots to lay
hold of. They are increased by the tiny bulbs which form at the axis
of the leaves of the flower-stem. When these fall with a touch they
are planted in rich, light earth, about 6 in. apart. In four or five
years' time they will make fine bulbs.

_AURATUM_ and _SZOVITZIANUM_ (or Colchicum) thrive best in a deep,
friable, loamy soil, which should be well stirred before planting. If
the soil is of a clayey nature it should be loosened to a depth of
several feet, and fresh loam, coarse sand, and good peat or leaf-mould
added, to make it sufficiently light.

For _PARDALINUM_ (the Panther Lily) and _SUPERBUM_ mix the garden soil
with three parts peat and one part sand, and keep the ground moist.
They should occupy a rather shady position.

All the other varieties will succeed in any good garden soil enriched
with leaf-mould or well-decayed manure.

For _VALLOTA_ (Scarborough Lily), _BELLADONNA_, and _FORMOSISSIMA_ (or
Jacobean) Lilies, _see_ "Amaryllis."

For _AFRICAN LILY, see_ "Agapanthus."

For _PERUVIAN LILIES, see_ "Alstromeria."

For _ST BERNARD'S_ and _ST BRUNO'S LILIES, see_ "Anthericum."

For _CAFFRE LILIES, see_ "Clivias."

Lily of the Valley.--Set the roots in bunches 1 ft. apart, and before
severe weather sets in cover them with a dressing of well-rotted
manure. They should not be disturbed, even by digging among the roots.
If grown in pots, they should be kept in a cool place and perfectly
dry when their season is over: by watering they will soon come into
foliage and flower again. For forcing put ten or twelve "buds" in a
5-in. pot--any light soil will do--plunge the pot in a sheltered part
of the garden. From this they may be removed to the forcing-house as
required to be brought into bloom. Plunge the pots in cocoa-nut fibre
and maintain an even temperature of from 65 to 70 degrees.

Limnanthes Douglasii.--Very elegant and beautiful hardy annuals,
which are slightly fragrant. They must be grown in a moist and shady
situation. The seeds ripen freely, and should be sown in autumn to
produce bloom in June, or they may be sown in spring for flowering at
a later period. Height, 1 ft.

Linaria.--These all do best in a light, sandy loam, and make good
plants for rock-work. L. Bipartita is suitable for an autumn sowing.
The other annuals are raised in spring. L. Triornithophora is a
biennial, and may be sown any time between April and June, or in
August. The hardy perennial, L. Alpina, should be sown in April, and
if necessary transplanted in the autumn. Linarias flower from July to
September. Height, 6 in. to 1 ft.

Linnaea Borealis.--A rare, native, evergreen creeping perennial.
From July to September it bears pale pink flowers; it makes a pretty
pot-plant, and also does well in the open when planted in a shady
position. It enjoys a peat soil, and is propagated by separating the
creeping stems after they are rooted. Height, 11/2 in.

Linum (_Flax_).--This succeeds best in rich, light mould. The Linum
Flavum, or Golden Flax, is very suitable for pot culture; it grows 9
in. in height, and bears brilliant yellow flowers. It requires the
same treatment as other half-hardy perennials. The Scarlet Flax is an
annual, very free-flowering, and unsurpassed for brilliancy; easily
raised from seed sown in spring. Height, 11/2 ft. The hardy, shrubby
kinds may be increased by cuttings placed under glass. A mixture
of loam and peat makes a fine soil for the greenhouse and frame
varieties. They flower from March to July.

Lippia Reptans.--A frame creeping perennial which flowers in June. It
requires a light soil. Cuttings of the young wood may be struck under
glass. Height, 1 ft.

Lithospermum Prostratum.--A hardy perennial, evergreen trailer,
needing no special culture, and adapting itself to any soil. It is
increased by cuttings of the previous year's growth, placed in peat
and silver sand, shaded and kept cool, but not too wet. They should be
struck early in summer, so as to be well rooted before winter sets in.
Its blue flowers are produced in June. Height, 1 ft.

Loasa.--The flowers are both beautiful and curiously formed, but the
plants have a stinging property. They grow well in any loamy soil, and
are easily increased by seed sown in spring. Flowers are produced in
June and July. Height, 2 ft. Besides the annuals there is a half-hardy
climber, L. Aurantiaca, bearing orange-coloured flowers, and attaining
the height of 10 or 12 ft.

Lobelia.--These effective plants may be raised from seed sown in
January or February in fine soil. Sprinkle a little silver sand or
very fine mould over the seed; place in a greenhouse, or in a frame
having a slight bottom-heat, and when large enough prick them out
about 1 in. apart; afterwards put each single plant in a thumb-pot,
and plant out at the end of May. As the different varieties do not
always come true from seed, it is best to propagate by means of
cuttings taken in autumn, or take up the old plants before the frost
gets to them, remove all the young shoots (those at the base of the
plant are best, and if they have a little root attached to them so
much the better), and plant them thinly in well-drained, shallow pans
of leaf-mould and sand; plunge the pans in a hotbed under a frame,
shade them from hot sunshine, and when they are rooted remove them to
the greenhouse till spring, at which time growth must be encouraged by
giving a higher temperature and frequent syringing. They may then be
planted out in light, rich soil, where they will bloom in June or
July. Height, 4 in.

Lobels Catchfly.--_See_ "Silene."

London Pride.--_See_ "Saxifrage."

Lonicera.--Hardy deciduous shrubs, which will grow in any ordinary
soil, and produce their flowers in April or May. They are propagated
by cuttings planted in a sheltered position. Prune as soon as
flowering is over. Height, from 3 ft. to 10 ft.

Lophospermum.--Very elegant half-hardy climbers. Planted against a
wall in the open air, or at the bottom of trellis-work, they will
flower abundantly in June, but the protection of a greenhouse is
necessary in winter. They like a rich, light soil, and may be grown
from seeds sown on a slight hotbed in spring, or from cuttings taken
young and placed under glass. Height, 10 ft.

Love Apples.--_See_ "Tomatoes."

Love Grass.--_See_ "Eragrostis."

Love-in-a-Mist.--_See_ "Nigella."

Love-lies-Bleeding (_Amaranthus Caudatus_).--A hardy annual bearing
graceful drooping racemes of crimson blossom. The seed should be sown
in the open at the end of March, and thinned out or transplanted with
a good ball of earth. Makes a fine border plant. Height, 2 ft.

Luculia Gratissima.--A fine plant either for the wall or border. It
grows well in a compost of peat and light, turfy loam, but it is not
suitable for pot culture. During growing time abundance of water
is needed. When flowering has ceased, cut it hard back. It may be
increased by layering, or by cuttings placed in sand under glass and
subjected to heat. It flowers in August. Height, 8 ft.

Lunaria.--_See_ "Honesty."

Lupins.--Though old-fashioned flowers, these still rank among our most
beautiful annual and herbaceous border plants. They may be grown in
any soil, but a rich loam suits them best. The seed germinates freely
when sown in March, and the flowers are produced in July. Height, 2
ft. to 3 ft.

Lychnis.--Hardy perennials which, though rather straggling, deserve
to be cultivated on account of the brilliancy of their flowers. L.
Chalcedonica, commonly known as Ragged Robin, is perhaps the most
showy variety; but L. Viscaria Plena, or Catchfly, is a very beautiful
plant. They grow freely in light, rich, loamy soil, but need dividing
frequently to prevent them dwindling away. The best season for this
operation is early in spring. Beyond the care that is needed to
prevent the double varieties reverting to a single state, they merely
require the same treatment as other hardy perennials. They flower in
June and July. Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Lyre Flower.--_See_ "Dielytra."

Lysimachia Clethroides.--This hardy perennial has something of the
appearance of a tall Speedwell. When in flower it is attractive, and
as it blooms from July on to September it is worth a place in the
border. A deep, rich loam is most suitable for its growth, and a
sheltered position is of advantage. The roots may be divided either in
November or early in spring. Height, 3 ft.

Lysimachia Nummularia (_Creeping Jenny_).--This plant is extremely
hardy, and is eminently suitable either for rock-work or pots. It is
of the easiest cultivation, and when once established requires merely
to be kept in check. Every little piece of the creeping root will, if
taken off, make a fresh plant.

Lythrum.--Very handsome hardy perennials which thrive in any garden
soil, and may be raised from seed or increased by dividing the roots.
They flower in July. Height, of different varieties, 6 in. to 4 ft.


Madia.--A hardy annual of a rather handsome order. The seed should be
sown in May in a shady situation. The plant is not particular as to
soil, and will flower about eight weeks after it is sown, and continue
to bloom during August and September. Height, 11/2 ft.

Magnolia Grandiflora.--A handsome, hardy evergreen, with large
shining, Laurel-shaped leaves, and highly-scented, Tulip-shaped white
flowers. A noble plant for a spacious frontage, but in most places
requires to be grown on a wall. It flourishes in any damp soil, and is
increased by layers. Flowers in August. Height, 20 ft.

Mahonia.--Handsome evergreen shrubs, useful for covert planting or for
grouping with others. They grow best in a compost of sand, peat, and
loam, and may be propagated by cuttings or by layers of ripened wood,
laid down in autumn. They flower in April. Height, 4 ft. to 6 ft.

Maianthemum Bifolium.--The flowers of this hardy perennial are
produced in April and May, and somewhat resemble miniature Lily of the
Valley. Seed may be sown at the end of July. The plant will grow in
any soil, but delights in partial shade. Height, 6 in.

Maize.--_See_ "Zea."

Malope.--Very beautiful hardy annuals having soft leaves. They may be
raised from seed sown in April in any garden soil. They bloom in June
or July. Height, 11/2 ft. to 2 ft.

Malva.--Very ornamental plants, more especially the greenhouse
varieties. The hardy perennials succeed in any good garden soil, and
are increased by seed sown in the autumn, or by division of the
root. The greenhouse kinds should be grown in rich earth: these are
propagated by cuttings planted in light soil. The annuals are poor
plants. Some of the varieties bloom in June, others in August. Height,
2 ft.

Mandevillea Suaveolens.--A fine climbing plant bearing very sweet
white flowers in June. It is rather tender, and more suitable for the
conservatory than the open air. It does not make a good pot-plant, but
finds a suitable home in the border of the conservatory in equal parts
of peat and sandy loam. In pruning adopt the same method as for the
vine or other plants which bear flowers on wood of the same year's
growth. It is propagated by seed sown in heat, or by cuttings under
glass. Syringe the leaves daily during the hot season. A temperature
of from 40 to 50 degrees in winter, and from 55 to 65 degrees in
summer should be maintained. Height, 10 ft.

Manures.--One of the best fertilisers of the soil is made by
saturating charred wood with urine. This may be drilled in with seeds
in a dry state. For old gardens liquid manure is preferable to stable
manure, and if lime or chalk be added it will keep in good heart for
years without becoming too rich. A good manure is made by mixing 64
bushels of lime with 2 cwts. of salt. This is sufficient for one
acre. It should be forked in directly it is put upon the ground.
Superphosphate of lime mixed with a small amount of nitrate of
soda and forked into the ground is also a fine manure, but is more
expensive than that made from lime and salt. Charred cow-dung is
ready for immediate use. For established fruit-trees use, in showery
weather, equal quantities of muriate of potash and nitrate of soda,
scattering 1 oz. to the square yard round the roots. Peruvian guano,
in the proportion of 1 oz. to each gallon of water, is a very powerful
and rapid fertiliser. In whatever form manure is given, whether in
a dry or liquid form, care must be taken not to administer it in
excessive quantities, for too strong a stimulant is as injurious as
none at all. In ordinary cases loam with a fourth part leaf-mould is
strong enough for potting purposes; and no liquid except plain water
should be given until the plants have been established some time. For
roses, rhubarb, and plants that have occupied the same ground for a
considerable time, mix 1 lb. of superphosphate of lime with 1/2 lb. of
guano and 20 gallons of water, and pour 2 or 3 gallons round each root
every third day while the plants are in vigorous growth. Herbaceous
plants are better without manure. Liquid manure should be of the same
colour as light ale.

Maple.--_See_ "Acer."

Marguerites (_Chrysanthemums Frutescens_).--The White Paris Daisies
are very effective when placed against scarlet Geraniums or other
brightly-coloured flowers, and likewise make fine pot-plants. They
will grow in any light soil, and merely require the same treatment
as other half-hardy perennials. Height, 1 ft. (_See also_ "Anthemis"
_and_ "Buphthalmum.")

Margyricarpus Setosus (_Bristly Pearl Fruit_).--A charming little
evergreen, of procumbent growth, bearing throughout the whole summer
a number of berries on the main branches. Being only half-hardy, it
requires protection from frost, but in the warmer weather it may be
planted on rock-work in sandy loam and vegetable mould. Cuttings
planted in moist peat under a hand-glass will strike, or it may be
propagated by layers. Height, 6 in.

Marigolds.--Handsome and free-flowering half-hardy annuals. The
greenhouse varieties thrive in a mixture of loam and peat, and
cuttings root easily if planted in sand under glass. The African and
tall French varieties make a fine display when planted in shrubberies
or large beds, while the dwarf French kinds are very effective in the
foreground of taller plants, or in beds by themselves. They are raised
from seed sown in a slight heat in March, and planted out at the
end of May in any good soil. Height, 6 in. to 2 ft. (_See also_
"Calendula," "Tagetes," _and_ "Calthus.")

Martynia.--Handsome half-hardy, fragrant annuals. The seed should be
sown on a hotbed in March. When the plants are sufficiently advanced
transplant them singly into pots of light, rich earth, and keep them
in the stove or greenhouse, where they will flower in June. Height, 11/2

Marvel of Peru (_Mirabilis_).--Half-hardy perennials, which are very
handsome when in flower, and adorn equally the greenhouse or the open.
They may be increased by seed sown in light soil in July or August and
planted out in the border in spring. At the approach of frost take the
roots up and store them in dry ashes or sand. They flower in July.
Height, 2 ft.

Massonia.--Singular plants, which to grow to perfection should be
placed in a mixture of loam, peat, and sand. They require no water
while in a dormant state, and may be increased by seed or by off-sets
from the bulbs. Height, 3 in. to 6 in.

Mathiola.--_See_ "Stocks."

Mathiola Bicornis (_Night-scented Stocks_).--A favourite hardy annual
whose lilac flowers are fragrant towards evening. They may be grown
from seed sown between February and May on any ordinary soil. Height,
1 ft.

Matricaria.--This is a half-hardy annual of little interest so far as
its flowers are concerned, and is mostly grown as a foliage plant. The
seed should be sown in a frame in March, and transplanted at the end
of May. Height, 1 ft.

Maurandia Barclayana.--This elegant twining plant is best grown in
pots, so that it can more conveniently be taken indoors in the winter.
The soil should be light and rich. Cuttings can be taken either in
spring or autumn, or it may be raised from seed. It does very well in
the open during the summer, placed against a wall or trellis-work, but
will not stand the cold. In the greenhouse it reaches perfection, and
blooms in July. Height, 10 ft.

Mazus Pumilio.--A pretty diminutive herbaceous plant. When grown in
peat and sand in an open situation it survives from year to year, but
it will not live through the winter in cold clay soils. Its pale green
foliage is seen to advantage in carpet bedding, and its branched
violet flowers, put forth from June to September, make it a desirable
rock-work plant. It may be increased by transplanting, at the end of
April, the rooted stems which run under the surface of the ground.

Meconopsis Cambrica(_Welsh Poppy_).--An ornamental hardy perennial,
often found on English rocks. It may be grown in any light, rich soil,
is easily raised from seed, and blooms in June. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Medlars.--These trees will grow on any well-drained soil. The Dutch
Medlar is most prized, as it bears the largest fruit. It is raised
from seed, and usually trained to a standard form. The Nottingham and
Royal are also excellent varieties. Any special variety may be grafted
on to the seedlings. On deep soils it is best grafted on the Pear
stock; on light, sandy soil it may be grafted on the White Thorn. No
pruning is required, beyond cutting away cross-growing branches.

Megasea.--This hardy herbaceous plant flowers from April to June.
A light, sandy soil suits it best. It may be grown from seed or
multiplied by division. Height, 1 ft.

Melissa Officinalis.--A hardy perennial, flowering in July. Any soil
suits it. It is increased by division of the root. Height, 1 ft.

Melittis Melissophyllum (_Large-flowered Bastard Balm_).--This
handsome perennial is not often seen, but it deserves to be more
generally grown, especially as it will thrive in almost any soil;
but to grow it to perfection, it should be planted in rich loam. It
flowers from June to August, and may be increased by division of the
roots any time after the latter month. Height, 11/2 ft.

Melon.--Sow from January to June in pots plunged in a hotbed, the
temperature of which should not be under 80 degrees. When the plants
have made four or five leaves, set them out in a house or hotbed
having a temperature ranging from 75 to 85 degrees. Keep the plants
well thinned and water carefully, as they are liable to damp off at
the collar if they have too much wet. Do not allow them to ramble
after the fruit has begun to swell, nor allow the plants to bear more
than two, or at most three, melons each. They require a strong,
fibry, loamy soil, with a little rotten manure worked in. The Hero of
Lockinge is a grand white-fleshed variety, and Blenheim Orange is a
handsome scarlet-fleshed sort.

Menispermum Canadense (_Moon seed_).--A pretty slender-branched,
hardy, climbing, deciduous shrub, with yellow flowers in June,
followed with black berries. It grows in any soil, and can be
propagated by seed, by division of roots, or by planting cuttings in
spring in a sheltered spot. Height, 10 ft.

Mentha Rotundifloria Variegata (_Variegated Mint_).--A hardy
perennial, which may be grown in any soil, and is easily increased by
dividing the roots. It flowers in July. Height, 2 ft.

Menyanthes.--Treat as other hardy aquatics.

Menziesia (_Irish Heath_).--This evergreen thrives best in fibrous
peat to which a fair quantity of silver sand has been added. While
excessive moisture is injurious, the plant must not be kept too dry;
the best condition for it is to be constantly damp. Slips torn off
close to the stem will root in sand under glass, placed in gentle
heat. Height, 2 ft.

Mertensia.--These hardy perennials flower from March to July. They
will grow in any garden soil, but do best in peat, and are propagated
by division. They make fine border plants. Mertensia Maritima and
M. Parviflora, however, are best grown in pots, in very sandy soil,
perfection being afforded them during the winter. Height, 11/2 ft. to 2

Mesembryanthemums (_Ice Plants_).--These half-hardy, annual succulents
have a bright green foliage covered with ice-like globules. They must
be raised in a greenhouse or on a hotbed, sowing the seed in April on
sandy soil. Prick the young plants out in May. If grown in pots they
thrive best in a light, sandy loam. In the border they should occupy a
hot and dry situation. Keep the plants well watered until established,
afterwards give a little liquid manure. May be increased by cuttings
taken in autumn. Cuttings of the more succulent kinds should be
allowed to dry a little after planting before giving them water. A
dry pit or frame is sufficient protection in the winter; they merely
require to be kept from frost. Flower in July. Height, 1 ft.

Mespilus.--_For treatment, see_ "Medlars."

Meum Athamanticum.--A hardy perennial with graceful, feathery green
foliage, but of no special beauty. It is a native of our shores, will
grow in any soil, blooms in July or August, and is freely propagated
by seeds. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Michaelmas Daisies (_Starworts_).--A numerous family of hardy
herbaceous perennials. Some few are very pretty, while others can only
be ranked with wild flowers. They thrive in any soil or position, but
flourish best where there is a due proportion of sunshine. They are
easily raised from seed, sown early in spring, or may be increased
by root-division either in the autumn, as soon as they have done
flowering, or in the spring. They vary in height from 1 ft. to 5 ft.

Michauxia Campanuloides.--This is an attractive border biennial,
bearing from March to June white campanula-like flowers tinged with
purple, on erect stems. It is not particular as to soil, but requires
a southern position and protection in winter. Propagated by seeds in
the same way as other biennials. Height, 4 ft.

Mignonette.--For summer-flowering plants sow the seed in spring, and
thin out to a distance of 9 in. apart. To obtain bloom during the
winter and spring successive sowings are necessary. Let the first of
these be made the second week in July in light, rich soil; pot off
before frost sets in, plunge them in old tan or ashes, and cover with
a frame facing the west. Another sowing should be made about the
middle of August, giving them the same treatment as the previous; and
a third one in February, in gentle heat. Height, 9 in. to 3 ft. The
Mignonette tree is produced by taking a vigorous plant of the spring
sowing, and removing all the lower shoots in the autumn. Pot it in
good loam, and keep it in the greenhouse in a growing state, but
removing all the flowers. By the spring the stem will be woody. Let
the same treatment be given it the second year, and the third season
it will have become a fine shrub. It may be made to bloom during the
winter by picking off the blossom in the summer and autumn. Height, 3

Mildew.--Syringe with a strong decoction of green leaves and tender
branches of the elder-tree, or with a solution of nitre made in the
proportion of 1 oz. of nitre to each gallon of water. Another good
remedy is to scatter sulphur over the leaves while the dew is upon
them, afterwards giving them a syringing of clear water.

Milkmaid.--_See_ "Cardamine."

Milk Thistle.--_See_ "Carduus."

Mimosa.--These shrubs are often called Sensitive Plants, on account
of the leaves of several of the species of this genus shrinking when
touched. They grow well in loam and peat with a little sand, but
require to be planted in a warm situation or to have greenhouse care.
Cuttings of the young wood root readily in sand under a glass. They
may also be raised from seed. Mimosa Pudica exhibits most sensibility.
Height, 2 ft.

Mimulus (_Monkey Flower_).--Showy half-hardy perennials which thrive
in moist and shady situations and in almost any soil. They may be
grown from seed sown in slight heat from February to May, or increased
by division of the root. The frame and greenhouse kinds grow best in a
rich, light soil, and may be multiplied by cuttings. The annuals may
be sown where they are to flower. They bloom in June and July. Height,
2 in. to 11/2 ft. (_See also_ "Diplacus.")

Mina Lobata.--A charming half-hardy annual climber, bearing singularly
shaped flowers, produced on long racemes. When young the buds are a
vivid red, changing to orange-yellow, and when fully expanded the
flowers are creamy-white. It thrives in loam and peat to which
a little dung has been added, and is well adapted for arbours,
trellises, or stumps of trees. Sow the seed on a hotbed in March,
harden off, and transplant when all fear of frost is over. Height, 8
ft. to 12 ft.

Mint.--May be grown in any garden soil. It is increased by runners,
which, if not held in check, become very troublesome. The roots may be
confined by means of tiles or slates. Flowers in July. Height, 11/2 ft.

Mistletoe.--Raise the bark of an apple, pear, or oak tree on the
underneath part of a branch and insert some well-ripened berries, then
tie the bark down neatly with raffia or woollen yarn. If the berries
were inserted on the top of the branch the operation would result in
failure, as the birds would devour them.

Mitella Diphylla.--A hardy perennial which bears slender racemes of
white flowers in April. It makes a pretty rock plant, delights in a
peat soil, and is increased by division of the root. Height, 6 in.

Moles.--These pests may be destroyed by placing in their runs worms
that have been kept for some time in mould to which carbonate of
barytes has been added.

Monardia Didyma (_Oswego Mint, or Horse Balm_).--_See_ "Bergamot."

Monetia Barlerioides.--An ornamental shrub, suitable for the
greenhouse or stove. It requires to be grown in loam and peat, and
may be increased by cuttings planted in sand, under glass, in a
bottom-heat. Height, 3 ft.

Monkey Flower.--_See_ "Mimulus."

Monkey Puzzle.--_See_ "Araucaria."

Monk's-hood.--_See_ "Aconite."

Montbretia.--Very graceful and showy plants. The flowers, which are
like small Gladioli, are produced on long branched spikes and are
excellent for cutting. Plant 3 in. deep and 2 in. apart in sandy loam
and leaf-mould. The corms should never be kept long out of the ground,
as they shrivel, and weak growth and few flowers are the result.
Though they are hardy it is well to give them a covering of litter in
winter. They may also be grown in pots. Height, 2-1/2 ft.

Moraea Iridioides.--These plants flower in May, and require the same
treatment as Ixias.

Morina (_Whorl Flower_).--An ornamental hardy perennial, which is
seldom met with. It forms rosettes of large, deep green, shiny foliage
and stout spikes of rose-coloured flowers in whorls, which make it one
of the most attractive of Thistles. It likes a rich, light soil, is
increased by seed sown in the autumn, also by division in August, and
flowers in July. Height, 21/2 ft.

Morisia Hypogaea.--This is a pretty hardy perennial for rock-work. It
flowers in May, and is raised from seed sown as soon as it is ripe.
Height, 2 in.

Morna Elegans.--Beautiful half-hardy annuals. For early flowering sow
the seed in September: for later blooms sow in February in slight
heat, pot off, affording good drainage to the plants. They are very
sensitive to cold, and should not be placed out of doors before the
end of May. Avoid over-watering, as this would prove fatal to them.
The soil should be light and sandy. Those sown in September will bloom
in the greenhouse in May; those sown in February will flower in the
open in the autumn. Height, 11/2 ft.

Morning Glory.--_See_ "Convolvulus."

Morrenia Odorata.--A good twining plant for the greenhouse, producing
fragrant cream-coloured flowers in July. It will grow in any good
loamy soil, and may be increased by cuttings. Height, 3 ft.

Moss.--To eradicate moss from fruit-trees wash the branches with
strong brine or lime water. If it makes its appearance on the lawn,
the first thing to do is to ensure a good drainage to the ground, rake
the moss out, and apply nitrate of soda at the rate of 1 cwt. to the
half-acre, then go over the grass with a heavy roller. Should moss
give trouble by growing on gravel paths, sprinkle the ground with salt
in damp weather.

Mountain _Avens.--See_ "Dryas."

Muhlenbeckia Complexa.--A very decorative climber, hardy in nature but
requiring a good amount of sunshine to make it bloom. A well-drained,
sandy soil is best for its growth, and it can be increased by cuttings
of hardy shoots taken early in summer. Height, 6 ft.

Mulberries.--Any good soil will grow the Mulberry. The tree is hardy,
but the fruit wants plenty of sunshine to bring it to perfection. It
may be propagated by cuttings of wood one year old with a heel two
years old attached. The only pruning necessary is to keep the branches
well balanced. Autumn is the time to do this, not forgetting that the
fruit is borne on the young wood. When grown in tubs or large pots
in the greenhouse the fruit attains the perfection of flavour. In
addition to the Large Black and the White (Morus Alba) the New Weeping
Russian White may be recommended.

Mulching.--_See_ "Soil."

Muscari.--_See_ "Hyacinthus."

Muscari Botryoides.--_See_ "Hyacinthus."

Mushrooms.--Take partially dry horse manure and lay it in a heap
to ferment. Turn and mix it well every few days, and when well and
equally fermented, which will be from ten to fourteen days, make it
into a bed 4 ft. wide and 2 ft. deep, mixing it well together and
beating or treading it firmly. When the temperature of the bed falls
to 75 degrees, or a little under, the spawn may be inserted in pieces
about the size of a walnut, 2 in. deep and 6 in. apart. Now give
a covering of loamy soil, 2 in. deep, and beat it down evenly and
firmly. Finish off with a covering of clean straw or hay about 1 ft.
thick. Water when necessary with lukewarm water; but very little
should be given till the Mushrooms begin to come up, then a plentiful
supply may be given. They may be grown in any warm cellar or shed, and
usually appear in from four to six weeks after planting.

Musk (_Mimulus Moschatus_).--A well-known sweet-scented, half-hardy
perennial, well adapted for pot culture. A moist, shady position is
most congenial to it when placed in the border. Seed sown in autumn
make fine, early-flowering greenhouse plants. For summer blooming
the seed is sown early in spring, under a frame or hand-glass, at a
temperature of from 55 to 60 degrees. It is readily propagated by
division. Height, 6 in.

Mustard and Cress.--For sowing in the open choose a shady border, make
the surface fine and firm, and water it well before putting down the
seed. Let the seed be sown thickly at intervals of seven or fourteen
days from March to September. As the Cress does not germinate so
quickly as the Mustard, the former should be sown four days before
the latter. The seed must not be covered, but simply pressed into the
surface of the soil. Keep the ground moist, and cut the crop when the
second leaf appears. For winter use it is best sown in boxes and grown
in a frame, the seed being covered with flannel kept constantly moist.
This may be removed as soon as the seed germinates. Gardeners mostly
prefer to grow it through coarse flannel, to avoid the possibility of
grit being sent to table. The curled leaf Cress is the best, and the
new Chinese Mustard is larger in leaf than the old variety, and is
very pungent in flavour.

Myosotis (_Forget-me-not_).--The perennial varieties of these
beautiful plants grow best in moist places, such as the edges of ponds
or ditches; but they also do well in pots among Alpine plants. Most of
them may be increased by root division, and all of them by seed. The
annuals like a dry, sandy soil, and are grown from seed sown in March.
They flower in June or July. Height, 6 in.

Myrica Gala (_Candleberry Myrtle_).--This hardy deciduous shrub is
very ornamental, and its foliage is scented like the myrtle. It
will grow in light, rich soil, but thrives best in peat, and may be
increased by seeds or layers. May is its flowering time. Height, 4 ft.
M. Cerifera is treated in precisely the same manner. Height, 6 ft.

Myrsiphyllum Asparagoides.--_See_ "Smilax."

Myrtle (_Myrtus_).--Will strike readily if the cuttings be placed in a
bottle of water till roots grow, and then planted; or young cuttings
will strike in sandy soil under a hand-glass. They succeed best in a
mixture of sandy loam and peat and on a south wall. Near the sea they
prove quite hardy. Height, 6 ft.


Narcissus.--_See_ "Daffodils."

Nasturtiums.--These are among the most useful of our hardy annuals,
producing a display of the brightest of colours throughout the entire
summer. The tall-growing climbers make a gay background to a border,
and are equally valuable for trellis-work, while the dwarf varieties
are first-class bedding plants, and of great service for ribboning.
The seeds may be sown in pots in September or in the open ground early
in spring. A light sandy or gravelly soil is the best to produce a
wealth of bloom. Height, 6 ft. and 1 ft.

Nectarines.--Require the same treatment as the Peach. In fact, the
Nectarine stone sometimes produces a Peach, and a Peach stone often
produces a Nectarine. Fairchild's, Humboldt, Lord Napier, and Red
Roman are useful varieties. They should stand 20 ft. apart.

Neilla.--These shrubs thrive in ordinary soil, and are increased by
cuttings of the young wood. They flower in July. N. Torreyi bears
white Spiraea-like flowers, which are very effective. Height, 6 ft.

Nemesia.--A most beautiful half-hardy annual of the Antirrhinum class.
Sow the seed early in spring on a hotbed, and plant out in May in
rich, light soil. Cuttings of the young wood will strike under glass.
Height, 1-1/2 ft. to 2-1/2 ft.

Nemophila.--Pretty, neat, and compact hardy annuals, well worth
cultivating. They succeed best in a moist and shady situation, delight
in peat or vegetable mould, and when grown in circles are very
striking. If wanted to flower early, sow the seed in autumn, or on a
hotbed in spring; and if required for late blooming, sow in the open
in March. Treated thus they flower from June to September. Height, 1

Nepeta Glechoma Variegata.--A very useful plant for hanging baskets.
It can be trained as a pyramid or allowed to hang down; in many cases
it is employed as edgings. It is of easy culture, and does well as a
window plant or in a cool greenhouse. The soil should be light and
dry. It flowers in July, and may be increased by root-division.

Nerine Sarniense.--_See_ "Guernsey Lily."

Nertera Depressa (_Coral Berry_).--This pretty Moss-like plant is
fairly hardy, and is eminently suited for a sheltered position on the
rockery. The soil should consist of leaf-mould and sand, and overhead
sprinkling with soft water is very beneficial. In cold districts it is
better to grow it in the greenhouse. The flowers are produced in
July, succeeded by orange-coloured berries. It is easily increased by
dividing it early in the spring. Height, 3 in.

Neuvusia Alabamensis.--A tamarix-like shrub, bearing clusters of white
flowers early in spring. Will grow in any soil or situation. Increased
by cuttings placed in sand under glass.

Nicotiana (_Tobacco Plants_).--Very showy half-hardy annuals. N.
Affinis bears long, tubular, sweet-scented, white flowers in July, and
grows to the height of 3 ft. N. Virginica produces immense leaves and
pink flowers, and the plants are 4 to 5 ft. high. The seed is sown
on a hotbed in spring, and when the second or third leaf appears the
plants are put into small pots and placed in a frame till the end of
May, when they are transferred to the border.

Nierembergia (_Cup Flowers_).--These elegant half-hardy annuals
grow well in any light soil, but prefer a mixture of sandy loam and
leaf-mould. Sow the seed in March or April in slight heat, harden off,
and plant out in May as soon as all fear of frost is over. They flower
in July. Height, 9 in. to 1 ft.

Nierembergia Rivularis.--This herbaceous plant is of a creeping
nature; it has deep green ovate foliage and large saucer-shaped white
flowers. It needs a moist position, and is increased by division. The
bloom is produced throughout June, July, and August. Height, 3 in.

Nigella.--These hardy annuals, a species of Fennel-flower, are both
curious and ornamental. Perhaps the best known among them is N.
Hispanica, or Love-in-a-Mist. They only require sowing in the open in
spring--but not before the middle of March--to produce flowers in July
and August. Height, 9 in. to 2 ft.

Night-scented Stocks.--_See_ "Mathiola."

Nolana.--Hardy annuals that are suitable for the border, as they are
very showy when in flower. The seed should be sown in spring on a
gentle hotbed, and the plants transferred to the garden about the
middle of May. N. Atriplicifolia may be sown in the open in the
autumn. They flower in July and August. Height, 6 in. to 2 ft.

North Borders, Plants suitable for.--Hardy Camellias, Chrysanthemums,
black and green Tea Plant, Rhododendrons, Ferns, Red Currants, Morello
Cherries, and spring and summer cuttings of all sorts.

Nuttallia.--This early-flowering shrub is only hardy in the south and
south-west of our country. It requires a light, rich soil, and may be
increased by division. Racemes of white flowers are produced during
February and March. Height, 2 ft.

Nycterina.--Exquisite little half-hardy plants, suitable for pots or
rock-work. The seed should be sown early in spring on a gentle hotbed,
and the young plants transferred to the pots or open ground at the end
of May, using a light, rich soil. Height, 3 in.

Nymphaea Alba.--A hardy aquatic perennial, frequently found in our
ponds. It flowers in June, and may be increased by dividing the roots.
Height, 1 ft.


Odontoglossum Grande.--A most beautiful orchid, delighting in a
temperature of from 60 to 70 degrees and an abundance of water during
summer, but good drainage is essential. The blooms are yellow, spotted
and streaked with venetian red, and are often 6 in. across. The pots
should be two-thirds filled with crocks, then filled up with fibrous
peat and sphagnum moss. During winter only a very little moisture
should be given.

Oenothera.--The Evening Primroses are most useful and beautiful
plants, well suited for ornamenting borders, beds, edgings, or
rock-work. All the species are free-flowering, and grow well in any
good, rich soil. The annual and biennial kinds are sown in the open
in spring. The perennials may be increased by dividing the roots, by
cuttings, or by seed, the plants from which will flower the first
season if sown early in spring. They bloom in June and July. Height, 6
in. to 4 ft.

Olearia.--These evergreen shrubs thrive in peat and loam, and may be
increased by division of the roots. O. Haastii has foliage resembling
the Box, and a profusion of white, sweet-scented flowers in summer: a
chalk soil suits it admirably. Height, 3 ft. to 4 ft.

Omphalodes Verna.--A hardy perennial which may be grown under the
shade of trees in ordinary soil. It produces its flowers in March, and
is increased by dividing the roots in autumn. Height, 6 in.

Oncidium Sarcodes.--Plant these Orchids firmly in well-drained pots,
using equal parts of live sphagnum and fibrous peat. Give one good
watering as soon as the potting is finished, and stand them in a
light, warm part of the greenhouse. They will require very little more
water until the roots have taken hold of the soil--only sufficient to
keep the pseudo-bulbs from shrivelling--and during the winter months
scarcely any moisture is needed. They flower in August. Height, 1-1/2

Onions.--Require a deep, rich, heavy soil. Where the ground is not
suitable it should have had a good dressing of rotten manure the
previous autumn, and left in ridges during the winter. Level the
ground, and make it very firm just before the time of sowing. The seed
should be sown early in March for the main crop and for salad and
pickling Onions, and in August for summer use. Thin out to about 6
in. apart, excepting those intended to be gathered while small. The
Tripoli varieties attain a large size if transplanted in the spring.
The Silver-skins do best on a poor soil. For exhibition Onions sow in
boxes early in February in a greenhouse; when about 1 in. high prick
out, 3 in. apart, into other boxes; give gentle heat and plenty of
air, and when they have grown 6 in. high put them in a cool frame
until the middle of April, when they must be planted in the open, 1
ft. apart.

Ononis Rotundifolia (_Round-leaved Restharrow_).--A charming hardy
evergreen of a shrubby nature. It will grow in any ordinary garden
soil, and is increased by seed, sown as soon as it is ripe. It is most
effective in clumps, and blooms from June to September. Height, 1-1/2

Onopordon.--Half-hardy perennials of a rather interesting nature and
of easy cultivation. Sow the seed any time between March and June.
They require the protection of a frame or greenhouse during winter,
and produce flowers in July. Height, 6 in. to 8 ft.

Onosma Taurica (_Golden Drop_).--This hardy herbaceous plant is very
pretty when in flower, and suitable for rock-work. It requires a
well-drained vegetable mould, and to be planted where it can obtain
plenty of sun. It is increased from cuttings taken in summer, placed
in a cucumber frame, kept shaded for about a fortnight, and hardened
off before the winter. The flowers succeed one another from June to
November. Height, 1 ft.

Opuntia Rafinesquii (_Hardy Prickly Fig_).--A dwarf hardy Cactus with
sulphur-coloured flowers, produced from June to August; very suitable
for dry spots in rock-work. It grows best in peat with a little sand,
and is propagated by separating the branches at a joint, and allowing
them to dry for a day or so before putting them into the soil. Height,
2 ft.

Orange, Mexican.--_See_ "Choisya."

Orchids.--The four classes into which these charming and interesting
plants are divided may be described as (1) those coming from the
tropics, (2) from South Africa, (3) from the South of Europe, and
(4) our native varieties. The first require a stove, the second a
greenhouse, the third and fourth slight protection during winter. As
their natural character differs so widely it is necessary to ascertain
from what part of the globe they come, and to place them in houses
having as near as possible the same temperature and humidity as that
to which they are accustomed. The pots in which they are grown should
be filled with fibrous peat and sphagnum moss, largely mixed with
charcoal, and abundant drainage ensured. They are propagated by
dividing the root stocks, by separating the pseudo-bulbs, and, in case
of the Dendrobiums, by cuttings. Orchis Foliosa (_Leafy Orchis_) may
be grown in the open ground in good sandy loam. When once established
it is best not to disturb it, but if needed it may be increased by
division, after the tops have died down. Orchis Fusca (_Brown Orchis_)
may likewise be planted in the open, in a sheltered position, in fine
loam and leaf-mould, the soil to be well drained, yet constantly

Origanum Pulchellum.--Popularly known as the Beautiful Marjoram, this
plant is useful for cutting for vases. It is perennial and hardy, and
thrives in a dry situation with a sunny aspect and in a sandy soil.
The bloom is in its best condition in October. The rooted shoots may
be divided in spring or almost at any other period, or it may be
propagated by taking cuttings in summer. Height, 1-1/2 ft.

Ornithogalum.--O. Arabicum bears a large white flower with a shiny
black centre. It is a fine plant for pot culture, or it may be grown
in water like the Hyacinth. It may be planted in the open early in
spring in sandy loam and peat. Take it up before the frost sets in and
store it in a dry place, as it requires no moisture while in a dormant
state. In September the flowers are produced. Height, 6 in. O.
Umbellatum (_Star of Bethlehem_) is a pretty little flower often found
in English meadows, is quite hardy, and once established may be left
undisturbed for years. It throws up large heads of starry flowers,
which are produced in great abundance. While in a dormant state the
bulbs should be kept almost dry. It is propagated by off-sets; flowers
in May. Height, 1 ft.

Orobus.--These hardy perennials bear elegant Pea-shaped blossoms. The
plants will grow readily in any light soil, and are easily increased
by root-division in the spring, or by seeds. They flower in June.
Height, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

Osmanthus.--These elegant hardy evergreen shrubs succeed best in
light, sandy loam, and like a dry situation. They may be increased by
cuttings of the young shoots with a little old wood attached, or they
may be grafted on to common Privet. The variegated varieties are very
beautiful. They grow well on chalk soils. Height, 4 ft. to 6 ft.

Othera Japonica.--A newly introduced evergreen shrub very similar to
the Holly. It is perfectly hardy and may be treated in the same manner
as that plant.

Ourisia Coccinea.--A hardy herbaceous, surface-creeping perennial of
singular beauty as regards both leaf and flower. The soil in which it
is grown must be well drained, a peat one being preferable; and the
position it occupies must be well shaded from the rays of the midday
sun. It flowers from May onwards to September, the cut bloom being
admirable for mixing with fern leaves. As soon as new life starts in
spring the roots may be divided. Height, 9 in.

Oxalis.--A genus of very pretty bulbous plants that thrive well in a
mixture of loam, peat, and sand, or will grow in any light soil. Most
of the tender kinds may be reared in a frame if protected from frost
in the winter. After they have done flowering they should be kept dry
until they begin to grow afresh. They are increased by off-sets from
the bulb. The hardy species should be planted in a shady border, where
they will grow and flower freely. The seeds of these may be sown in
the open in spring. Some of the varieties have fibrous roots: these
will bear dividing. They are equally suitable for pots, borders, or
rock-work. Height, 9 in. to 3 ft.

Ox-Tongue.--_See_ "Bugloss."

Oxythopis Campestris.--A hardy perennial with lemon-yellow flowers in
June and July. It will grow in any good garden soil, and is propagated
by seed only, which should be sown where the plants are intended to be
grown. Height, 6 in.


Pachysandra.--This early hardy perennial has ornamental foliage and
blooms in April. It will succeed in almost any soil, and may be
increased by suckers from the roots. Height, 1 ft.

Paeonies.--These beautiful flowering plants are mostly hardy enough to
endure our winters. The herbaceous kinds are increased by dividing the
plants at the roots, leaving a bud on each slip. The shrubby species
are multiplied by cuttings taken in August or September, with a piece
of the old wood attached, and planted in a sheltered situation. Tree
Paeonies require protection in winter, and may be propagated by
grafting on to the others, by suckers, or by layers. New varieties are
raised from seed. A rich, loamy soil suits them best. Height, 2 ft.

Palms from Seed.--Soak the seed in tepid water for twenty-four hours,
then put them singly 1 in. deep in 2-in. pots filled with equal parts
of loam, leaf-mould, and sand. Cover the pots with glass and stand
them in the warmest part of a hothouse. Shade from strong sunshine,
and keep the soil just moist. Re-pot as soon as the roots have filled
the old ones.

Pampas Grass.--_See_ "Gynerium."

Pampas Lily of the Valley.--_See_ "Withania."

Pancratium.--A handsome class of plants. Their habit of growth is
somewhat like that of the Amaryllis. They are admirably adapted for
growing in pots in the greenhouse. They may also be planted in the
open ground under a south wall. The bulbs should be placed in a
composition of three parts light, sandy loam and one of vegetable
mould. They are increased by off-sets from the roots, or by seeds, by
which the new varieties are obtained. Height, 1 ft. to 2 ft.

Pandanus Veitchi (_Variegated Screw Pine_).--For table decoration or
vases this is a most useful plant. It requires a warm greenhouse where
a temperature of 60 or 70 degrees can be kept up throughout the year,
and grows well in equal parts of peat and loam with one-sixth part
sand. During the autumn a little liquid manure is beneficial. In the
winter months it should be watered carefully, but in the summer it is
improved by syringing with warm water. It is propagated very easily by
suckers taken off in spring or summer, placed in a temperature of 75

Panicum.--Handsome ornamental grasses. They will grow in any soil
or situation. P. Capillare is an annual, suitable for bouquets or
edgings; it is increased by seed. P. Altissimum, an annual, and P.
Sulcatum, a most elegant greenhouse plant, are fine for specimens.
P. Plicatum is highly ornamental and hardy, but is best grown as a
conservatory or window plant; it has a Palm-like appearance, and is
of quick growth. Most of the plants flower in July. They may be
propagated by seed or by division of the roots. Average height, 1-1/2

Pansies (_Heartsease_).--Grow well from seed sown in July or August on
a raised bed of light earth. They may also be increased from cuttings
taken in August, September, April, or May, selecting young side-shoots
and planting them in light earth mixed with silver sand. The cuttings
should be kept in a cool frame, moderately moist, and shaded from the
hot sun. They can likewise be increased by layers, merely pegging them
down and not slitting them on account of their tendency to damp off.
They may also be increased by dividing the roots in April or May. They
should be planted where they will get all the morning sun, yet be
sheltered from mid-day rays; in an open and airy situation, yet
protected from cutting winds. While the plants are blooming they
should be supplied with liquid manure.

Papaver (_Poppy_).--These showy flowers are most at home in a rich,
light soil. They are easily raised from seed sown where they are
intended to bloom. The perennials may also be increased by dividing
the roots. They flower at midsummer. Height varies from 1 ft. to 3 ft.

Pardanthus Chinensis.--_See_ "Iris."

Parsley.--In order to grow Parsley to perfection it is necessary that
the ground be well drained, as the roots and stems must be kept dry,
and the soil should be rich and light. Three sowings may be made
during the year: the first in spring for late summer and autumn use,
the next in June for succession, and another in August or September
for spring and early summer use. Thin out or transplant, to 6 in.
apart. Parsley takes longer than most seeds to germinate; it must
therefore be watched during dry weather and watered if necessary.
Plants potted in September and placed in a cold frame, or protected
in the open from rain and frost with a covering of mats supported by
arches, will be valuable for winter use.

Parsnips.--These succeed best in a rich soil, but the application of
fresh manure should be avoided, as it induces forked and ill-shaped
roots. Let the ground be trenched two spits deep and left ridged up as
long as possible. As early in March as the weather will permit level
the surface and sow the seed in drills 15 in. apart, covering it with
half an inch of fine soil. When the plants are 2 or 3 in. high, thin
them out to 9 in. apart. They may be taken up in November and, after
cutting off the tops, stored in a pit or cellar in damp sand, or they
may be left in the ground till required for use.

Passion Flower.--Cuttings of the young shoots strike readily in sand
under glass. The plant likes a good loamy soil mixed with peat. A
sheltered position with a south or south-western aspect should be
assigned those grown out of doors, and the root should be well
protected in winter. The flowers are borne on seasoned growth of the
current year: this fact must be considered when pruning the plants.
During the hot months the roots require a copious supply of water, and
the foliage should be syringed freely. Passiflora Caerulea is fine for
outdoor culture, and Countess Guiglini makes a capital greenhouse

Pavia Macrostachya.--This is a deciduous hardy shrub or tree which
bears elegant racemes of white Chestnut-like flowers in July. Any
soil suits it. It is propagated by layers or by grafting it on to the
Horse-chestnut. Height, 10 ft.

Peaches.--These are best grown on a strong loam mixed with old mortar;
though any soil that is well drained will produce good fruit. When
possible, a south wall should be chosen; but they are not particular
as to position, providing they are afforded shelter from cold winds.
November and February are the most favourable months for planting. The
roots should be carefully arranged at equal distances apart, 3 or 4
in. below the surface of soil, and then covered with fine mould. Avoid
giving manure at all times, except when the trees are bearing fruit
heavily. Train the shoots about 6 in. apart, removing all the
wood-buds except one at the base of the shoot and one at the point.
Keep the flowers dry and free from frost by means of an overhead
shelter, to which tiffany or canvas can be attached, which should,
however, only be used so long as the cold weather lasts. To ensure
good fruit, thin the same out to 6 in. apart as soon as it attains
the size of a small pea, and when the stoning period is passed remove
every alternate one, so that they will be 1 ft. apart. After gathering
the fruit, remove any exhausted and weak wood, leaving all that is
of the thickness of a black-lead pencil. To keep the foliage clean,
syringe once a day with water; this may be continued until the
fruit is nearly ripe. The following may be recommended for outdoor
cultivation:--Hale's Early, Dagmar, and Waterloo for fruiting in July
or August; Crimson Galande, Dymond, and the well-known Bellegarde
for succession in September; and Golden Eagle for a late sort. When
planted in quantities, Peaches should stand 20 ft. apart.

When grown under glass a day temperature of 50 degrees, falling to 45
degrees at night, is sufficient to start with, gradually increasing it
so that 65 degrees by day and 55 by night is reached at the period of
blossoming. Syringe the leaves daily until the flowers are produced,
then discontinue it, merely keeping the walls near the pipes and
the paths damp. As soon as the fruit is set the syringing should
recommence. Water of the same temperature as that of the house should
in all cases be used. When the fruit begins to ripen, cease once more
the syringing until it is gathered, then admit air freely, wash the
trees daily, and apply liquid manure to the roots in sufficient
quantities to keep the soil moist during the time the trees are at
rest. Rivers's Early, Pitmaston Orange, Dagmar, and Royal George are
all good under glass.

Pears.--Wherever Apples are a success Pears will grow. As a rule, they
are best grown dwarf. On light soils they should be grafted on to Pear
stocks, but on heavy soils they are best worked on the Quince. The
fruiting of young trees may be accelerated by lifting them when about
five years old, spreading out the roots 1 ft. below the surface of the
soil, and mulching the ground. The mulching should be raked off in the
spring, the ground lightly stirred with a fork and left to sweeten,
and another mulching applied when the weather becomes hot and dry.
In pruning, leave the leading branches untouched, but let all cross
shoots be removed, and the young wood be cut away in sufficient
quantity to produce a well-balanced tree, and so equalise the flow
of sap. Some of the pruning may be done in summer, but directly the
leaves fall is the time to perform the main work. A good syringing
once a week with the garden hose will keep the trees vigorous and free
from insects. Should scab make its appearance on the leaves, spray
them occasionally with Bordeaux Mixture, using the minimum strength at
first, and a stronger application afterwards if necessary. There
are over 500 varieties of Pears, so it is no easy matter to give a
selection to suit all tastes, but a few may be named as most likely to
give satisfaction. Louise Bonne de Jersey succeeds in almost any soil
and in any situation, is a great favourite, and ripens its fruit in
October. Beurre Giffard makes a fine standard, and ripens in July.
Beurre Hardy is delicious in October and November. Doyenne du Comice
is one of the best-flavoured, and is very prolific. Beurre d'Amanlis
ripens in August. Williams's Bon Chretien, Aston Town, Pitmaston
Duchess, Clapp's Favourite, Comte de Lamy, and Josephine de Malines
are all reliable for dessert, while for stewing purposes Catillac,
Black Pear of Worcester, Verulam, and Vicar of Winkfield are among the
best. In orchards standards should be from 20 to 25 ft. apart; dwarfs
12 ft. to 1 rod.

Peas.--For the production of heavy summer and autumn crops a rich and
deeply-stirred soil is essential, one of the best fertilisers being
well-decayed farmyard manure; but for the earliest crop a poorer soil,
if deep and well pulverised, will give the best results. Peas under
3 ft. in height do not require sticking, but they can be more easily
gathered if a few small twigs are used to keep the haulm off the
ground. If sown in successive lines the space between the rows should
correspond with the height of the variety grown. A good plan is to
arrange the rows 10 or 15 ft. apart, and crop the intervening spaces
with early dwarf vegetables. The earliest varieties may be sown from
November to February, on the warmest and most sheltered border: these
may be gathered in May and June. The second early round, varieties, if
sown from January to April, will be ready for gathering in June and
July. The main crop round varieties may be sown from February to May:
these will be ready to gather in July and August. The early wrinkled
varieties may be sown from March to June, for gathering between June
and September. Sow main crop and late varieties at intervals of
fourteen days from March to May: these will be ready to gather in
July, August, and September. When the plants are a couple of inches
high draw the earth neatly round them, and stake the taller varieties
as soon as the tendrils appear. Keep them well watered in dry weather,
and if on a light soil a mulching of manure will be beneficial. As
soon as the pods are setting apply weak liquid manure to the roots
when the ground is moist.

Peas, Everlasting (_Lathyrus Latifolia_).--These well-known and
favourite hardy perennials are very useful for covering trellises,
etc. They will grow in any garden soil, and may be raised from seed
sown early in spring in slight heat. Where there is no greenhouse or
frame the seed may be planted, about 1/2 in. deep, round the edges of
pots filled with nice, light soil, and covered with a sheet of glass,
keeping the soil moist till the seed germinates. When the plants are
strong enough they may be placed in their permanent quarters. They
bloom from June to September. Old roots may be divided. Height, 6 ft.

Peas, Sweet.--These most beautiful and profuse blooming hardy annuals
will grow almost anywhere, but they prefer a dry soil that is
both rich and light. The seed should be sown as early in March as
practicable, and in April and May for succession. When the plants are
2 or 3 in. high a few twigs may be placed among them, to which they
will cling. The flowers are produced in July, and the more liberally
they are gathered the longer the plants will continue to bloom.
Height, 3 ft.

Pelargonium.--The shrubby kinds will grow well in any rich soil; loam
and decayed leaves form a good compost for them. They require good
drainage and plenty of air and light while in a vigorous state.
Cuttings root readily in either soil or sand, especially if placed
under glass. Most of the hard-wooded varieties are more easily
increased by cuttings from the roots. The tuberous-rooted ones should
be kept quite dry while dormant, and may be increased by small
off-sets from the roots.

Pentstemon.--This charming hardy perennial is deserving of a place in
every garden. It may be grown in any good soil, but a mixture of loam
and peat is most suitable. The seed may be sown in April, and the
plants transferred when strong enough to their flowering quarters; or
it may be sown in a sheltered position during August or September to
stand the winter. It may also be increased by dividing the roots in
spring, as soon as growth begins. Cuttings of the young side-shoots
about 6 in. long may be taken at any period--the middle of September
is a good time; these should be placed under a hand-glass in sandy
loam and leaf-mould. These cuttings will flower the first year. It
blooms from May to October. Height, 2 ft.

Peppermint.--This may be grown on any damp or marshy soil, and
increased by dividing the roots.

Perennials.--These are plants that die down during the winter, but
spring up and produce new stems annually. Some, as for instance
Antirrhinums and Pansies, flower the first season, but usually they do
not bloom till the second season. Many of the species improve by age,
forming large clumps or bushes. The stock is increased by division
of the roots, which, if judiciously done, improves the plant. Like
annuals, they are divided into classes of Hardy, Half-hardy, and
Tender plants.

Hardy perennials do not require artificial heat to germinate the
seeds, or at any period of their growth, but are the most easily
cultivated of all plants. Seed may be sown from March to midsummer,
transplanting in the autumn to their flowering quarters; or it may
be sown in August and September in a sheltered position to stand the

Half-hardy plants require artificial heat to germinate their seed, and
must be gradually introduced into the open. They may be sown during
March and April in frames or a greenhouse, when many will bloom the
first season. If sown between May and the end of August they will
flower the following spring and summer. They require protection during
winter, such as is afforded by a cold pit, frame, or greenhouse, or
the covering of a mat or litter. Tender perennials may be sown as
directed above, but the plants should be kept constantly under glass.

Some perennials, such as Pinks, Carnations, Saxifrages, etc., do
not die down, but retain their leaves. These are called evergreen

Pergularia.--Very fragrant twining plants, suitable for trellis-work,
arbours, etc. A rich soil suits them best. They are easily increased
by cuttings sown in sand under glass. They flower at midsummer.
Height, 8 ft. to 12 ft.

Perilla Nankinensis.--A plant of little merit, except for its foliage,
which is of a rich bronze purple. It bears a cream-coloured flower in
July. It may be raised in the same manner as other half-hardy annuals,
and prefers a light, loamy soil. Height, 1 1/2 ft.

Periploca Graeca.--A hardy, deciduous, twining shrub, which will grow
in any soil, and may be increased by layers or by cuttings placed
under glass. It flowers in July. Height, 10 ft.

Periwinkle.--_See_ "Vinca."

Pernettya.--An American evergreen shrub, which, like all of its class,
thrives best in sandy peat; it delights in partial shade, and a moist

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