Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

Fritofs Saga by Esaias Tegner

Part 3 out of 5

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 0.4 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

Ja, jag stack i brand hans tempel; varg i veum heter jag; 25
naer jag naemnes, skrika barnen, glaedjen flyr ur gaestfritt lag.
Fosterjorden har foerkastat en foerlorad son med harm,
fridloes aer jag i min hembygd, fridloes i min egen barm.

Icke pa den groena jorden vill jag soeka friden mer, 26
marken braenner under foten, traedet ingen skugga ger.
Ingeborg har jag foerlorat, henne tog den gamle Ring,
solen i mitt liv aer slocknad, bara moerker runtomkring.

Daerfoer, haen till mina vagor! Eja, ut, min drake god! 27
Bada ater becksvart bringa lustigt i den salta flod;
vifta vingarna i molnen, vaesande de vagor skaer,
flyg sa langt som stjaernan leder, som besegrad boelja baer!

Lat mig hoera stormens dunder, lat mig hoera askans roest! 28
Naer det danar runtomkring mig, da aer lugn i Fritiofs broest.
Skoeldeklang och pilregn, gubbe! Mitt i havet slaget star,
och jag stupar glad, och renad till foersonta gudar gar."

XX.

KUNG RINGS DOeD.

Gullmanig fale, 1
Skinfaxe, drager
varsol ur vagen mer haerlig aen foerr.
Morgonens strale,
dubbelt sa fager,
leker i kungssal: det klappar pa doerr.

Sorgsen i hagen 2
Fritiof intraeder,
blek sitter kungen; skoen Ingeborgs broest
haeves som vagen.
Fraemlingen kvaeder
avskedets kvaede med darrande roest:

"Boeljorna bada 3
vingade haesten,
sjoehaesten laengtar fran stranden igen.
Ut vill han vada;
bort maste gaesten,
bort fran sitt land och sin aelskade vaen.

Dig ger jag ringen, 4
Ingeborg, ater;
heliga minnen bo troget i den.
Giv den at ingen!
Fritiof foerlater;
mig ser du aldrig pa jorden igen.

Ej skall jag skada 5
stigande roeken
mer ifran Nordlanden. Maenskan aer slav;
nornorna rada.
Boeljornas oeken,
daer aer mitt faedernesland och min grav.

Ga ej till stranden, 6
Ring, med din maka,
helst sedan stjaernorna sprida sitt sken!
Kanske i sanden
vraekas tillbaka
Fritiofs, den biltoge vikingens, ben."--

Da kvaeder kungen: 7
"Tungt aer att hoera
mannen, som klagar likt kvidande moe.
Doedssang aer sjungen
ren i mitt oera.
Vad aer det mer? Den som foeds, han skall doe.

Nornornas lottning, 8
huru vi fike,
trotsa vi, klaga vi ej oss ifran.
Dig ger jag drottning,
dig ger jag rike,
skydda det du at min vaexande son!

Vael har jag suttit 9
vaensaell i salen,
vael har jag aelskat den gyllene frid.
Dock har jag brutit
skoeldar i dalen,
skoeldar pa sjoen, och ej bleknat daervid.

Nu vill jag rista 10
geirs-odd och bloeda,
stradoed ej hoeves foer nordmannakung.
Ringa aer sista
idrottens moeda,
mera aen livet aer doeden ej tung."

Da skar han aerligt 11
runor at Oden,
doedsrunor djupa pa broest och pa arm.
Lyste sa haerligt
droppande bloden
fram mellan silvret pa harvuxen barm.

"Bringen mig hornet! 12
Skal foer ditt minne,
skal foer din aera, du haerliga Nord!
Mognande kornet,
taenkande sinne,
fredelig bragd har jag aelskat pa jord.

Fafaengt bland vilda, 13
blodiga drotter
soekte jag friden, hon flyktade haen.
Nu star den milda
aetthoegens dotter
vaentande pa mig vid gudarnas knaen.

Hell er, I gudar, 14
Valhallasoener!
Jorden foersvinner; till asarnas fest
gjallarhorn budar.
Salighet kroener
skoent, som en guldhjaelm, den kommande gaest."--

Sade och tryckte 15
Ingeborg handen,
handen pa son och pa gratande vaen.
Oegat han lyckte,
kunglige anden
floeg med en suck till Allfader igen.

XXI.

RINGS DRAPA.

Sitter i hoegen 1
hoegaettad hoevding,
slagsvaerd vid sidan,
skoelden pa arm.
Gangaren gode
gnaeggar daer inne,
skrapar med guldhov
grundmurad grav.

Nu rider rike 2
Ring oever Bifrost,
sviktar foer boerdan
bagiga bron.
Upp springa Valhalls
valvdoerrar vida;
asarnas haender
haenga i hans.

Tor aer ej hemma, 3
haerjar i haernad.
Valfader vinkar
vinbaegarn fram.
Ax flaetar Frej kring
konungens krona,
Frigg binder blaa
blommor daeri.

Brage, hin gamle, 4
griper i guldstraeng,
stillare susar
sangen aen foerr.
Lyssnande vilar
Vanadis vita
barmen mot bordet,
brinner och hoer:

"Hoegt sjunga svaerden 5
staendigt i hjaelmar;
brusande boeljor
blodas alltjaemt.
Kraften, de goda
gudarnas gava,
bister som baersaerk
biter i skoeld.

Daerfoer var dyre 6
drotten oss kaer, som
stod med sin skoeld foer
fredliga faelt:
sansade styrkans
skoenaste avbild
steg som en offer-
anga at skyn.

Ord vaeljer vittre 7
Valfader, da han
sitter hos Saga,
Soekvabaecks moe.
Sa klungo kungsord,
klara som Mimers
boeljor och daerhos
djupa som de.

Fridsam foerlikar 8
Forsete tvisten,
domarn vid Urdas
vaellande vag.
Sa satt a domsten
dyrkade drotten,
blidkade haender
blodhaemnden bjoed.

Karg var ej kungen, 9
kring sig han stroedde
dvaergarnas dag-glans,
drakarnas baedd.
Gavan gick glad fran
givmilda handen,
laett fran hans laeppar
lidandets troest.

Vaelkommen, vise 10
Valhalla-arving!
Laenge laer Norden
lova ditt namn.
Brage dig haelsar
hoeviskt med horndryck,
nornornas fridsbud
nerifran Nord!"

XXII.

KONUNGAVALET.

Till tings! Till tings! Budkavlen ga 1
kring berg och dal.
Kung Ring aer doed: nu foerestar
ett kungaval.

Da tager bonden svaerd fran vaegg, 2
det stal aer blatt.
Med fingret proevar han dess egg,
den biter gott.

De piltar se med glaedje pa 3
det stalbla sken;
de lyfta svaerdet tva och tva,
foer tungt foer en.

Men dottern skurar hjaelmen ren-- 4
blank skall han bli--
och rodnar, naer hon skadar sen
sin bild daeri.

Sist tar han skoeldens runda vaern, 5
en sol i blod.
Hell dig, du frie man av jaern,
du bonde god!

All landets aera vaexer ur 6
ditt fria broest.
I striden aer du landets mur,
i frid dess roest.

Sa samlas de med skoeldegny 7
och vapenbrak
pa oeppet ting, ty himmelns sky
aer deras tak.

Men Fritiof star pa tingets sten, 8
hos honom star
den kungason, en liten en
med guldgult har.

Da gar ett sorl kring bondelag: 9
"Foer liten aer
den kungsson, kan ej skipa lag,
ej leda haer."--

Men Fritiof lyfte pilten ung 10
pa skoelden opp:
"I nordmaen, haer aer eder kung
och landets hopp.

Sen haer den gamle Odens aett 11
i bild sa skoen.
Pa skoeld han kaenner sig sa laett
som fisk i sjoen.

Jag svaer att skydda rike hans 12
med svaerd och stang
och saetta faderns gyllne krans
pa son en gang.

Forsete, Balders hoege son, 13
har hoert min ed;
och om jag viker daerifran,
sla han mig ned!"--

Men pilten satt pa skoelden lyft, 14
lik kung a stol,
lik unga oernen, som fran klyft
ser opp mot sol.

Den vaentan blev det unga blod 15
till slut foer lang,
och med ett hopp i mark han stod,
ett kungligt sprang!

Da ropte boendren hoegt pa ting: 16
"Vi, Nordens maen,
vi kora dig, bliv lik kung Ring,
skoeldburne sven!

Och Fritiof foere dina bud, 17
tills du blir stor.
Jarl Fritiof, dig ge vi till brud
hans skoena mor."--

Da blickar Fritiof moerk: "I dag 18
aer kungaval
men broellop ej; min brud tar jag
av eget val.

Till Balders hage vill jag ga, 19
har moete staemt
med mina nornor daer: de sta
och vaenta jaemt.

Ett ord jag maste tala med 20
de skoeldemoer.
De bygga under tidens traed,
och ovanfoer.

Ljuslockig Balder vredgas aen, 21
den bleke gud.
Han tog, blott han kan ge igen
mitt hjaertas brud."--

Da haelsade han nyvald kung, 22
pa pannan kysst,
och langsamt oever hedens ljung
foersvann han tyst.

XXIII.

FRITIOF PA SIN FADERS HOeG.

Hur skoent ler solen, huru vaenligt hoppar 1
dess milda strale ifran gren till gren,
Allfaders blick i aftondaggens droppar,
som i hans vaerldshav, lika klar och ren!
Hur roeda faergar hon ej bergens toppar!
O, det aer blod pa Balders offersten!
I natt aer snart det hela land begravet,
snart sjunker hon, en gyllne skoeld, i havet.

Foerst lat mig dock bese de kaera staellen, 2
min barndoms vaenner, dem jag aelskat sa.
Ack, samma blommor dofta aen i kvaellen,
och samma faglar aen i skogen sla.
Och vagen tumlar sig som foerr mot haellen--
o, den som aldrig gungat daeruppa!
Om namn och bragder jaemt den falska talar,
men fjaerran foer hon dig fran hemmets dalar.

Jag kaenner dig, du flod, som ofta burit 3
den djaerve simmarn pa din boelja klar.
Jag kaenner dig, du dal, daer vi besvurit
en evig tro, som icke jorden har.
Och bjoerkar, I, uti vars bark jag skurit
de runor manga, I stan aennu kvar
med stammar vita och med kronor runda;
allt aer som foerr, blott jag aer annorlunda.

Aer allt som foerr? Var aero Framnaes' salar 4
och Balders tempel pa den vigda strand?
Ack, det var skoent uti min barndoms dalar,
men daerutoever har gatt svaerd och brand,
och maenskors haemnd och gudars vrede talar
till vandrarn nu fran svarta svedjeland.
Du fromme vandrare, ej hit du drage,
ty skogens vilddjur bo i Balders hage.

Det gar en frestare igenom livet, 5
den grymme Nidhoegg ifran moerkrets vaerld.
Han hatar asaljuset, som star skrivet
pa hjaeltens panna, pa hans blanka svaerd.
Vart nidingsdad, i vredens stund bedrivet,
det aer hans verk, aer moerka makters gaerd;
och naer det lyckas, naer han templet taender,
da klappar han uti kolsvarta haender.

Finns ej foersoning, stralande Valhalla? 6
Blaoegde Balder, tar du ingen bot?
Bot tager mannen, naer hans fraender falla,
de hoega gudar sonar man med blot.
Det saegs, du aer den mildaste av alla:
bjud, och vart offer ger jag utan knot.
Ditt tempels brand var icke Fritiofs tanka,
tag flaecken bort ifran hans skoeld, den blanka!

Tag bort din boerda, jag kan den ej baera, 7
kvaev i min sjael de moerka skuggors spel;
foersma ej angern, lat en levnads aera
foersona dig foer oegonblickets fel!
Jag bleknar ej, fast Ljungarn sjaelv star naera,
i oegat kan jag se den blekbla Hel.
Du fromme gud med dina manskensblickar,
dig ensam raeds jag och den haemnd, du skickar.

Haer aer min faders gravhoeg. Sover hjaelten? 8
Ack, han red haen, daer ingen kommer fran.
Nu dvaeljs han, saegs det, uti stjaernetaelten
och dricker mjoed och glaeds at skoeldars dan.
Du asagaest, se ner fran himlafaelten,
din son dig kallar, Torsten Vikingsson!
Jag kommer ej med runor eller galder,
men laer mig blott, hur blidkas Asa-Balder?

Har graven ingen tunga? Foer en klinga 9
Den starke Angantyr ur hoegen kvad.
Det svaerd var gott, men Tirfings pris aer ringa
mot vad jag ber; om svaerd jag aldrig bad--
svaerd tar jag vael i holmgang sjaelv, men bringa
du mig foersoning ifran asars stad!
Min skumma blick, min gissning blott du lede,
ett aedelt sinne tal ej Balders vrede.

Du tiger, fader! Hoer du, vagen klingar, 10
ljuvt aer dess sorl, laegg ner ditt ord daeri!
Och stormen flyger, haeng dig vid hans vingar,
och viska till mig, som han far foerbi!
Och vaestern haenger full av gyllne ringar,
lat en av dem din tankes haerold bli!
Ej svar, ej tecken foer din son i noeden
du aeger, fader! O, hur arm aer doeden!--

Och solen slaecks, och aftonvinden lullar 11
foer jordens barn sin vaggsang utur skyn,
och aftonrodnad koerer upp och rullar
med rosenroeda hjul kring himlens bryn.
I blaa dalar, oever blaa kullar
hon flyger fram, en skoen Valhallasyn.
Da kommer ploetsligt oever vaestervagor
en bild framsusande i guld och lagor.

En haegring kalla vi det himmelns under-- 12
i Valhall klingar hennes namn mer skoent.--
Hon svaevar sakta oever Balders lunder,
en gyllne krona pa en grund av groent.
Det skimrar oever, och det skimrar under
med saellsam glans, ej foerr av maenskor roent.
Till slut hon stannar, sjunkande till jorden,
daer templet statt, nu sjaelv ett tempel vorden.

En bild av Breidablick, den hoega muren 13
stod silverblank pa klippans brant och sken.
Av djupblatt stal var pelare var skuren,
och altaret utav en aedelsten:
och domen haengde, som av andar buren,
en vinterhimmel stjaerneklar och ren,
och hoegt daeri, med himmelsblaa skrudar,
med gyllne kronor, sutto Valhalls gudar.

Och se, pa runbeskrivna skoeldar stoedda, 14
de hoega nornor uti doerren sta:
tre rosenknoppar i en urna foedda,
allvarliga men tjusande aenda.
Och Urda pekar tyst pa det foeroedda,
det nya tempel pekar Skulda pa.
Och baest som Fritiof nu sig sansa hunnit
och glaeds och undrar, sa aer allt foersvunnet.

O, jag foerstar er, moer fran tidens kaella, 15
det var ditt tecken, hjaeltefader god!
Det braenda templet skall jag aterstaella,
skoent skall det sta pa klippan, daer det stod.
O, det aer haerligt att fa vedergaella
med fredlig bragd sin ungdoms oevermod!
Den djupt foerkastade kan hoppas ater,
den vite guden blidkas och foerlater.

Vaelkomna stjaernor, som daer uppe tagen! 16
Nu ser jag ater glad er stilla gang.
Vaelkomna norrsken, som daer uppe lagen!
I voren tempelbrand foer mig en gang.
Uppgroenska, aettehoeg, och stig ur vagen,
sa skoen som foerr, du underbara sang!
Haer vill jag slumra pa min skoeld och droemma,
hur maenskor sonas och hur gudar gloemma.

XXIV.

FOeRSONINGEN.

Fullaendat nu var Balders tempel. Daeromkring
stod ej som foerr en skidgard, men av hamrat jaern,
med gyllne knappar pa var stang, ett vaern var rest
kring Balders hage: som en stalklaedd kaempehaer
med hillebarder och med gyllne hjaelmar stod 5
det nu pa vakt kring gudens nya helgedom.
Av idel jaettestenar var dess rundel byggd,
med dristig konst hopfogade, ett jaetteverk
foer evigheten, templet i Uppsala likt,
daer Norden sag sitt Valhall i en jordisk bild. 10
Stolt stod det daer pa fjaellets brant och speglade
sin hoega panna uti havets blanka vag.
Men runtomkring, en praektig blomstergoerdel lik,
gick Balders dal med alla sina lundars sus,
med alla sina faglars sang, ett fridens hem. 15
Hoeg var den kopparstoepta port, och innanfoer
tva pelarrader uppa starka skulderblad
uppburo valvets rundel, och han hang sa skoen
utoever templet som en kupig skoeld av guld.
Laengst fram stod gudens altar. Det var hugget av 20
en enda nordisk marmorklyft, och daeromkring
ormslingan slog sin ringel, full med runeskrift,
djuptaenkta ord ur Vala och ur Havamal.
Men uti muren ovanfoere var ett rum
med gyllne stjaernor uppa moerkbla grund, och daer 25
satt fromhetsgudens silverbild, sa blid, sa mild,
som silvermanen sitter uppa himmelns bla.--
Sa templet syntes. Parvis traedde nu daerin
tolv tempeljungfrur, klaedda uti silverskir,
med rosor uppa kinderna och rosor i 30
det oskuldsfulla hjaertat. Framfoer gudens bild
kring nyinvigda altaret de dansade,
som varens vindar dansa oever kaellans vag,
som skogens aelvor dansa i det hoega graes,
naer morgondaggen ligger skimrande daerpa. 35
Och under dansen sjoengo de en helig sang
om Balder, om den fromme, hur han aelskad var
utav vart vaesen, hur han foell foer Hoeders pil
och jord och hav och himmel graeto. Sangen var,
som om den icke komme fran ett maenskligt broest, 40
men som en ton fran Breidablick, fran gudens sal,
som tanken pa sin aelskling hos en enslig moe,
naer vakteln slar de djupa slag i nattens frid
och manen skiner oever bjoerkarna i Nord.--
Foertjust stod Fritiof, lutad vid sitt svaerd, och sag 45
pa dansen, och hans barndomsminnen traengde sig
foerbi hans syn, ett lustigt folk, ett oskuldsfullt.
Med himmelsblaa oegon och med huvuden
omflutna utav lockigt guld, de vinkade
en vaenlig haelsning till sin forne ungdomsvaen. 50
Och som en blodig skugga sjoenk hans vikingsliv
med alla sina strider, sina aeventyr,
i natten neder, och han tyckte sjaelv sig sta,
en blomsterkransad bautasten, pa deras grav.
Och allt som sangen vaexte, hoejde sig hans sjael 55
fran jordens laga dalar upp mot Valaskjalf;
och maensklig haemnd och maenskligt hat smalt sakta haen,
som isens pansar smaelter ifran fjaellets broest,
naer varsol skiner; och ett hav av stilla frid,
av tyst haenryckning goet sig i hans hjaeltebarm. 60
Det var, som kaende han naturens hjaerta sla
emot sitt hjaerta, som han ville trycka roerd
Heimskringla i sin brodersfamn och stifta frid
med varje skapat vaesen infoer gudens syn.--
Da traedde in i templet Balders oeverpraest, 65
ej ung och skoen som guden men en hoeg gestalt,
med himmelsk mildhet i de aedla anletsdrag,
och ned till baeltestaden floet hans silverskaegg.
En ovan voerdnad intog Fritiofs stolta sjael,
och oernevingarna pa hjaelmen saenktes djupt 70
infoer den gamle; men han talte fridens ord:

"Vaelkommen hit, son Fritiof! Jag har vaentat dig,
ty kraften svaermar gaerna vitt kring jord och hav,
en baersaerk lik, som biter blek i skoeldens rand,
men troett och sansad vaender hon dock hem till slut. 75
Den starke Tor drog mangen gang till Jotunheim,
men trots hans gudabaelte, trots stalhandskarna,
Utgarda-Loke sitter pa sin tron aennu;
det onda viker icke, sjaelv en kraft, foer kraft.
En barnlek blott aer fromhet, ej foerent med kraft; 80
hon aer som solens stralar uppa Aegirs barm,
en loeslig bild med vagen stigen eller saenkt,
foerutan tro och hallning, ty han har ej grund.
Men kraft foerutan fromhet taer ock bort sig sjaelv,
som svaerdet taers i hoegen: hon aer livets rus, 85
men gloemskans haeger svaevar oever hornets braedd,
och naer den druckne vaknar, blygs han foer sitt dad.
All styrka aer fran jorden, ifran Ymers kropp;
de vilda vattnen aero adrorna daeri,
och hennes senor aero smidda utav malm. 90
Dock blir hon tom och oede, blir hon ofruktbar,
tills solen, himmelns fromhet, skiner daeruppa.
Da groenskar graes, da stickas blomstrens purpurduk,
och djur och maenskor naeras vid sin moders barm. 95 (sic!)
Sa aer det ock med Askers barn. Tva vikter har
Allfader lagt i vagskaln foer allt maenskligt liv,
motvaegande varandra, naer den vag star raett;
och jordisk kraft och himmelsk fromhet heta de.
Stark aer vael Tor, o yngling, naer han spaenner hart 100
sitt Megingjard utoever bergfast hoeft och slar.
Vis aer vael Oden, naer i Urdas silvervag
han blickar ner, och fageln kommer flygande
till asars far med tidningar fran vaerldens rund.
Dock bleknade de baegge, deras kronors glans 105
halvslocknade, naer Balder, naer den fromme foell,
ty han var bandet uti Valhalls gudakrans.
Da gulnade pa tidens traed dess kronas prakt,
och Nidhoegg bet uppa dess rot, da lossades
den gamla nattens krafter, Midgardsormen slog 110
mot skyn sin ettersvaellda stjaert, och Fenris roet,
och Surturs eldsvaerd ljungade fran Muspelheim.
Varthelst sen dess ditt oega blickar, striden gar
med haerskoeld genom skapelsen: i Valhall gal
guldkammig hane, blodroed hane gal till strids 115
pa jorden och inunder jord. Foerut var frid
ej blott i gudars salar men pa jorden ock;
frid var i maenskors som i hoega gudars barm.
Ty vad som sker haer nere, det har redan skett
i stoerre matt daer uppe: maenskligheten aer 120
en ringa bild av Valhall; det aer himmelns ljus,
som speglar sig i Sagas runbeskrifna skoeld.
Vart hjaerta har sin Balder. Minns du aen den tid,
da friden bodde i ditt broest och livet var
sa glatt, sa himmelskt stilla som sangfagelns droem, 125
naer sommarnattens vindar vagga hit och dit
var soemnig blommas huvud och hans groena saeng?
Da levde Balder aennu i din rena sjael,
du asason, du vandrande Valhallabild!
Foer barnet aer ej guden doed, och Hela ger 130
igen sitt rov, sa ofta som en maenska foeds.
Men jaemte Balder vaexer i var maensklig sjael
hans blinde broder, nattens Hoeder; ty allt ont
foeds blint, som bjoernens yngel foeds, och natten aer
dess mantel, men det goda klaeder sig i ljus. 135
Bestaellsamt traeder Loke, frestarn fram alltjaemt
och styr den blindes moerdarhand, och spjutet far
i Valhalls kaerlek, i den unge Balders broest.
Da vaknar hatet, valdet springer opp till rov,
och hungrig stryker svaerdets ulv kring berg och dal, 140
och drakar simma vilda oever blodig vag.
Ty som en kraftloes skugga sitter fromheten,
en doed ibland de doeda, hos den bleka Hel,
och i sin aska ligger Balders gudahus.--
Sa aer de hoega asars liv en foerebild 145
till maensklighetens laegre: baegge aero blott
Allfaders stilla tankar, de foeraendras ej.
Vad skett, vad ske skall, det vet Valas djupa sang.
Den sang aer tidens vaggsang, aer dess drapa ock,
Heimskringlas haevder ga pa samma ton som den, 150
och mannen hoer sin egen saga daeruti.
Foerstan I aennu eller ej? spoer Vala dig.--
Du vill foersonas. Vet du, vad foersoning aer?
Se mig i oegat, yngling, och bliv icke blek!
Pa jorden gar foersonarn kring och heter doed. 155
All tid aer fran sin boerjan grumlad evighet,
allt jordiskt liv aer avfall fran Allfaders tron,
foersonas aer att vaenda renad dit igen.
De hoega asar foello sjaelva; Ragnaroek
aer asarnas foersoningsdag, en blodig dag 160
pa Vigrids hundramilaslaett: daer falla de,
ohaemnade dock icke, ty det onda doer
foer evigt, men det fallna goda reser sig
ur vaerldsbalslagan, luttrat till ett hoegre liv.
Vael faller stjaernekransen blek och vissnad ner 165
fran himmelns tinning, vael foersjunker jord i sjoen;
men skoenare hon aterfoeds och lyfter glad
sitt blomsterkroenta huvud utur vagorna,
och unga stjaernor vandra med gudomlig glans
sin stilla gang utoever den nyskapade. 170
Men pa de groena kullar styrer Balder da
nyfoedda asar och en renad maenskoaett;
och runetavlorna av guld, som tappats bort
i tidens morgon, hittas uti graeset da
pa Idavallen av foersonta Valhalls barn.-- 175
Sa aer det fallna godas doed dess eldprov blott,
aer dess foersoning, foedseln till ett baettre liv,
som aterflyger skaerat dit, det kom ifran,
och leker skuldloest som ett barn pa faderns knae.
Ack! allt det baesta ligger pa hinsidan om 180
gravhoegen. Gimles groena port, och lagt aer allt,
besmittat allt, som dvaeljes under stjaernorna.--
Dock, aeven livet aeger sin foersoning ren,
en ringare, den hoegres stilla foerespel.
Hon aer som skaldens loepning pa sin harpa, naer 185
med konsterfarna fingrar han slar sangen an
och staemmer tonen, sakta proevande, till dess
att handen griper vaeldigt uti straengens guld,
och forntids stora minnen lockas ur sin grav,
och Valhalls glans omstralar de foertjustas syn. 190
Ty jorden aer dock himmelns skugga, livet aer
foergarden dock till Balderstemplet ovan skyn.
Till asar blotar hopen, leder gangarn fram,
guldsadlad, purpurbetslad, foer att offras dem.
Det aer ett tecken, och dess mening djup, ty blod 195
aer morgonrodnan till envar foersoningsdag.
Men tecknet aer ej saken, det foersonar ej:
vad sjaelv du brutit, gaeldar ingen ann foer dig.
De doeda sonas vid Allfaders gudabarm,
den levandes foersoning aer i eget broest. 200
Ett offer vet jag, som aer gudarna mer kaert
aen roek av offerbollar, det aer offret av
ditt eget hjaertas vilda hat, din egen haemnd.
Kan du ej doeva deras klingor, kan du ej
foerlata, yngling, vad vill du i Balders hus? 205
Vad mente du med templet, som du reste haer?
Med sten foersonas Balder ej; foersoning bor,
haer nere som daer uppe, blott daer friden bor.
Foersonas med din fiende och med dig sjaelv,
da aer du ock foersonad med ljuslockig gud!-- 210
I Soedern talas om en Balder, jungfruns son,
saend av Allfader att foerklara runorna
pa nornors svarta skoeldrand, outtydda aen.
Frid var hans haerskri, kaerlek var hans blanka svaerd,
och oskuld satt som duva pa hans silverhjaelm. 215
From levde han och laerde, dog han och foerlaet,
och under fjaerran palmer star hans grav i ljus.
Hans laera, saegs det, vandrar ifran dal till dal,
foersmlaelter harda hjaertan, laegger hand i hand
och bygger fridens rike pa foersonad jord. 220
Jag kaenner ej den laeran raett, men dunkelt dock
i mina baettre stunder har jag anat den:
vart maenskligt hjaerta anar den ibland som mitt.
En gang, det vet jag, kommer hon och viftar laett
de vita duvovingar oever Nordens berg. 225
Men ingen Nord aer laengre till foer oss den dag,
och eken susar oever de foergaetnas hoeg.
I lyckligare slaekten, I, som dricken da
stralbaegarn av det nya ljus, jag haelsar er!
Vael eder, om det jagar bort var sky, som haengt 230
sitt vata taecke hittills oever livets sol!
Foerakten likvael icke oss, som redligt soekt
med oavvaenda oegon hennes gudaglans!
_En_ aer Allfader, fastaen fler hans saendebud.--

Du hatar Beles soener. Varfoer hatar du? 235
At sonen av en odalbonde ville de
ej ge sin syster, ty hon aer av Semings blod,
den store Odenssonens; deras aettartal
nar upp till Valhalls troner, det ger stolthet in.
Men boerd aer lycka, ej foertjaenst, invaender du. 240
Av sin foertjaenst, o yngling, blir ej maenskan stolt
men endast av sin lycka; ty det baesta aer
dock goda gudars gava. Aer du sjaelv ej stolt
av dina hjaeltebragder, av din hoegre kraft?
Gav du dig sjaelv den kraften? Knoet ej Asa-Tor 245
dig armens senor fasta sasom ekens gren?
Aer det ej gudens hoegre mod, som klappar glatt
i skoeldeborgen av ditt vaelvda broest? Aer ej
det gudens blixt, som ljungar i ditt oegas brand?
De hoega nornor sjoengo vid din vagga ren 250
drottkvaedet av din levnad; din foertjaenst daerav
aer stoerre ej aen kungasonens av sin boerd.
Foerdoem ej andras stolthet, att ej din foerdoems!
Nu aer kung Helge fallen."--Haer broet Fritiof av:
Kung Helge fallen? Naer och var?"--"Du vet det sjaelv: 255
sa laenge som du murat haer, han var pa tag
bland finnarna i fjaellen. Pa en oedslig klint
stod daer ett gammalt tempel, vigt at Jumala.
Nu var det staengt och oevergivet laenge sen,
men oever porten aennu en vidunderlig 260
forntidabild av guden lutade till fall.
Men ingen tordes nalkas, ty en saegen gick
bland folket ifran slaekt till slaekt, att vem som foerst
besoekte templet, skulle skada Jumala.
Det hoerde Helge, och med blind foerbittring drog 265
han uppa oede stigar emot hatad gud
och ville stoerta templet. Naer han kom dit upp,
var porten staengd och nyckeln rostad fast daeri.
Da grep han om doerrposterna och rystade
de multna stammar; pa en gang med rysligt brak 270
foell bilden ner och krossade uti sitt fall
Valhallasonen, och sa sag han Jumala.
Ett bud i natt har bragt oss tidningen haerom.
Nu sitter Halvdan ensam pa kung Beles stol;
bjud honom handen, offra gudarna din haemnd! 275
Det offret fordrar Balder, fordrar jag, hans praest,
till tecken, att du icke gaeckat fridsaell gud.
Foervaegrar du det, da aer templet fafaengt byggt,
och fafaengt har jag talat."--

Nu steg Halvdan in 280
utoever koppartroeskeln, och med oviss blick
han stod pa avstand fran den fruktade och teg.
Da knaeppte Fritiof brynjohataren fran laend,
mot altaret han stoedde skoeldens gyllne rund
och traedde obevaepnad till sin ovaen fram. 285
"I denna strid", sa talte han med vaenlig roest,
"aer aedlast den, som bjuder foerst sin hand till frid."
Da rodnade kung Halvdan, drog stalhandsken av,
och laenge skilda haender slogo nu ihop,
ett kraftigt handslag, trofast sasom fjaellens grund. 290
Foerbannelsen upploeste gubben da, som lag
utoever varg i veum, oever biltog man.
Och som den loestes, insteg ploetsligt Ingeborg,
brudsmyckad, hermlinsmantlad, utav taernor foeljd,
som manen foeljts av stjaernorna pa himmelns valv. 295
Med tarar i de skoena oegonen hon foell
intill sin broders hjaerta, men han lade roerd
den kaera systern intill Fritiofs trogna broest.
Och oever gudens altar raeckte hon sin hand
at barndomsvaennen, at sitt hjaertas aelskade.----

NOTES.

[The commentaries of F. W. Lindvall's school edition of Fritiofs Saga
have been extensively reproduced.]

CANTO I.

Stanza 1. _Hilding_ was a yeoman or bonde (see note, canto 2: 1) of Sogn
in Norway and fosterfather of Fritiof and Ingeborg. In viking times the
children of kings and great warriors were often entrusted to the care of
less influential and less wealthy friends to be trained by them, thus
removing the young from the temptations and disturbing influences of
court life and warfare. This practice would also remove them from the
danger of being pampered by fond parents or sycophantic servants.

1. _Ej Norden foerr sett tva sa skoena_. The auxiliary _har_ is omitted.
Such omissions are common in subordinate clauses and in poetry.

6. _Sag_. Subjunctive past, regular form _sage_.

6. _i Frejas Hus_. Freja, or Froeja, wife of Oeder, was the goddess of
beauty and love. In her abode, Folkvang, were gathered all the lovers who
had been faithful to each other unto death.

7. _aelvkungen_. _Aelvor_ or _alfer_ were ethereal beings of great beauty
and with voices that had the clearness of silver. During moonlight nights
especially they danced in dales and groves. _Ljusalfer_, light elves,
personified the benign influences in nature, especially as they manifest
themselves in the realms of light and air. _Svartalfer_, black elves,
lived in the earth and personified the silent forces that operate beneath
its surface. They are perhaps identical with the dwarfs. The elves are
here thought of as having kings and queens just as human beings.

8. _En Kung var ej som han i aera_. A king was not honored as he.

8. _runan_. The runes were the characters of the early alphabet of the
Germans, Anglo-Saxons, and Scandinavians. Runic inscriptions were
generally cut into wood, bone or rock.

9. _fick han Ingborg laera. Fick_ may mean either that he was permitted to
teach Ingeborg or that he must do it because of an irresistible desire to
do so.

10. _bad', bade_.

12. _Det foersta ax, vars guld blev moget_. A striking metaphor meaning
"the first head of grain that ripened and assumed a golden color."

13. _innan kort_, before long.

14. _drog pa jakt_. Idiomatic expression for "went hunting."

17. _Valhall(a)_, the home of the gods and the palace of Oden. Hither one
half of the heroes that fell in battle were carried by the valkyrs. Here
they spent their time in feasting and fighting.

18. _ett kornland, som foer vinden gar_. A field of grain that waves
before the wind.

19. _Idun(a)_, wife of Brage and keeper of the golden apples of youth.

20. _Frigg(a)_, the wife of Oden and queen of the goddesses. She was the
goddess of conjugal and motherly love.

21. _Gerd(a)_, wife of Frej, was the daughter of a giant, but
nevertheless renowned for her wonderful beauty.

22. _Nanna_, wife of Balder, personified pure and tender love. Balder was
the fair god who loved light and lived a life of purity and innocence.
The evil Loke induced Balder's blind brother, Oeder, to throw an arrow of
mistletoe at him and he fell dead. When Nanna saw the body of her dead
husband carried out to the funeral pyre, her heart burst with grief.

23. _Hel(a)_, goddess of death and ruler of nine worlds in Nifelhem. She
received all that died of sickness or old age, but it seems that others
also came to her abode. In the deepest abyss of her kingdom was a place
of punishment for the wicked. From her name comes the word "hell" and
Swedish _ihjael (att sla ihjael_, to kill).

32. _Oden_, oldest and highest god of the Northern races. His spirit
pervaded everything. He is the source of the higher forms of life.

33. _Allfader_, Oden. He is so called because he was supposed to be the
father of men and of gods.

33. _till smycke_, as an ornament. This use of _till_ is very common in
Swedish.

34. _Beles dotter_. Ingeborg's father was Bele, king of Sogn in western
Norway.

35. _Till Oden ... uppstiger hennes aettartal_. The royal families were
supposed to have descended from the gods
(see note, canto XXIV: 237).

36. _Torstens son_. Fritiof was the son of Torsten Vikingsson, a viking
chief.

37. Observe the numerous expressions of the defiant spirit of Fritiof
prior to his going into exile. Note also in stanzas 37 and 38 his
ingenuity in proving his own high rank.

38. _Tor_, god of thunder and of war, the strongest of the gods. All
noble human strength came from him. He was the friend of man and the
enemy of the giants with whom he had many hard conflicts. His abode,
Trudvang, was marvelously beautiful. When he journeyed forth from
Trudvang, driving a span of he-goats, to meet the giants, thunder and
lightning arose.

CANTO II.

Stanza 1. _bonde_. This term is generally translated by the word peasant.
The word yeoman is often used as an equivalent term and sometimes the
original Scandinavian form _bonde_ is used in English. A _bonde_ was an
independent land-holder, liberty-loving, and, as a rule, an active
participant in public affairs.

3. _mjoed_, mead, a fermented drink made of water, honey and hops with a
flavoring of spices.

5. _altarrunden_. The pagan temples had no altars. The figure is borrowed
from the modern temple.

5. _offerlunden_. The Norse temples were usually surrounded by sacred
groves.

8. _hon_; antecedent is endraekt.

8. _som ringen pa lansen_. This refers to the metal ring that served to
hold the point of the lance to the lance itself and thus gave it greater
strength.

11. _Pa pelarstoder fyra_. According to Scandinavian mythology the
heavens were supported by four dwarfs, _Austre_, East, _Vaestre_, West,
_Nordre_, North, and _Soedre_, South.

13. _Nog svika lungans tecken i offrad falk_. This assumes that the
Norsemen read signs by observing the entrails of animals. Authorities
differ on this point. Some maintain that the poet has here merely
borrowed from classical mythology.

13. _flaerd aer mangen runa, som skaers pae balk_. Meaningless or deceptive
is many a rune that is cut in the staff. The early Northmen believed that
the will of the gods could be ascertained by writing runes on sticks of
wood which then were thrown on the ground and read by the priests.

18. _hur vis han het_ (heter). Expression is equivalent to "Hur vis han
aen ma heta."

18. _hoegbaenk_. In the primitive Scandinavian homes benches were placed
along the four walls. The men had their places along the long walls
(langsidor) and the women along the end walls (kortsidor). At the center
of the two long walls were high seats of honor. The master of the house
occupied the one on the north side and the chief guest the one on the
south side.

21. _till Oden ga_, to die.

22. _Odens faglar_. Oden is represented as having two birds, Hugin
(thought) and Munin (memory or, according to some authorities, the
longing that impels Oden to activity), which are dispatched to the earth
at every day-break and in the evening return to Oden and whisper into his
ears the news of the day's happenings.

26. _ty vaedret rar foer arsvaext och vind foer lycka_. Equivalent to saying
that man is not himself the absolute master of his own destiny. The
forces of nature can thwart all his plans.

28. Throughout this canto Tegner draws freely from Havamal, the "Song of
Oden" or the "Song of the Most High," which is replete with precepts on
morality and wisdom. In this stanza this ancient Scandinavian song is
followed very closely. Note the frequent sarcastic references to woman in
the Saga.

32. _norna_. The norns, three in number, weave the fate of men and gods.
Urda was the norn of the past, Verdandi of the present, and Skulda of the
future.

32. _hon stoette pa skoeld_. The meaning is: Wherever fate threatened with
some danger it was met by courage and vigilance.

33. _de asasoener_. See note, canto I: 35.

33. _Nordlands kungar_, the kings of the Northland.

38. _bautasten_. A monument erected in honor of rulers or heroes.

39. _Frej_, the god of sunshine and warm summer showers, hence also the
god of harvests.

CANTO III.

Line 1. _Voro nu satta i hoeg_. Were interred.

2. _fjaerden_. In this case Sognefjord.

6. _faeste i lugn sin boning pa Framnaes_. Took up his abode on Framnaes.
This probably lay on the south side of Sognefjord.

9. _de kullarnas topp. De_ is seldom used in this way. Here supplied for
the sake of the meter.

15. _som laengta till staevan_. That yearn to be milked.

23. _till tio tolfter pa hundrat_. A so-called _storhundrade_ or great
hundred was 120.

26. _hoegsaetespelare_, the posts of the seat of honor. On it were carved
images of Oden and Frej.

28. _Frej med solen pa hatten_. Frej was the sun god and was pictured
with a sun on his helmet.

34. _Oestervag_, Eastern billow, the Baltic. _Vaestersaltet_, Western salt,
the North Sea, _Gandvik_, the White Sea.

36. _Brage_, the god of poetry and music.

38. _Mimers evigt sorlande vag_. Mimer's ever rippling fountain. The god
Mimer guarded the fountain of wisdom. Oden once pawned one of his eyes
for a drink out of this fountain.

52. _visthus_. These were small houses, separated from the main building,
in which food was kept.

58. _Oesterland_, Asia.

59. _dvaergarnas eld_. The dwarfs were supposed to be most skillful
smiths.

61. _Groeningasund_, a sound between Seeland, Moen and Falster in Denmark.

62. _het_, abbrev. for _hette_.

63. _Ulleraker_, a royal estate near Uppsala, where judicial assemblies
were held.

68. _Jaernhoes_. The word means iron skull.

76. _vid solens portar_, in Asia.

79. _Hildur_, the goddess of war. "Hildur's lek" means war.

84. _Vaulund_ was the most skillful smith among the dwarfs. He is called
_haltande_, lame or limping, because Mimer's wife, who was his bitter
enemy, had cut the tendons of his knees.

85. _Tre mark hoell han i vikt_. It weighed three marks. A mark was
approximately one half kilogram.

88. _Alfhem_, the realm of air between heaven and earth, was the home of
the elves and of Frej.

90. _Saga_, wife of Oden and goddess of history. She dwelt in Soekvabaeck
beneath the stream of time and events, taking note of all she saw. Here
Oden visited her daily to drink the pure water from golden beakers and
listen to her songs about former days.

99. After the death of Balder (see note, canto I: 22) his body was burned
on a great funeral pyre.

100. _Glitner_, "glittering hall," the home of Forsete, the god of
justice.

110. _Bretland_, England.

111. _satt sig med skepp_, interred with ship and all.

114. _draken_. The viking ships were so called because in the prow were
placed carved images of the dragon's head and the stern was made to
resemble the dragon's tail.

164. _Aegir_, the god of the stormy sea.

171. _vingarna_. The sails.

172. _blev efter_. Was left behind in the race.

179. _Var han ej konungason_. Even though he was not a king's son.

186. _blandat blod med varandra_. A solemn compact of brotherhood was
sealed by the parties to it causing their blood to flow together from
self-inflicted wounds while they made the promises that are stated in the
text.

CANTO IV.

Stanza 2. _drakarna_. See note, canto III: 114.

3. _till gaest_. See note, canto I: 33.

4. _dess sida_. Dess, genitive of _den_ and _det_, is irregularly used
here. The regular form would be _hennes_.

5. _De taltes vid_. They talked together.

6. _namnen, som grodde i bjoerkens bark_. See canto I: 27.

9. Observe in last line the change to direct address.

10. _vael_, doubtless.

11. _dagen om_, throughout the day.

16. _jagar i molnen_. Goes ahunting in the clouds, is dreaming.

18. _Den stradoed_. For the ancient Northmen it was a great disgrace to
die a natural death. Death from self-inflicted wounds was more honorable.
The use of _den_ without an adjective is archaic.

18. _blavit Hela_. Hela (see note, canto I: 23) was hideous in
appearance. Half of her body was livid in color and the other half bore
the ghastly pallor of death.

23. _jarl_, chief of a province. English, earl.

26. _Nordlandens drotter_, the kings of the Northland.

27. _Odensblodet_. See note, canto I: 35.

28. _man_. In this connection _man_ means one of the king's retinue. The
_boender_ rarely sought protection from kings and the proposal of Helge
was highly insulting to Fritiof, who himself had a retinue.

30. _runorna lagade roeda daerpa_. See canto II: 78-81.

31. _svartekung_, swartbeard. Helge is given this name, partly because of
his swarthy features, partly because he practices black arts. See canto
II: 5.

CANTO V.

Stanza 1. King Ring ruled over Ringerike, on the west side of Kristiania
fjord.

4. _snaeckorna_, ships.

4. _vita vingar_, white wings, sails.

4. _av rikdom, som rikdomen (be)tingar_. Of wealth that brings more
wealth, or upon which further wealth is contingent.

11. _jag gatt i froe_, I have grown old.

11. _kungens de glesnade lockar. De_ is here used irregularly.

17. _Men lungorna nekade bifall alltjaemt_. Constantly the signs refused
to he affirmative. For reading of signs see note, canto II: 13.

2l. _i templet saetter jag min syster_. The temple of Balder is referred
to. Here persons were inviolate and it was especially a great crime for a
man to visit a woman in this sacred place.

CANTO VI.

Observe the ingenuity with which Fritiof's words to Bjoern are also made
to convey an answer to Hilding. _Kung_ and _bonde_ refer to Helge and
Fritiof, but they are also the chess terms for king and pawn. Note also
the ingenious rhyme of this canto.

Stanza 6. _skoeldborg_. In battle the chief warriors stood around the king
and the royal banner in closed ranks with their shields turned outward
for protection.

11. _man_. See note, canto IV: 28.

Stanza 3. _Delling_, Dawn, was the husband of _Natt_. Their son, _Dag_,
was radiant with heauty.

4. _paerlor_, the stars.

5. _kaerlekens gudinna_. Fritiof's name for Ingeborg.

10. _valkyria_. The valkyrs were beautiful maidens that served in
Valhall. They were sent by Oden to the battlefields to select certain
among the fallen heroes and bring them to Valhall.

16. _Vingolv_, the common hall of the gods.

19--22. Compare Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, Act III., Scene V.

20. _Ragnaroek_, the twilight of the gods, the end of the world.

CANTO VIII.

Lines 27--28. See note, canto V: 21.

35. _Urdas blanka vag_. The pure water of Urda's fountain. The norns
daily brought holy water out of this fountain to sprinkle the roots of
the great world-tree Yggdrasil in order to keep it ever green. This tree
is symbolic of the universe as a great unity. Its branches reach unto
heaven. One of its roots extends unto the abode of men, another to the
realm of the giants and the third to Hel's kingdom.

36. _Gefton_, the virgin goddess and the protector of female chastity.
All women that died unmarried were supposed to serve her.

57. _Bifrosts bro_, the rainbow, the radiant bridge over which the gods
pass from heaven to earth. The valkyrs conduct the fallen heroes to
Valhall over this bridge.

59. _Daer skall han sta_. Han refers to the god of love who is represented
as having light wings on his shoulders.

65--66. See canto I: 35.

77. _Min vreda norna_. My evil fate.

87. The _ting_ or judicial assembly was held in the open, usually by a
burial mound or on a knoll. The proximity to the burial place added
solemnity to the procedure. The dead were supposed to be able to hear the
deliberations (see canto 4: 25). The judge's seat usually consisted of a
boulder.

91--95. See canto II: 5 and 6.

105. _Asa-Tor_, a common designation for Tor.

106. _till foersoning_, in reconciliation.

109-110. _som glad drack fria maenners bifall till det raetta_. Observe the
apt and striking metaphor.

124. _Ett bleklagt nej pa maensklighetens boener_. A striking hyperbole.
Only Fritiof and Ingeborg and the assembly were directly concerned.

129. _Har du ej sett. Sett_ here used instead of _traeffat_ or _moett_.

145. _Den dumma vantron_. Note Fritiof's frequent sarcastic references to
the religious beliefs and practices of his day. In later cantos (15-24)
he appears as a serious-minded and "orthodox" man.

149. _den doeda valans_. Refers to Oden's journey to Hel to ascertain from
the vala what fate awaited his son Balder. She predicts the death of
Balder at the hands of his brother. (See note, canto I: 22.)

150. _Vegtamskvida_, the Eddic Lay of Vegtam. This tells about Odin's
journey to Hel. He traveled in disguise and under the name of Vegtam.

156. _i Vaesterhafvet_, in the North Sea. The islands referred to are the
Orkneys, which were first visited by the Northmen in the early part of
the seventh century.

164. _Fafner_, a monster that had acquired great wealth by murdering his
father. In the form of a hideous dragon he guarded this treasure
carefully. His chief means of defense was spewing poison upon those that
attacked him.

165. _Sigurd Fafnesbane_, Sigurd the Dragonkiller. He slays Fafner by
thrusting his sword into the heart of the monster. He is the foremost
hero of the old sagas.

168. _till naesta sommar_. By next summer.

177. _Nastrand_, the dark region of the nether world whither all went
that had lived criminal and impure lives.

216. _Greklands hav_, the Grecian Sea. The Northern vikings often
extended their expeditions to Southern Europe and even to Asia.

233. _faegna aen med maensklig lycka de foergaetna gudar_. This betrays
Fritiof's ignorance of the Greek's conception of their gods. The Greeks
believed that the gods became jealous of men when these prospered and
were happy.

272. _I hoegen din fader sitter_. The bodies of fallen heroes were placed
in a sitting posture in the funeral mound.

275. _aer mig i faders staelle. Mig_, possessive dative.

285. _nu_, once for all.

303. _diktade i molnen_, fancied and located in the clouds.

360. _kung Helges syster_. There is bitterness in Fritiof's parting
words. Observe that later when Ingeborg's sound reasoning has convinced
and calmed him he calls her _kung Beles dotter_.

380. _Alltsen mitt vaesen boerjade att dagas_. Ever since the dawn of my
existence.

441. _man diktat pa mig_, falsely attributed to me; _mana'r_, manader.

466. _ger sitt liv till spillo_. Sacrifices his life. _Till spillo_ is an
antiquated dative.

CANTO IX.

Stanza 2. _det aer lyckligt, far foelja_. Either _som_ or _det_ supplied
before _far_.

4. _Ej till hans moete: ej att moeta honom_. Not to meet him. This
objective genitive occurs very seldom.

5. A fine example of the terse and striking expressions that are so
numerous in Tegner.

6. _Falk_. The custom of using the falcon in the hunt is very old in
Scandinavia.

8. _Oeder_, the faithless and restless husband of Freja. Once when he left
her and remained away a long time she sought him in all lands. The tears
she wept while on this sad errand were so precious that they turned to
gold; hence this metal is found in all lands. According to one version of
the story, she finally found Oeder in the South, sitting under the myrtle
tree; hence the custom that every bride in Scandinavia must wear a crown
of myrtle.

CANTO X.

Stanza 1. _taenk pa_, think of.

2. _Sam_ and _Hejd_ were two monsters that Helge had sent for and offered
presents with the request that they raise a storm that would destroy
Fritiof and his men. They appeared in the guise of polar bear and eagle.

2. _gudars hem_, the heavens.

3. _Solundar-oe_, an island near the Norwegian coast, probably at the
outlet of Sognefjord. Today the group is called the Outer and the Inner
Sol Islands.

4. _gudatimrade_, built by the gods. See note, canto 3: 164 seq.

5. _kan du icke se foer natt_, could not see because of the darkness.

5. _dra seglaren i kvav_. Drag the sailor into the deep. _Ga i kvav_, to
founder, go down.

5. _Ran(a)_, wife of Aegir and goddess of the sea, was hostile to men and
sought to drag them down into the deep. She was passionately fond of
gold, and sailors deemed it wise to have some of the yellow metal with
them with which to appease her in case they foundered at sea. (See stanza
6.)

5. _at oss_, for us.

6. _faesta havsbrud_, plight troth with the goddess of the sea.

7. _kvad den_, called it forth by incantation.

8. _skepna'n_, skepnaden.

8. _aer du gudars dotter_. See canto III: 164 seq.

9. _halla sjoen_, keep afloat.

10. _Efjesund_, a sound in the Orkney Islands. Angantyr was jarl of the
Orkneys.

11. _havets moer_, the waves, nine beautiful daughters of Aegir and Ran who
delighted in playing all over the surface of their father's vast domain.

11. _mjoedhorn vandrande pa guldfot_. The drinking horns of the ancients
often had metal supports.

CANTO XI.

Stanza 1. _sag ut at blanad ban_, looked out over the blue course (sea).

1. _allt som_, just like.

2. _blott hornet in han stack_, he passed the horn back through the
window to have it refilled.

4. _Pa gangen och pa pannan_. The definite form may be used thus instead
of the possessive when there is no ambiguity.

5. _baersaerk_, from _ber_, bare, and _serk_, shirt or coat of mail. The
berserk was an unarmed warrior that went to battle in a frenzy and
possessed with preternatural strength. In their fury the berserks would
attack indiscriminately friend or foe or even inanimate objects. They
were looked upon as abnormal.

8. _var runa stod i brand_. See canto III: 74-81.

10. _proeva annan faerd_, try a new way.

13. _till slut_, at last.

13. _livet ... pa dig_. A characteristic prepositional possessive.

14. _jag ligger som jag lag_, I will remain still.

15. _hoell mitt i hugget inne_, stopped in the very act of striking.

16 _toersten goer mig men_, the thirst hurts me.

17-18. The description of Angantyr's hall is very much modernized by the
poet.

20. _som en ros i runa_. May perhaps mean an embellished rune or a flower
enclosed in a letter.

22. _ej sitte fjaerran fran_, should not sit far away.

23. _Sikeloe_, Sicily.

24. _Morven_. Northern Scotland, which was often visited by vikings.

24. _vaelska_, Gaelic, the language spoken in the Scotch Highlands.

24. _norraena tunga_, Norse tongue, the common language of Scandinavia
before and during the Viking period.

29. _maenner_, archaic plural.

30. _Astrild_, Cupid.

32. _fjaerran myntat guld_, gold coined far away, foreign money.

34. _satt ... vintern ut_, remained to the end of winter.

CANTO XII.

Line 9. _Aegirs doettrar_, the waves. See canto X: 11.

19. _dar_, dagar.

21. _vaexer ut_, assumes the form.

84. _Eriksgata_, from _edh-vreks-gata (ed-givar-gata)_, the journey of
early kings to receive the homage of their subjects. Some authorities see
the origin of the word in the fact that Erik the Saint was supposed to be
the first king to take one of these royal trips.

91. _Disardalen_, the valley of the gods where Balder's temple lay.

108. _Loke_, the evil giant-god, the enemy of all that was good.

129. _Var_, the goddess of plighted troth. She recorded the solemn
promises of lovers and the marriage vows and avenged any violation of the
same.

135. _Balders Nanna_. See canto I: 22.

145. _sar hoegens saed_, sows the seed of the funeral mound, i. e., takes
life.

164. _Vidar_, the silent god, who next to Tor was the strongest among the
asar. He avenges Oden in Ragnaroek.

187. _den dagen ... fran min runstav tagen_. The early Scandinavians had
some sort of calendars, consisting of runes carved on a staff.

198. _Lofn_, the mild and good goddess, and the deity of matrimony.

199. _vite guden_, Balder.

200. _sa naer som_, except.

CANTO XIII.

Stanza 2. _da rar Hoeder foer vaerlden_, then Hoeder (Oeder) rules the world.
Hoeder, the blind brother of Balder, is the god of night and darkness.

7. _Vaestervagor_, the western sea.

12. _din like_, one like you.

17. _Fritiof blygs, att han darrar_, Fritiof is so ashamed that he
trembles. The antecedent of _han_ may be Bjoern and not Fritiof, the
meaning then being, that the latter is ashamed because Bjoern trembles.

20. _floedar_, pours water.

22. _eldroed hane_. The red cock, the symbol of fire.

25. _Muspels soener_, the flames. Muspel or Muspelhem, the fire world, lay
south of the abyss Ginnungagap and was guarded by the flame giant Surt.

CANTO XIV.

In the first part of this canto Fritiof gives free expression to his
skepticism and to his contempt for the superstition of his day. See canto
VIII, lines 145, 196, 197, 255; canto XIII, stanzas 3, 13. Such
skepticism was common in Scandinavia just before the introduction of
Christianity.

91. _doena_, for _dana_.

123. _gudabloden_. Blod is neuter but here used as a gender noun.

175. _nidingsstaenger_ were pillars raised at crossroads or other
conspicuous places to mock an enemy or to indicate that he was held in
contempt by every one. At the top was the head of a horse and further
down were comic inscriptions giving the name of the despised person and
the nature of his offence.

179. _till lands_, on land, antiquated genitive. There are many similar
expressions in Swedish.

190. _Gudbrands daeld_, the valley of Gudbrand in central Norway.

196. _springa_, break.

202. _Heimskringla_, the earth. Note the apt figure _Heimskringlas
panna_, meaning the Northland.

233. _snoegar_, poetical form for _snoear_.

CANTO XV.

Stanza 3. _Kort aer hammarens skaft hos den segrande Tor_. The handle of
Tor's hammer, Mjoelner, was very short; in his conflicts with the giants
the god hurled it at the enemies. It always returned to his hand, no
matter how far he might hurl it. Frej's sword, referred to, had the power
of fighting successfully of its own accord as soon as it was drawn from
the sheath.

4. _den som stryker (segel)_, the one that lowers the sails, i.e.,
surrenders.

6. _Valfader_, Oden.

9. _nu_, equivalent to _om_.

15. _vill du haelsas foer var_, if you would be hailed as one of us.

15. _Ljungaren_, the thunderer, Tor.

CANTO XVI.

Stanza 4. _holmgang_, a duel, so called because originally fought on a
small island _(holme)_.

8. _Hagbart_, a Norse sea king, was secretly betrothed to Signe, daughter
of Sigar, king of Seeland, who caused Hagbart to be captured and hanged.
Signe then put fire to her chamber and perished in the flames. The tragic
story formed a popular theme for Scandinavian bards.

8. _rista blodoern_, inscribe the blood eagle. This was a monstrous
practice by which the Northmen sometimes wreaked vengeance upon their
fallen enemies. The ribs were severed from the spinal column and bent
outward in the form of wings and salt poured into the wounds, whereupon
the entrails were torn out.

CANTO XVII.

Stanza 6. _helt mycket_, a great deal.

6. _I Anger aer jag uppfoedd_, seq. Fritiof's dejection blinds his eyes to
the happy conditions of his boyhood and youth. What he says is not true.
Compare with cantos I and III.

7. _braenner salt vid strand_, boils the sea water to get a residue of
salt. This occupation was carried on by the poor and the aged and was
considered a very menial service.

14. _nu var loeftets timme, och in baers Frejers galt_. The yule time
marked the return of light and was therefore an occasion for great
rejoicing and sacrificing to Frej, the sun god. In his honor a roasted
boar was placed on the table and with their hands on its head the
warriors vowed that they would perform certain heroic deeds.

15. _vinna_, conquer.

18. _i vinter_, this winter.

24. _helt skarpt_, quite liberally, profusely.

24. _ett aerligt julerus_, a good yuletide spree.

CANTO XVIII.

Stanza 6. _Sleipner_, the eight-footed steed of Odin, which was swifter
than the wind and never grew tired.

CANTO XIX.

Stansa 2. _med kappor oever oega_. The falcons were trained for the hunt by
starving them and keeping a hood over their eyes. This was removed just
before the bird was released. It then rose perpendicularly and started in
pursuit of its prey.

3. _Rota_, a valkyr.

5. _Odens sal_, heaven.

5. _valkyrjan_, the huntress.

7. _Grubblar viking_. This has a conditional meaning; _om_ implied before
the clause.

9. _Ty de hata maenskors aetter_. Fritiof had changed his ideas about the
gods. See canto VIII: 235.

13-15. The birds give expression to Fritiof's own thoughts.

16. _I, som aldrig skulle_. The easier conversational form _skulle_ is
here used, rather than _skullen_, which the strict adherence to
grammatical forms would require.

17. _Nifelhem_, the abode of mist and darkness.

25. _varg i veum_, wolf in the temple, i. e., profaner of the sanctuary.

CANTO XX.

Stanza 1. _Skinfaxe_, the shining steed of _Dag_, day.

3. _vingade haesten_, the ship.

10. _rista geirs-odd_, to take one's own life by wounding oneself with a
lance.

13. _blodiga drotter_, bloody deeds of achievement.

13. _aetthoegens dotter_, the peace that awaits him in another world.

14. _gjallarhorn_, the trumpet of Heimdall, the sentry of the gods.
_Gjallarhornet_ can be heard to the remotest part of the world. Upon it
Heimdall would blow one terrific blast to summon the gods to the final
conflict in Ragnaroek.

CANTO XXI.

Stanza 4. _Vanadis_. Freja, having been born in Vanaheim, was also known
as Vanadis.

5. _baersaerk_. See canto XI: 5.

9. _dvaergarnas dag-glans, drakarnas baedd_, gold. The dwarfs and dragons
had a passionate desire for gold. _Dvaergarnas dag-glans_ is an allusion
to the belief that the subterranean caves of the dwarfs were illuminated
by gold. _Drakarnas baedd_ alludes to the supposition that all great
treasures in caves were guarded by fierce dragons, as Fafner. See canto
VIII: 164.

CANTO XXII.

Stanza 1. _Budkavlen_. Men were summoned to assemblies by staffs that
were inscribed with runes and passed from house to house.

7. _pa oeppet ting_. See canto VIII: 87.

11. _Odens aett_. See canto I: 35.

16. _boendren_, regular form, _boenderna_.

20. _skoeldemoer_, shield maidens. The valkyrs were sometimes called norns.

20. _De bygga under tidens traed och ovanfoer_. This refers to the norns
who dwelt at the well of Urd by the world-tree Yggdrasil. But they also
determine the fate of men on earth. _Bygga_ means here build and dwell.

CANTO XXIII.

Stanza 2. _o, den som, aldrig gungat daeruppa_! Note how Fritiof has
changed his mind regarding life on the sea. Contrast this with canto XII:
143 seq.; XIV: 65 seq.; XIX: 27 seq.

5. _Nidhoegg_, a dragon that was continually gnawing at the roots of
Yggdrasil in order to bring about the destruction of the gods.

5. _moerkrets vaerld_, Nifelhem.

7. _fromme gud_, Balder.

9. _Angantyr_, a great warrior, who fell in a duel and was buried
together with his famous sword, Tyrfing. His daughter Hervor appealed to
him to give her the sword. This he did, at the same time predicting that
it would some day bring disaster upon her and upon her people.

13. _Breidablick_, Balder's glittering palace, the most beautiful hall in
Valhall. Its purity was such that nothing common or unclean could endure
within its confines.

14. _baest som_, just as.

15. _moer fran tidens kaella_. See canto XXII: 20.

CANTO XXIII.

Line 16. _I voren tempelbrand foer mig en gang_. Equivalent to saying:
When I saw you I was reminded of the burning temple.

CANTO XXIV.

Line 5. _hillebarder_, halberds, weapons that were a combination of axe
and spear.

9. _templet i Uppsala likt_. The ancient pagan temple at Uppsala was
famous for its marvelous beauty.

23. _Vala_. The reference is to Voluspa, the Vala Prophecy, one of the
oldest if not the oldest poetic production of Scandinavia.

26. _fromhetsguden_, Balder.

37-39. See canto I: 22.

56. _Valaskjalf_, a beautiful palace of Oden which was built by the gods
and roofed with pure silver. In this palace is the throne Hlidskjalf.
Seated there, Oden could overlook the whole world.

76. _Jotunheim_ or _Utgard_ was the dark and chaotic realm of the giants,
which lay in the uttermost part of the earth.

77. _gudabaelte_. Tors' wonderful belt, Megingjard which doubled his
strength when he put it on. With his mailed gauntlets he seizes his
hammer Mjoelner.

78. _Utgarda-Loke_. The evil giant-god is so called because he has his
realm in Utgard. See note, line 76.

81. _Aegirs barm_, the ocean.

88. _Ymer_, an enormous giant which the gods slew and from whose body
they formed earth and heaven. His flesh constitutes the earth; the bones,
mountains; the teeth, rocks; the skull, the heavenly vault; and the
blood, oceans.

96. _Asker_, the first created man.

103. _fageln kommer flygande_. See canto II: 22.

106. _naer Balder foell_. See canto I: 22.

110. _Midgardsormen_, the serpent of Midgard, which Oden threw into the
sea where it grew until it encircled the earth.

111. _Fenris_ or _Fenrisulven_, a giant wolf, son of Loke, which the gods
bound securely to a solid rock. There he lies howling until the end of
mundane things, when he breaks his fetters and devours Oden. Oden's son,
Vidar, avenges his death by slaying Fenris.

112. _Surt or Surtur_, the god of fire, who guards the fiery realm
Muspelhem. At Ragnaroek he is the first to ride forth to conflict with the
gods. He carries a flaming sword that transcends the sun in brightness.

114-116. _I Valhall gal gullkammig hane_, seq. The cock, as the symbol of
fire, announces the coming of Ragnaroek. A golden-combed cock awakens the
halls of Valhall, a red cock crows on earth and beneath the earth.

161. _Vigrids hundramilaslaett_. Vigrid's plains, one hundred miles
square, upon which is waged the final conflict between the gods and the
forces of evil.

175. _Idavallen_, the plains of Ida, where the gods first met after the
creation of heaven and earth. Here the gods were at play when Balder
fell. After Ragnaroek the regenerated gods return to Idavallen and recall
to their mind the heroic deeds they had performed. In the grass they find
the wonderful golden disks that had been the property of the ancient
gods.

181. _Gimles port_, the portal of Gimle, a hall lined with gold and
fairer than the sun, in which the righteous dwell after Ragnaroek in
eternal bliss.

193. _leder gangarn fram_. The horse was used for food and for sacrifice.

211. _jungfruns son_, Christ. Returning warriors and tradesmen and
captives of war had undoubtedly at the time of Fritiof brought to
Scandinavia some knowledge of the teachings of the Christian religion.
The Balder of Scandinavian mythology has many of the attributes of
Christ.

237. _Semings blod_. Seming was one of the sons of Oden that became the
progenitor of a family of kings. Ingeborg and her brothers had descended
from him.

258. _Jumala_, a Finnish deity.

292. _varg i veum_. See canto XIX: 25.

INDEX TO MYTHOLOGICAL TERMS.

[Figures refer to canto and line or stanza under which explanatory notes
are given.]

Alfhem, 3: 88.
Allfader, 1: 33.
Asa-Tor, 8: 105.
Asker, 24: 96.
Astrild, 11: 30.
Austre, 2: 11.
Balder, 1: 22; 3: 99.
Bifrost, 8: 57.
Brage, 3: 36.
Breidablick, 23: 13.
Dag, 7: 3.
Delling, 7: 3.
Disardalen, 12: 91.
Dvaergar, l: 7; 2: 11; 3: 59; 21: 9.
Fafner, 8: 164.
Fenris, 24: 111.
Folkvang, 1:6.
Forsete, 3: 100.
Frigga, 1: 20.
Frej, 2: 39; 3: 28, 194; 17: 14.
Freja, 1: 6; 9: 8.
Geflon, 8: 36.
Gerda, 1: 21.
Gimle, 24: 181.
Gjallarhom, 20: 14.
Glitner, 3: 100.
Havamal, 2: 28.
Hel, 1: 23; 4: 18.
Heimdal, 20: 4.
Heimskringla, 14: 207.
Hildur, 3: 79.
Hugin, 2: 22.
Hoeder (oeder), 1: 22; 9: 8; 13: 2.
Idavallen, 24: 175.
Iduna, 1: 19.
Jotunheim, 24: 76.
Lofn, 12: 198.
Loke, 1: 22; 12: 108.
Megingjard, 24: 77.
Midgardsormen, 24: 110.
Mimer, 3: 38.
Mjoelner, 15: 3.
Munin, 2: 22.
Muspelhem, 13: 25.
Nanna, 2: 22.
Nastrand, 8: 177.
Natt, 7: 3.
Nidhoegg, 23: 5.
Nifelhem, 19: 17.
Nornor, 2: 32; 22: 20.
Nordre, 2: 11.
Oden, l: 32; 2: 22; 3: 90.
Ragnaroek, 7: 20.
Ran, 10: 5.
Rota, 19: 3.
Saga, 3: 90.
Seming, 24: 237.
Sigurd Fafnesbane, 8: 165.
Skinfaxe, 20: 1.
Skulda, 2: 32.
Sleipner, 18: 6.
Surt, 24: 112.
Soekvabaeck, 3: 90.
Soedre, 2: 11.
Tor, 1: 38; 15: 3.
Trudvang, 1: 38.
Urda, 2: 32; 7: 35.
Utgarda-Loke, 24: 78.
Vala, 24: 23.
Valaskjalf, 24: 56.
Valfader, 15: 6.
Valhall, 1: 17.
Valkyria, 7: 10.
Vanadis, 21: 4.
Var, 12: 129.
Vaulund, 3: 84.
Vegtam, 8: 150.
Verdandi, 2: 32.
Vidar, 12: 164.
Vigrid, 24: 161.
Vingolv, 7: 16.
Vaestre, 2: 11.
Yggdrasil, 7: 35; 22: 20.
Ymer, 24: 88.
Aegir, 3: 164; 10: 11.
Aelvor, 1: 7.
Oeder (Hoeder), 1: 22; 9: 8; 13: 2.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

ANDERSON, RASMUS B. Viking Tales of the North, Chicago, 1876.
BOYESEN, H. H. Essays on Scandinavian Literature, New York, 1895.
BOLDT, A. Esaias Tegner, Helsingfors, 1904.
BRAeNDES, GEORGE. Esaias Tegner. En litteraturpsychologisk studie,
Copenhagen, 1878.
--Mennesker og Vaerker, Copenhagen, 1883.
BOeTTIGER, C. W. Levnadsteckning. Esaias Tegners Samlade skrifter.
Nationalupplaga.
ERDMAN, Nils. Esaias Tegner. En portraettstudie, Stockholm, 1896.
FLOM, G. T. Frithiofs Saga, Chicago, 1909.
HORN, F. W. History of the Literature of the Scandinavian North.
Translated by R. B. Anderson, Chicago, 1901.
LJUNGGREN, GUSTAV. Om Tegners Fritiofs Saga, Stockholm, 1877. Also
Svenska Akademiens Handlingar, Series of 1796, LII. and LIII.
LONGFELLOW, H. W. Tegner's Frithiofs Saga. The North American Review,
XLV.
LYTH, P. G. Tegner och Frithiofs Saga, Norrkoeping, 1894.
MINNE AF ESAIAS TEGNER, Stockholm, 1866. Contains biographical data on
Tegner by Franzen, Rappe, Geijer, Wieselgren, Hagberg, and
Adlersparre, together with many poems by Franzen, Wallin, Longfellow,
Oehlenschlaeger and others.
NYBLAEUS, AXEL. Esaias Tegner, Lund, 1882.
SCHUCK, HENRIK, OCH WAEBURG, KARL. Illustrerad Svensk Litteraturhistoria,
III. Stockholm, 1897.
SHAW, CLEMENT, B. Frithiofs Saga, Chicago, 1908.
TEGNER, ELOF. Ur Tegners papper, Stockholm, 1882. Contains a large number
of letters to Tegner from contemporary authors and other friends.
Covers the period of 1801-1844.
VEDEL, VALDEMAR. Svensk Romantik, Copenhagen, 1894.

VOCABULARY

In the case of nouns, the singular with the postpositive definite article
and the indefinite plural are given in parenthesis. When a dash takes the
place of a plural ending it indicates that the indefinite plural is the
same as the indefinite singular. The vertical lines within a word
indicate to what part the endings are to be added.

The principal parts of irregular and strong verbs are given in full.

A.

ack, ah, oh, alas.
adel, (-n), nobility,
afton (-en, aftnar), evening.
aftondagg (-en), evening dew.
aftonrodnad (-en, -er), sunset glow.
aftonsol (-en, -ar), evening sun.
aftonvind (-en, -ar), evening breeze.
akt, attention, giv --, look out, take notice.
akt|a (-ade, -at), to consider worthy, respect, notice; -- sig, beware.
akt|giva (-gav, -givit), to notice, pay attention.
aktning (-en), respect.
al (-en, -ar) alder.
aldrig, never.
alf (-en, -er), elf.
all, (allt, alla), all.
allena, (allen), alone.
allenast, only.
Allfader (-n), Father of All, Oden.
alltfoer, altogether too.
alltid, always, forever.
alltren, already.
alltjaemt, all the time, always.
alltsa, thus.
alltnog, enough.
alltsedan, ever since.
allvar (-et), seriousness.
allvarsam, serious, grave.
almtraed (-et, --), elm.
aln (-en, -ar), yard, ell.
altare (-t, -n), altar.
altarrund (-en, -er), altar circle.
amm|a (-ade, -at), to nurse.
an, on, forward, up.
an|a (-ade, -at), to apprehend, divine.
an|bringa (-bragte, -bragt), to attach, put.
and|as (-ades, -ats), to breathe.
and|e (-en, -ar), spirit.
andedrag (-et, --), breath.
andre, andra, other, second.
anfall (-et, --), attack.
ankare (-t, -n), anchor.
ankartag (-et, --), anchorchain.
anklag|a (-ade, -at), to accuse.
anlete (-t, -n), face, countenance.
anletsdrag (-et, --), features.
annan, (ann, annat, def., andre, andra), other, different, else.
annars, otherwise.
annorlunda, different.
anor, no sing., ancestral traits, descent.
an|sla (-slog, -slagit, -slagen), to strike, touch; sla an en sang,
strike up a tune or song.
arbet|a (-ade, -at) to work, form.
an|taga (-tog, -tagit, -tagen), to accept, suppose.
arbete, (-t, -n), work, labor.
arm (-en, -ar), arm.
arm, miserable, poor.
armring (-en, -ar), armring, bracelet.

Book of the day: