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Flying Machines: Construction and Operation

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by the portions having a larger diameter and a
greater pitch speed.

"We might compare the larger and smaller diameter
portions of this form of screw propeller, to two power-
driven vessels connected with a line, one capable of traveling
20 miles per hour, the other 10 miles per hour. It
can be readily understood that the boat capable of traveling
10 miles per hour would have no useful effect to
help the one traveling 20 miles per hour, as its action
would be such as to impose a dead load upon the latter's

The term "slip," as applied to a screw propeller, is the
distance between its calculated pitch speed and the actual
distance it travels through under load, depending upon
the efficiency and proportion of its blades and the amount
of load it has to carry.

The action of a screw propeller while performing useful
work might be compared to a nut traveling on a
threaded bolt; little resistance is offered to its forward
motion while it spins freely without load, but give it a
load to carry; then it will take more power to keep up its
speed; if too great a load is applied the thread will strip,
and so it is with a screw propeller gliding spirally on the
air. A propeller traveling without load on to new air
might be compared to the nut traveling freely on the bolt.
It would consume but little power and it would travel at
nearly its calculated pitch speed, but give it work to do
and then it will take power to drive it.

There is a reaction caused from the propeller projecting
air backward when it slips, which, together with the supporting
effect of the blades, combine to produce useful
work or pull on the object to be carried.

A screw propeller working under load approaches more
closely to its maximum efficiency as it carries its load
with a minimum amount of slip, or nearing its calculated
pitch speed.

Why Blades Are Curved.

It has been pointed out by experiment that certain
forms of curved surfaces as applied to aeroplanes will lift
more per horse power, per unit of square foot, while on
the other hand it has been shown that a flat surface will
lift more per horse power, but requires more area of surface
to do it.

As a true pitch screw propeller is virtually a rotating
aeroplane, a curved surface may be advantageously employed
when the limit of size prevents using large plane
surfaces for the blades.

Care should be exercised in keeping the chord of any
curve to be used for the blades at the proper pitch angle,
and in all cases propeller blades should be made rigid so
as to preserve the true angle and not be distorted by
centrifugal force or from any other cause, as flexibility
will seriously affect their pitch speed and otherwise affect
their efficiency.

How to Determine Angle.

To find the angle for the proper pitch at any point in
the diameter of a propeller, determine the circumference
by multiplying the diameter by 3.1416, which represent
by drawing a line to scale in feet. At the end of this line
draw another line to represent the desired pitch in feet.
Then draw a line from the point representing the desired
pitch in feet to the beginning of the circumference line.
For example:

If the propeller to be laid out is 7 feet in diameter, and
is to have a 7-foot pitch, the circumference will be 21.99
feet. Draw a diagram representing the circumference
line and pitch in feet. If this diagram is wrapped around
a cylinder the angle line will represent a true thread 7
feet in diameter and 7 feet long, and the angle of the
thread will be 17 3/4 degrees.

Relation of Diameter to Circumference.

Since the areas of circles decrease as the diameter
lessens, it follows that if a propeller is to travel at a uniform
pitch speed, the volume of its blade displacement
should decrease as its diameter becomes less, so as to
occupy a corresponding relation to the circumferences of
larger diameters, and at the same time the projected
area of the blade must be parallel along its full length
and should represent a true sector of a circle.

Let us suppose a 7-foot circle to be divided into 20
sectors, one of which represents a propeller blade. If the
pitch is to be 7 feet, then the greatest depth of the angle
would be 1/20 part of the pitch, or 4 2/10 inch. If the
line representing the greatest depth of the angle is kept
the same width as it approaches the hub, the pitch will
be uniform. If the blade is set at an angle so its projected
area is 1/20 part of the pitch, and if it is moved
through 20 divisions for one revolution, it would have a
travel of 7 feet.



Since the first edition of this book was printed, early in 1910,
there has been a remarkable advance in the construction of
aeroplane motors, which has resulted in a wonderful decrease
in the amount of surface area from that formerly required.
Marked gain in lightness and speed of the motor has enabled
aviators to get along, in some instances, with one-quarter of
the plane supporting area previously used. The first Wright
biplane, propelled by a motor of 25 h.p., productive of a fair
average speed of 30 miles an hour, had a plane surface of 538
square feet. Now, by using a specially designed motor of 65
h. p., capable of developing a speed of from 70 to 80 miles an
hour, the Wrights are enabled to successfully navigate a machine
the plane area of which is about 130 square feet. This
apparatus is intended to carry only one person (the operator).
At Belmont Park, N. Y., the Wrights demonstrated that the
small-surfaced biplane is much faster, easier to manage in the
hands of a skilled manipulator, and a better altitude climber
than the large and cumbersome machines with 538 square feet
of surface heretofore used by them.

In this may be found a practical illustration of the principle
that increased speed permits of a reduction in plane area in
mathematical ratio to the gain in speed. The faster any object
can be made to move through the air, the less will be the
surface required to sustain a given weight. But, there
is a limit beyond which the plane surface cannot be reduced
with safety. Regard must always be had to the securing of
an ample sustaining surface so that in case of motor stoppage
there will be sufficient buoyancy to enable the operator to
descend safely.

The baby Wright used at the Belmont Park (N. Y.) aviation
meet in the fall of 1910, had a plane length of 19 feet 6 inches,
and an extreme breadth of 21 feet 6 inches, with a total surface
area of 146 square feet. It was equipped with a new Wright
8-cylinder motor of 60 h. p., and two Wright propellers of 8
feet 6 inches diameter and 500 r. p. m. It was easily the fastest
machine at the meet. After the tests, Wilbur Wright said:

"It is our intention to put together a machine with specially
designed propellers, specially designed gears and a motor which
will give us 65 horsepower at least. We will then be able,
after some experimental work we are doing now, to send forth
a machine that will make a new speed record."

In the new Wright machines the front elevating planes for
up-and-down control have been eliminated, and the movements
of the apparatus are now regulated solely by the rear, or

A Powerful Light Motor.

Another successful American aviation motor is the aeromotor,
manufactured by the Detroit Aeronautic Construction.
Aeromotors are made in four models as follows:

Model 1.--4-cylinder, 30-40 h. p., weight 200 pounds.

Model 2.--4-cylinder, (larger stroke and bore) 40-50 h. p.,
weight 225 pounds.

Model 3.--6-cylinder. 50-60 h. p., weight 210 pounds.

Model 4.--6-cylinder, 60-75 h. p., weight 275 pounds.

This motor is of the 4-cycle, vertical, water-cooled type.
Roberts Aviation Motor.

One of the successful aviation motors of American make, is
that produced by the Roberts Motor Co., of Sandusky, Ohio.
It is designed by E. W. Roberts, M. E., who was formerly
chief assistant and designer for Sir Hiram Maxim, when the
latter was making his celebrated aeronautical experiments in
England in 1894-95. This motor is made in both the 4- and
6-cylinder forms. The 4-cylinder motor weighs complete with
Bosch magneto and carbureter 165 pounds, and will develop
40 actual brake h. p. at 1,000 r. p. m., 46 h. p. at 1,200 and 52
h. p. at 1,400. The 6-cylinder weighs 220 pounds and will
develop 60 actual brake h. p. at 1,000 r. p. m., 69 h. p. at
1,200 and 78 h. p. at 1,500.

Extreme lightness has been secured by doing away with all
superfluous parts, rather than by a shaving down of materials
to a dangerous thinness. For example, there is neither an intake
or exhaust manifold on the motor. The distributing valve
forms a part of the crankcase as does the water intake, and
the gear pump. Magnalium takes the place of aluminum in
the crankcase, because it is not only lighter but stronger and
can be cast very thin. The crankshaft is 2 1/2-inch diameter
with a 2 1/4-inch hole, and while it would be strong enough in
ordinary 40 per cent carbon steel it is made of steel twice the
strength of that customarily employed. Similar care has been
exercised on other parts and the result is a motor weighing 4
pounds per h. p.

The Rinek Motor.

The Rinek aviation motor, constructed by the Rinek Aero
Mfg. Co., of Easton, Pa., is another that is meeting with favor
among aviators. Type B-8 is an 8-cylinder motor, the cylinders
being set at right angles, on a V-shaped crank case. It is water
cooled, develops 50-60 h. p., the minimum at 1,220 r. p. m., and
weighs 280 pounds with all accessories. Type B-4, a 4-cylinder
motor, develops 30 h. p. at 1,800 r. p. m., and weighs 130 pounds
complete. The cylinders in both motors are made of cast iron
with copper water jackets.

The Overhead Camshaft Boulevard.

The overhead camshaft Boulevard is still another form of
aviation motor which has been favorably received. This is
the product of the Boulevard Engine Co., of St. Louis. It is
made with 4 and 8 cylinders. The former develops 30-35 h. p.
at 1,200 r. p. m., and weighs 130 pounds. The 8-cylinder motor
gives 60-70 h. p. at 1,200 r. p. m., and weighs 200 pounds.
Simplicity of construction is the main feature of this motor,
especially in the manipulation of the valves.



Until recently, American aviators had not given serious
attention to any form of flying machines aside from biplanes.
Of the twenty-one monoplanes competing at the International
meet at Belmont Park, N. Y., in November, 1910, only three
makes were handled by Americans. Moissant and Drexel
navigated Bleriot machines, Harkness an Antoinette, and
Glenn Curtiss a single decker of his own construction. On
the other hand the various foreign aviators who took part in
the meet unhesitatingly gave preference to monoplanes.

Whatever may have been the cause of this seeming prejudice
against the monoplane on the part of American air sailors,
it is slowly being overcome. When a man like Curtiss, who
has attained great success with biplanes, gives serious attention
to the monoplane form of construction and goes so far as
to build and successfully operate a single surface machine,
it may be taken for granted that the monoplane is a fixture in
this country.

Dimensions of Monoplanes.

The makes, dimensions and equipment of the various monoplanes
used at Belmont Park are as follows:

Bleriot--(Moissant, operator)--plane length 23 feet, extreme
breadth 28 feet, surface area 160 square feet, 7-cylinder, 50 h.
Gnome engine, Chauviere propeller, 7 feet 6 inches diameter,
1,200 r. p. m.

Bleriot--(Drexel, operator)--exactly the same as Moissant's

Antoinette--(Harkness, operator)--plane length 42 feet,
extreme breadth 46 feet, surface area 377 square feet, Emerson
6-cylinder, 50 h. p. motor, Antoinette propeller, 7 feet 6 inches
diameter, 1,200 r. p. m.

Curtiss--(Glenn H. Curtiss, operator)--plane length 25 feet,
extreme breadth 26 feet, surface area 130 square feet, Curtiss
8-cylinder, 60 h. p. motor, Paragon propeller, 7 feet in
diameter, 1,200 r. p. m.

With one exception Curtiss had the smallest machine of
any of those entering into competition. The smallest was La
Demoiselle, made by Santos-Dumont, the proportions of which
were: plane length 20 feet, extreme breadth 18 feet, surface
area 100 square feet, Clement-Bayard 2-cylinder, 30 h. p. motor,
Chauviere propeller, 6 feet 6 inches in diameter, 1,100 r. p. m.

Winnings Made with Monoplanes.

Operators of monoplanes won a fair share of the cash prizes.
They won $30,283 out of a total of $63,250, to say nothing about
Grahame-White's winnings. The latter won $13,600, but part
of his winning flights were made in a Bleriot monoplane, and
part in a Farman machine. Aside from Grahame-White the
winnings were divided as follows: Moissant (Bleriot) $13,350;
Latham (Antoinette) $8,183; Aubrun (Bleriot) $2,400;
De Lesseps (Bleriot) $2,300; Drexel (Bleriot) $1,700; Radley
(Bleriot) $1,300; Simon (Bleriot) $750; Andemars (Clement-
Bayard) $100; Barrier (Bleriot) $100.

Out of a total of $30,283, operators of Bleriot machines won
$21,900, again omitting Grahame-White's share. If the winnings
with monoplane and biplane could be divided so as to
show the amount won with each type of machine the credit
side of the Bleriot account would be materially enlarged.

The Most Popular Monoplanes.

While the number of successful monoplanes is increasing
rapidly, and there is some feature of advantage in nearly all
the new makes, interest centers chiefly in the Santos-Dumont,
Antoinette and Bleriot machines. This is because more has
been accomplished with them than with any of the others,
possibly because they have had greater opportunities.

For the guidance of those who may wish to build a machine
of the monoplane type after the Santos-Dumont or Bleriot
models, the following details will be found useful.

Santos-Dumont--The latest production of this maker is
called the "No. 20 Baby." It is of 18 feet spread, and 20 feet
over all in depth. It stands 4 feet 2 inches in height, not
counting the propeller. When this latter is in a vertical
the extreme height of the machine is 7 feet 5 inches. It
is strictly a one-man apparatus. The total surface area is 115
square feet. The total weight of the monoplane with engine
and propeller is 352 pounds. Santos-Dumont weighs 110
pounds, so the entire weight carried while in flight is 462
pounds, or about 3.6 pounds per square foot of surface.

Bamboo is used in the construction of the body frame, and
also for the frame of the tail. The body frame consists of
three bamboo poles about 2 inches in diameter at the forward
end and tapering to about 1 inch at the rear. These poles are
jointed with brass sockets near the rear of the main plane so
they may be taken apart easily for convenience in housing or
transportation. The main plane is built upon four transverse
spars of ash, set at a slight dihedral angle, two being placed on
each side of the central bamboo. These spars are about 2 inches
wide by 1 1/8-inch deep for a few feet each side of the center of
the machine, and from there taper down to an inch in depth
at the center bamboo, and at their outer ends, but the width
remains the same throughout their entire length. The planes
are double surfaced with silk and laced above and below the
bamboo ribs which run fore and aft under the main spars and
terminate in a forked clip through which a wire is strung for
lacing on the silk. The tail consists of a horizontal and
surface placed on a universal joint about 10 feet back of
the rear edge of the main plane. Both of these surfaces are
flat and consist of a silk covering stretched upon bamboo ribs.
The horizontal surface is 6 feet 5 inches across, and 4 feet 9
inches from front to back. The vertical surface is of the same
width (6 feet 5 inches) but is only 3 feet 7 inches from front
to back. All the details of construction are shown in the
accompanying illustration.

Power is furnished by a very light (110 pounds) Darracq
motor, of the double-opposed-cylinder type. It has a bore of
4.118 inches, and stroke of 4.724 inches, runs at 1,800 r. p. m.,
and with a 6 1/2-foot propeller develops a thrust of 242 1/2
when the monoplane is held steady.

Bleriot--No. XI, the latest of the Bleriot productions, and
the greatest record maker of the lot, is 28 feet in spread of
plane, and depth of 6 feet in largest part. This would give a
main surface of 168 square feet, but as the ends of the plane
are sharply tapered from the rear, the actual surface is reduced
to 150 square feet. Projecting from the main frame is an
elongated tail (shown in the illustration) which carries the
horizontal and vertical rudders. The former is made in three
sections. The center piece is 6 feet 1 inch in spread, and 2 feet
10 inches in depth, containing 17 square feet of surface. The
end sections, which are made movable for warping purposes,
are each 2 feet 10 inches square, the combined surface area in
the entire horizontal rudder being 33 square feet. The vertical
rudder contains 4 1/2 square feet of surface, making the entire
supporting area 187 1/2 square feet.

From the outer end of the propeller shaft in front to the extreme
rear edge of the vertical rudder, the machine is 25 feet
deep. Deducting the 6-foot depth of the main plane leaves 19
feet as the length of the rudder beam and rudders. The motor
equipment consists of a 3-cylinder, air-cooled engine of about
30 h. p. placed at the front end of the body frame, and carrying
on its crankshaft a two-bladed propeller 6 feet 8 inches in
diameter. The engine speed is about 1,250 r. p. m. at which
the propeller develops a thrust of over 200 pounds.

The Bleriot XI complete weighs 484 pounds, and with
operator and fuel supply ready for a 25- or 30-mile flight, 715
pounds. One peculiarity of the Bleriot construction is that,
while the ribs of the main plane are curved, there is no
bending of the pieces as in other forms of construction.
Bleriot has his rib pieces cut a little longer than required
and, by springing them into place, secures the necessary
curvature. A good view of the Bleriot plane framework is
given on page 63.

Combined Triplane and Biplane.

At Norwich, Conn., the Stebbins-Geynet Co., after several
years of experiment, has begun the manufacture of a combination
triplane and biplane machine. The center plane, which is
located about midway between the upper and lower surfaces,
is made removable. The change from triplane to biplane, or
vice versa, may be readily made in a few minutes. The
claim for this type of air craft a large supporting
surface area with the minimum of dimensions in planes. Although
this machine has only 24-foot spread and is only 26
feet over all, its total amount of supporting area is 400 square
feet; weight, 600 pounds in flying order, and lifting capacity
approximately 700 pounds more.

The frame is made entirely of a selected grade of Oregon
spruce, finished down to a smooth surface and varnished. All
struts are fish-shaped and set in aluminum sockets, which are
bolted to top and lower beams with special strong bolts of
small diameter. The middle plane is set inside the six uprights
and held in place by aluminum castings. A flexible twisted
seven-strand wire cable and Stebbins-Geynet turnbuckles are
used for trussing.

The top plane is in three sections, laced together. It has a
24-foot spread and is 7 feet in depth. The middle plane is in
two sections each of 7 1/2 feet spread and 6 feet in depth. The
center ends of the middle plane sections do not come within
5 feet of joining, this open space being left for the engine.
The bottom plane is of 16 feet spread and 5 feet in depth. It
will thus be seen that the planes overhang one another in depth,
the bottom one being the smallest in this respect. The planes
are set at an angle of 9 degrees, and there is a clear space of 3
1/2 feet between each, making the total distance from the bottom
to the top plane a trifle over 7 feet. The total supporting
surface in the main planes is 350 square feet. By arranging the
three plane surfaces at an angle as described and varying their
size, the greatest amount of lifting area is secured above the
center of gravity, and the greatest weight carried below.

The ribs are made of laminated spruce, finished down to
1/2x3/4-inch cross section dimensions, with a curvature of about
1 in 20, and fastened to the beams with special aluminum
Number 2 Naiad aeroplane cloth is used in covering the
planes, with pockets sewn in for the ribs.

Two combination elevating rudders are set up well in front,
each having 18 square feet of supporting area. These rudders
are arranged to work in unison, independently, or in opposite
directions. In the Model B machine, there are also two small
rear elevating rudders, which work in unison with the front
rudders. One vertical rudder of 10 square feet is suspended
in the rear of a small stationary horizontal plane in Model A,
while the vertical rudder on Model B is only 6 square feet in
size. The elevating rudders are arranged so as to act as
planes when the machine is in flight. The wing tips are
held in place with a special two-piece casting which forms a
hinge, and makes a quick detachable joint. Wing tips are also
used in balancing.

Model A is equipped with a Cameron 25-30 h. p., 4-cylinder,
air-cooled motor. On Model B a Holmes rotary 7-cylinder
motor of 4x4-inch bore and stroke is used.

Positive control is secured by use of the Stebbins-Geynet
"auto-control" system. A pull or push movement operates the
elevating rudders, while the balancing is done by means of
side movements or slight turns. The rear vertical rudder is
manipulated by means of a foot lever.

New Cody Biplane.

Among the comparatively new biplanes is one constructed by
Willard F. Cody, of London, Eng., the principal distinctive
feature of which is an automaticcontrol which works independently
of the hand levers. For the other control a long lever
carrying a steering wheel furnishes all the necessary control
movements, there being no footwork at all. The lever is
universally jointed and when moved fore and aft operates the
two ailerons as if they were one; when the shaft is rotated it
moves the tail as a whole. The horizontal tail component is
immovable. When the lever is moved from side to side it works
not only the ailerons and the independent elevators, but also
through a peculiar arrangement, the vertical rear rudder as well.

The spread of the planes is 46 feet 6 inches and the width 6
feet 6 inches. The ailerons jut out 1 foot 6 inches on each
side of the machine and are 13 feet 6 inches long. The cross-
shaped tail is supported by an outrigger composed of two long
bamboos and of this the vertical plane is 9 feet by 4 feet, while
the horizontal plane is 8 feet by 4 feet. The over-all length
of the machine is 36 feet. The lifting surface is 857 square
feet. It will weigh, with a pilot, 1,450 pounds. The distance
between the main planes is 8 feet 6 inches, which is a rather
notable feature in this flyer.

The propeller has a diameter of 11 feet and 2 inches with a
13-foot 6-inch pitch; it is driven at 560 revolutions by a chain,
and the gear reduction between the chain and propeller shaft
is two to one.

The machine from elevator to tail plane bristles in original
points. The hump in the ribs has been cut away entirely, so
that although the plane is double surfaced, the surfaces are
closest together at a point which approximates the center of
pressure. The plane is practically of two stream-line forms,
of which one is the continuation of the other. This construction,
claims the inventor, will give increased lift, and decreased
head resistance. The trials substantiate this, as the angle of
incidence in flying is only about one in twenty-six.

The ribs in the main planes are made of strips of silver spruce
one-half by one-half inch, while those in the ailerons are solid
and one-fourth inch thick. In the main planes the fabric is
held down with thin wooden fillets. Cody's planes are noted
for their neatness, rigidity and smoothness. Pegamoid fabric
is used throughout.

Pressey Automatic Control.

Another ingenious system of automatic control has been
perfected by Dr. J. B. Pressey, of Newport News, Va. The
aeroplane is equipped with a manually operated, vertical rudder,
(3), at the stern, and a horizontal, manually operated,
front control, (4), in front. At the ends of the main plane, and
about midway between the upper and lower sections thereof,
there are supplemental planes, (5).

In connection with these supplemental planes (5), there is
employed a gravity influenced weight, the aviator in his seat,
for holding them in a horizontal, or substantially horizontal,
position when the main plane is traveling on an even keel; and
for causing them to tip when the main plane dips laterally, to
port or starboard, the planes (5) having a lifting effect upon
depressed end of the main plane, and a depressing effect upon
the lifted end of the main plane, so as to correct such lateral
of the main plane, and restore it to an even keel. To the
upper edge of planes (5) connection is made by means
of rod (13) to one arm of a bellcrank lever, (14) the latter
pivotally mounted upon a fore and aft pin (15), supported from
the main plane; and the other arms of the port and starboard
bellcrank levers (16), are connected by rod (17), which has an
eye (18), for receiving the segmental rod (19), secured to and
projecting from cross bar on seat supporting yoke (7). When,
therefore, the main plane tips downwardly on the starboard
side, the rod (17) will be moved bodily to starboard, and the
starboard balancing plane (5) will be inclined so as to raise its
forward edge and depress its rear edge, while, at the same time,
the port balancing plane (5), will be inclined so as to depress
its forward edge, and raise its rear edge, thereby causing the
starboard balancing plane to exert a lifting effect, and the port
balancing plane to exert a depressing effect upon the main
plane, with the result of restoring the main plane to an even
keel, at which time the balancing planes (5), will have resumed
their normal, horizontal position.

When the main plane dips downwardly on the port side, a
reverse action takes place, with the like result of restoring the
main plane to an even keel. In order to correct forward and
aft dip of the main plane, fore and aft balancing planes (20)
and (23) are provided. These planes are carried by transverse
rock shafts, which may be pivotally mounted in any suitable
way, upon structures carried by main plane. In the present
instance, the forward balancing plane is pivotally mounted in
extensions (21) of the frame (22) which carries the forward,
manually operated, horizontal ascending and descending plane

It is absolutely necessary, in making a turn with an aeroplane,
if that turn is to be made in safety, that the main plane shall
be inclined, or "banked," to a degree proportional to the
of the curve and to the speed of the aeroplane. Each different
curve, at the same speed, demands a different inclination, as is
also demanded by each variation in speed in rounding like
curves. This invention gives the desired result with absolute

The Sellers' Multiplane.

Another innovation is a multiplane, or four-surfaced machine,
built and operated by M. B. Sellers, formerly of Grahn, Ky.,
but now located at Norwood, Ga. Aside from the use of four
sustaining surfaces, the novelty in the Sellers machine lies in
the fact that it is operated successfully with an 8 h. p. motor,
which is the smallest yet used in actual flight. In describing
his work, Mr. Sellers says his purpose has been to develop the
efficiency of the surfaces to a point where flight may be
with the minimum of power and, judging by the results
accomplished, he has succeeded. In a letter written to the
authors of this book, Mr. Sellers says:

"I dislike having my machine called a quadruplane, because
the number of planes is immaterial; the distinctive feature being
the arrangement of the planes in steps; a better name would
be step aeroplane, or step plane.

"The machine as patented, comprises two or more planes
arranged in step form, the highest being in front. The machine
I am now using has four planes 3 ft. x 18 ft.; total about 200
square feet; camber (arch) 1 in 16.

"The vertical keel is for lateral stability; the rudder for
direction. This is the first machine (so far as I know) to have a
combination of wheels and runners or skids (Oct. 1908). The
wheels rise up automatically when the machine leaves the
ground, so that it may alight on the runners.

"A Duthirt & Chalmers 2-cylinder opposed, 3 1/8-inch engine
was used first, and several hundred short flights were made.
The engine gave four brake h. p., which was barely sufficient
for continued flight. The aeroplane complete with this engine
weighed 78 pounds. The engine now used is a Bates 3 5/8-inch,
2-cylinder opposed, showing 8 h. p., and apparently giving
plenty of power. The weight of aeroplane with this engine is
now 110 pounds. Owing to poor grounds only short flights
have been made, the longest to date (Dec. 31, 1910) being about
1,000 feet.

"In building the present machine, my object was to produce a
safe, slow, light, and small h. p. aeroplane, a purpose which I
have accomplished."




Greatest Speed Per Hour, Whatever Length of Flight, Aviator
Alone--E. Nieuport, Mourmelon, France, June 21, Nieuport Machine,
82.72 miles; with one passenger, E. Nieuport, Moumlelon, France,
June 12, Nieuport Machine, 67.11 miles; with two passengers, E.
Nieuport, Mourmelon, France, March 9, Nieuport Machine, 63.91
miles; with three passengers, G. Busson, Rheims, France, March
10, Deperdussin Machine, 59.84 miles; with four passengers, G.
Busson, Rheims, France, March 10, Deperdussin Machine, 54.21

Greatest Distance Aviator Alone--G. Fourny, no stops, Buc,
France, September 2, M. Farman Machine, 447.01 miles; E. Helen,
three stops, Etampes, France, September 8, Nieuport Machine,
778.45 miles; with one passenger, Lieut. Bier, Austria, October
2, Etrich Machine, 155.34 miles; with two passengers, Lieut.
Bier, Austria, October 4, Etrich Machine, 69.59 miles; with three
passengers, G. Busson, Rheims, France, March 10, Deperdussin
Machine, 31.06 miles; with four passengers, G. Busson, Rheims,
France, March 10, Deperdussin Machine, 15.99 miles.

Greatest Duration Aviator Alone--G. Fourny, no stops, Buc,
France, September 2, M. Farman Machine, 11 hours, 1 minute, 29
seconds, E. Helen, three stops, Etampes, France, September 8,
Nieuport Machine, 14 hours, 7 minutes, 50 seconds, 13 hours, 17
minutes net time; with one passenger, Suvelack, Johannisthal,
Germany, December 8, 4 hours, 23 minutes; with two passengers, T.
de W. Milling, Nassau Boulevard, New York, September 26,
Burgess-Wright Machine, 1 hour, 54 minutes, 42 3-5 seconds; with
three passengers, Warchalowski, Wiener-Neustadt, Aust., October
30, 45 minutes, 46 seconds; with four passengers, G. Busson,
Rheims, France, March 10, Deperdussin Machine, 17 minutes, 28 1-5

Greatest Altitude Aviator Alone--Garros, St. Malo, France,
September 4, Bleriot Machine, 13,362 feet; with one passenger,
Prevost, Courcy, France, December 2, 9,840 feet; with two
passengers, Lieut. Bier, Austria, Etrich Machine, 4,010 feet.


Greatest Speed Per Hour, Whatever Length of Flight, Aviator
Alone--A. Leblanc, Belmont Park, N. Y., October 29, Bleriot
Machine, 67.87 miles; with one passenger, C. Grahame-White,
Squantum, Mass., September 4, Nieuport Machine, 63.23 miles; with
two passengers, T. O. M. Sopwith, Chicago, Ill., August 15,
Wright Machine, 34.96 miles.

Greatest Distance Aviator Alone--St. Croix Johnstone, Mineola,
N. Y., July 27, Moisant (Bleriot Type) Machine, 176.23 miles.

Greatest Duration Aviator Alone--Howard W. Gill, Kinloch, Mo.,
October 19, Wright Machine, 4 hours, 16 minutes, 35 seconds; with
one passenger, G. W. Beatty, Chicago, Ill., August 19, Wright
Machine, 3 hours, 42 minutes, 22 1-5 seconds; with two
passengers, T. de W. Milling, Nassau Boulevard, N. Y., September
26, Burgess-Wright Machine, 1 hour, 54 minutes, 42 3-5 seconds.

Greatest Altitude Aviator Alone--L. Beachy, Chicago, Ill., August
20, Curtiss Machine, 11,642 feet; with one passenger, C. Grahame-
White, Nassau Boulevard, N. Y., September 30, Nieuport Machine,
3,347 feet.

Weight Carrying--P. O. Parmelee, Chicago, III., August 19,
Wright Machine, 458 lbs.


The wonderful progress made in the science of aviation
during the year 1911 far surpasses any twelve months' advancement
recorded. The advancement has not been confined to any country or
continent, since every part of the world is taking its part in
aviation history making.

The rapidly increasing interest in aviation has brought
forth schools for the instruction of flying in both the old and
new world, and licensed air pilots before they receive their
sanctions from the governing aero clubs of their country are
required to pass an extremely trying examination in actual
flights. Exhibition flights and races were common in all
parts of the world during 1911, and touring aviators visited
India, China, Japan, South Africa, Australia and South
America, giving exhibitions and instruction.

Europe was the scene of a number of cross-country races
in which entries ranging from ten to twenty aviators flew
from city to city around a given circuit, which in some
instances exceeded 1,000 miles in distance. Cross-country
flights with and without passengers became so common that
those of less than two hours' duration attracted little
attention. There were fewer attempts at high altitude soaring,
although the world's record in this department of aviation
was bettered several times. In place of these high flights, the
aviators devoted more attention to speed, duration and
spectacular manoeuvres, which appeared to satisfy the spectators.
The prize money won during 1911 exceeded $1,000,000, but
owing to the increased number of aviators the individual
winnings were not as large as in 1910.

It is estimated that within the past twelve months more
than 300,000 miles have been covered in aeroplane flights
and more than seven thousand persons, classed either as
aviators or passengers, taken up into the air. The aeroplane
of today ranges through monoplane, biplane, triplane and
even quadraplane, and more than two hundred types of these
machines are in use.

Aeroplanes are becoming a factor of international commerce.
The records of the Bureau of Statistics show that
more than $50,000 worth of aeroplanes were imported into,
and exported from, the United States in the months of July,
August and September, 1911. The Bureau of Statistics only
began the maintenance of a separate record of this comparatively
new article of commerce with the opening of the fiscal
year 1911-12.

Two of the prominent developments of 1911 were the
introduction of the hydro-aeroplane and the motorless glider
experiments of the Wright brothers at Killdevil Hills, N. C.,
where during the two weeks' experiments numerous flights
with and against the wind were made, culminating in the
establishing of a record by Orville Wright on October 25,
1911, when in a 52-mile per hour blow he reached an elevation
of 225 feet and remained in the air 10 minutes and 34
seconds. The search for the secret of automatic stability
still continues, and though some remarkable progress has
been made the solution has not yet been reached.


One of the important features of 1911 in aviation was the
rapid increase in the number and distance of cross-country
flights made either for the purpose of exhibition, testing,
instruction or pleasure. Flights between cities in almost every
country of the world became common occurrences. So great
was the number that only those of more than ordinary importance
because of speed, distance or duration are recorded.
The flights of Harry N. Atwood from Boston to Washington
and from St. Louis to New York, and C. P. Rodgers from
New York to Los Angeles were the most important events
of the kind in this country. The St Louis to New York flight
was a distance by air route, 1,266 miles. Duration of flight,
12 days. Net flying time, 28 hours 53 minutes. Average
daily flight, 105.5 miles. Average speed, 43.9 miles per hour.

Transcontinental Flight of Calbraith P. Rodgers.--All
world records for cross-country flying were broken during
the New York to Los Angeles flight of Calbraith P. Rodgers,
who left Sheepshead Bay, N. Y., on Sunday, September 17,
1911, and completed his flight to the Pacific Coast on Sunday,
November 5, at Pasadena, Cal. Rodgers flew a Wright biplane,
and during his long trip the machine was repeatedly
repaired, so great was the strain of the long journey in the
air. Rodgers is estimated to have covered 4,231 miles,
although the actual route as mapped out was but 4,017 miles.
Elapsed time to Pasadena, Cal., 49 days; actual time in the
air, 4,924 minutes, equivalent to 3 days 10 hours 4 minutes;
average speed approximating 51 miles per hour. Rodgers'
longest flight in one day was from Sanderson to Sierra Blanca,
Texas, on October 28, when he covered 231 miles. On November
12, Rodgers fell at Compton, Cal., and was badly injured,
causing a delay of 28 days.

European Circuit Race.--Started from Paris on June 18,
1911. Distance, 1,073 miles, via Paris to Liege; Liege to Spa
to Liege; Liege to Utrecht, Holland; Utrecht to Brussels,
Belgium; Brussels to Roubaix; Roubaix to Calais; Calais to
London; London to Calais and Calais to Paris. Three aeronauts
were killed either at the start or shortly after the race
was in progress. They were Capt. Princetau, M. Le Martin
and M. Lendron. Three others were injured by falls. Seven
hundred thousand spectators witnessed the start from the
aviation field at Vincennes, near Paris. There were more
than forty starters, of which eight finished. The winner, Lieut.
Jean Conneau, who flies under the name of "Andre Beaumont,"
completed the circuit on July 7; his actual net flying time for
the distance being 58h. 38m. 4-5s.

Circuit of England Race--1,010 Miles in Five Sections.--

Start, July 22. Finish, July 26. Prize, $50,000. Twenty-
eight entries and eighteen starters. Seventeen finished the
first section from Brooklands to Hendon, a distance of twenty
miles. Five reached Edinburgh, the second section, a distance
of 343 miles, and four completed the entire circuit.

Paris to Madrid Race.--This race was started at the Paris
aviation held at Issy-les-Moulineaux on Sunday, May 21. There
were twenty-one entrants, and fully 300,000 spectators gathered
to witness the initial flight of the aerial races. The race
was divided into three stages as follows: Paris to Angouleme,
248 miles; Angouleme to St. Sebastian, 208 miles, and from
St. Sebastian to Madrid, 386 miles, a total distance of 842
miles. After three of the entrants had safely left the field,
Aviator Train lost control of his plane, and in falling struck
and killed M. Berteaux, the French Minister of War, and
seriously injured Premier Monis. The accident caused the
withdrawal of all but six of the original entrants, and of these
but one finished. The race called for a flight over the
Pyrenees Mountains, and Vedrines, the winner, had to rise
to a height of more than 7,000 feet to pass the mountain
barrier near Somosierra Pass. Both Vedrines and Gibert, another
competitor, were attacked by eagles during the latter
stages of the flight. Vedrines, who started from Paris on
Monday, May 22, finished the long and perilous race at 8:06
a. m. Friday, May 26. Vedrines net flying time, all controls
and enforced stops subtracted, was 14h. 55m. 18s. The various
prizes to the winner aggregated $30,000.

The Paris-Rome-Turin Race.--The conditions of this race
called for a flight between the cities of Paris, Rome and
Turin, covering a distance of 1,300 miles. The aviators were
permitted by the rules to alight whenever and wherever they
desired and the time limit was set from May 28 to June 15.
A prize of $100,000 was offered the winner, but the contest
was never finished, as one after another the aviators dropped
out until Frey fell near Roncigilione, France, breaking both
arms and legs and unofficially ending the contest. There
were twenty-one entries and twelve actual starters.

International Speed Cup Race.--The third annual international
James Gordon Bennett speed cup race was held at
Eastchurch, England, on July 1, 1911, and for the second
time was won by an American aviator, C. T. Weymann, in a
French racing aeroplane. The distance was 150 kilometres
equivalent to 94 miles, and the winner's time of 1h. 11m. 36s.
showed an average speed of 78.77 miles per hour. The first
race was held in 1909 and was won by Glenn Curtiss, who
flew the twenty kilometres (12.4 miles) in 15 minutes 50 2-5
seconds at an average speed of 47 miles per hour. In 1910
the winner was Grahame-White, who covered 100 kilometres
(62 miles) at Belmont Park, L. I., in 60 minutes 47 3-5 seconds,
an average speed of 61.3 miles per hour. In the 1911
race there were six starters: three from France, two from
Great Britain and one from the United States.

Milan to Turin to Milan Race.--This race which was
started from Milan, Italy, on October 29, was restricted to
Italian aviators and had six starters. The distance was
approximately 177 miles and won by Manissero in a Bleriot
machine in 3h. 16m. 2 4-5s.

New York to Philadelphia Race.--The first intercity aeroplane
race ever held in the United States was started from
New York City on August 5, and finished in Philadelphia the
same day. The prize of $5,000 was offered by a commercial
concern with stores in the two cities: Three entrants competed
from the Curtiss Exhibition Company. The distance
was approximately 83 miles and won by L. Beachey in a
Curtiss machine in 1h. 50m. at an average speed of 45 miles
per hour.

Tri-State Race.--The tri-state race was the feature event
of the Harvard Aviation Society meet held at Squantum,
Mass., August 26 to September 6. It was held Labor Day,
September 4, over a course of 174 miles, from Boston to
Nashua to Worcester to Providence to Boston. Four competitors
started, of which two finished, the winner, E. Ovington,
in a Bleriot machine. Ovington's net flying time, 3h. 6m.
22 1-5s. Winner's prize, $10,000.


Wonderful progress has been made in the development of
the aeroplane in this country and in Europe since 1903, and
within the last two or three years the leading powers of the
world have entered upon extensive tests and experiments to
determine its availability and usefulness in land and naval

At the present time all the great powers are building or
purchasing aeroplanes on an extensive scale. They have
established government schools for the instruction of their
army and navy officers and for experimental work. So-called
"Airship Fleets" have been constructed and placed in commission
as auxiliaries to the armies and navies. The fleets
of France and Germany are about equal and are larger by
far than those of any of the other powers. The length of the
dirigibles composing these fleets runs from 150 to 500 feet;
they are equipped with engines of from 50 to 500 horse-power,
with a rate of speed ranging from 20 to 30 miles per hour.
Their approximate range is from 200 to 900 miles; the longest
actual run (made by the Zeppelin II, Germany) is 800 miles.

A British naval airship, one of the largest yet built, was
completed last summer. It has cost over $200,000, and it was
in course of designing and construction two years. It is 510
feet long; can carry 22 persons, and has a lift of 21 tons.

The relative value of the dirigible balloon and the aeroplane
in actual war is yet to be determined. The dirigible
is considered to be the safer, yet several large balloons of this
class in Germany and France have met with disaster, involving
loss of lives. The capacity of the dirigible for longer
flights and its superior facilities for carrying apparatus and
operators for wireless telegraphy are distinct advantages.

There has not yet been much opportunity to test the airship
in actual warfare. The aeroplane has been used by the
Italians in Tripoli for scouting and reconnoitering and is said
to have justified expectations. On several occasions the Italian
military aviators followed the movements of the enemy, in
one instance as far as forty miles inland. At the time of the
attack by the Turks a skillful aeroplane reconnaissance revealed
the approach of a large Turkish force, believed to be at
the time sixty miles away in the mountains.

Aeroplanes and airships, as they exist today, would doubtless
render very valuable service in a time of war, both over
land and water, in scouting, reconnoitering, carrying dispatches,
and as some experts believe, in locating submarines
and mines placed by the enemy in channels of exits from ports.
A "coast aeroplane" could fly out 30 or 40 miles from land.
and rising to a great height, descry any hostile ships on the
distant horizon, observe their number, strength, formation and
direction, and return within two hours with a report to obtain
which would require several swift torpedo-boat destroyers
and a much greater time. The question as to whether it
would be practicable to bombard an enemy on land or sea
with explosive bombs dropped or discharged from flying machines
or airships, is one which is much discussed but hardly
yet determined.

Aeroplanes have been constructed with floats in the place
of runners and several attempts have been made, in some
cases successfully, to light with them on and to rise from the
water. Mr. Curtiss did this at San Francisco, in January,
1911. Attempts have also been made with the aeroplane to
alight on and to take flight from the deck of a warship. Toward
the end of 1910 Aviator Ely flew to land from the
cruiser Birmingham, and in January, 1911, he flew from land
and alighted on the cruiser Pennsylvania. But in these cases
special arrangements were made which would be hardly practicable
in a time of actual war.

In November, 1911, a test was made at Newport, R. I., by
Lieut. Rodgers, of the navy, of a "hydro-areoplane" as an
auxiliary to a battleship. The idea of the test was to alight
alongside of the ship, hoist the machine aboard, put out to sea
and launch the machine again with the use of a crane. Lieut.
Rodgers came down smoothly alongside the Ohio, his machine
was easily drawn aboard with a crane, and the Ohio steamed
down to the open sea, where it was blowing half a gale. But,
owing to the misjudgment of the ship's headway, one of the
wings of the machine when it struck the water after being
released from the crane, went under the water and was
snapped off. Lieut. Rodgers was convinced that this method
was too risky and that some other must be devised.



Aerodrome.--Literally a machine that runs in the air.
Aerofoil.--The advancing transverse section of an aeroplane.

Aeroplane.--A flying machine of the glider pattern,
used in contra-distinction to a dirigible balloon.

Aeronaut.--A person who travels in the air.

Aerostat.--A machine sustaining weight in the air. A
balloon is an aerostat.

Aerostatic.--Pertaining to suspension in the air; the
art of aerial navigation.

Ailerons.--Small stabilizing planes attached to the main
planes to assist in preserving equilibrium.

Angle of Incidence.--Angle formed by making comparison
with a perpendicular line or body.

Angle of Inclination.--Angle at which a flying machine
rises. This angle, like that of incidence, is obtained
by comparison with an upright, or perpendicular line.

Auxiliary Planes.--Minor plane surfaces, used in conjunction
with the main planes for stabilizing purposes.

Biplane.--A flying-machine of the glider type with two
surface planes.

Blade Twist.--The angle of twist or curvature on a
propeller blade.

Cambered.--Curve or arch in plane, or wing from port
to starboard.

Chassis.--The under framework of a flying machine; the
framework of the lower plane.

Control.--System by which the rudders and stabilizing
planes are manipulated.

Dihedral.--Having two sides and set at an angle, like
dihedral planes, or dihedral propeller blades.

Dirigible.--Obedient to a rudder; something that may
be steered or directed.

Helicopter.--Flying machine the lifting power of which
is furnished by vertical propellers.

Lateral Curvature.--Parabolic form in a transverse direction.

Lateral Equilibrium or Stability.--Maintenance of the
machine on an even keel transversely. If the lateral
equilibrium is perfect the extreme ends of the machine
will be on a dead level.

Longitudinal Equilibrium or Stability.--Maintenance of
the machine on an even keel from front to rear.

Monoplane.--Flying machine with one supporting, or
surface plane.

Multiplane.--Flying machine with more than three surface

Ornithopter.--Flying machine with movable bird-like

Parabolic Curves.--Having the form of a parabola--a
conic section.

Pitch of Propeller Blade.--See "Twist."

Ribs.--The pieces over which the cloth covering is

Spread.--The distance from end to end of the main surface;
the transverse dimension.

Stanchions.--Upright pieces connecting the upper and
lower frames.

Struts.--The pieces which hold together longitudinally
the main frame beams.

Superposed.--Placed one over another.

Surface Area.--The amount of cloth-covered supporting
surface which furnishes the sustaining quality.

Sustentation.--Suspension in the air. Power of sustentation;
the quality of sustaining a weight in the air.

Triplane.--Flying machine with three surface planes.

Thrust of Propeller.--Power with which the blades displace
the air.

Width.--The distance from the front to the rear edge
of a flying machine.

Wind Pressure.--The force exerted by the wind when
a body is moving against it. There is always more
or less wind pressure, even in a calm.

Wing Tips.--The extreme ends of the main surface
planes. Sometimes these are movable parts of the
main planes, and sometimes separate auxiliary planes.

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