Part 9 out of 16
purposes. There were also rare specimens of trout, including the white
trout that are a Minnesota specialty. The fish, except the trout, were
successfully transferred to the State's tank that evening. By morning
only three were alive, and these died during the day. The trout were not
tanked at all, but were turned over to the United States authorities,
who were glad to get them because of their rarity. The responsibility
for this failure rests with the Exposition Company. The water supplied
was not from wells, but was the muddy Missouri River water clarified by
the alum process, which is fatal to fish. It was also entirely too warm,
no attempt to keep the promise of refrigeration having been made. After
this disaster the board refused to bring more fish until the company
should fulfill its pledge, which it never did. Minnesota's experience
was shared by Pennsylvania and Missouri, the only other States prepared
to make large live fish displays.
The failure of the St. Louis Fair officials to provide proper water
caused a difference in the board finances of nearly $2,000. The board
had secured subscriptions from six different towns in the fishing
regions of the State toward the payment for the aquaria, the idea being
to stock the aquaria with fish from the lakes near the towns that
subscribed, and to give them proper individual credit. When the
possibility of keeping the fish alive was realized the board promptly
released them from their obligations, but it was too late to save the
appropriation made through reliance upon the plans and promises of the
The game exhibit had a large space adjoining that occupied by the
aquarium. It was at the principal entrance to the building. The larger
part of the space was covered by a realistic scene from the northern
woods--the State game region. A pine forest was shown with a rocky
embankment at the side, while opposite was a birch opening. Breaking
through this opening and represented as scenting danger were three
moose--two bucks and a cow--that were the finest specimens of the great
game animals in the building. Elsewhere in the scene was a family of
three red deer; also very handsome caribou, black bears, wolves, foxes,
porcupines, grouse, prairie chicken, owls, etc. The background of the
scene was a distant lake view, and with effective lighting it was
conceded to be among the most novel exhibits in the building. No other
scenic reproduction was more complete. Adjoining this scene was a
smaller space filled with moose and deer heads and mounted fish. The
walls were draped with fish nets, and a large map of the State showed
the railroads, summer resorts, and lakes.
In compliance with the very general demand of the press and people, the
legislature of Mississippi, in 1902, appropriated $50,000 for the
purpose of securing and installing the products, resources, industries,
and enterprises of the State at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. This
was the first appropriation ever made by Mississippi for a World's Fair.
The bill providing for the State exhibits created a State exposition
bureau of five members, specifying that the governor should be ex
officio president and name his four associates, the following being the
personnel of the bureau: J.K. Vardaman, ex officio chairman; Dr. O.B.
Quinn, chairman; Frank Burkitt, secretary; L.H. Enochs; V.P. Still.
At the first meeting of the bureau Col. R.H. Henry, of Jackson, was
elected executive commissioner, and was charged with the duty of
canvassing the State, with a view of procuring the exhibits. He visited
all parts of Mississippi, delivered exposition addresses in the
different counties, and urged upon the people the importance of making
the best exhibit possible at the exposition. He devoted two years to the
The legislature of 1904 made an additional appropriation of $10,000
under the administration of Governor James K. Vardaman, who succeeded
Governor Longino as president of the exposition bureau. Several counties
also made appropriations, as did some of the factories and mills of the
State, the total appropriation aggregating about $62,000.
The Mississippi State Building was a reproduction of the last home of
Jefferson Davis, known as "Beauvoir." This home is located near Biloxi,
Miss., is of old-style southern architecture, massive in construction
and imposing in appearance, and from its broad porches may be seen the
"whitecaps" of the Gulf of Mexico. The house was built by James Brown, a
rich cotton planter of Madison County, and by him used as a summer home
until the close of the civil war, when it was sold to Mrs. Sarah A.
Dorsey, from whom Mr. Davis secured it. It contained a large historic
collection pertaining to the Davis family, much of the family furniture,
the bed upon which Mr. Davis died, and the suit of clothes he wore when
captured by General Wilson, in Georgia, at the close of hostilities
between the North and the South; the object of the exhibit being to
disprove the report that Mr. Davis wore a woman's dress when arrested. A
statement of Capt. J.H. Parker, of General Wilson's staff was attached,
contradicting the falsehood. The building cost $15,000 without
furnishings or pictures. It was built entirely of Mississippi lumber,
the contractor being J.F. Barnes, of Greenville, Miss.
In the horticultural exhibit the State showed all varieties of sweet and
citrus fruits, pecans and edible nuts, together with a pecan horse.
In the Palace of Agriculture two exhibits were shown, the special cotton
exhibit, including the 35-foot statue of "King Cotton," and the
collective agricultural exhibit--cotton, corn, cereals, grains, hay,
grasses, potatoes, peas, beans, sirups, honey, wines, cordials,
preserves, pickles, jellies, canned goods, vegetables, oysters, shrimps,
crabs, fish, etc.
All the merchantable timbers of the State were displayed in the forestry
exhibit, which contained over 500 samples, highly polished and superbly
finished, one of the largest and best collections shown.
In the Department of Fish and Game were exhibited all varieties of
native fresh and salt water fish, birds, and wild animals.
In the Educational Building Mississippi showed the best work from the
colleges and high schools of the State. The Agricultural and Mechanical
College had a fine display in the general Agricultural and Mechanical
Other displays were the following: A varied and attractive collection of
building stone, cement material, clays, phosphates, mineral waters in
the Mineral Building; buggies and wagons made in the State in
Transportation Hall; engines, sawmills, and other heavy machinery in the
Machinery Building; a rare old double plate-glass electrical machine was
exhibited in the Electrical Building, the contribution of the State
Mississippi was awarded over 30 prizes for her various exhibits,
including 2 grand prizes on cotton and timbers; 6 gold medals and 3
silver medals on agriculture; a gold, silver, and bronze medal on fish
and game; 2 gold, 4 silver, and 5 bronze medals on education; 2 silver
and 3 bronze medals on minerals; a silver medal on wagons; a bronze
medal on machinery; a gold medal on fruits, and a gold medal on pecans.
Less than $47,000 of the $60,000 appropriated by the legislature was
spent on the State building and on the collection and installation of
the exhibits, and from $10,000 to $15,000 of the appropriation was
turned back into the State treasury. The expenditure proved of
incalculable benefit to Mississippi, and good results are already being
The executive commissioner, Col. R.H. Henry, is a native Mississippian.
He was born in Scott County, May 15, 1851, and received education in the
schools and academies of Mississippi. He engaged in journalism in early
life, has been an editor and publisher over thirty years, and is
regarded as the most successful journalist of his State. As the
executive commissioner and the State's only representative at the
exposition Mr. Henry designed and personally supervised the installation
of the different Mississippi exhibits, ten in number, and the award of
over 30 medals, including 2 grand prizes, abundantly attests and amply
proves the merit and value of the Mississippi products.
The largest appropriation for exposition purposes by any State was by
Missouri, namely, $1,000,000. In every exposition building where a State
could have an exhibit Missouri's exhibit was found. In every building
where only exhibits by individuals, business firms, or corporations were
permitted, Missourians made display of the products of their industry
and skill. The Missouri State Building was among the finest upon the
grounds. The displays of the State in the Agriculture, Horticulture,
Education, Mining, Forestry, Live Stock, Poultry, Dairying, Fish and
Game, and Woman's Work were noted for artistic beauty and
The exhibit made by Missouri at the World's Fair was the result of the
labors of the board of commissioners to the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, appointed by Governor A.M. Dockery, under the direction of
which the $1,000,000 voted by the people of Missouri for an exhibit of
the State's resources were expended. At the general election in
November, 1900, the people adopted a constitutional amendment permitting
the legislature of this State to appropriate $1,000,000 for World's Fair
expenses. A bill appropriating the amount and providing for a commission
to direct its expenditure was passed by the next general assembly and
was signed by the governor April 17, 1901. The same bill was reenacted
in 1903 and was signed by the governor March 24, 1903. On the 28th of
May, 1901, Governor Dockery appointed as the board of commissioners:
M.T. Davis, of Springfield; F.J. Moss, of St. Joseph; B.H. Bonfey, of
Unionville; W.H. Marshall, of Morehouse; L.F. Parker, of St. Louis; D.P.
Stroup, of Norborne; N.H. Gentry, of Sedalia; J.O. Allison, of New
London, and H.C. McDougall, of Kansas City. Mr. McDougall resigned and
J.H. Hawthorne, of Kansas City, was appointed his successor. When the
law was reenacted in 1903 the board was reappointed. The board elected
M.T. Davis president, F.J. Moss vice-president, B.H. Bonfey secretary,
and W.H. Marshall treasurer. Later the ill health of Mr. Marshall caused
his temporary absence from the State, and J.H. Hawthorne succeeded him
The Missouri State building was erected at a cost, including
furnishings, of $250,000. The keynotes of the Missouri building were
public comfort, culture, and social enjoyment. A golden dome surmounted
by an emblematic statue of "The Spirit of Missouri" crowned the
building. Over the main entrance was this inscription: "Embracing within
her confines all the elements of an empire devoted to all the arts and
sciences that advance civilization, Missouri, the central State of the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, greets her sister States and welcomes the
world." Around the building were the names of great Missourians: Thomas
Hart Benton, Francis P. Blair, B. Gratz Brown, David R. Atchison, David
Barton, Meriwether Lewis, Edward Bates, Lewis F. Linn, Lewis V. Bogy,
Aylett H. Buckner, John S. Phelps, James S. Green. The building
contained rooms adapted for various purposes, two large halls in either
wing, a commodious auditorium or State hall, in which conventions were
held, a handsome rotunda with brilliant electric fountain, the suite of
Governor Dockery, men's parlors, women's parlors, press room, and
executive offices. On the second floor were rooms fittingly furnished.
The building was warmed by steam in cold weather and refrigerated by
cold air in warm weather. The approaches and elevations of the building
were adorned with statuary, heroic figures of Thomas Jefferson and
Napoleon Bonaparte being placed at the main entrance. In the west hall
were placed a collection of paintings by Missouri artists and the fine
bell presented by the citizens of the State to the battle ship
_Missouri_. The mural decorations in the rotunda consisted of four
pendentives illustrating the prehistoric savage, developing and
productive eras in the State's history. The decorations in the dome
embodied a historical allegory, tracing the epochs in the development of
the Middle West.
In the Palace of Horticulture the space allotted to Missouri was 6,600
square feet--larger than that awarded to any other State, and filled
with Missouri fruits. More than 430 varieties of fruits grown in the
State were shown from 84 counties.
In the Palace of Agriculture Missouri agricultural resources occupied
prominent position at the main entrance of the building and on the main
aisle. In the artistic facade, made, as all the decorative features of
the display, entirely of grain and grasses, was shown a series of thirty
pictures illustrating the marked contrast between the old and new
methods in agriculture. Corn was exhibited in many forms. A corn temple,
constructed of the great cereal, was in the main aisle, Missouri being
chosen by the exposition to represent the great corn States.
In the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy a display was made of the mining
resources of the State. Missouri's space was at the main entrance. The
exhibit consisted of typical products of Missouri mines and
quarries--coal, lead, zinc, iron, copper, tripoli, building and
ornamental stone, clay, sands--and mineral waters, crystals of all
types, mining machinery at work, laboratory specimens and equipment from
the School of Mines, and photographs of 1,200 mining views in a brief
comprehensive showing of all the mineral wealth of the State. Every
district was represented by adequate specimens. An outside mining
exhibit was made by Missouri in the Mining Gulch, where mining machinery
was shown at work and a Missouri mine. Special features were a zinc and
lead concentrating plant, model of shot tower, illustration of process
of making Babbitt metal and solder. A Scotch hearth furnace for smelting
lead ore was also in operation.
Missouri was represented in several places in the Palace of Education
and Social Economy. Here was made the general exhibit of Missouri
schools. The main school exhibit consisted of showings of grades of the
work done in the twelve regular grades of the public schools and in the
kindergarten, of the work of the colleges and normal schools, of the
schools for negroes, and of special schools. Aside from the high school
and grade exhibit, private institutions had separate displays. The
public school exhibit was intended to show the work of the entire system
of the State public schools, each grade being represented by photographs
of typical children and school scenes by representative work of the
pupils. Over 300 photographs were shown. Mutoscopes presented in moving
pictures scenes upon the school grounds. By means of cabinets, tables,
and winged frames the exhibits were presented in compact form. Every
kind of school--city, town, village, and rural--was represented in the
exhibit, and the work of more than 200,000 children was on exhibition.
The State University exhibit showed what that institution had been and
what it is doing. Bird's-eye views of the university at different
periods of its existence and a fine model of its present buildings and
grounds were shown. The various departments made exhibits of their work.
In social economy were shown the work of the Industrial Training School
at Boonville, the School for the Deaf and Dumb at Fulton, the School for
the Blind at St. Louis, together with photographs of the Colony for the
Feeble-Minded at Marshall, the St. Louis Hospital, the Hospital for the
Insane at St. Joseph, the work of the Missouri board of charities and
correction, and other eleemosynary institutions. The work of the
Industrial Manual School was shown by an exhibit of the products of the
school--wagons, clothing, shoes, bricks, and other results of the
industry of the boys. In addition to an exhibit along similar lines of
the School for the Blind and the School for the Deaf and Dumb, showing
the pupils' proficiency in industrial training, classes from these
schools were at different times shown actually at work in class rooms in
In live stock Missouri offered premiums supplementary to those offered
by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company. The list of animals for
which prizes were offered included cattle, horses, asses, mules, hogs,
sheep, goats, and all domestic animals. The aggregate appropriation for
live stock was $93,000.
In poultry, prizes for Missouri poultry of all kinds were offered on the
same lines as for other live stock, the total of $7,000 being set aside
for the purpose.
The fish and game exhibit, located just outside of the Forestry, Fish,
and Game Building, was the only exhibit of live game at the exposition.
It was arranged in cages around a lake, the waters of which were stocked
with fish. A commodious hunter's lodge, furnished in rustic style with
the paraphernalia of the sportsman, was conspicuous upon the lake shore.
The exhibit showed live deer, wild cat, mountain lion or panther,
coyote, gray wolf, red fox, gray fox, opossum, raccoon, beaver, rabbit,
fox and gray squirrel, mink, wild turkey, wild geese, wild duck, quail,
black wolf, bald eagle, horned owl, and four varieties of pheasants, all
the varieties of game to be found in Missouri forests. As showing the
chief varieties of fish, were exhibited rainbow trout, lake trout, brook
trout, large-mouthed black bass, crappie, channel cat, buffalo, sunfish,
perch, eel, and carp.
In the Agriculture Building was shown a model of the St. Joseph stock
yards, setting out all the buildings and grounds of that section of St.
Joseph. A working model of one of the great packing establishments was
exhibited, displaying the actual process of preparing cattle for the
The woman's-work exhibit had booths in the Varied Industry Building and
the Manufactures Building. In the first were shown specimens of fancy
embroideries, laces, and needlework by Missouri women. In the second
were displayed china painting, pyrography, and paintings in oil, water
color, and pastel, all by Missouri women.
The forestry exhibit, located in the Forestry, Fish, and Game Building,
showed the woods of the State available for commercial use rather than a
mere botanical display. More than 60 varieties of Missouri woods were
shown. The forestry exhibit was shown in two booths--one devoted to gum,
the other to Missouri woods. The gum booth showed furniture of black,
red, and tupelo gum wood. In the booths were shown hand-carved mantels,
tables, and chairs.
The dairy interest of the State was represented in an exhibit in the
Palace of Agriculture. In this exhibit samples of the butter and cheese
products in Missouri were shown tastefully arranged.
The Kansas City Casino showed a municipal exhibit attractively arranged
in a commodious building erected for that purpose. The casino consisted
of two wings, each 24 by 58 feet, and connected by an open court 62 by
67 feet, and located on the model street of the exposition. In the
casino were a relief map showing Kansas City in detail, a map of the
United States showing Kansas City's location with reference to the great
productive region, railroad map, assembly room, rest rooms, and library.
On May 20, 1903, the governor of Montana, Joseph Toole, appointed the
following-named commissioners from the State of Montana at the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition: Lee Mantle, Butte; Martin Maginnis, Helena; Paul
McCormick, Billings; C.W. Hoffman, Bozeman; B.F. White, Dillon; William
Scallon, Butte; F.A. Heinze, Butte; D. McDonald, Butte; Conrad Kohrs,
Helena; J.H. Rice, Fort Benton; W.G. Conrad, Great Falls; T.L.
Greenough, Missoula; C.J. McNamara, Helena; D.R. Peeler, Kalispel; H.L.
Frank, Butte, and William C. Buskett, special representative.
The commission met and appointed the following officers:
Lee Mantle, president; Martin Maginnis, vice-president; Paul McCormick,
secretary; C.W. Hoffman, treasurer.
The legislature of the State appropriated the sum of $50,000 on May,
1903, and at the same time made appropriations of $7,300 and $14,290.99,
which could be utilized by the commissioners for the purpose of
Montana's participation in the exhibition at the World's Fair. Besides
the amount appropriated by the State, the sum of $20,000 was contributed
from private sources.
The State building was erected at a cost of $20,000, and was maintained
throughout the period of the exposition at a cost of $6,000, $1,000
additional being spent for entertainments.
The Montana State Building was of fancy Doric design, and was
universally admired by the exposition visitors. One of the prominent
features in the interior of the building was the famous painting by
Paxton of the Custer Massacre. An onyx mantle from Montana was also
greatly admired. The State shield, in gold, copper, silver, and Montana
sapphires, was one of the most interesting features of the interior
The commission appointed as hostess to look after the personal welfare
of the visitors from the State of Montana Mrs. Addie McDowell, who was
ably assisted by an auxiliary committee consisting of Mary A. Cruse,
Mrs. W.W. Cheely, and Mrs. T.R. Carson. State officials and some of the
most prominent residents of the State were entertained at various times
in the building.
Montana was represented in the following departments: Mines and
Metallurgy, Palace of Agriculture, Horticulture Pavilion, Forestry,
Fish, and Game Building, and the Educational Palace.
In the Mines Building the grand prize was awarded to Montana. In the
Agricultural Building the State received 209 medals, and the exhibits in
all the other exhibit palaces were remarkably good.
On April 8, 1903, the Nebraska State legislature voted for the
appointment of a State board of commissioners by the governor and for
the appropriation of $35,000.
The following-named commissioners were subsequently appointed by the
Gurdon W. Wattles, president; Peter Jansen, vice-president; Matt Miller,
treasurer; H.C. Shedd, secretary.
Although Nebraska had no State building on the grounds, it erected a
very large and commodious pavilion on the main aisle of the Palace of
Agriculture, where the State commissioners established their
headquarters. In the pavilion were reception rooms, reading and writing
tables, post-office, check room, lavatories, and all the articles and
conveniences found in the more elaborate State buildings on the grounds.
The pavilion covered nearly 8,000 square feet of space, and was
handsomely decorated with grains, grasses, and corn arranged in most
artistic form. In addition to the appropriation of $35,000 made by the
legislature to cover the cost of the exhibit, private subscriptions,
amounting in the aggregate to $25,000, contributed largely by
exhibitors, increased the amount expended by Nebraska at the fair to
The principal exhibit made by Nebraska was in the Agriculture
Department. There sheaf grain, grasses, corn, vine products, and all
agricultural products were shown, including all varieties of field,
sweet, flint, and pop corn.
In connection with the agricultural exhibit in the pavilion, the
commission maintained a small theater fitted up with opera chairs,
stage, electric fans, and all accessories of the modern playhouse. In
the theater a free stereopticon and moving-picture exhibition was given,
illustrating the resources and industries of the State. Another
attractive feature of the agricultural exhibit was the mounted steer
"Challenger," which won the first prize of the world at the
international stock show at Chicago, December, 1903.
In the horticultural exhibit a display of Nebraska's choicest fruits
attracted much attention.
The educational exhibit showed the work of the Nebraska schools from the
kindergarten through the colleges and universities. It also made a fine
display of the work of women's clubs in literary and musical lines.
Throughout the exhibit the fact that Nebraska ranked first in small
percentage of illiteracy was constantly emphasized.
In the mineral exhibit samples of Nebraska's best building stones,
bricks, cement, and similar products were displayed, and a complete
collection of soils from different parts of the State was shown. Cases
of fossils from the university museum, specimens from the geological
department of the university, and typical photographs of Nebraska added
attractiveness to the exhibit. There was also an exhibit showing
Nebraska's dairy and creamery resources.
Opposite the Nebraska Pavilion the State made its main corn display.
Nebraska had a larger exhibit of corn than any State making an
exhibition of cereals. There were more than 57 varieties, running from
the little "Tom Thumb" ears of popcorn to mammoth ears of field corn.
One species of corn which attracted particular attention was the result
of grafting experiments, whereby several varieties of corn of various
colors and shades were made to grow on one cob. This variety was known
as the "Evolution Species."
During the exposition live-stock shows the Nebraska commission
transported free from Nebraska to St. Louis the prize-winning stock and
poultry of the State fair at a cost of several thousand dollars. The
choice and exhibition of this kind of stock and poultry were in charge
of the Nebraska live-stock and poultry associations.
The New Hampshire Building was a reproduction of the birthplace of
Daniel Webster. The building was quaint and striking in appearance, with
high-pitched roof and an absence of eaves, small-paned, old-fashioned
windows, and weatherboarded sides, and an enormous chimney rising from
the center of the roof, exactly like the original at Franklin, N.H. In
every room was a wealth of old-fashioned furniture from New Hampshire
homes, much of it a hundred years old or more, as well as Webster
relics, davenports, massive polished-top mahogany tables and sideboards,
warming pans, antique sideboards, china closets, straight-backed
armchairs, grandfather clocks, china and pewter ware. The greater part
of the antique furnishings were from the very valuable collection of
Gen. William E. Spalding, of Nashua. The State Building was provided
with a lecture hall for stereopticon lectures, having a screen 16 feet
The State commission was composed of Gen. Charles S. Collins, president;
Arthur C. Jackson, vice-president and executive commissioner; Omar A.
Towne, secretary; Augustine R. Ayers, treasurer; J. Adam Graf; Orton B.
Brown; Mrs. Arthur C. Jackson, hostess. Mr. Brown contributed a carload
of lumber, and General Collins and Mr. Jackson individually bore all the
expense of construction and maintenance.
The most elaborate of New Hampshire's exhibits was that of the largest
cotton mills in the world, in the Manufactures Building, although the
State was represented by individual exhibitors in the various exhibition
_Members of New Jersey commission_.--Foster M. Vorhees, chief
commissioner; Elbert Rappleye, Edgar B. Ward, C.E. Breckenridge, Edward
R. Weiss, J.T. MacMurray, Ira W. Wood, W.H. Wiley, Johnston Cornish,
Harry Humphreys, R.W. Herbert; Lewis T. Bryant, secretary.
The object of the New Jersey commission for the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition was to provide visitors from the State with suitable and
homelike headquarters and to advertise the extensive resources of the
Commonwealth. The growth of the manufacturing interests of the State has
been so remarkable that from a purely agricultural center it has, within
a comparatively few years, obtained an indisputable position in the
forefront of the manufacturing States of the Union. The number and
character of individual exhibits compared favorably with other States
represented. They represented a variety of industries, and were among
the finest exhibits at the exposition.
The State Pavilion was a practical reproduction of the old Ford Tavern
at Morristown, N.J., which was used as Washington's headquarters during
the winter of 1779-80. Alexander Hamilton made his home there that
winter, and there met the daughter of General Schuyler, whom he
afterwards married. Among other famous men who have been beneath its
roof were Green, Knox, Lafayette, Steuben, Kosciusko, Schuyler, "Light
Horse" Harry Lee, Old Israel Putman, "Mad Anthony" Wayne, and Benedict
The location of the New Jersey Building was in the center of a grove of
trees, with an extensive lawn, and had every convenience for the comfort
of visitors. The furnishings were selected to harmonize in color as well
as with a view to comfort.
Owing to the expense required to make shipments of fresh articles such a
great distance, the commission found it would be impossible to make such
agricultural and horticultural displays as would do justice to the State
with the amount of the appropriation placed at their disposal.
The educational exhibit differed in some features from that of any other
State. For the display of books and various lines of work not readily
shown upon the walls or in the cabinets, drawers instead of shelves were
placed under the cabinets. This enabled the work to be put in convenient
form for inspection, and had the additional merit of keeping it clean.
Another feature entirely new and used for the first time at this
exposition was the index key. The exhibit was divided into sections
lettered from A to M, inclusive, and these were subdivided into units
numbered from 1 to 68, inclusive. Each unit consisted of a leaf cabinet
with six drawers directly underneath. The units from 15 to 21,
inclusive, served as an index to the entire New Jersey educational
exhibit. Unit No. 15 directed to first year's work. Unit No. 16 directed
to second and fourth year's work. Unit No. 17 directed to third and
fourth year's work, and so on.
To find work from a particular school, the card containing work from the
county or city in which said school is located was first taken. That
card directed to the section in which all work of the school, except
that placed upon the walls, could be found. Different lines of school
work were bound in different colored volumes, as shown by index cards.
Another unique feature of the exhibit was the manual-training work of
each school shown in connection with its academic work.
A combined exhibit of music and art was exceptionally fine and attracted
much attention. The work of a very large percentage of schools, both
rural and urban, was represented, and the Garden State ably maintained
the reputation won at former expositions.
In the section of social economy of the Educational Building the State
was represented by comprehensive exhibits from the following: The State
board of health, Trenton, N.J.; bureau of statistics of labor and
industries, Trenton, N.J.; New Jersey School for Deaf Mutes; New Jersey
State Institution for Feeble-Minded Women, Vineland, N.J.; New Jersey
Training School for Feeble-Minded Boys and Girls, Vineland, N.J.; New
Jersey Children's Home Society, Trenton, N.J.; Woodbine Settlement,
Woodbine, N.J.; State Custodial Asylum for Feeble-Minded Women, Newark,
N.J., and the School for Nervous and Backward Children.
The exhibit of the geological survey in the Mines and Metallurgy
Building was in many respects unique among the various exhibits in the
Mines Building. Geological surveys have been carried out under State
auspices for more than half a century, and, as a result, New Jersey was
in a position to illustrate to younger and less thoroughly studied
States how science and industry go hand in hand.
New Jersey is the best-mapped portion in America. Therefore a salient
feature of the exhibit was a large relief map of the State, models of
typical sections of the State, and files of the position and elevation
of every portion of the State. The building stones of the State formed a
pyramid in the center of the exhibit, and alongside of it was a
microscope, with 70 sections of New Jersey rocks, showing how they are
studied to estimate their value for construction purposes.
The New Jersey geological survey had two superb terra-cotta columns made
of New Jersey clay on enameled brick piers. Adjoining the entrance was
the New Jersey clay exhibit proper. In it were shown samples of all the
prominent clays, burned bricklets, which illustrated the way clay acts
when burned at various cones (temperatures), the air and fire shrinkage,
and various other properties and analyses of clays, all facts of
importance to the clay worker, as well as large photographs of the chief
clay banks and various steps in utilizing clay.
A collection of New Jersey bricks was tested to determine the breaking
and crushing strength. The results of these tests were shown, together
with samples of the bricks classified according to the method of
manufacture and geological occurrences of the clay. A model of a New
Jersey clay refinery was shown, illustrating the manner in which
high-grade clays are prepared for potteries.
The natural advantages found on the coast and mountains of New Jersey
have produced many fine and well-known resorts. In order to illustrate
some of the attractions there found, the exhibit in the Forestry, Fish,
and Game Building was prepared. It showed beautiful mounted specimens of
practically all the birds that frequent the State. In addition to the
mounted fresh and salt-water fishes there was displayed, in the largest
pool that has ever been constructed at an exposition, a number of the
live salt-water fish found along the coast. The oyster industry was
represented by an exhibit from the State bureau of shell fisheries. A
glass tank filled with salt water showed an oyster bed containing the
following variety of oysters, all of which are products of New Jersey:
Shrewsburys, Raritan, Barnegat, Maurice River coves, Absecon salts, and
the Cape May salts. The tank also contained a profusion of marine
vegetation, and a number of the varieties of clams and fish common to
the waters of the State. An interesting demonstration was made of each
stage of the progression from the spat to the prime oyster.
Another very instructive and important feature was the mosquito exhibit,
which was intended to illustrate the work which has been done by
authority of the State of New Jersey in studying the life, history, and
methods of dealing with the mosquito pest. The work was in charge of
Prof. John B. Smith, the State entomologist, and the exhibit was
prepared under his direction. It consisted of a series of table cases in
which were shown the common species of mosquitoes, with their larvae as
well as their natural enemies. Enlarged drawings gave the character of
each species so far as they were not obvious on ordinary examination.
At one end of the square was represented a marsh area divided into two
parts. One of these showed breeding pools, where the immense shore crop
develops. The other showed fiddler crabs and other creatures that
provide a natural drainage for the meadows inhabited by them. Areas
where fiddler crabs live are never mosquito breeders, and as a matter of
fact only a small percentage of the entire salt, marsh country is
dangerous. Illustrations showed drainage ditches, the methods of making
them, and also typical areas where the insects breed.
New Jersey had an exhibit also of road building in the Model City,
showing the manner of constructing and maintaining the excellent
highways of that State.
In the Palace of Liberal Arts interesting exhibits were displayed by
various business enterprises of the State. This included a variety of
printing presses, books, binding, and publications of different series,
musical instruments, philosophical and scientific apparatus, coins and
medals, as well as an exhibit of chemical and pharmaceutical arts, and
model plans and designs for public work.
In the Palace of Manufactures and Varied Industries New Jersey exhibits
attracted considerable attention. The display included hardware,
carpets, tapestries, fabrics for upholstery, wearing apparel, silks, and
In the Palace of Electricity New Jersey displays ranked among the best,
as was also the case in the Palace of Machinery.
In the Transportation Building and the Palace of Agriculture the
displays, while not large, were very commendable.
The legislature of the Territory of New Mexico in March ,1903,
appropriated the sum of $30,000 for the purpose of adequately
representing the resources and products of the Territory at the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Shortly after the passage of the act the
governor of New Mexico appointed the following commission, which
subsequently met and elected its officers:
Charles A. Spiess, president; Carl A. Dalies, vice-president; Arthur
Seligman, treasurer; W.B. Walton, secretary; Herbert J. Hagerman,
Eusebio Chacon, Fayette A. Jones, and H.W. Porterfield, managers; W.C.
Porterfield, assistant manager.
The ten or eleven years that have elapsed since the Columbian Exposition
at Chicago have brought great changes to New Mexico, and the marked
advancement and progress made along all lines were emphasized in a
comparison of her exhibits at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition with
those at Chicago. The Territory had large and excellent exhibits,
displayed in a most attractive and interesting manner and showing many
of the splendid products of that country, as well as the educational
facilities and other interesting features, and it was felt that the
chance for statehood had much advanced by the excellent impression made
at the fair.
Great irrigation enterprises within the last decade have reclaimed large
areas of fine agricultural land, providing happy homes for people in
that beautiful and delightful climate.
The superior products shown in New Mexico's agricultural and
horticultural exhibits were a revelation to visitors, and demonstrated
that the very best results and most perfect development in fruits and
farm products are obtained by irrigation and sunny skies. The fruits,
grains, vegetables, and other products of the soil shown had few equals.
The exhibits were larger and better than have ever been made by the
Territory at previous expositions.
New Mexico's exhibit in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy ably
presented the status of one of her most important industries, showing
the production of a vastly greater number of producing mines than it was
possible to show ten years ago, or when the Territory made an exhibit at
Chicago, and it also included a far greater range of minerals,
anthracite and bituminous coal, iron, zinc, lead, mineralogical forms,
besides mica, gypsum, salt, sulphur, asbestos, marble, onyx, and
building stone. A unique and most important product of the mines of New
Mexico was the beautiful blue gem stone, the finest and most valuable
turquoise found in any part of the world. The Territory had the only
turquoise exhibits at the exhibition. One was in the mineral exhibit in
the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy, and a larger and perhaps the most
extensive exhibit of this stone ever shown was in the Varied Industries
Building. An exhibit of a turquoise mine and its products was shown in
the gulch, or outside mining exhibit, where a reproduction of the famous
turquoise mines of Porterfield, near Silver City, N. Mex., showed the
actual geological occurrence of the gem. This was accomplished by
bringing to the fair several tons of the rock from the mine with
turquoise embedded in it, just as it was when the chemical processes of
nature were preparing the beautiful jewels to delight the eye of man.
New Mexico's greatest pride was her educational exhibit, which showed
results of splendid schoolroom work and by photographs recorded the
grand and stately school buildings, demonstrating that New Mexico was,
in proportion to her population, in no way behind the older States in
her public school system. At Chicago the school exhibit represented only
a few institutions, and these in a limited way; while at St. Louis a
very large number of splendid graded schools and country schools were
represented by fine exhibits. Besides the work of the colleges of
agriculture and mechanical arts, the Military Institute, a university, a
school of mines, two normal schools, and a number of denominational
schools of higher order were displayed.
The beautifully arranged ethnological exhibit in the Department of
Anthropology consisted of a valuable collection, chief among which was
the wonderful Harvey collection, brought from Albuquerque.
Among the numerous beautiful buildings which adorned the Plateau of
States, many of which were reproductions of historic structures or homes
of some of the nation's famous citizens, stood the pretty structure
erected by New Mexico, a gem in point of architecture and interior
decoration, and one of the ornamental features of the exposition.
_New York commission_.--Edward H. Harriman, president; William Berri,
vice-president; Louis Stern, chairman of executive committee; Edward
Lyman Bill, treasurer; Lewis Nixon, Frank S. McGraw, Mrs. Norman E.
Mack, Frederick R. Green, John C. Woodbury, John K. Stewart, James H.
Callahan, John Young; Charles A. Ball, secretary and chief executive
officer; Mrs. Dore Lyon, assistant secretary.
New York State's participation in the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was
calculated to exploit fully the wonderful resources of the State, as
well as to set forth what the Empire State is accomplishing in the
various lines of humanitarian work. The New York State commission
started out with the idea of making exhibits only in lines where New
York was preeminently the leader. On this account and for the reason
that the appropriation was relatively limited, exhibits were planned to
cover seven distinct departments. It was intended at the outset to make
these exhibits strong in every detail, and the commission believes that
the close of the exposition has demonstrated the excellent judgment
The most conspicuous feature of New York's participation in the
exposition was her State Building. An excellent site was chosen for this
structure, and a handsome building was erected in a conspicuous place on
the plateau of the States on the exposition grounds. The building
occupied the most commanding site on the State plateau of any of the
State buildings. It also enjoyed the benefits of Forest Park, both in
front and rear, which made it one of the coolest buildings on the
The building was simple, but dignified, in design; of Italian
architecture in the colonial treatment. Martini's Quadriga flanked the
dome, representing the progress or art and commerce, and Lenz's dancing
group was placed around the columns at the entrances. A very large hall
ran through to the dome, the lower part of which was treated in the
Doric order, and the whole was scholarly, dignified, and beautiful in
design. Another interesting feature in the hall was the organ case,
which was designed particularly for this place. This hall was flanked on
the northern side by a large assembly hall with a barrel ceiling running
up to the second story, and the treatment of this room in old gold,
Antwerp blues, and siennas was beautiful. The draperies were in green
velvet, and the chairs were of leather, treated to represent the old
Spanish illuminated leather. The floors were carefully made. There were
rooms for banquets or functions of any kind. On the westerly side were
the waiting rooms for men and women, writing rooms, and also retiring
rooms and toilets.
The mural decorations of the large hall were done by Florian Peixotto,
and represented De Soto discovering the Mississippi, one showing the
French and Indian occupation of the land, and others showing New York in
1803 and New York in 1903. The pendentives, which supported the dome,
had four emblematic pictures representing the four States most benefited
by the purchase, the blue Mississippi in the background of each.
The second story was divided into apartments for the commissioners and
the offices of the secretary, which were perfect in appointments. The
suites were composed of parlor, bedroom, and baths.
A piano of great beauty, with inlays and paintings, was contributed by a
leading New York manufacturer, a picture of Niagara Falls being
particularly fine. A company of New York contributed the organ as an
exhibit, and concerts were given each afternoon of the fair.
The grounds received careful consideration, and there were many beds of
flowers and shrubbery, such as lily ponds, poppy beds, hydrangeas, and
The amount of money appropriated by the State of New York for
participation at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was $390,000. There
were no private subscriptions of any sort, but many exhibits were loaned
to the commission from the various departments of the State to be
displayed. The cost of installing the various exhibits was $10,755. This
did not include the cost of labor in placing the exhibit, as the work
was done by men who were employed by the State in the various
departments. The cost of transportation of exhibits was $12,342. The
State building cost $88,275.23 to erect.
Upon the landscape gardening, which was one of the most admired features
of the exposition, was expended the sum of $4,465.75. The organ case
alone cost $3,500. Including that, the total amount expended for
furnishing the State building was $23,423.96.
New York displayed her products in six of the exhibit palaces, namely:
Agriculture, Horticulture, Education, Forest, Fish and Game, Fine Arts,
and Mines and Metallurgy. In addition to this there was a very fine
exhibit of live stock. New York State was the only successful exhibitor
of a forest nursery.
It is impossible to give an approximate value of the exhibits. In the
Fine Arts Department, New York had 1,112 out of a total of 3,524
exhibits. They were selected after very careful scrutiny by a jury
appointed by the National Academy of Design, and consisted of oil
paintings, mural paintings, water colors, miniatures, illustrations,
etchings, engravings, lithographs, wood engravings, sculpture,
architecture, and applied arts.
The commission made appropriations for the various exhibits as follows:
Agriculture and live stock .................... $25,000
Horticulture and floriculture ................. 20,000
Forestry, fish, and game ...................... 18,000
Fine arts ..................................... 10,000
Scientific exhibit ............................ 7,500
Education and social economy .................. 27,500
The education exhibit was composite in nature and was subdivided as
follows: Administration, kindergarten, elementary grades, high schools,
normal schools, training schools and classes, higher education,
industrial and trade schools, special schools, business colleges, Indian
schools, schools for defectives, summer schools, and extension schools.
There were exhibits from both the State department of public instruction
and the University of the State of New York. In the public schools
exhibit contributions were received from 24 cities and various villages.
There was also a comprehensive exhibit from the rural schools of the
State. In the normal school exhibit contributions were received from
every normal school. The training schools and classes of the State were
very generally represented. Exhibits were in place from Hobart College,
Geneva; Manhattan College, New York City; Colgate University, Hamilton,
and Syracuse University. In the schools for defectives there were
exhibits from the New York State School for the Blind, Batavia; New York
Institution for the Blind, New York City; Western New York Institution
for Deaf Mutes, Rochester; New York Institution for the Improved
Instruction of Deaf Mutes, New York City, and the New York Institution
for the Deaf and Dumb, New York City. The exhibit from the Indian
schools contained work from all of the seven reservations in the State,
and was arranged by the State inspector of Indian schools.
Owing to the plan of installation adopted by the exposition authorities,
the State exhibit in the Department of Social Economy was found in
several different places. The State commission in lunacy made an
interesting exhibit of the ancient and modern methods of caring for
insane patients. There was also a model showing the tent system for
treatment of tuberculosis. The State board of charities made a very
complete exhibit of the several State institutions under its
jurisdiction, first, by means of photography of exteriors and interiors,
and, second, by specimens of work carried on in the industrial
departments of the various institutions. They also made an elaborate
photographic exhibit of the almshouses in the State and of the
penitentiaries. The State labor bureau sent a series of 28 graphic
charts bearing on labor conditions in the State and comparisons between
New York and other States and countries. This was supplemented by a
series of the reports of the bureau. The State department of health
furnished an exhibit of the blanks generally used in the administration
of the department of health and graphically showed the work under its
jurisdiction. The State excise department furnished a series of graphic
charts upon the receipt and disbursement of the excise moneys of the
The New York agricultural exhibit differed from the other exhibits in
the Agricultural Building in that the object sought was educational
rather than spectacular. In wheat there were over 500 varieties and
about 1,000 samples; in corn, about 100 varieties and 300 samples;
beans, 75 varieties; peas, 50 varieties; oats, 20 varieties; barley, 8
varieties; buckwheat, 50 samples, and other grains in proportion. There
were also exhibits of tobacco, salt, canned fruits of every variety,
canned meats and fish, hops, flour, maple sirup and sugar, including
varieties of potatoes.
In the Cheese Department New York had over half of the exhibit. In the
Butter Department a facsimile of the Liberty Bell in butter, exact size,
with all the inscriptions.
New York had the largest exhibit in the Horticultural Palace and also
had more than twice the number of varieties of any other State. New York
was the only State showing pears and grapes.
In exhibiting the timber indigenous to the State in the Forestry, Fish,
and Game Building, two specimens of each species were shown in paneled
framework, showing both sides of the specimen.
In connection with the specimens of timber were exhibited a series of
photographs of trees of New York, eight in number. Each tree was shown
in leaf and also as it appears in winter. A life-size photograph of the
bark of each tree was shown, and in most instances specimens of the
leaves, flowers, and fruit. In this connection there were in small glass
jars seeds of all the important forest trees of New York, also
by-products of the forest, such as nuts, sugar, pulp, wood alcohol, and
many other commodities.
A collection of all the insects injurious to the trees of New York was
shown in an attractive manner in cases.
The outside exhibit of New York consisted of a nursery and plantation of
forest trees. As a part of the inside exhibit were shown specimens of
substantially all the food and game fishes of New York. No attempt was
made to show abnormally large specimens; the purpose was to show the
average fish, true to color and size. The collection included both fresh
and salt water specimens of the fishes of New York. Some interesting
specimens of oyster growth and of the enemies of the oyster were also
A part of the inside exhibit was a typical hunter camp. It was
constructed of spruce logs and roofed with spruce bark from the
Adirondack forest by Adirondack guides.
An outside exhibit of forestry consisted of a nursery and plantation of
forest trees, showing the method by which the forest, fish, and game
commission of New York is foresting the denuded, nonagricultural lands
of the State. The plot was 120 feet by 60 feet and contained 80,000
In the Mines Building were displayed ten geological maps of the State of
New York, besides a relief map of the State, a hypsometric map, a road
map, and publications on mineralogical works besides photographs. In
metallic products there were iron ores, lead and zinc, and pyrites. In
nonmetallic products there were displayed garnet, emery, millstones,
infusorial earth, mineral paints, graphite, talc, mica, salt, gypsum,
land plaster, and plaster of Paris. In building stones there were shown
granite, diabase, morite, sandstone, bluestone, limestone, marble,
slate, and marl.
A pavilion was erected in order to display the clay products of the
State. The collection was of type products rather than a great mass of
similar clays. New York State produces roofing tile, and several styles
were wrought into the roof of the pavilion. The brick were of several
styles and colors, from the classic roman dry-press brick to the rough
rock-face clinker which forms the base course of the structure.
_Members of North Carolina commission_.--H.H. Brimley,
commissioner-general; T.K. Bruner and J.A. Holmes, resident
In March, 1903, the legislature of North Carolina appropriated $10,000
for the participation of the State at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.
Ten thousand dollars was also raised by subscriptions among citizens and
manufacturers of North Carolina, making a total of $20,000. The cost of
transportation, installation, and maintenance, and general expenses of
the State exhibit practically used up the total amount.
North Carolina had no State building.
The State had exhibits in the Departments of Mines and Metallurgy,
Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Fish and Game. The total cost of
the State's participation in the exposition was about as follows:
Value of loan exhibits in the different departments ....... $9,000
Cost of new specimens and cases ........................... 8,000
Value of specimens and cases already on hand and withdrawn
from the State museum ................................... 30,000
Installation and expenses ................................. 12,000
Total .............................................. 59,000
In mines and metallurgy the exhibit covered a floor space of about 2,200
square feet. It consisted of a full, systematic collection of the
minerals of the State, a representation of the ores of gold, copper,
silver, iron, nickel, and tin that are native to North Carolina, and a
very full exhibit of the economic minerals. Wherever possible, there
were shown specimens of the finished product alongside of the raw
material, and this feature added considerable value to the display. A
very beautiful and very comprehensive collection of cut gems and crude
gem material was perhaps the most attractive feature of the exhibit. The
collection of building and ornamental stones included a large variety of
granites, marbles, and sandstones, many of them of a very superior
In agriculture the chief features of the exhibit were the special
tobacco display and the collection of grains and seeds in the main
space. A good line of commercial cotton samples and of the best
varieties of cotton seed were shown and some cotton-oil and cotton-mill
machinery in connection therewith. The late date at which any money
became available prevented any show of sheaf grains or grasses and cut
short the exhibit in many ways.
In the Department of Horticulture the show was a small one, owing both
to the very poor fruit year and also, again, to the late date at which
the collecting had to be started. The space occupied was about 500
square feet in size, while in the four different spaces in the
Agricultural Building the total floor area occupied was nearly 4,000
The combined forestry and fish and game exhibits were among the most
complete of any of the State exhibits. The total floor space occupied by
these was 2,400 square feet. The display of native timber specimens was
most complete and systematic, and the specimens were shown in a way to
impart the most information in a condensed form. The main collection
consisted of planks cut the full length and width of the trees, 4 feet
long by 4 inches thick, with the bark left attached. One-half of each
was dressed and sandpapered, but not varnished; the other half filled
and varnished and given an oil-rub finish to bring out the beauties of
the grain and to show the best finish the different kinds of wood would
take. Wherever possible, two sections were shown in the form of disks
cut across the log. These brought out the character of the end grain and
the annual growth rings, as well as the size of the trees from which
each specimen came. A variety of finished wood products and a collection
of forest seeds and of medicinal plants completed the exhibit.
In the Department of Fish and Game the State showed collections of
mounted food and game fishes, of oysters and clams, and of tools and
appliances used in their capture, including some very fine models of the
more typical of the fishing craft used in North Carolina waters. Fairly
complete collections of the game birds, wild fowl, and shore birds were
shown, as well as most of the prey-catching and fish-eating birds found
in the State. The game animals and those valuable for their furs were
also exhibited, and a very fine lot of furs, both raw and dressed,
occupied a case contiguous to that containing the fur-bearing animals.
Guns, traps, etc., were shown as well to illustrate the means used in
the capture of the different kinds. Collections of marine invertebrates,
of reptiles and batrachians, casts of fishes and cetaceans, an old
whaling outfit, and a lot of miscellaneous material completed the
Considering the amount of money used, the exhibits were large, varied,
full, and of good quality all through, and in some cases unlimited funds
could hardly have bettered them.
North Dakota had no State building on the grounds. The exhibits, which
comprised every variety of grain and species of grass grown in the
State, gathered from the very best samples obtained from the crop of
1903, were shown principally in the Agricultural Building, although
there was a very excellent exhibit in the Palace of Mines and
Metallurgy, showing the mineral resources of the State, and including
coal, clays, cement, building stones, etc.
The State legislature, on March 17, 1903, passed an act authorizing the
participation of the State at the World's Fair to be held in St. Louis
in 1904, and at the Lewis and Clark Centennial and Pacific Exposition
and Oriental Fair to be held at Portland, Oreg., in 1905, and creating a
commission composed of the governor, the State auditor, the
lieutenant-governor, the commissioner of agriculture, and Warren N.
Steele, of Rolette County. The governor was made the president of the
commission and the commissioner of agriculture the secretary.
This act appropriated the sum of $50,000 for the exhibits to be made at
the two expositions therein named.
The commissioners appointed by the legislature were as follows:
Governor Frank White, president; Commissioner of Agriculture R.J.
Turner, secretary; Lieut. Governor David Bartlett, executive
commissioner; Hon. H.L. Holmes, and Hon. Warren N. Steele.
There was absolutely no private contribution or subscription. The cost
of the installation, including transportation and freight charges, etc.,
was in the neighborhood of $25,000.
In an act of the general assembly of the State of Ohio a bill was passed
May 12, 1902, creating a commission to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
and appropriating $75,000 for the erecting and maintaining of a State
building. The act provided as follows:
For the appointment of a commission to erect a building on the grounds
of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and to take charge of the building
and exhibits that might be placed therein, the governor was authorized
to appoint within thirty days after the passage of the act, a commission
of seven residents of the State of Ohio and one executive commissioner,
who should be ex officio a member of the commission. No more than four
of the commission were to be of the same political party. It was the
duty of the commission to decide upon plans and specifications for an
Ohio Building to cost not exceeding $35,000. Members of the commission
were not entitled to receive any compensation for their services except
their actual expenses for transportation and for subsistence for the
time they were necessarily engaged on the business of the commission.
The salary of the executive commissioner was $2,500 per annum, and in
addition to this salary he was allowed his actual and necessary
expenses. That there should be appropriated the sum of $50,000, $25,000
to be available on and after the 15th day of February, 1903, for the
erection and equipment of the building and for other expenses provided
for in the act.
An extra appropriation of $12,500 for the completion of the State
building was provided for in an act passed March 25, 1904, making an
appropriation for an Ohio Building on the grounds of the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, Mo.
The following commissioners were appointed:
William F. Burdell, president; L.E. Holden, vice-president; Stacey B.
Rankin, executive commissioner; D.H. Moore, Edwin Hagenbuch, M.K. Gantz,
Newell K. Kennon, and David Friedman.
As soon as the bill had been passed and the commissioners had been
appointed a meeting of the commission was held for the purpose of
deciding upon the plans for the State building. The building was erected
on the southeastern end of the fair grounds, on that part known as the
Terrace of States, at a cost of $35,000. The structure was designed
solely for the comfort and convenience of the people of the State, and
no effort was made to exhibit therein any of the resources of the State.
In an act of the general assembly of the State an additional bill was
passed March 24, 1904, appropriating $12,500 for completing and
furnishing the State building on the grounds of the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition. In this connection it may be of interest to mention that
President Francis especially complimented the commission for its
promptness in having the building erected, for on the opening day of the
exposition the Ohio Building was ready for occupancy and the president
himself was the first to register his name. At the close of the
exposition the commission advertised for the sale of the building and
disposed of it to the highest bidder.
While Ohio as a State maintained only one exhibit in the Mines and
Metallurgy Building, consisting chiefly of clay and its products, over
150 private individuals and corporations throughout the State added to
the prominence and magnitude of the exposition by installing costly
exhibits, which were maintained by them at very great expense. These
miscellaneous exhibits showed to very good advantage the natural
resources of the State and its diversified products. In the Palaces of
Electricity, Machinery, and Transportation the State was represented
remarkably well by these private exhibitors, and much credit is due to
them for their attractive and interesting display. In the Liberal Arts
Building it may be correctly intimated that the Ohio exhibitors were
predominant. In the Department of Anthropology, also, Ohio took the
grand prize over all competitors. The display consisted principally of
relics taken from the historical mounds of the State, which in
themselves were very interesting. Not only was the grand prize awarded
for the display, but a special gold medal was presented to Prof. W.C.
Mills, librarian and curator of the Ohio Archaeological and Historical
Society, for his untiring efforts in revealing to the public of to-day
the mode of livelihood and the characteristics of the oldest and most
historical race of this continent.
The Oklahoma World's Fair commission was appointed on April 19, 1901,
and organized ready for active work on May 1, 1901. Two days after it
was decided to hold the World's Fair in Forest Park, the Oklahoma
commission notified Secretary Stevens that Oklahoma was ready to select
her site for a building.
Oklahoma was among the very first to select a site on the World's Fair
grounds, was first to lay a corner stone for the Territorial building,
and the first to accept her building complete from the contractor and
dedicate the same.
By an act of the legislature of the Territory of Oklahoma, dated March
1, 1901, the sum of $20,000 was appropriated for the participation of
the Territory at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Subsequently, on
March 14, 1903, the legislature of the Territory enacted a bill
appropriating $40,000 additional for the erection and equipment of the
building on the grounds of the exposition, and for the transportation
and installation of the exhibits of the Territory. The following were
appointed by the legislature as a commission in charge of Oklahoma
Joseph Meibergen, chairman; Otto A. Shuttee, treasurer; Edgar B.
The Oklahoma Building was of semi-Moorish architecture, size 71 by 72,
with balconies above, below, and in front, the full width of the
building. It contained reception halls, parlors, toilet rooms, and
commissioner's office, 14 rooms in all. The building was two stories
high, with basement, provided with rugs and carpets of Wilton velvet.
The total cost of the building, exclusive of furniture, including gas
and electric light fixtures, was approximately $15,500.
All the plaster, inside and out, used in the construction of the
building was manufactured from Oklahoma gypsum.
The educational exhibit was shown in the Palace of Education and
occupied 488 square feet. It contained representative work from the
kindergarten to the University of Oklahoma. All the seven colleges and
preparatory schools supported by the Territory were represented, and
many of the ten institutions of higher learning supported by
denominational and private enterprises. Work from the majority of the
2,192 district schools was shown in leaf cabinets, framed pictures, and
in other ways. Taxidermical work and modeling in Oklahoma plaster were
shown, together with specimens of the handiwork of the students in the
Agricultural and Mechanical College. There were more than 4,000 exhibits
contained in the collection, which was shown in cabinets and cases. The
total cost of collection, installation, and maintenance was $1,825.95.
The agricultural exhibit was shown in section 42 of the Palace of
Agriculture, and covered 3,600 square feet of floor space.
Specimens of all the agricultural products of the Territory were shown
in the exhibit and consisted of the following:
Wheat ................................... 160
Oats .................................... 65
Rye ..................................... 5
Barley .................................. 11
Corn, shelled ............................. 19
Miscellaneous, consisting of alfalfa seed,
timothy, speltz, castor beans, etc ...... 31
Corn in the ear:
1903 .................................... 159
1904 .................................... 300
Irish ......................... plates .. 150
Sweet ........................... do .... 57
Broom corn ................................ 20
The foregoing constituted the main body of the exhibit, which was
supplemented by corn in the stalk, wheat, oats, barley, and other grains
in exhibit bundles, native and tame grasses in profusion, water-melons,
the largest of which weighed 117 pounds; various field and garden
vegetables, cotton and cotton-seed products, flax, tobacco, etc. A
special feature was a loaf of bread baked from flour ground from wheat
of the 1904 crop. The total cost of collection, installation, and
maintenance was $4,072.80.
In the Horticultural Department the exhibit covered 1,100 square feet of
floor space. The exhibit consisted of 250 jars of preserved fruits of
the various kinds produced in Oklahoma, 200 bottles of Oklahoma grape
wine, and about 400 plates of fresh fruits of the various kinds in their
season. Four hundred and fifty bushels of the choicest apples were
placed in cold storage in the fall of 1903 to keep the exhibit fresh. On
the 15th of November the exhibit had 1,800 specimens of apples from the
crops of 1904. The total cost of collection, installation, and
maintenance was $4,892.48.
The mineral exhibit occupied 1,020 square feet in the Palace of Mines
and Metallurgy. Here were shown 186 exhibits of sandstone, limestone,
and other building stone, magnetite, brick (both burned and green),
transparent selenite, and various others from Oklahoma. It also
contained salt, oil, and glass sand testing 96 per cent pure. The
plaster resources of Oklahoma were shown from the raw material in a
solid block weighing 3,600 pounds, through the various evolutions of
plaster manufacture to the finished product in dainty statuettes. A
prominent feature of this exhibit was the relief map of the Territory,
made from Oklahoma plaster by Doctor Finney, of the University of
Oklahoma. The map weighed 1,600 pounds and showed every elevation and
depression, with the rivers, streams, lakes, gypsum deposits, and salt
reserves. The total cost of collection, installation, and maintenance
_Members of commission_.--Jefferson Myers, president; W.E. Thomas,
vice-president; Edmond C. Giltner, secretary; W.H. Wehrung, special
commissioner and general superintendent; F.A. Spencer, David Rafferty,
J.C. Flanders, G.Y. Harry, J.H. Albert, Richard Scott, Frank
Williams, F.G. Young, George Conser; Layton Wisdom, private secretary
to general superintendent.
The legislature of the State of Oregon made an appropriation of $50,000
for the participation of Oregon at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.
One of the main objects was to excite interest in the Lewis and Clark
Centennial Exposition to be held at Portland, Oreg., in 1905.
The Oregon State Building was built of logs and was a reproduction of
Fort Clatsop, the fort in which Lewis and Clark and their companions
resided during their stay in Oregon in the winter of 1805-6. Two square
wings stood diagonally from each front corner of the building like the
old fortress abutments used in the days when it was necessary for
pioneer settlers to maintain such defenses against the hostile Indians.
The cost of the erection and maintenance of the building was $9,000, of
which the Lewis and Clark Exposition Company contributed $3,500.
Not including the exhibits in the Oregon Building, the State made
exhibits in six exhibit palaces, as follows: Agricultural Pavilion,
Horticultural Pavilion, Educational Pavilion, Forestry Pavilion, Mining
Pavilion, and Fish and Game Pavilion.
In the Educational Department a very interesting display was made by the
State board of education and the public schools of approximately all the
towns in the State.
In the Forestry, Fish, and Game Building were exhibits by large lumber
corporations of the State and a very interesting display of mounted
specimens of fish and game, furs and rugs, also cannery displays from
the fish-canning concerns. The Oregon State experimental stations at
Corvallis and Union made very interesting exhibits of grains and grasses
in the Palace of Agriculture. The same classes of products were
exhibited by about 60 individual exhibitors, residents of the State of
Oregon. While grains and grasses formed the largest exhibit, there were
also interesting displays of wool, mohair, hops, milling stuffs,
evaporated cream, and vegetables and fruit, both evaporated and in jars.
In the Horticultural Building about 50 exhibitors displayed specimens of
the fruits of Oregon. Apples, pears, and prunes were shown in
interesting variety and unexcelled quality.
Four exhibitors made exhibits in the Live Stock Department.
In the Mines and Metallurgy Building there was a very unique and
interesting display of mineral specimens, many of which were loaned to
the State of Oregon for use at the exposition. Among the specimens there
were collections of gold quartz and nuggets from the various gold mines
of the State. Besides the gold, there were shown collections of polished
pebble, copper ores, native silver, including cobalt and antimony ores,
crystals, opals, marble, jasper, asbestos, limestone, kaolin, asphaltum,
and tellurium ores. There were also displayed Indian curios,
ethnological, geological, and other specimens, all found in the State of
Oregon. The total value of the exhibit in the Mines and Metallurgy
Building was estimated at $35,000.
The cost of installing and maintaining the exhibits in the several
palaces were as follows:
Agricultural Building ................. $7,117
Horticultural Building ................ 6,148
Educational Building .................. 3,800
Forestry Building ..................... 3,200
Mines and Metallurgy Building ......... 5,000
Fish and Game Building ................ 2,300
The cost of freight and transportation from Oregon to the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition was, approximately, $4,400. Altogether the State of
Oregon expended $45,803.34 out of its appropriation up to the close of
By a joint resolution of the legislature of Pennsylvania, on February 4,
1903, Governor Samuel W. Pennypacker appointed Lieutenant-Governor
William M. Brown, president of the senate; John M. Scott, speaker of the
house; Henry F. Walton, State treasurer; Frank G. Harris, auditor; Gen.
Edmund B. Hardenbergh, secretary of internal affairs, and Isaac B. Brown
as members of the Pennsylvania commission. Subsequently the governor
appointed the following additional members: William S. Harvey, Morris L.
Clothier, Joseph M. Gazzam, George H. Earle, Jr., Charles B. Penrose,
George T. Oliver, H.H. Gilkyson, Hiram Young, James Pollock, and James
McBrier. The president of the senate appointed John G. Brady, William C.
Sproul, William P. Snyder, J. Henry Cochran, Cyrus E. Woods, and the
speaker of the house appointed Theodore B. Stulb, John Hamilton, William
B. Kirker, William Wayne, John A.F. Hoy, Fred T. Ikeler, William H.
Ulrich, A.F. Cooper, Frank B. McClain, George J. Hartman.
The commission organized on April 24, 1903, and nominated James H.
Lambert, of Philadelphia, executive officer; Bromley Wharton, secretary
of the commission and created an executive committee of nine members,
with H. George J. Brennan as secretary; Thos. H. Garvin, superintendent
State Building; Philip H. Johnson, architect.
The State appropriation was $300,000. The only amount raised by private
subscription, which was used in the installation of State exhibits, was
$15,000, contributed by the anthracite coal corporations to make a
display of the process of mining and marketing anthracite coal. There
were no exhibits in the Pennsylvania State Building outside of the
portraits of distinguished Pennsylvanians, past and present, 42 of which
were displayed, and a collection of pictures loaned by the American Art
Society. Several mural paintings from the Women's School of Design, in
Philadelphia, and a series of nearly 100 photographs of the monuments
erected to Pennsylvania regiments on the field of Gettysburg.
The State mining exhibit represented an expenditure of $60,000.
The cost of the educational exhibit was $14,000; of the agricultural
exhibit $12,000; of the fish exhibit, $10,000.
In the Department of Social Economy Pennsylvania's charitable and penal
system was fully demonstrated in an exhibit which received a grand prize
and which was installed at an expenditure of $2,500. In addition to
this, Pennsylvania's interests were represented in every department of
the exposition--in Manufactures, Liberal Arts, Varied Industries,
Electricity, Transportation, and Machinery.
It was Pennsylvania-made machinery which furnished the power for the
electric light of the exposition, as well as for driving the machinery
and pumping the water for the Cascades.
The Pennsylvania State Building occupied a conspicuous position on
elevated ground and was one of the finest and most costly in the State
group. The most imposing figure was the magnificently proportioned
rotunda, the roof of which was supported by a colonnade of Ionic
capitaled columns, which supported an entablature of great dignity, this
in turn being surmounted by a series of 12 semicircular arches or
lunettes, in each of which was placed an allegorical painting,
suggestive and typically illustrative of the very important industries
of the State.
The principal color scheme of the architectural features was ivory
white, with the capitals and plinths of columns gilt, as also the
vaulted soffits above the paintings and the large Guilloche moldings on
ribs of the ceiling, and the other important details.
The walls above the low wainscoting were painted in a rich shade of
turquoise blue, with paneled ornamental stenciled work of a very rich
The ceiling was finished in a rich yellow tint of a tone to harmonize
with the general surroundings. The general effect produced, aside from
the artistic result obtained, was Pennsylvania's State colors. The
ladies' room contained some beautiful furniture, consisting of some
large settees, tables, writing desks, and comfortably upholstered easy
chairs. The windows were draped with red silk curtains on which were
embroidered the coat of arms and other State emblems.
The men's room, across the large stair hall, was similarly treated as
regards furniture and draperies, but in more masculine, taste, the
furniture being covered in leather, the draperies of heavier material,
and the color scheme and design throughout being more suggestive of the
The second floor had three large, beautifully lighted and proportioned
rooms, known as "art rooms."
The various rooms throughout the building were decorated murally and
otherwise in such color tones, draperies, etc., as to make one
harmonious with the other. Each department, in addition to its other
features, had specially designed Smyrna rugs in color and design to
Pennsylvania, in the allotment of space for her education exhibit,
received one of the most desirable plots in the Educational Building.
The booth was one of the most attractive in the building, and was in
harmony with its purpose. The exhibit was almost entirely from the
public schools, including work from the kindergarten, the grades, and
the high school. The normal schools and the soldiers' orphans schools,
which are a part of the public school system in Pennsylvania, were also
well represented. The work of all the kindergartens appeared together,
likewise the first grade, and so on through the grades. The high school
and normal school products were arranged by subjects, the papers from
one branch appearing in a cabinet. The display was made on the inside
walls of the booth in leaf cabinets, base stands, and special show
In portfolios and on the walls were about 3,000 photographs of school
buildings, grounds, interiors with children at work and at play, manual
classes at sewing, basketry, weaving, in the shops and the gardens,
plans and drawings in full of model rural school buildings; evolution of
the schoolhouses, showing the first log building, its successors until
the modern school structure is reached, and noted places and buildings
in Pennsylvania history. The State soldiers' orphans schools had an
interesting and attractive exhibit of photographs of their buildings,
grounds, pupils, and shops with work going on. The industrial Indian
school at Carlisle had a number of most interesting photographs showing
the marvelous development in the pupils after they enter that school.
The normal schools of the State had about 300 photographs of buildings,
interiors, and students.
Haverford College and Lehigh University had exhibits of photographs of
the college buildings, interiors, course of study, and students. The
Philadelphia School of Design for Women, the Pennsylvania School of
Industrial Art, and the Spring Garden Institute had most interesting
exhibits showing the best handiwork in the lines for which these schools
were severally noted.
In the exhibit in the Mines and Metallurgy it was designed to make an
exposition of the mineral wealth of the State in the crude condition of
its occurrences, and of her industrial advancement in the arts and
sciences as shown by the finished product. There were aggregated in the
exhibit statistical data, photographic views, transparencies and prints,
relief maps, specimens of crude, partly worked, and finished material.
The central feature of the exhibit, an octagonal shaft about 30 feet in
height, surmounted by an ornamental frieze, dome, and golden eagle, bore
statistics relating to the most important mineral productions of the
State during the year 1903. Among the relief maps reproducing mining
regions one, 12 by 8 feet, covered the whole State of Pennsylvania, and
showed coal measures, including the Pottsville conglomerate,
oil-producing areas, and gas territory.
Among the crude materials exhibited, coal, the greatest mineral product
of the State, was given preeminence. A piece of anthracite coal weighing
11 tons, said to be the largest unbroken piece of this coal ever taken
from the ground, was surrounded by pyramidal glass cases in which were
displayed anthracite coals of various kinds, quantities, and qualities
in all the marketable sizes, from lump to culm. Adjoining this display
was a working breaker illustrating modern methods of breaking, cleaning,
and assorting anthracite coal. Next to this display was probably the
most perfect and comprehensive coal-mine model ever constructed. It was
about 16 feet by 9 feet, and was accurately proportioned to the scale of
5 feet to 1 inch. The background of the model showed the surface plan of
a large mine, including a miniature breaker near the head of the mine
shaft to the breaker, small cars bearing slate and culm away from the
breakers, and coal cars upon a track which ran under the breaker for
convenience in loading the marketable product for shipment; also upon
the left hand, the fan supplying ventilation to the mine, the carpenter
shop, and the boiler room, and on the right hand, the men at work on
strippings (coal lying on or near the surface) with steam shovels.
Mounted prints and transparencies showed interior and surface views of
mines, and a valuable collection of coal fossils completed the State
exhibit of anthracite coal.
The bituminous coal of the State of Pennsylvania was represented by
twelve cross-sectional cuttings from well-known veins occurring in
different parts of the State and by models and views. Pennsylvania's
interest in iron mining and manufactures was represented by the crude
In crude specimens, ores of manganese, zinc, copper, nickel, lead, etc.,
were displayed, as well as feldspar, corundum talc, asbestos, gypsum,
and mica. A pavilion built of old Bangor slate showed slabs of different
grades and varieties of finish.
A handsomely mounted exhibit of crude and refined oils in 200 flasks
conveyed a conception of the variety and extent of the oil industry of
the State. The whole exhibit, so far as space would permit, was designed
upon a scale significant of the size, importance, and value of the
mineral wealth it represented.
The general scheme of installation of Pennsylvania's agricultural
exhibit embraced an inclosing structure of show cases with plate-glass
tops. On either side of the four corners was a massive paneled port
surmounted by a glass sphere 6 inches in diameter and filled with some
farm products similar to that which was shown in the cases adjoining
Upon two of the keystones grains and seeds were displayed in glass jars,
while corn was shown in rows of ears. Upon another keystone were shown
fine specimens of fine tobacco, as also in the show cases adjoining the
pagoda. All the tobacco shown was grown in Lancaster County. Wool was
shown in the grease, or "unwashed," in small samples taken directly from
the sheep. These samples were arranged upon black velvet, which lined
the bottom of the cases in a large variety of beautiful forms, and
constituted one of the most attractive features of the exhibits.
In the remaining show cases was found an unusually large collection of
the manufactured products of the farmers' crops, including meals,
flours, "breakfast foods," oils, liquors, pipes, etc.
Pennsylvania's fish exhibit was divided into five groups, namely: Live
fish, mounted fish, birds and mammals, water colors and photographs of
fishery subjects, legally confiscated devices for catching fish and
Naturally, it was designed that the live-fish exhibit should be the
prominent feature. Thirty-five aquaria were placed on two sides of the
main aisle. Only prominent examples of various groups were displayed,
consisting of game fishes, food fishes, the principal interior fishes
commercially valuable as food, representatives of types which have no
value either for game or food purposes and which were distinctively
destructive, and also minnows.
The still exhibit was one of great beauty. The mounted groups were
separated into two divisions, mounted fishes of the larger size and the
mounted specimens of the birds and animals which prey upon fishes.
The greatest interest was probably shown in the exhibit of legally
confiscated nets, draped in artistic fashion against a high board wall
stained to represent a natural fence. Among them were placed fish on
panels, which added materially to the effect. It was the only exhibit of
its kind in the World's Fair, and it apparently proved to be one of the
Pennsylvania responded enthusiastically to the invitation to participate
in the general educational display in the Art Palace. Fully conscious of
the ethical influence of art as a factor in the progress of the
Commonwealth, the commissioners set aside funds to assist the
Pennsylvania artists in displaying the best of their works produced
since the Columbian Exposition--eleven years ago--and in a manner worthy
of the State, which possesses the oldest art institute in the country
and which gave birth to Benjamin West, Sully, Nagel, Rothemmel, and
The State had important representation in all of the six groups in which
the department had classified its exhibits.
The following table will show the extent of the participation:
Paintings and drawings ...... 145
Etchings and engravings ..... 7
Sculpture ................... 36
Architecture ................ 104
Loan ........................ 14
Applied arts ................ 107
Total ....................... 313
Pennsylvania sculpture was a striking feature of the impressive
collection in the United States sculpture court of the Art Palace. The
late Edmund C. Stewartson's work, "The Bather," one of the best
productions of American sculpture, was installed here, and, among
others, important works were shown of Charles Grafly, to whom was
intrusted the designing of the official medal of awards for the
exposition; of Alexander Sterling Calder, and of Samuel Murray, who
exhibited many portrait busts of well-known Pennsylvanians. Architecture
had as its Pennsylvania representation many well-known individuals and
To the splendid collection of foreign masterpieces forming the loan
collection of the United States section, borrowed from individual
collectors and art institutions, Pennsylvania made sumptuous
The Pennsylvania display in the Department of Art was of the highest
importance, and a comparison with the contributions of other States
disclosed the fact that Pennsylvania stood second to only one other
State in point of numbers.
The Philippine exposition board was created by Act 514 of the Philippine
Commission, passed for the purpose of collecting and installing a
distinctively Philippine exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition of
1904 at St. Louis, Mo.
The original act carried an appropriation of $125,000, which was made
immediately available, and authorized the board to incur additional
obligations to the amount of $250,000 apart from such sum as might be
set aside by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company in aid of the
Philippine exhibit. The amount of such aid was $200,000 from the
appropriation made by Congress.
Several amendments to Act 514 were made, notably Acts 765, 827, 1055,
and other acts carrying additional appropriations.
The exposition board, as originally appointed, consisted of Dr. W.P.
Wilson, director of the Philadelphia Commercial Museum; Dr. Gustavo
Niederlein, chief of the scientific department of the Philadelphia
museums, and Mr. Pedro A. Paterno, of Manila, as members, and Dr. Leon
M. Guerrero, also of Manila, secretary. Mr. Carson Taylor was appointed
Several changes in the authorized official organization have occurred.
Mr. Pedro A. Paterno, member, whose work had been confined to the
Philippine Islands, resigned in August, 1904, and was succeeded by Mr.
A.L. Lawshe, auditor for the Philippine Islands, who was appointed to
serve during a leave of absence from the Philippines. Dr. W.P. Wilson
resigned the chairmanship in October, 1904, the resignation to take
effect November 1 following. Mr. Lawshe was appointed to the
chairmanship to succeed Doctor Wilson, and Mr. Herbert S. Stone,
previously connected with the board as chief of publicity, was appointed
to the vacant membership on the board.
The task of collecting the material for the exhibit devolved on Doctor
Niederlein, who, as director of exhibits, was given sole charge of this
work. He arrived in the islands for the purpose in October, 1902.
Chairman Wilson made a brief visit to the islands in May, 1903, to
arrange plans for the work, and upon his return undertook the
construction of the buildings and the beautifying of the grounds.
Forty-seven acres of rolling country, lying for the most part on an
elevation of the southwestern section of the World's Fair grounds, were
assigned to the Philippine exhibit. The work of construction consisted
of building a miniature city, with streets and parks and complete
sewerage, water, and electric light, and fire-alarm systems. The ground
plan included a central park or plaza, the sides of the quadrangle being
occupied, respectively, by the cathedral or educational building, the
typical Manila house, the commerce building, and the government or
administration building, each of these beautiful structures being filled
with appropriate exhibits. In addition there were separate exhibit
buildings devoted to forestry, mines, and metallurgy, to agriculture and
horticulture, to fish and game, and to ethnology, all artistically
placed. A reproduction of the ancient walls of Manila commanded the main
approach to the Philippine grounds. After crossing a miniature
reproduction of the Bridge of Spain, which spans the Pasig River at
Manila, the visitors entered the Philippine reservation through the Real
gate. Villages typical of the Philippine life, from the lowest grade to
the better class, surrounded the main buildings, while on the south side
were the quarters, camps, and parade grounds of the Philippine
Constabulary and the Philippine Scouts. The Manila Observatory, with a
large outdoor relief map on the east and a hospital and office building
in a convenient space on the west part of the grounds, completed the
Each and every building constructed under Philippine auspices was
typical of the islands. Vast quantities of bamboo and nipa, brought from
the archipelago, were used in the construction of the native villages as
well as in the Forestry, Mines, Agriculture, and Fish and Game
While the expenditure for the exhibit far exceeded the amount originally
contemplated by the Philippine Commission, due to many causes and
conditions, it gave to the people of the United States a more intimate
knowledge of the resources and possibilities of the Philippine Islands
than they could acquire except by an actual and extended visit.
The exhibit was an honest one. There were the least civilized people in
the Negritos and the Igorrotes; the semicivilized in the Bagobos and the
Moros, and the civilized and cultured in the Visavans, as well as in the
constabulary and scout organizations. In all other respects the exhibit
was a faithful portrayal.
The official staff of the board was as follows:
Dr. William P. Wilson, chairman; Dr. Gustavo Niederlein, member and
director of exhibits; Mr. Pedro A. Paterno, member; Dr. Leon M.
Guerrero, secretary; Mr. Edmund A. Felder, executive officer; Mr. Carson
Taylor, disbursing officer; Mr. H.C. Lewis, cashier; Rev. Jose Algue,
S.J., director of the Philippine Weather Bureau and director of the
Philippine Exposition Observatory; Capt. M.C. Butler, U.S. Army,
director of supplies; Capt. Llewellyn P. Williamson, Medical Department,
U.S. Army, medical director; Mr. Charles L. Hall, chief department of
agriculture; Mr. Charles P. Fenner, chief department of commerce and
manufactures and representative of the American Chamber of Commerce of
Manila; Mr. A.R. Hager, chief department of education; Dr. Albert E.
Jenks, chief ethnological survey for the Philippine Islands and chief of
the department of ethnology, Philippine exposition; Mr. Roy Hopping,
chief department mines and metallurgy; Mr. Herbert S. Stone, chief
department of publicity; Mr. Alfred C. Newell, chief department of
exploitation; Mr. William N. Swarthout, editor of the Manila Times, on
special duty; Mr. George P. Linden, curator of exhibits, in charge of
forestry; Capt. F.E. Cofren, P.C., chief of war exhibit; Mr. Antonio G.
Escammilla, assistant secretary; Capt. George S. Clark, purchasing
agent; Mr. A.E. Anderson, architect; Mr. James D. Lalor, chief engineer;
Miss Pilar Zamora, superintendent of model school; Mr. Jose Quadras,
chief department of fish and game.
The forestry exhibit was installed in a handsome and characteristic
bamboo and nipa structure of the bungalow type. The interior of the
building was divided into four parts, of which two were utilized to show
the woods in the rough, planed, and polished states, a third being used
to display forestry by-products, while the last contained the finished
products made into furniture.
The total number of exhibitors in this department was 1,294. The
superior jury approved the following awards:
Grand prizes, 3; gold medals, 24; silver medals, 39; bronze medals, 32;
honorable mentions, 207; total number awards granted, 305.
In the commerce and manufactures was a commercial exhibit showing the
articles of importation, their cost, method of packing, etc. Exhibitors
of samples of imports in this department were awarded suitable medals
and diplomas for their collaboration and the wisdom of the scheme has
been fully demonstrated.
The commercial library, consisting of the Philippine tariff and customs
administrative act, public laws and resolutions passed by the civil
commission, and other books of interest, served excellently as works of
The department of liberal arts and fine arts was installed in the two
wings on the ground floor of the Government Building, while the fine-art
exhibit was placed in the art gallery formed by the rear wing of the
building. Taking advantage of the available facilities, they were
arranged so as to give unity to the whole, notwithstanding their
variety, thus making the general effect pleasing to the eye.
A collection of mollusks of great scientific value and a collection of
insects were placed, respectively, in the right and left wings of the
A large collection of books, pamphlets, newspapers, photographs, etc.,
relating to the Philippines, the maps and public and private house
models, and the different exhibits of the insular government bureaus
were exhibited in the palaces above mentioned. The needlework in silk
cloth, pina, and cotton, together with work in leather, silver, and
gold, and musical instruments, noteworthy on account of perfect
workmanship, were equally well displayed for public inspection.
The prizes awarded to this department were as follows:
Grand prizes, 14; gold medals, 55; silver medals, 64; bronze medals, 45;
honorable mentions, 123.
The main installation of fine arts was made in the reception hall of the
Government Building, both for paintings and sculpture. Of the first
mentioned there were 61, selected for special merit, and of the second,
28, notable for their artistic conception and execution. The remainder
were divided between the educational building and the Manila House,
there being 85 oil paintings aside from water colors and some drawings
in crayon; 35 pieces of sculpture, and 8 wood carvings. Among the pieces
of sculpture were included certain ancient pieces which, in some
respects, illustrate the history of this branch of fine arts cultivated
by the Filipinos, with special application to religious iconography.
In July the paintings and sculptures were examined, and the following
awards were unanimously made:
Grand prizes, 4; gold medals, 15; silver medals, 31; bronze medals, 38;
honorable mentions, 42.
The Manila observatory took a special interest in the St. Louis
Exposition and exhibited a model of a first-class meteorological seismic
station equipped with the very latest instruments. This model, unlike
others that were on exhibition at the World's Fair, was in working
order, and all the recording instruments were continually kept in motion
by the head mechanic of the Manila central observatory.
The work in the meteorological station consisted principally in taking
two daily observations of Green's mercurial barometer, of the maximum
and minimum temperature of the psychrometer, of the direction of the
winds and of the clouds and also the amount of rainfall.
The educational exhibit was installed in a large, well-lighted building
which was a diminished model of the Manila Cathedral. Central walls and
alcoves, covered with green burlap, were erected to give wall space, and
220 square meters of space were thus provided. In preparing the exhibit,
the first step was to enlist the cooperation of the American and
Filipino teachers in the Government schools, about 2,000 in number, and
as many as possible of the teachers of private schools. To this end,
circulars were sent to every American teacher, and visits were made to
the school divisions near Manila. Supplies of school materials, uniform
paper for written work, etc., were sent by the bureau of education,
which gave every assistance possible to schools that requested such
material. Letters were written to a number of educators in America
requesting personal expressions as to what they would find most
interesting in a Philippine educational exhibit. In response many
helpful suggestions were received.
The educational exhibit known as "Department A," of the Philippine
exposition board, contained collections sent by 438 exhibitors and
consisted of 8,542 exhibits.
Labels of various sizes were freely used to give visitors information
regarding collections and conditions of school work in the Philippines,
particularly where these conditions differed from those of the United
Written work was displayed in flat-top wall cases arranged according to
school divisions, some of the typical work being shown open under glass.
These cases were arranged so that they might have been opened without
disturbing the displayed work to give access to other written work of
The industrial exhibits and photographs filled 30 glazed show cases and
the wall space around these cases and were arranged by school divisions.
These show cases varied in size from one-half to 7 cubic meters. The
list of awards contained eight grand prizes, as follows:
The secretary of public instruction and the general superintendent of
education, on the exhibit as a whole; the Philippine Model School;
Laguna High School; Liceo de Manila Secondary School; the Philippine
Nautical School; the Philippine Normal School, and the University of
Thirty gold medals, 71 silver medals, 110 bronze medals, and 323
honorable mentions were also awarded.
The Model School was in a typical nipa and bamboo schoolhouse especially
arranged for exhibition purposes. It was in charge of Miss Pilar Zamora,
a Tagalog, who is a teacher, in the Philippine Normal School. Two
sessions were held daily, to which visitors were admitted.
The exhibits in the agricultural building represented agriculture,
horticulture, and land transportation. The material on exhibition
consisted of all raw and manufactured products of the soil, together
with crude native instruments and implements employed in the cultivation
of the land, as well as native machinery for the preparation of such
products for the market, illustrating in as complete a manner as
possible the old process of raising the various crops of the island.
Among the cereals were large and interesting collections of rice, both
hulled and in the hull, representing hundreds of varieties and
subvarieties grown in the different islands of the archipelago. These
varieties were divided into two groups, namely, "palay de secano" or
mountain rice, which is cultivated without irrigation, and "palay de
regadio" or valley rice, which is cultivated in rice paddies and by
irrigation. There were also samples of wheat grown at some of the
experimental stations established by the insular bureau of agriculture.
Samples of corn or maize, millet, sorghum, pease, beans, and lentils
were also exhibited.
There was also a large collection of tropical and European vegetable
seeds, together with seeds of various kinds of pumpkins, squash,
calabash, and cucumbers grown in the islands. The collection of oil and
oil-producing seeds consisted of samples of sesame, peanut, castor,
pili, palo, maria, tangan-tangan, tuba-tuba, copra, or dried cocoanut,
The collection of wild and cultivated fruits, vegetables, and tubers
preserved in formaldehyde was a very interesting one, and undoubtedly
the first collection of its kind seen in America. Samples of unrefined
sugar of different grades, together with the preserved cane, were also
displayed, with the crude native machinery used in the extraction of the
Samples of alcohol, wines, and vinegar produced from the various palm
saps or grain and sugar were well represented. The collection of fibers
and textiles was very complete. It consisted of several varieties of
shrub cotton in white, yellow, and brown, together with the cloth made
of this cotton by the natives on crude hand looms, and the tree cotton
variety, which is principally used by the natives for filling pillows.
In the fiber exhibit were samples of hemp, maguey pina, and textile
barks of all kinds, together with samples of cloth and rope manufactured
A conservatory built in the center of the building on the south side
contained a very interesting collection of orchids, cycas, and some tree
ferns from the Philippines.
Exhibits were cared for in 93 show cases, 40 inches wide, 7 feet high,
and 1 foot deep; 4 show cases 6 feet wide, 7 feet high, and 6 feet deep.
Other exhibits too large to be placed in show cases were cared for on
420 feet of double shelving and on tables 80 feet long and 12 feet wide.
The exhibits in this building numbered over 20,000 individual pieces,
the duplicates being exhibited under the same number. The following
number of awards was granted in the department of agriculture:
Nine grand prizes, 4 gold medals, 179 silver medals, 145 bronze medals,
and 463 honorable mentions.
The Fish and Game Building was situated in the extreme northern part of
the exposition grounds and overlooked Arrowhead Lake. The structure was
in the shape of the letter "T," and had a floor space of 4,400 square
feet and represented a "camarian," or Philippine warehouse.
The building was divided into two sections; the first, containing a
floor space of 1,700 square feet, was devoted to the game exhibit, while
the second, containing a floor space of 3,200 square feet, was devoted
to fish, fishing apparatus, shells, etc.
At the entrance was a fine specimen of the Tamarao, a species of wild
buffalo (_Bubalus mindorensis_ Heude); to the left a complete collection
of birds, well mounted and scientifically labeled, and to the right a
fine collection of the enormous fruit bats and some of the skins of
these bats, which are of great commercial value. Large collections of
birds' eggs, attractively displayed; numerous specimens of stuffed wild
boars and deer were displayed. Fine specimens of python, 21 feet long
and 1 foot in diameter, and a collection of crocodiles, large iguanas,
and lizards were prominent features in the collection of reptiles.
A numerous collection of nets for fishing and hunting of deer and wild
boar, with some of the snares, game traps, bows, and arrows completely
covered and festooned the ceiling and walls.
There was also a collection of corals, gorgonias or sponge corals,
having a spread of about 5 feet.
The awards in this department, as approved by the superior jury, were as
Fish and game: Grand prizes, 2; gold medals, 5; silver medals, 10;
bronze medals, 38; honorable mentions, 201. Water transportation: Grand
prizes, 2; gold medals, 3; silver medals, 3; bronze medals, 2; honorable
A most interesting exhibit of the numerous mineral resources of the
archipelago was displayed for the inspection of the public in the mines
and mining exhibit.
The most important exhibits were, first, the cases of iron ores, those
from Bulacan, Luzon, receiving a grand prize, 3 silver medals, and 2
bronze medals. Second, a complete coal exhibit, that from Cebu and
Bataan Island each receiving a gold medal. Third, an exhibit of gold and
gold quartz, which filled five wall cases and two small table cases, and
which received three gold medals, six silver medals, and four bronze
medals. Gold medals were also given the exhibit of basalt for heavy
foundations and heavy construction, marble from Romblon Island, a
geological and mineralogical collection exhibited by the mining bureau
and Isuan mineral water from Los Banos, Laguna, Luzon.
The ethnological collection was displayed in the ethnology building,
constructed around three sides of a square open court; the building was
119 feet long and 88 feet wide. It consisted of two long halls, one 88
by 37, and one 88 by 39 feet long. Over one of these long halls were two
chambers about 30 feet square each. The building contained about 4,500
square feet of surface behind glass cases, and about 9,400 square feet
of open wall and ceiling space covered with museum specimens, or a total
of about 14,000 square feet, where about 1,800 specimens were displayed.
Some of the specimens exhibited were: Bontoc Igorrote head-axes, Bontoc
Igorotte basket work utensils used in the domestic and field activities;
Benguet and Banawi Igorrote carved wooden food bowls and spoons; Benguet
Igorrote baskets; wooden clay and metal pipes from northern Luzon; and a
collection of Benguet Igorrote copper pots and copper mining outfit.
Also Bontoc Igorotte spears, shields, and carved wooden human figures,
men's basket hats, women's headdress beads, men's boar tusk armlets, and
the earrings and ear plugs worn by both men and women.
The ceilings and walls of the hall in which the exhibits were located
were covered with bark and cotton clothing made by the various Igorrote
people, such clothing as women's skirts and jackets, men's breechcloths
and shirts, and the various burial garments used by both men and women.
There was also a very large collection of shields and spears of the
various Igorrote people, a very exhaustive collection of Negrito
materials, and some excellent Kalinga, Ibilao, Tinguian, and Mangiyan
One case contained a collection of Bagobo, Manobo, and Mandaya materials
and a collection of materials from the Tagakola, the Bilan, the Tiruray,
and the Subano.
A good collection of materials from the little-known Tagabanua people of
the island of Paragua was displayed.
The third hall contained, almost exclusively, materials from the various
Mohammedan people of the archipelago, commonly called "Moros," such as
Moro mats, saddles, and bridles made and used by the "Moros," crude
string and wind instruments gathered from many places in the
archipelago, and curious gongs used by the Moros as musical instruments
and for beating sound messages from place to place.
A typical manial house attracted much attention. The building
represented a house of the wealthy class, with shell windows. The
exhibit contained therein consisted in the main of handsome handwoven