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Final Report of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission by Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission

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Smithsonian Institution | 320 | 39 |
Bureau of American Republics | 13 | 9 |

The first woman employed in the Government service was appointed by
General Spinner, of the Treasury Department, about 1864.

On July 1, 1901, the clerical force in the Executive Departments in
Washington was approximately a force of 27,605 employees of both sexes.
Out of this number there were 7,496 females. The time, at this ratio of
increase of the respective sexes, when the gentler sex is to overcome
and pass the men, is merely a matter of arithmetic to those who wish to
ascertain this interesting data. The above table shows that the women
have between one-fourth and one-third of the appointments in Washington,

Mrs. Mary Phelps Montgomery, the chairman of the committee on woman's
work, read her first report of the work of that committee at the meeting
of the board held Tuesday, April 28, 1903, and a copy was transmitted to
the National Commission. At the session held on December 17, 18, and 19,
1903, the following letter was received and read by the secretary:

ST. LOUIS, U.S.A., _December 16, 1903_.

DEAR MRS. HANGER: Replying to your esteemed favor of the 14th
instant, transmitting a copy of report of committee on woman's
work, which was adopted by your board at a meeting held in
April, 1903, you are advised that on motion the same was
approved to the extent that the report prescribes the scope of
your proposed field of activity.

The Commission, at its session on the 15th instant, adopted the
following resolution:

"Moved and seconded that in so far as the report of committee on
woman's work prescribes the line of work for the board of lady
managers, the same stands approved by the Commission.

"Motion prevailed."

Agreeable to your request, the report has been forwarded to the
Exposition Company for its action, with a copy of the resolution
passed by the Commission.
Very respectfully, THOMAS H. CARTER,

_Secretary of the Board of Lady Managers,
Administration Building, City_.

Extracts from this report are embodied in the final report of the
committee on woman's work, which is as follows:

September 30, 1902, the women appointed by the National
Commission as lady managers for the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition were called by the National Commission to meet in St.
Louis and effect an organization of the board of lady managers.
At this meeting the board of lady managers was organized and
Mrs. James L. Blair elected president.

The first permanent committee appointed by the new president was
a committee on woman's work. The ladies appointed on this
committee were: Miss Anna L. Dawes, Miss Helen Gould, Mrs.
Marcus Daly, Mrs. M.K. de Young, and Mrs. Mary Phelps
Montgomery, chairman. Two members of this committee were not
present at the meeting. The president of the board impressed
upon the chairman of the committee that a large share of the
board's work must of necessity be performed by the committee on
woman's work. The chairman of the committee asked the president
of the National Commission for special instructions in regard to
the plan and scope of the work of the board of lady managers.
The president of the National Commission replied that the board
of lady managers must outline their own policy and perform their
own work to their best judgment. There was no work performed by
the committee on woman's work at this meeting.

The second meeting of the board of lady managers was held in New
York City, November 17, 1902. The chairman of the committee on
woman's work asked to have added to this committee Mrs. John M.
Holcombe, Mrs. Edward L. Buchwalter, Mrs. Daniel Manning, and
Mrs. Richard Knott. The chairman of the committee called a
meeting at that time, to which call only Miss Anna L. Dawes and
Mrs. Daniel Manning responded. At this second meeting of the
board of lady managers in New York the president of the board
instructed the committee on woman's work to proceed to St. Louis
not later than March, and there receive instructions from the
National Commission in regard to the line of work they should
take up at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. It became apparent
at this meeting that it would be necessary to specialize the
work of the board of lady managers, thus relieving the committee
on woman's work of much responsibility and labor.

The chairman and Mrs. Daniel Manning, as members of the
committee on woman's work, spent January, 1903, in the city of
Washington, and during their stay endeavored to acquaint
themselves with the work performed by women in each and every
vocation in life.

In accordance with the instructions of the president, Mrs.
Blair, at the meeting held on November 17, the committee on
woman's work met at the Southern Hotel, in St. Louis, March 10,
at 11 o'clock, Mrs. Montgomery, chairman. There were present
besides the chairman Mrs. Manning, Mrs. Holcombe, and Mrs.
Buchwalter, three members being unavoidably prevented from
coming, viz: Miss Gould, Miss Dawes, and Mrs. Knott.

The interest that this committee felt in developing on broad
lines their part in the exposition is shown in the following
extracts taken from my report, which was not read, however,
until the meeting of the board held April 28, 1903:

* * * * *

According to appointment, the committee on woman's work met the
executive committee of the Exposition Company at the Laclede
Building, March 11, 1903. Mr. Corwin H. Spencer, acting and
first vice-president and chairman of the executive committee,
presided, and stated: "These ladies are here, gentlemen, upon my
invitation, and have some matters they wish to discuss with

Mrs. Montgomery, the chairman of the committee on woman's work,
then said:

"Ever since we became members of the board of lady managers we
have been somewhat in the dark as to what we could and might do
to contribute to the success of this great exposition, and we
thought perhaps if we came and talked to you gentlemen upon the
ground that you could throw us a little light.' We, of course,
want to work in harmony with everything that has already been
outlined, and we feel that we are a very weak body, but we want
to add our efforts to those of the officers of this exposition,
and we came to ask you to please tell us how we can help you,
and to instruct us upon the line which we are to take up. We
feel that women of this country have become a very great factor,
but we also feel that the time has passed when we are to have a
separate exhibit of what women can do, and we thought perhaps in
some way we might be able to work in unison with the executive
committee and the various other committees of the exposition."

Several subjects were brought up by members of the committee on
woman's work, such as the organizations of the country, the
congresses at this exposition, the dates of meetings, and
provision for the care of the women in attendance. It was
suggested by a member of the committee that in the largest
audience that the exposition would have the majority would be
women. The company had already taken steps to provide a place of
meeting, so arranged that meetings could be held without
admission fee.

At this meeting a motion was made, and carried by the executive
committee, "that the director of exhibits, Mr. Skiff, be
instructed to formulate a programme suggesting the way in which
the board of lady managers can assist in inducing congresses to
come to the exposition."

The chairman of the committee on woman's work then called
attention to the fact that almost the first thing done after the
organization of that committee was to ask that immoral dances be
excluded from the exposition, to which no reply had been
received. During the discussion which followed Mr. Stevens read
copy from his records, showing that a letter had been sent by
him to the president of the board of lady managers, reading as

"MADAM PRESIDENT: I am directed by the executive committee to
reply to your letter conveying the resolution adopted by the
board of lady managers on the subject of concessions. The
resolution was duly referred by the executive committee to the
director of concessions and the committee on concessions, with
request for careful consideration. The report of the director
and the committee on concessions has been received. The director
and the committee express the belief that, under the conditions
imposed in all the contracts the concessions will be so
regulated as to render it impossible to present any amusement
that can be classed as indecent or improper.

"Very respectfully,
WALTER B. STEVENS, _Secretary_."

The committee on woman's work then stated to the executive
committee that this letter had never been read before the board
at their meeting.

The matter was then considered of sending several members of the
board of lady managers abroad to exploit woman's work and to
excite an interest in woman's congresses throughout the world.
The chairman stated that she had a letter from Mr. Francis
saying he would send one with certain conditions, and the
committee wanted to know if that decision was final and what the
action of the executive committee would be on that point. It was
suggested that three women from the board should be sent
abroad--one from the East, one from the West, and one from the
Middle States--and the chairman of the executive committee said
that, if agreeable to the ladies, that committee would have the
matter taken up as soon as President Francis returned. The
executive committee was assured that if it would outline a
programme by which the board of lady managers could render
assistance to this great exposition they would be very glad;
they wanted to help do what the heads of the exposition had laid
out to be, done, and if there was anything that women could do,
let them do it.

The meeting then adjourned, and the committee on woman's work
met with Mr. Skiff, the director of exhibits. In response to an
inquiry in regard to the question whether his committee had
taken the initiative in regard to educational and international
congresses, Mr. Skiff replied:

"The exposition simply patronizes and assists without the
expenditure of money these stated congresses and conventions.
Those bodies already organized are in a hospitable way invited
here, and their executive management is aided more or less in a
hall in which they can meet a committee to receive them; but
they conduct their own conventions.

"Now the international congresses are an entirely different
thing. They are patronized by the exposition. An appropriation
of $150,000 has been made for that purpose. Dr. Simon Newcomb is
president of the congress. There is no race or sex in a
universal exposition; it is the productive use of a man as a
unit. We have had great difficulty in convincing the scientific
people that so great a thing should come from so western a
point. We are going to do a very fine thing in a very large way.
The delegates will be selected and all expenses paid from their
homes and return, and whatever product of their thought they
present here at these congresses will be bound and fixed in
type. I can not say we are working on any plan; it is developed.
The congress is my idea. I am the director of exhibits, and it
did not seem proper for the director of exhibits officially to
approve the proceedings and the signatures of an office of an
international congress. So I suggested that Director Rogers
report to President Francis, so that I use President Francis's
name. In the meantime I have been appointed a member of the
advisory board on account of my position as a director of the
institute in Chicago. There is no opportunity for organizations
to participate in that international congress. There you come in
as individuals; but man or woman if they are great will be
invited. It is all one congress; it will only last one week. We
have not selected the exact date. It occupies a week; it is
divided into sections. Some days in the Congressional Hall there
may be 25 or 30 sections all working at the same time on
different subjects. It is a magnificent programme. Meetings of
these stated organizations are entirely different. The only
point about meetings of these clubs and organizations is that,
whether they are officered by men or women, or both, some one in
behalf of the exposition must make their way as easy as possible
for them and see that days do not collide."

A member of the committee made the request that some provision
should be made for the care of trained nurses at the exposition,
and Mr. Skiff stated that the War Department was contemplating a
field hospital. "They want two things. I do not know what the
outcome will be. If you ladies could proceed sufficiently to get
these ladies interested in the trained nurse idea--to offer the
services of a certain number of 'changed' nurses (you
understand, double the number, so that they can change)--I have
no doubt that Doctor Laidley will be glad to avail of their

In answer to the questions as to the time the jurors would be
appointed, and whether he had a list of the things on which
women are to be appointed, and how long before they would be
known, Mr. Skiff replied:

"The jurors will be appointed the first week of the exposition,
and the list of things on which women are to be appointed will
depend on whether the work is done in whole or in part by female
labor. We will know as soon as we get a catalogue. We can not
tell what the exhibits will be until they are exhibits. The
pamphlet of classification will be of invaluable assistance to
you, ladies, in your work. The jurors are to be paid $7 a day
and traveling expenses."

In response to the inquiry whether the board should not begin to
look out for the women that would be capable for that sort of
work, Mr. Skiff said:

"They will develop. There are 108 classes; a committee on each
class would be 1,200 jurors. We are not working women's exhibits
up any more than men's. It takes care of itself. We do not
specially promote, except in this way: An officer of a
department, if he understands his work, is given a
classification. That is his bible. He makes up his mind what is
possible to do in the way of an exhibit. They build up an
exhibit. In that way they find it necessary to touch what we
call 'individual promotion' on their broad lines. For instance,
in education, deaf, dumb, and blind; charity, philanthropy, and
education of mind; conveyance of thought; social economy, the
model city; machinery, that class of machinery that is most
ingenious; electricity, electric therapeutics, electric
magnetism; transportation, aeronautics, Santos Dumont, etc.;
forestry, fish culture, etc. They can add, and on broad lines
develop, the highest type of the condition of the times."

Replying to the question whether an exhibit of laces by a woman
could be insured, Mr. Skiff stated: "We have no money for
insurance; we have no people to go on bond; she is an individual
exhibitor, and must get in her own exhibit in a general way."

On the following day, March 12, I received from Mr. Stevens the
following letter, accompanied by a record of 1903 conventions of
organizations composed of women:

ST. Louis, U.S.A., _March, 13, 1903_.

MADAM: In pursuance of the conference held by your committee
with the executive committee of the exposition the 11th instant,
the acting president, Mr. Spencer, directs me to send to you the
accompanying list of conventions and delegate meetings of women
to be held in the near future. It is desired to obtain action by
these bodies the coming year to meet in St. Louis during 1904.
The acting president instructs me to say that if your committee
or the board of lady managers will assist in obtaining such
action it will be highly appreciated.

The exposition management, with a view to encourage the holding
of conventions and congresses, has arranged to have several
halls, the use of which can be given to conventions without cost
to them. Two or three convention halls will be so located with
approaches as to enable delegates to the conventions to reach
them without passing through the gates of the exposition. It is
also the purpose to afford hall room free to such bodies as may
desire to hold meetings downtown.

The acting president directs me to say, further, that from a
very thorough canvass made of the city, and from information in
the possession of the exposition management, it is believed that
good accommodations can be assured at reasonable rates during
the exposition. It is the purpose of the exposition to maintain
an information service, which will enable delegates to secure
accommodations by mail previous to their arrival here.

In other ways the exposition management will endeavor to make
the holding of conventions a prominent and satisfactory feature
of the World's Fair. If the board of lady managers will join in
the invitation to these bodies of women to hold their 1904
conventions at St. Louis the board can help very materially. If
the members of the board of lady managers can attend some of
these gatherings of 1903, and by personal effort and
representation assist in bringing the conventions here the
following year, the management will be pleased to have them do

Very respectfully,


Record of 1903 Conventions of Organizations Composed of Women.

International Congress of Nurses, New York City; International
Board of Women and Y.M.C.A. Conference, Cleveland, Ohio;
Daughters of Liberty, National Council, Philadelphia, Pa.;
Daughters of St. George, Columbus, Ohio; Daughters of Veterans'
National Convention, Cleveland, Ohio; Ladies' Aid Society of the
United States, Providence, R.I.; P.R.O. Sisterhood Supreme, St.
Louis, Mo.; Ladies' United Veteran Legion National Convention,
Brooklyn, N.Y.; National Council of Women, New York City;
Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, Chicago, Ill.; National
League of Women Workers, Syracuse, N.Y.; Women's and Young
Women's Christian Association, St. Louis, Mo.; National Congress
of Mothers, Detroit, Mich., May 5-8; Daughters of the
Revolution, General Society, New York City, May 10; King's
Daughters and Sons, St. Louis, Mo.; Knights and Ladies of Honor,
St. Louis, Mo.; Knights and Ladies of Security, St. Louis, Mo.;
International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, St. Louis, Mo.;
P.E.C. Sisterhood, St. Louis, Mo.; Spanish-American War Nurses,
St. Louis, Mo.; United Daughters of the Confederacy, St. Louis,
Mo.; Woman's Christian Temperance Union, St. Louis, Mo.; Woman's
Relief Corps, St. Louis, Mo.; Council of Jewish Women, St.
Louis, Mo.; National American Woman Suffrage Association, New
Orleans, La.; Ancient Sons and Daughters of Jerusalem, Kansas
City, Mo.; Ladies of the Maccabees, Port Huron, Mich.

In a letter from Mr. Howard J. Rogers, in charge of congresses,
which will be appended to this report, he says:

"I beg to state that, in my opinion, the only feasible way is
for the secretary of the board of lady managers, acting in
behalf of the board, to communicate with the secretaries of the
various women's organizations, such as Federation of Clubs,

Our committee suggests that a separate committee be formed to
take these congresses and other women's organizations in hand
and make it their duty to arrange for dates. We would also
suggest that a local committee of leading club women of the city
of St. Louis be appointed to act in harmony and in unison with
this committee of congresses from the board of lady managers.

I herewith submit copies of letters from Mr. Skiff and Mr.

ST. LOUIS, U.S.A., March 07, 1903.

DEAR MADAM: I have the honor to acknowledge your favor of March
21, which has been noted. I beg to inform you, in accordance
with the instructions of the executive committee, that the
director of exhibits formulate a programme suggesting how the
board of lady managers can assist the Exposition Company in
obtaining congresses of women to meet in St. Louis. I referred
the matter to the chief of congresses, who has made a report, in
which I concur, and I respectfully submit it for your
information and assistance.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, yours,
_Director of Exhibits._

_3642 Delmar avenue, St. Louis, Mo._

MARCH 24, 1903.

DEAR SIR: Replying to your communication of March 23, in
reference to the director of exhibits 'formulating a programme
suggesting how the board of lady managers can assist in
obtaining congresses of women to meet in St. Louis,' I beg to
state that in my opinion the only feasible way is for the
secretary of the board of lady managers, acting in behalf of the
board, to communicate with the secretaries of the various
women's organizations, such as the Federation of Women's Clubs,
Daughters of the American Revolution, Colonial Dames of America,
United Daughters of the Confederacy, Young Women's Christian
Association, Ladies' Catholic Benevolent Association, United
States Daughters of 1812, and to second the invitation given by
the exposition to meet in this city in 1904, assuring them their
active cooperation in the matter of obtaining halls,
accommodations, and other matters.

The Daughters of the American Revolution and the Federation of
Women's Clubs have already decided to meet in this city, the
former in June, the latter in May.
I return the letter, as requested.
Very respectfully, yours,

Hon. F.J.V. SKIFF,
_Director of Exhibits' Building._

In the resolution adopted by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
Commission, in session assembled at the city of New York the 7th
day of February, 1902, certain rules were made governing the
board of lady managers. The first one recites the power given by
Congress to this board of lady managers to appoint "one member
of all committees authorized to award prizes for such exhibits
as may have been produced in whole or in part by female labor."

The committee on woman's work would suggest:

First. That our board make due preparation for the intelligent
selection of one member of all committees authorized to award
prizes for such exhibits as may have been produced in whole or
in part by female labor, and that we request from the local
executive committee a list of all work presented for competition
before the Louisiana Purchase Exposition produced in whole or in
part by female labor.

Under the resolutions of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition of
February 7, 1902, second, we are to "exercise general
supervisory control over such features of the exposition as may
be specially devoted to woman's work."

This resolution is so vague in its phraseology that we are
unable to outline just what we may be permitted to do, and the
chairman wishes to call the attention of this board to the fact
that one of the subjects which we were instructed to take up
before the local executive committee was in regard to a
resolution passed by this board at its first meeting on
September 30, 1902, regarding indecent and immoral dancing. We
were instructed by the board of lady managers to inquire what
action had been taken in regard to this resolution, and were
informed that it was acted upon immediately, and the company's
attorney was instructed to make the contracts in the Midway
Plaisance so as to exclude immoral and indecent dancing.

The third resolution, that we were "to take part in the
ceremonies connected with the dedication of the buildings of the
exposition, and in official functions in which women may be
invited to participate, and in any other functions, upon the
request of the company and Commission."

From the very gracious manner in which this board of lady
managers has been provided for and permitted to participate in
the opening ceremonies of the exposition, it would appear that
the Government, Commission, and local company will see that we
are properly cared for on all future occasions.

Fourth. That we confer and advise with the officers and chiefs
of the exposition on the progress being made from time to time
in exciting the interest and enlisting the cooperation of women
in the several departments, and to appoint all committees
necessary to carry out the purpose, and to procure information
on the extent of woman's participation in the exposition.

Fifth. That we encourage the presentation of exhibits by women
by correspondence, advertising, or such other means as the
company may approve.

Sixth. That we collect statistics of woman's work in connection
with the exposition for publication.

Seventh. That we encourage, by correspondence, or otherwise,
attendance at the exposition, of societies and associations of
women, and the holding of conventions, congresses, and other
meetings of women.

Eighth. That we maintain within the grounds during the period of
the exposition an organization for the relief of women and
children who may be found in need of aid, comfort, or special

Ninth. That we receive and officially entertain women when
requested so to do by the exposition company and the Commission.

Tenth. That we commission members of the board, or others, with
the approval of the Commission and the company, to travel in the
interest of the exposition, either at home or abroad.

Eleventh. That we provide for the constant attendance by
rotation of at least three members of the board at the
exposition grounds from April 30 to December 1, 1904.

Twelfth. That we issue such bulletins from time to time as the
company and the Commission may approve, for the special
information of women and the exploitation of their contributions
to the success of the exposition.

After our board had adjourned and gone to their homes, the
chairman called upon President Carter, of the National
Commission, and had with him a most interesting talk in regard
to woman's work, and he promised to furnish the chairman
extracts from their minutes, containing such suggestions on the
plan and scope of woman's work in connection with the
exposition; and from these extracts our committee has outlined
for this board the work which may be done by the board of lady
managers, following in many instances the Commission's
suggestions verbatim.

This committee desires to return their thanks for the courteous
manner in which they were received by the local executive
committee, and for the assurance of aid in any work which they
might undertake. They also desire to thank the National
Commission for its kind reception, advice, and suggestions on
the plan of woman's work.

The board of lady managers, pursuant to a call, met in the city
of St. Louis, April 28, 1903, and, as has already been stated,
the chairman read before the board the report from which the
above extracts are taken, on the work of the committee on
woman's work performed in St. Louis. The president of the board
of lady managers at this April meeting created several new
committees, viz, an executive committee, an entertainment
committee, a legislative committee, and a committee for a day
nursery or creche. The creating of these committees practically
took from the hands of the committee on woman's work all special

A meeting of the board of lady managers was called in St. Louis
on December 15, 1903; at this meeting it became necessary to
elect a new president of the board, and conditions had so
changed that it became necessary to add several new committees
to those already formed, one being the committee on awards, to
further develop the work of the board of lady managers.

The only money the board of lady managers had ever received to
conduct their work was an appropriation of $3,000 from the
treasurer of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, part of which
had been expended, so that all work of the board of lady
managers was absolutely suspended for the want of funds. It
became necessary for the legislative committee to proceed to
Washington to secure money to carry out their plans. The result
of the labors of the legislative committee has been ably told in
the report of the chairman of that committee, Mrs. Edward L.

During the December meeting, and after the adjournment of the
board, the work which seemed of the most vital interest, and the
one which lay nearest to the hearts of every member of the board
of lady managers, was the construction, equipment, and
management of a creche or day nursery. The chairman of the
committee on woman's work remained with the president of the
board in St. Louis for ten days after the adjournment of the
board, meeting the executive committee of the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, endeavoring to arrange for the construction and
equipment of a day nursery. The Exposition Company assured this
committee that they would construct for the lady managers a
building that would cost $30,000, and give $5,000 toward
equipment, and that the day nursery would be self-sustaining
with the possibility of an income above the expense payable to
the Exposition Company.

It now became evident that if the board of lady managers was to
have a day nursery, they must give up the idea of a purely
philanthropic institution and enter the field as money makers.

After two weeks of patient labor, it was made apparent that if a
day nursery was built, all expenses for furnishing and
maintaining it must be paid for out of the funds appropriated by
Congress for the use of the board of lady managers in their
various works. The president of the board of lady managers
offered to contribute $15,000 for the furnishing and maintenance
of this day nursery out of the $100,000 set aside for the use of
the lady managers, if the Exposition Company would free them
from any further financial liability. This the Exposition
Company refused to do.

The Exposition Company further informed us they had already let
a concession for a model playground which would practically
cover the work to be performed by the day nursery, and that this
concession had agreed to care for each child at the rate of 25
cents per day, and that the board of lady managers could not
conduct a day nursery without charging a fee for the care of
each child. Thus the day nursery was taken out of the hands of
the committee on woman's work.

As chairman of this committee, I can not bring this report to a
close without expressing the very deep and heartfelt
disappointment of the committee on woman's work, and I may add
the president and every member of the board of lady managers,
that circumstances over which we had no control forced us to
abandon this cherished project of a model day nursery.

As the duties of the board of lady managers became more apparent
and diversified, and the work evolved and developed, it became
necessary to specialize. The work of the committee on woman's
work ceased to be performed by a large committee under this
name, but was carried on to the close of the exposition by
committees composed of the various members of the board.

In closing this report it would appear at first that the
committee on woman's work stood for very little and had done
very little toward the success of the board of lady managers.
However, this committee, under other names, did successfully
perform a large amount of philanthropic and social work.

There were on the exposition grounds State buildings constructed
by 44 States. These buildings were designed as clubhouses for
the citizens of the various States and were provided with rest
rooms, social halls, and other rooms to contribute to the
comfort of and promote sociability among the people of the
various States visiting the exposition. At the beginning of the
exposition it seemed one of the duties of the board of lady
managers would be to provide a hall for the meeting of women
visiting the exposition and also a rest room, but this want was
provided for by each individual State.


Miss Anna M. Dawes, chairman of the committee on foreign relations, read
the first report of that committee at the meeting of the board held in
the Administration Building on March 2, 1904. The final report of that
committee is as follows:

The committee on foreign affairs was appointed by Mrs. James L.
Blair, the first president of the board, during the meeting at
the time of the formal opening of the exposition on May 2, 1903.
This committee consisted of Mrs. Daniel Manning, chairman; Miss
Dawes, Mrs. Knott, Miss Gould, Mrs. Holcombe, Mrs. Montgomery,
Mrs. Moores, and Mrs. von Mayhoff.

On December 17, 1903, Mrs. Manning having been elected president
of the board after the resignation of Mrs. Blair, Miss Dawes
became chairman of the committee, and has so continued.

In pursuance of a policy inaugurated by Mrs. Manning, it was
determined to send a circular to the women of the different
countries of Europe, calling their attention to the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition, inviting their cooperation and presence,
and offering to do what we could toward that end. At the request
of the present chairman, Mrs. Manning conferred with the
officers of the exposition as to what had already been done, and
with the State Department in Washington as to what could be
done, and prepared the circular appended, the State Department
sending it out to its officials in the following countries:

Berne, Switzerland; Bucharest, Roumania; Belgrade, Servia;
Brussels, Belgium; Constantinople, Turkey; Copenhagen, Denmark;
Athens, Greece; Berlin, Germany; Habana, Cuba; Lisbon, Portugal;
Rome, Italy; Paris, France; Madrid, Spain; Stockholm, Sweden;
St. Petersburg, Russia; Sofia, Bulgaria; Vienna, Austria;
London, England; The Hague, Netherlands; Egypt; Mexico; China;
Japan; Dominion of Canada.

The cordial cooperation of the Government, through the State
Department, was a source of great satisfaction to the committee,
giving, as it did, not only currency to the circular, but
putting the weight and dignity of the Government behind our
action. For this, and for the extremely valuable circular so
finely adapted to the need, and so eloquently setting forth the
objects of the exposition and the aims and desires of this
board, we are, as in so many other things, indebted to the
experience and ability of Mrs. Manning.


EXCELLENCY: By an act of Congress of the United States, the
board of lady managers of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition is
directed to join with the other constituted authorities in
commemorating the great event in the history of the United
States when, a century ago, there was added to its territory a
new field which to-day is the home of many people, and where
earnest and sincere women, as well as men, are laboriously
working out the problem of the progress of humanity and the
advancement of the race.

No single individual, no one people, no separate country can
supply that full knowledge from which may be fixed the
conditions of mankind, its development in the industries, the
arts, the sciences at the commencement of the twentieth century.
The entire world must contribute to this knowledge, and
therefore the entire world has been invited to take part in this
universal exposition and to bring hither the fruit of the lands,
the products of other soils, the articles manufactured by
foreign hands, and evidences of the achievements of the
intellect and intelligence in the higher fields of thought.

While in gathering these things there is no distinction made
between the product of man's hand and of woman's hand,
nevertheless, it is the peculiar function of this board to act
as the channel through which women, as individuals, and as
organizations, may be brought into immediate communication with
the exposition at St. Louis.

It is, therefore, with cordiality and eagerness that we invite
the women of your country to join with us in presenting to the
world the information of the condition, opportunities,
development, and promises of their sex in their own country and
to exhibit at the exposition specimens of their productions and
examples of their activities, manual and mental, scientific and

And coupled with this invitation, we would express the hope that
we may be permitted to be of personal service to such women as
may visit the exposition in person, or to give special attention
to the exhibits of such as may not be able to come.

Requesting your excellency's good offices to the end that the
publicity may be given to the invitation in order that it may
come to the knowledge of the women of the country, we beg to
assure you of the high consideration with which we are,

Your obedient servant,

The honorable the SECRETARY OF STATE.

SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith invitations which the
board of lady managers of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition have
addressed to the women of foreign countries, through the
respective diplomatic envoys, with a view to promoting women's
interests at the exposition.

In view of the indorsement which the Congress of the United
States has given to the exposition, and the recognition it has
accorded to the board of lady managers, I should be pleased were
it found consistent with practice for the invitations to be
delivered by the diplomatic envoy of the United States, and if
they were instructed to give them their support.

I have the honor to be, sir,

Your obedient servant,

_President Board of Lady Managers of the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition,
The Arlington, Washington, D.C._

MADAM: I have to acknowledge receipt of your letter of the 14th
instant transmitting invitations which the board of lady
managers of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition have addressed to
the women of foreign countries, through the ministers for
foreign affairs, with a view to promoting women's interests at
the exposition.

In reply I have to inform you that these invitations, with
suitable instructions, have been sent to-day to the diplomatic
representatives of the United States in the countries mentioned
by you.

I am, madam,

Your obedient servant,
_Acting Secretary_.

Letters were received from most of these countries expressing
their gratification and cordial cooperation in the matter, a
fact which was evidenced by many letters from associations and
individuals with reference to exhibits, etc. For instance, a
committee of women at Berne, through its secretary, sent a very
remarkable consignment of pamphlets relating to the condition
and work--philanthropic and otherwise--of the women of that
nation. These were intrusted to the Department of Social
Economy. Also in Italy a national committee of women of great
consequence was formed.

Circumstances prevented any further initiative on the part of
this committee outside the limits of the exposition itself.
Within those limits it has, in common with the whole board, done
much for the exposition, and for the country by social
courtesies extended to the representatives of foreign lands and
received from them--a service which has been performed by the
board with success and dignity, and with great value to the
interests of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.


Reaffirming the motion already made on February 16, 1903, providing that
the furnishing of the building of the board of lady managers be under
the supervision of the president of the board, on March 4, 1904, it was
moved that Mrs. Daniel Manning be made active chairman of the
house-furnishing committee and select her own committee. This motion
being carried, it was also decided that the committee on house
furnishing be limited to the expenditure of the sum of $20,000 for
furnishing the building. The report of this committee is as follows:

The president of the board of lady managers having been elected
active chairman of the house-furnishing committee, with power to
select her own committee, named Mrs. Mary Phelps Montgomery and
Mrs. John M. Holcombe as the other members.

At the same meeting of the board at which the chairman was
named, the sum of $20,000 was fixed as the maximum amount that
might be expended for house-furnishing purposes by the
committee. This sum was to cover all expenditures for electric
wiring and fixtures, electric bells, push buttons, and
annunciators; tinting of walls and staining of floors; water
connections, filters, water heaters, bath tubs, sinks, etc.; all
wooden partitions in dormitories; window shades, screens, and
awnings; arrangements for butler's pantry; rugs, carpets,
matting, and all floor covering; furniture, glass, china, and
kitchen utensils; table and bed linen, blankets--indeed, every
expenditure attending the fitting out and appointing of the

The committee was fortunate in arranging for part of the work,
in preparing the building for occupancy, by securing the workmen
that were employed by the Government on its building, and had
been brought from Washington for that purpose; these men could
contract for a longer stay at better rates than were obtainable
in St. Louis. The tremendous advance in the price of labor about
this time led the committee to be most cautious in its
expenditures, not knowing the extent of the demands that might
be made upon their fund before the arranging of the building was
completed. President Francis, in his address to the board on
December 15, 1903, has already given some of the difficulties
experienced by the Exposition Company on the question of the
cost of labor up to that date. By the time of the opening of the
exposition the members of this committee had to meet even
greater prices, as, instead of time and one-half for overtime,
the demands of the workmen had risen to double time for
overtime. This involved paying $1.50 per hour instead of 75
cents for certain kinds of work necessary to be completed by
opening day.

Most of the furniture, rugs, carpets, curtains, glass, and china
were purchased in New York City, but some interesting pieces of
antique furniture were obtained by one of the committee in
Connecticut, while others were secured in Albany, N.Y.

Material and substantial aid was rendered the members of the
committee by the generous gifts and loans which added greatly to
the attractiveness and comfort of the building.

Mrs. Roosevelt, wife of the President, by request, very
graciously presented a picture of herself, which was the only
picture hung in the salon of the building of the board of lady

The committee is but echoing the sentiments of the entire board
in expressing their thanks and appreciation to the following
firms for their handsome and useful gifts, all of which were
most acceptably used by the members of the board and their

Cheney Brothers, of New York and Connecticut, most generously
contributed one of their handsome pieces of silk damask for the
covering of the walls of the salon, also the material for the
curtains for that room, yellow silk curtains for the tea room,
and pink silk curtains and furniture covering for the
president's room. The thanks of the board can not be too warmly
expressed to this firm for their generosity in aiding the board
in such a substantial manner and beautifying their house by
their gifts.

Steinway & Co., New York City: Manufactured for our use and
loaned to us one of the handsomest pianos they could make, with
beautiful Louis XV decorations in ormolu, which was used on
state occasions or when some well-known singer or pianist was
available. It was the admiration of all visitors.

Chickering & Co., New York City: Loaned one of their beautiful
pianos, which was placed in the large hall in which was held
informal meetings and dances.

Tiffany & Co., New York City: Silver-plated tea set, consisting
of tray, hot-water kettle, with lamp, teapot, coffeepot,
hot-milk pitcher, sugar bowl, cream pitcher, and slop bowl. This
set was used every afternoon on the tea table, and was greatly
admired by all who were the guests of the board at their
informal afternoon teas.

Black, Starr & Frost, New York City: Gift of four silver-plated
candlesticks of attractive antique colonial design; also a set
of four silver-plated trays.

Gorham Manufacturing Company, New York City: Gift of two
silver-plated candelabra of beautiful design, which were in
constant use at the afternoon teas and on the private table of
the board, and also at the more formal dinners and
entertainments where lights were used on the tables.

Laycock & Co., of Indianapolis, Ind., generously loaned the
brass beds and mattresses used in the dormitories in the
building at a nominal price.

Macy & Co., New York City: Gift of 10 dozen plates, cups, and
saucers, of Limoges china, specially decorated and of unique
design, that were very handsome and in constant use by the

Higgins & Seiter, New York City: Gift of set of creaming dishes
of most delicate pattern, in handsome white case.

International Nickle Company, New York City: Gift of chafing
dishes, tea-kettles, and trays, of especially neat design, and
most useful.

Mrs. Eva B. Leete, Guilford, Conn.: Loaned a rare antique
sideboard of semicircular shape, and a "pie-crust" table.

Mr. Armand Hawkins, New Orleans, La.: Generously loaned many
interesting, historic, and useful pieces of furniture, which
were used in the building of the board of lady managers during
the exposition period.

Standard Scales and Fixtures Company, of St. Louis, Mo.: Loaned
the useful and necessary adjunct to housekeeping--an unusually
fine and large McCray glass-lined refrigerator, which was in use
from the first days of the exposition period until a few days
after the close, and an aid to the comfort of all who resided in
the building and their guests.

The gifts and loans to the board were most gratifying to the
committee, as they were an evidence of a strong interest in the
board of lady managers and their building.

It was, undoubtedly, not the intention of the board, when
limiting the expenditure of this committee to $20,000, to mean
that this sum should cover an outlay beyond the time the
building was pronounced finished and furnished, and ready for
the occupancy of the board at the opening of the exposition. The
total expenditure given below, however, includes all additions
to furniture, repairs, both to building and furniture, and the
replacing of broken articles during the entire exposition
period. Such was the careful management of the committee that
they not only succeeded in accomplishing the payment of all
bills contracted by it prior to the opening, but at the close of
the exposition were still within the limit originally imposed of

The Exposition Company agreed to pay $5,000 for the furnishing
of the building of the board of lady managers, $5,000 for its
maintenance, and $5,000 for entertainment. The demands upon the
Exposition Company at this time, however, were so great that the
board decided, at the meeting held on July 14, 1904, to take up
any outstanding bills, and passed the following resolution:

_Resolved,_ That the board of lady managers assume the payment
of the now unpaid bills for entertaining and furniture for the
board that have been turned over to the Exposition Company, for
which the Exposition Company had pledged a certain sum.

The following is an itemized account of amount expended for the
finishing and furnishing of the building of the board of lady

Bills paid Bills paid Bills paid
by the from the from the
Exposition $3,000 $100,000
Company. appropriation.

Furniture, china,
linen, expressage ...... $752.32 $652.25 $11,692.65
Tinting walls, plumbing,
staining floors, heating
apparatus, electric
wiring, awnings, screens,
partitions, etc. ....... 1,460.99 64.30 2,263.32

Total ................ 2,213.31 716.55 13,955.97

Total paid by Exposition Company ............ $2,213.31
Total paid from $3,000 appropriation ........ 716.55
Total paid from $100,000 appropriation ...... 13,955.97

Total amount expended for house furnishing .. 16,885.93


It was the earnest wish of some of the members of the board, at a very
early period of its existence, to establish and maintain, if possible, a
day nursery or creche on the exposition grounds, in order that suitable
provision might be made for children whose parents might wish to have
them cared for during the day, and thus afford to those whose time and
means were extremely limited an opportunity to see as much of the
exposition in as brief a space as possible. Ways and means were
frequently discussed, but the absence of funds and the uncertainty of
the action of the company in regard to substantial aid were sources of
much anxiety and delay. Estimates were obtained of cost of building,
however, plans were drawn ready for work to be begun the first
practicable moment, and all information as to best methods and equipment
was secured, in order that no time might be lost should it later be
found possible to proceed with the enterprise. The idea was viewed with
much favor by both the president of the Exposition Company and the
director of exhibits, and it was hoped the Exposition Company would
regard this as one of the "suggestions" from the board which President
Francis had said the executive committee would "take under serious
consideration," but on the 15th of August, 1903, President Francis wrote
to the president, Mrs. Blair:

My idea is that we should not permit any one State to have
charge of these day nurseries. I think the board of lady
managers should have entire charge, and hope they will be able
to raise the money without making inroads on the treasury of the
Exposition Company.

Subsequently, however, the Exposition Company agreed to appropriate
$35,000 for the purpose of erecting the building, but later granted a
concession for a similar enterprise on the grounds. When the board
eventually obtained its appropriation of $100,000 it was thought that
the work might be begun immediately, but as some misunderstanding had
arisen in the minds of the members as to the terms of the original
proposition of the one who was to conduct the creche for the board, upon
close investigation it was found that, whereas in the first place it had
been represented that the creche would be self-sustaining, it now became
evident that the plan had grown beyond all anticipated or intended
proportion, and that instead of being self-supporting the board would be
called upon for unlimited and unreasonable outlay.

As all the members had become greatly interested in the project, they
felt keenly disappointed when it became evident that it would be
necessary to abandon the undertaking. Desiring, however, to take some
part in this useful work, and being informed that the concession that
had been granted for a similar purpose was in need of funds to enable it
to employ additional nurses and make it possible to care for more
children, on July 14, 1904, at their midsummer meeting, the board passed
the following resolution:

_Be it resolved_, That the board of lady managers set apart, and
turn over, to the persons in charge of the Model Play Ground,
Nursery, and Lost Children work the sum of $5,000 to assist in
carrying on these projects on the exposition grounds.

Mrs. John M. Holcombe was made chairman of the committee having this
appropriation in charge, and her final report is as follows:

The members of the board of lady managers were from the
beginning of their organization deeply interested in the need of
caring for little children at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition,
and various plans were under consideration at an early date.

To have a model creche was the desire of the president and
members of the board, and it was with great satisfaction that
arrangements were made for a very perfect equipment.

A practical philanthropy in full working order would prove also
an exhibit of the most approved and up-to-date methods--at once
a charity, an example, an inspiration.

The Exposition Company made a generous appropriation, the sum of
$35,000 being allowed for the building and furnishing, and very
beautiful designs were made and accepted. Here infants were to
be cared for by trained nurses, receiving attention and
consideration possible only to babies of the twentieth century,
and altogether in advance of the simple and natural conditions
of baby life prior to the closing years of the nineteenth
century. Special foods specially treated, specially constructed
bottles--in fact everything special and disinfected, from the
nurse and crib down to the smallest minutiae.

The charge was to be 50 cents a day, and estimates formed on
experience went to show that on this basis the creche would be
self-sustaining when once established and started in running

Shortly before the opening of the fair, however, and at a moment
when the Exposition Company was passing through most trying
experiences and needed all possible funds, it was found that
unfavorable aspects had arisen. At the March meeting of the
board, 1904, and only a few weeks prior to the opening of the
exposition, it was learned that two concessions of a nature
similar to the creche had been made, where the charge for
children would be but 25 cents a day. Already the board had
heard some buzz of criticism that 50 cents was too high a price
for benefit to poor people. Thus there seemed to be established
a rate of income which, for the requirements of the creche
conducted under great expense, would be entirely inadequate.
There were apparently no sponsors for the undertaking but the
board of lady managers, and a steady loss of 25 cents on each
child for a period of seven months would pile up the losses to
unknown and quite incalculable proportions.

It is true the board had received a sum of $100,000. This was to
cover all expenses of the board, whose members were the official
hostesses of the fair. Everything was to be conducted at this
great exposition in the most munificent manner possible.
Ceremonies and entertainments which had been given at the
dedicatory exercises in 1903 indicated a scale of elegance and
boundless hospitality; in fact, hospitality was to be a
distinguishing feature of this great exposition at St. Louis.
The board of lady managers formed a part of the hospitable
equipment, welcoming the world to the official home of the
exposition, and were to fulfill one of woman's missions and
entertain in a manner and on a scale harmonious with the
greatest and most beautiful exposition the world had ever looked
upon. For these purposes the money must be made to last
throughout the seven months of the coming fair. No more fatal
thing could occur for the fair name of the board than to spend
early and inconsiderately, and to be met later with pecuniary
embarrassments and complications.

The estimate for the opening expenses of the creche exceeded by
some $16,000 the sum appropriated by the Exposition Company. The
members of the board might have felt justified in furnishing
this sum, but there loomed before them the vast bulk of losses
which must follow as the result of cutting the price from 50
cents to 25 cents on each of the many children to be
accommodated at the creche. It was an enormous responsibility.

Consultation with President Francis and some of the directors
seemed to indicate that the saving to them of the promised
$35,000 would be very desirable. The building was about to be
commenced, and only a few hours were granted the board for their
decision. It was obviously impossible to enter upon a work
involving great and unknown expense pregnant with such
possibilities of loss and failure, and so, with the deepest
regret, the members of the board saw their cherished castle in
the air--the beautiful, useful creche--fade and disappear. Words
can hardly express the discouragements and heart sinking of the
members over this failure of their fond aspirations.

Mrs. Ruth Ashley Hirschfield opened her Model Play Ground on May
23, 1904. From the beginning it seemed to meet the requirements
in a simple but direct and effective manner. So successful was
it that soon the demands outgrew the accommodations, and the
possibilities of extending the work were such that Mrs.
Hirschfield welcomed the aid of the board of lady managers. Very
soon after the opening of the Model Play Ground the president
and members of the board became interested, realizing its needs
and possibilities, many of which had been carefully--even
affectionately--considered for a long period.

At the July meeting a committee was appointed to confer with
Mrs. Hirschfield, and the sum of $5,000 was appropriated for use
in the development and care of the Model Play Ground and Day
Nursery, and a special stipulation made regarding the care of
lost children. Arrangements were entered into as to times of
payment. Mrs. Hirschfield was to have the entire responsibility;
the board gave her their confidence and hearty support and five
monthly payments of $1,000 each.

Results proved the soundness of the theories, as well as the
administration of Mrs. Hirschfield, and no appropriation could
have been more advantageously applied.

It gives me the greatest satisfaction to report that the money
appropriated filled a distinct need and enabled Mrs. Hirschfield
to enlarge the scope and power of her work up to the very day
that the fair closed its doors on December 2, 1904. It seemed,
indeed, to meet every want, and no child was ever turned from
its hospitable doors. To this bright and happy spot parents
could bring their children, even wee babies, and be themselves
free to go unencumbered and enjoy the beauties and wonders
spread so lavishly before them and happy in the consciousness
that their little ones were receiving the tenderest care and
were undoubtedly enjoying the many comforts and attractions
provided for their welfare and entertainment. Here the
wage-earner at the fair could bring her little child, leaving it
with the same cheerful confidence. This also was the haven for
lost children who were brought there by the police or by members
of the Jefferson Guard, and here were they found by their
distracted parents, or from here they were sent to their own
abodes under safe escort.

The care of lost children began on June 6, when the first lost
child was brought to the playground. The system of caring for
lost children was as follows: Lost children found by members of
the Jefferson Guard or the police were brought to the Model Play
Ground, according to orders received from headquarters. Every
child brought in was recorded, and an aluminum tag bearing a
certain number was attached to each. They were cared for and
entertained, and had all the privileges accorded to children who
were registered by their parents. After being recorded they were
handed over to the matron to be washed and fed and given all
necessary attention. They were then induced to join groups of
other children of their age. As a rule they quickly forgot their
sorrows in play. They were not permitted to leave the playground
until called for or sent home. If not called for they were
escorted to their homes, or, in case of children of sufficient
age and intelligence, to the car by the attendants of the
playground. Parents inquiring for lost children were directed to
this place by guards and police. If the child had not yet been
brought in, the inquirer was informed the child would be taken
care of. The telephone and electric service proved of great
assistance. The ages of lost children ranged from 2 to 13 years.
The system kept track not only of those who were brought in, but
also of those who were reported lost, and the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition should have credit for a "lost children system" so
complete that children separated from parents or escorts were
restored to them in every case. "The method used for the care of
lost children is the most complete and far-reaching system that
has yet been devised for the use of any world's fair." (World's
Fair Bulletin, September, 1904.)

Mrs. Hirschfield gave the following gratifying statement in her
September report:

"The $5,000 appropriated by the board of lady managers has
assisted very materially in the ability to handle the increasing
number of lost children, the fund enabling the playground to
employ a larger number of trained assistants, and to add many
and attractive features.

"The expense incurred in the care of infants and lost children
was not contemplated in the original playground plan."

The accommodations for the children included bathing and laundry
facilities; clothing was furnished in some instances; two
luncheons were served daily; kindergarten classes were held
morning and afternoon; athletic exercises and baths were
furnished, and many were the children, boys particularly, who
thus enjoyed luxuries not otherwise obtainable.

Among the children attending the classes were a number who came
regularly, including children admitted free, whose parents were
employed in the exposition grounds. The fee charged to parents
who left their children to be cared for was, except in the case
of small infants, 25 cents a day. For babies requiring the
services of trained nurses, 50 cents. In the case of parents too
poor to pay no charge was made.

The ages of the children ranged from 2 weeks to 14 years. The
number cared for, by months, was as follows:

May and June, 483; July, 864; August, 1,160; September, 1,732;
October, 1,922; November, 1,189; making a total of 7,350.

The number of lost children brought to the playground was: In
June, 94; July, 132; August, 328; September, 248; October, 209;
November, 156; total, 1,166.

Children admitted free were newsboys, office boys, messenger
boys, all children earning their living, or whose parents were
employed within the exposition grounds. Many of these came
regularly. The hospitality of the playground was also open to
the children of the orphan asylums and other charitable
institutions and to the children of the city playgrounds and

The number of children admitted free was, in May and June, 336;
July, 554; August, 8,616; September, 3,916; October, 1,789;
November, 5,700.

On November 2 the children of all nations were received by Miss
Helen M. Gould, who gave a souvenir gift to each child.

On November 24 the children of all nations attended Thanksgiving
dinner and ceremonies at the playground; 326 children were
seated at the tables. After dinner they played and enjoyed the
many features provided for their amusement. Every child took
home a box of dainties and a souvenir of Thanksgiving Day, that
traditional New England festivity. A member of the National
Commission planned the affair, and it proved a notable success.
Children of twenty-eight nationalities or tribes were gathered
on the playground at one time. No such representation ever took
place before, or was possible, except at the Model Play Ground
and Day Nursery of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.

It continued to be of service even to the closing hour. On
December 1, the final day of the fair, 48 children, of whom 19
were less than 1 year old, were checked; 2,000 children were
admitted free of charge, and 31 lost children were cared for and
returned in safety to their homes or guardians.

In reviewing the experiences of the fair, it is gratifying to
realize that although the members of the board of lady managers
were not able to carry out one of their most cherished desires,
and suffered keen disappointment in the abandonment of the
creche, still they had the pleasure of rendering material aid to
a beautiful work, for such certainly was the Model Play Ground
and Day Nursery.

Mrs. Hirschfield states that the assistance given by the board
of lady managers can not be measured, for far beyond the money
value of their appropriation was the power of their influence,
and the interest aroused was not alone for the occasion of the
fair, but would reach far into the future, affecting other
undertakings of a similar nature.

On the day following the close of the exposition, one of the
most able of the directors of the exposition expressed his
approval of the course of the board of lady managers. As
hostesses of the fair, he complimented them gracefully, and for
the attitude they had been obliged to take regarding the creche,
of which he had been critical, he was happy to say he had been
converted, and he was convinced that the board had acted
prudently and wisely; that undoubtedly the attempt to carry on
the elaborate and expensive creche would have ended in financial
failure and embarrassments; that the aid given Mrs. Hirschfield
had made the Play Ground and Day Nursery so effective that it
met all needs in a most acceptable manner and had proven one of
the most interesting and satisfactory features of the great

Respectfully submitted.
EMILY S.G. HOLCOMBE, _Chairman_.

The committee on woman's congresses was created by the first president
of the board of lady managers in April, 1903, and its aim was to be
instrumental in bringing together representative women of this and
foreign countries, either as organized bodies or as individuals, in
order that by discussion and comparison of all social, educational,
charitable, and industrial aspirations, and an interchange of thought on
important questions relating to the welfare of women, the higher
intellectual, moral, and physical plane that has already been
established might not only continue to be maintained, but mutual
interests be renewed and encouraged. They hoped to thus foster a better
understanding of the aims of women of the different countries, and, by
strengthening their common cause and making possible uniformity of
action, promote the advancement of women everywhere.

It was further desired by thus bringing together distinguished women
from all parts of the world interested in mental development and
philanthropic and reformatory work, to review not only the old, but add
the new record of the historical progress of women to date, to learn not
only the various achievements now being accomplished by the women of the
world in all phases of life at the present time, but ascertain the
objective height now sought or thought to be attainable for them in each

The committee felt that this exposition would afford an opportunity to
carefully consider humanitarian interests, and record the close
connection of women to the most important issues, their struggles, and
their possibilities. The encouraging stimulus that would be given to
them by the mutual expression of their hopes of the ultimate success of
each earnest endeavor for their advancement, must inevitably result in
aiding the elevation of women and the improvement of the conditions
under which they live, and upon which not only their own welfare, but
that of the nation, largely depends.

It was, therefore, a source of great regret to the members of the
committee that their desire to carry out these commendable plans were
doomed, in great measure not to be realized because, while the
"suggestion" was again approved by the Exposition Company, no means were
provided for the carrying out of the work, and their own appropriation
was not received by the board in time to be made available.

The following is the final report of the committee on women's

The committee on women's congresses was appointed by Mrs. Blair,
April 19, 1903, and was composed of Mrs. Andrews, Mrs. Hanger,
and Mrs. Buchwalter, who was, by unanimous vote, made chairman
December 18 of that year.

When the committee was first created it asked for a letter of
instruction from the exposition board. This letter was received
together with a list of women's organizations which had been
compiled in the office of the Exposition Company. Communications
were at once sent to each of these associations, also to others
selected by the committee, in all more than fifty. In addition
to extending an invitation to hold its meeting at St. Louis
during the World's Fair, each organization was told that a place
of meeting would be provided, and that all possible aid would be
given in making preliminary arrangements by a board of
information which would be ready to supply any assistance
necessary in preparing for the meeting.

Up to this time it had been hoped that it would be possible to
inaugurate a series of meetings of women's associations which
would be congresses in more than name. The committee, however,
was confronted with the serious limitation of no treasury from
which to draw. At the last meeting of the board during the
incumbency of the first president, a committee had been
appointed with Mrs. Manning as chairman, which was to ask
Congress for $100,000 for the use of the board of lady managers.
It was hoped that this matter might be brought to the attention
of Congress at the special session in the fall of 1903, but the
delay caused by the necessity of electing a new president
retarded all the work of the board. Upon the election of Mrs.
Manning to the presidency a new legislative committee was
appointed which, unfortunately, was not able to report the
success of its mission of securing the appropriation until March
1, 1904, by which time all the organizations had perfected their
plans for that year, in consequence of which all idea of
congresses was reluctantly abandoned.

In the meantime responses were received from many of the larger
organizations, some of which said that experience had shown that
the interest of their stated meetings suffered when they were
held where there were so many counter attractions as were
offered by a great exposition; others did not respond at all. Of
those who accepted and held meetings in St. Louis in the season
of 1904, were the various fraternal organizations of women, the
General Federation of Women's Clubs, the National Mothers'
Congress, the International Council, Council of Jewish Women,
the Daughters of the American Revolution, National Society of
the Colonial Dames of America, the United Daughters of the
Confederacy, the P.E.O.'s, the Women's Christian Temperance
Union, the Women's Relief Corps of the Grand Army of the
Republic, and the Association of Collegiate Alumnae.

All the meetings which were held at the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition were largely attended and noted for the enthusiasm of
the members and the great interest taken in the objects
represented by the respective organizations.

Respectfully submitted.

Pursuant to adjournment, on March 5, 1904, a meeting of the board of
lady managers was called by the president for April 28, 1904, to enable
the members to be present at the opening exercises of the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition, which were to take place on April 30 of that year.

The board was in session until May 9, during which time many matters of
importance were considered. Letters were read from organizations,
reports received from chairmen of committees, and jurors appointed. On
May 6 a resolution, presented by Mrs. Holcombe and amended by Miss Egan,
was adopted, by which the president of the board was made active
chairman of the executive, entertainment, and ceremonies committees, and
full plans were made for the conduct of the affairs of the board during
the coming months of the exposition period.

Twenty-one of the twenty-two members were present, and on the morning of
April 30 the board met and proceeded in a body to the Administration
Building, where they joined the president and directors of the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition Company, the members of the National Commission, and
representatives from foreign countries, and, entering carriages, were
driven to the Peace Monument, where seats were reserved for them. After
the close of the interesting exercises officially opening the
exposition, 5,000 invited guests adjourned to the Varied Industries
Building, where luncheon was served. After a brilliant display of
fireworks in the evening at the Stadium, the board of lady managers
entertained a distinguished company at dinner, which closed the
festivities of opening day.

The following is the final report of the committee on entertainment and

The board of lady managers took possession of their new building
which had been completed and furnished and was ready for
occupancy at the time they arrived in St. Louis for the meeting,
April 28, which was the first to be held in their own house, and
afforded them the earliest opportunity to see the structure and
the result of the work that had been done in preparing and
furnishing it for their use.

The first entertainment given by them was in honor of the
president and members of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
Commission, on the evening of April 30, the official opening day
of the exposition. Invited to meet them was the representative
of the President of the United States, Secretary Taft, the
president of the Exposition Company and Mrs. Francis, the
directors of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company and their
wives, the governors of the States represented at the opening
exercises and their wives, the Senators, and Members of the
House, representing the two bodies of Congress, and other
distinguished visitors and citizens. It was a most brilliant and
interesting gathering, and not only rounded out the opening day
with satisfaction to all, but inaugurated the series of
entertainments that were to be afterwards given in the building
of the board of lady managers.

In the argument of President Francis before the appropriation
committee, in January, 1903, when asking Congress to make the
additional loan, he said:

"We are the nation's hosts, as we understand it. We propose to
entertain distinguished people from every section of the globe.
* * * Bear in mind we are entertaining the guests of the
Government, we think we are benefiting the commerce of the
country; we think we are doing a patriotic service in
commemorating a great event and bringing all classes into closer
relations, cementing the ties that bind the different sections
of the nation, affording our people opportunity to see something
of the people and customs and the resources of our possessions,
and, on the other hand, affording opportunity to those people to
become acquainted with this great country."

At the meeting of the board on March 2, 1904, after the board of
lady managers had obtained the appropriation from Congress that
placed it within its power to meet the requirements of its
position, President Francis was asked what he thought would be
the pleasure of the executive committee that the board do with
the funds so obtained, as no expression had been received from
the company as to what special duty it was anxious, or would
like, to have the board perform, to which President Francis
replied, that he "had not given the matter thought, but that the
board would want to do some entertaining; that the ladies were
well adapted to that; they were experienced in that sort of
thing and knew how to go about it. That he did not see much they
could do with the money aside from entertaining."

And thus the board of lady managers authoritatively took its
place in the great exposition, in the complex mechanism of which
it was but a single factor, and assumed the responsibility of
doing its share of the entertaining on behalf of women at the

What form of government is there at the present time that is not
dependent upon the household of the executive and the homes of
the officials for the social success of an administration? An
exposition on the enormous scale of that which existed in St.
Louis partook in its management for the time being of the nature
of a government; an executive and official household was an
essential and important factor because the representatives of
all nations were to be entertained. As in this World's Fair, the
highest recognition was given to women, it was but reasonable
that women should be appointed to take the place set apart for
them, and to perform such duties as would be assigned to them in
any well-regulated government, and upon the broadest scale,
their province being that of national hostesses, their privilege
to extend a generous and far-reaching hospitality to all
official dignitaries from home and abroad who visited the

Among the social events occurring at the building of the board
of lady managers, the following is a list of the more prominent
ones held during the exposition period:

Dinner to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission, April
30; reception tendered to Mrs. Francis, wife of the president of
the Exposition Company, May 9; reception to officers of Army and
Navy, present in and around St. Louis at that time, May 18;
luncheon to General Federation of Women's Clubs, May 19;
luncheon to Miss Roosevelt, May 31; tea to Musical Federation,
June 2; dinner to Prince Pu Lun, the official representative to
the exposition of the Empress An of China, June 10; reception to
foreign representatives at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition,
June 17; reception to P.E.O.'s, June 18; reception to governors,
and State and Territorial commissioners at the exposition, June
24; dinner to Governor Odell, of New York, and Mrs. Odell, June
28; visit of Cardinal Satolli, July 1; reception to Mrs. Charles
Mercer Hall, July 12; reception to Civic Federation, July 12;
reception to members of Interparliamentary Union, at which time
the building was draped with the flags of all nations, and the
national airs of the different countries represented were played
by the orchestra, September 12; reception to Mrs. Sarah S. Platt
Decker, president of the General Federation of Women's Clubs,
September 19; reception to members of the Congress of Arts and
Sciences, September 20; reception to members of the American Bar
Association and Congress of Lawyers and Jurists, September 30;
reception to the president, Mrs. Augustine Smythe, and officers
and members of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, October
7; reception to the president, Mrs. Charles W. Fairbanks, and
officers and members of the National Society Daughters of the
American Revolution, October 11; reception to the governor of
Connecticut and his staff, October 13; tea to hostesses of State
and Territorial buildings, October 14; reception to the
president, Mrs. Herbert Claiborne, and members National Society
Colonial Dames of America, October 20; an informal dance,
October 25; reception to meet the president and members of the
Wednesday Club, of St. Louis, October 29; reception to meet the
members of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, November 3;
reception to meet the president and members of the Woman's Club
of St. Louis, November 7; informal dance, November 9; dinner to
President Francis, November 12; reception to Forest Park
University students, November 14; informal dance, November 18;
reception to Prince Fushimi, the official representative to the
exposition of the Mikado of Japan, November 22; dinner to
Jefferson Guards, Thanksgiving Day, November 24; final reception
of the board of lady managers on what was known as "Francis
Day," in honor of the president of the exposition, when the
board of lady managers kept informal "open house" and
entertained all who called on this, the last day of the
exposition, December 1.

The members of the board met their obligations with acceptable
dignity, offering cordial hospitality to all the important
bodies meeting within the exposition grounds. Their building was
the social center around which gathered the national and
international representatives of governments and organizations,
until more than 25,000 persons received specific invitation to
their official entertainments. And whether the hospitality was
extended to His Eminence, the emissary of the Pope, or whether
it was a reception to His Imperial Highness, the representative
of the Mikado of Japan, or a dinner to the envoy of Empress An,
of China, or to the governor of a State and his staff, or to the
members of the National Commission, or the officials of the
Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, all were welcomed with
genuine cordiality, the board of lady managers never failing to
remember their responsibility and that they were representing
the nation and serving their country by thus doing their share
in affording an opportunity for all nationalities to become
acquainted with each other and with our social customs as
demonstrated at the exposition.

Respectfully submitted.
_Members of Committee_.

The ninth meeting of the board was called September 20, 1904. This was a
special meeting called for the purpose of reconfirming the departmental
jurors as is set forth in the final report of the chairman of the
committee on awards.

An exposition must of necessity prove educational. The director of
exhibits of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition said "The opportunity
afforded for study and comparison of the various productions of human
genius and activity classified and shown in detail, the finished product
beside the methods and processes by which articles are produced, the
vast systems of machinery in operation, and the skilled artisans
occupied in difficult and intricate employments or native industries,
representing accurately and in detail the latest development of the
various arts and manufactures, makes it possible for not only the
student to acquire knowledge, but each exhibitor may learn something
from every other exhibitor in his class which may be to his advantage,
and which may lead to the improvement of that which he produces, whether
it be in the domain of art or manufacture, at home or abroad. The
measure of the value of an international exposition is determined by the
number of important countries represented by exhibits, the
characteristics and comprehensive nature of these exhibits, or the
excellence in quality according to the standards of the countries from
which they come. That an exposition affords the greatest opportunity
that manufacturers and producers of a nation have to increase their
export trade by displaying their samples and products before the eyes of
foreign people whose markets they seek. Exhibitors are commercial and
noncommercial." The commercial exhibitor has as his chief object the
advertisement of his business and consequent increase in the sale of his
goods by means of his display and the possible receipt of an award which
may prove valuable in future exploitation of his products. The
noncommercial exhibitor has but the moral satisfaction of receiving the
tangible assurance of the excellence of his work as represented by the

Though woman's work enters into almost all manufactured articles, its
proportion in some is very small, and at the Columbian Exposition, where
it was estimated that women had a share in nearly 350 industries, it was
finally agreed between the board of control and the board of lady
managers that the best method upon which to base the proportion of women
on the juries would be to give them representation according to the
amount of work done by women on articles to be judged in each department
of the classification. This was a very satisfactory arrangement to that
board, inasmuch as the manufacturers exhibiting were asked on the
application blanks furnished them when they applied for space: "Was the
work upon this exhibit done wholly or in part by women?" An affirmative
answer entitled the board of lady managers to membership on the jury of
awards, giving them a majority in any department where women were
especially active, and a minority, or total exclusion, where she had
contributed little or nothing to the department, which would seem a most
equitable method.

The impossibility of ascertaining these facts greatly affected the right
of representation of the board of lady managers of the Louisiana
Purchase Exposition on the juries of awards.

President Francis, in his address to the board on March 2, 1904, spoke
on this subject as follows:

I wish to say again--I think I have made this statement to you
before--that when we started the organization of the exposition
the question of separate fields of exhibit of competition was
suggested and advanced, but the stronger view was presented as
we believed by the stronger women, that there should be no
contest between individual members of the different sexes, but
that the work of each should be shown--that if women had not
arrived at that stage and made that advancement which permitted
them to compete with men's work, they had advanced but little.
Therefore we did not think of making any separate classification
for the exhibitions of women's work--they came in under the same
classification as men. On most of the lines of work upon which
women have entered, they are holding their own, if not in every

While there was formerly something to be said on each side of the
question of separate exhibits, the extent to which women now enter into
all departments of industrial and professional activities, renders it
not only difficult, but in some instances almost impossible, to make a
separate exhibit of the part they perform. It is true, if women were
to-day eliminated from the employments in which they are now engaged and
relegated to those of forty years ago, the exhibits of the nature of
man's work would be in no wise affected, and women have not sufficiently
taken the initiative (from lack of capital and adverse competition), in
establishing large manufacturing plants to be enabled by these means to
make exhibits on similar lines; but where women now work by the side of,
and the quality of their mental and manual labor competes satisfactorily
with that of men, it is now her right to receive unqualified recognition
and consideration as an economic factor, and her work should not only be
accorded the consideration and respect it deserves, but insure to her
the receipt of equal compensation for equal services performed.

It is to be regretted that the example of other expositions was not
followed in requiring manufacturers to indicate by means of some device
placed upon their exhibit what proportion or percentage was "in whole or
part the work of women," and it is urged that this be done in all future
expositions, large and small, that all who are interested in this matter
may ascertain the facts, and that the record of the kind of industries
in which women share, and which portion of them they perform, may be
available at all times as statistical information.

In selecting the jurors it is desirable and necessary that the most
careful discrimination be used, in order to secure the best and most
skillful women to represent each special department, and those well
versed in the requisite technical knowledge.

At the meeting of the board of lady managers of the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, held April 29, 1903, the following resolution was offered by
Mrs. Daniel Manning, and accepted by the board:

_Resolved_, First, it shall be the duty of the committee on
awards of the board of lady managers of the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition, through its chairman or otherwise, to ascertain
definitely in regard to every exhibit in the exposition, whether
or not the labor of women was employed in its production.

Second, it shall be the duty of this committee to take any and
all action to secure and appoint competent jurors of awards in
every class and group of the classification where woman's labor
has been engaged in the production of any articles exhibited

A copy of this resolution, under date of May 2, was sent to the
secretary of the local company, and the following reply received:

ST. LOUIS, _May 26, 1903_.

MADAM PRESIDENT: I am directed by President Francis to inform
you that the resolutions adopted by the board at a called
meeting on May 2, 1903, with reference to participation in the
award system, has been reported upon by the director of
exhibits, Mr. Skiff, who states that his division has taken
notice of the resolution, and will, in due time, prepare a list
of those exhibits which are in whole or in part the labor of

Respectfully, W.B. STEVENS,

At a meeting of the board, held in the Administration Building March 1,
1904, in response to a call by the president for a report from the
committee on awards, Mrs. Hanger, chairman of the committee, said:

This committee was named by Mrs. Manning after our last meeting,
as follows: Mrs. Hanger, Mrs. Knott, Miss Egan, Mrs. Porter, and
Mrs. Hunsicker. I happened to be here in January, and asked Miss
Egan to go with me to see Mr. Skiff. We waited two or three
hours and saw Mr. Skiff about fifteen minutes. It had been said
there were 200 jurors to be appointed, and we would only have
the appointing of 35 or 40 of them. He assured us that the lists
could not be made out as the exhibits were not installed. He
gave us some instructions in regard to the selection of jurors,
saying that they must stand for intellectual ability; it did not
matter how many people applied for appointment, we must be
governed by that.

I had a letter from Mrs. Manning suggesting that I try again. I
wrote to Mr. Stevens and he communicated with Mr. Skiff, and
later repeated to me the same thing. We have had quite a number
of names suggested, and I have written to the other members of
the committee asking them to come here as soon as the exhibits
are in place. I hope we can hold that meeting very early, but
until after that meeting I do not feel that we have anything to

In response to questions from members of the board as to whether Mr.
Skiff was to be understood to mean that there were but 35 or 40 things
to be exhibited at the exposition which were made in whole or in part by
women, Mrs. Hanger said that Mr. Skiff said the board "would only have
the appointing of 35 or 40 women--that it was a matter of expense and
that they must assist in keeping it down."

This decision was a source of great disappointment to the board, as it
has been shown most conclusively that scarcely anything is manufactured
that women do not at least share in the production or process of its
manufacture. The act of Congress stated that there should be appointed
by this board a member of every jury judging "any work that may have
been produced in whole or in part by female labor," and the members were
averse to an abridgment of the authority vested in them by the wording
of the act.

Expositions are a natural and useful factor to women in that by their
means new avenues of employment that are constantly being opened to them
may be collectively demonstrated, and it can be shown in which of these
they may share and excel or be most successful, and statistics may be
compiled showing the proportion of wages that women receive for their
share of labor performed equivalent to that of men, and other helpful
information and facts procured which are not easily ascertained by other

The Departments of Machinery, Electricity, Transportation Exhibits,
Forestry, Mines and Metallurgy, Fish and Game, and Physical Culture were
not given representation by the Exposition Company on the group juries
appointed by the board of lady managers, and while it is undoubtedly
true that all of these fields have been invaded by women as assistant
workers, yet evolution and progress in these lines are necessarily slow
where their opportunities have not been commensurate with those of men
and more congenial employment is undoubtedly afforded in education, art,
liberal arts, manufactures, agriculture, horticulture, anthropology, and
social economy.

The "Special Rules and Regulations providing for an International Jury
and Governing the System of Making Awards," as applicable to the board
of lady managers, read as follows:

The total number of jurors in the international jury of awards
shall be approximately 2 per cent of the total number of
exhibitors, but not in excess of that number, and each nation
having fifty exhibitors or more shall be entitled to
representation on the jury. The number of jurors for each art or
industry, and for each nationality represented, shall, as far as
practicable, be proportional to the number of exhibitors and the
importance of the exhibits.

Of this selected body of international jurors, three graded
juries will be constituted: One, the general organization of
group juries; two, department juries; three, a superior jury.

Each group jury shall be composed of jurors and alternates.

The Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company shall certify to the
board of lady managers the numbers of groups in which the
exhibits have been produced in whole, or in part, by female
labor; to each of the groups so certified the board of lady
managers may appoint one juror and one alternate to that juror;
such appointees, when confirmed, shall have the privileges and
be amenable to the regulations for other jurors and alternates.

Nominations made by chiefs of departments, and by the board of
lady managers, shall be submitted to the director of exhibits,
and when approved he shall submit them to the president of the
Exposition Company.

The nomination of group jurors and alternates, when approved by
the president of the exposition, shall be transmitted to the
president of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission for
the approval of that body.

The work of the group juries shall begin September 1, 1904, and
shall be completed not later than twenty days thereafter.

Examinations or other work not completed in the time specified
herein will be transferred to the department jury.

Each group shall carefully examine all exhibits pertaining to
the group to which it has been assigned. It shall also consider
and pass upon the merits of the collaborators whose work may be
conspicuous in the design, development, or construction of the

The jury shall prepare separate lists, presenting the names of
such exhibitors as are out of competition; awards recommended to
exhibitors in order of merit; awards recommended to
collaborators in order of merit; a report giving an account of
the most important objects exhibited, and a general account of
the group as a whole.

Each department jury shall be composed of the chairmen and
vice-chairmen of the group juries of the respective departments,
with one member of the directory of the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition Company, to be named by the president of the company,
and one person appointed by the board of lady managers.

Each department jury shall complete its organization and begin
its work on September 20, 1904.

The duties of these juries shall be to consider carefully and
review the reports of the group juries; to harmonize any
differences that may exist between the recommendations of the
several group juries as to awards, and to adjust all awards
recommended so that they will be consistent with the rules and

No more than ten days may be devoted to this work, and when the
awards recommended by the group juries have been adjusted the
department juries shall, through the chiefs of their respective
departments, submit their findings to the director of exhibits,
who shall, within five days after the receipt thereof, certify
the same to the superior jury, including such work as may have
been left incomplete by the department jury.

The officers and members of the superior jury shall be as
follows: President, the president of the Louisiana Purchase
Exposition Company; first vice-president, the director of
exhibits; second vice-president, a citizen of the United States
to be named by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission. The
members of the jury shall further consist of the
commissioners-general of the nine foreign countries occupying
with exhibits the largest amount of space in the exhibit
palaces, the chairmen and first vice-chairmen of the department
juries, the chiefs of the exhibit departments, and one person
appointed by the board of lady managers.

The superior jury shall determine finally and fully the awards
to be made to exhibitors and collaborators in all cases that are
formally presented for its consideration.

For the purpose of installation and review of exhibits and the conduct
of the system of awards a classification was adopted which was divided
into fifteen departments, which were divided into 144 groups, which in
turn were subdivided into 807 classes. They will show that while many of
the groups and classes are not suited to the requirements of woman's
work, yet all products of female labor can be properly classed in these
departments, and that there are extremely few occupations in which man
is engaged in which woman can not and does not also work.

The list of appointments of group and department jurors appointed by the
board of lady managers is given in the final report of the chairman of
the committee on awards.

At a meeting held on May 9, 1904, the committee to present nominations
for superior jury announced the names of Mrs. Eliza Eads How, Mrs.
Philip N. Moore, Mrs. Thomas N. Neidringhaus, and Miss Mary E. Perry. On
ballot the result was the election of Mrs. Philip N. Moore, of St.
Louis, with Mrs. Eliza Eads How, of the same city, as alternate.

In order to arrive at some conclusion in regard to the representation of
women at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, and to gain some knowledge
of the extent of her participation in exhibits, the following questions
were addressed to the jurors appointed by the board of lady managers.
They were not designed to be more than suggestive, as, of course, in
some instances hardly more than one or two would apply to a given
department. They were based on the rules and regulations, however, by
which awards were issued.

The Department of ---- at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, in
which you were a juror in group No. ----, contained ---- groups
and ---- classes within the groups. Can you give an approximate
estimate of the proportional number of exhibits by women
contained in these classes?

Please give the nature of the exhibits by women (or articles
exhibited by them) in your department, group, and classes.

Which, in your opinion, were the most striking exhibits by women
in your department?

What advancement did they show in the progress of women in any
special industry, art, science, etc.?

What proportion, or, approximately, what number, of exhibits
were installed by foreign women?

Was any display made that would lead you to think that women
were now capable of executing unusual or more creditable work
than they accomplished eleven years ago (at the time of the
Chicago Exposition) or at any time in the past?

In what way did their work (or exhibits) differ from their work
(or exhibits) of the past?

Would their work, as shown at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition,
where it was placed on equal terms of comparison with that of

Book of the day: