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Early Israel and the Surrounding Nations by Archibald Sayce

Part 4 out of 5

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1. Kambathet (Cambyses), Sam-taui Mestu-Ra 525
2. Ntariush (Darius I.) Settu-Ra 521
3. Khabbash Senen Tanen Sotep-en-Ptah, native prince 485
4. Khsherish (Xerxes) 484
5. Artakhsharsha (Artaxerxes) 465
6. Ntariush (Darius II.) Mi-Amon-Ra 424

DYNASTY XXVIII. (SAITE).

Amon-art-t-rut (Amyrtaeus), more than 6 years 415

DYNASTY XXIX. (MENDESIAN).

1. Nef-aa-rut I. Ba-n-Ra Mi-neteru, more than 4 years.
2. Hakori Khnum-ma-Ra Sotep-en-Ptah, 13 years.
3. P-si-Mut User-Ptah-sotep-en-Ra, 1 year.
4. Hor-neb-kha, 1 year.
5. Nef-aa-rut II., 1 year.

DYNASTY XXX. (SEBENNYTE).

1. Nekht-Hor-hib Ra-snezem-ab Sotep-en-Anhur, son of Nef-aa-rut I., 19
years.
2. Zihu (Teos), 1 year.
3. Nekht-neb-ef (Nektanebo) Kheper-ka-Ra, 18 years.

Egypt reconquered by the Persians, B.C. 349.

II

BABYLONIAN CHRONOLOGY

En-sag-saganna, king of Kengi.

Lugal-zaggisi, king of Erech, founds an empire in western Asia cir. B.C.
5000 (?).

KINGS OF LAGAS, cir. B.C. 4000.

Ur-duggina.
Lugal-suggur, vassal of Me-sa, king of Kis.
Gursar.
Nini-khaldu, his son.
Ur-Nina, his son.
Akur-gal, his son.
E-annatum, his son.
En-annadu I., his brother, high-priest.
Entemena, his nephew, high-priest.
En-annadu II., high-priest.

Lugal-usum-gal, vassal of Sargon of Akkad.

KINGS OF KIS.

Me-sa.
Enne-Ugun.
Alusarsid.
Lugal-khassi.

DYNASTY OF AGADE (AKKAD).

Sargon or Sargani-sar-ali, B.C. 3800.
Naram-Sin, his son, B.C. 3750.
Bingani-sar-ali, his son.
Queen Ellat-Gula (?).

FIRST DYNASTY OF UR.

Lugal-kigub-nidudu.
Lugal-kisal-si, his son.

SECOND DYNASTY OF UR.

Ur-Bau, cir. B.C. 2700; his step-son, Nammakhani, high-priest of Lagas.
Dungi I., his son; Gudea and his son, Ur-Nin-girsu, vassal high-priests
of Lagas.

DYNASTY OF ERECH.

Sin-gamil.
Sin-gasid.

DYNASTY OF ISIN.

Isbi-girra.
Libit-Istar.
Pur-Sin I.
Ur-Ninip.
Isme-Dagan.
En-annatum, his son, vassal of Gungunum of Ur.

THIRD DYNASTY OF UR.

Gungunum.
Dungi II. (reigns at least 41 years).
Pur-Sin II. (reigns at least 12 years).
Gimil-Sin (reigns at least 9 years).
Ine-Sin (probably followed by Sumu-abi).

FIRST DYNASTY OF BABYLON, B.C. 2478.

Sumu-abi or Samu-abi, 14 (or 15) years.[12]
Sumu-la-ilu, his son, 36 (or 35) years.
Zabium or Zabu, his son, 14 years.
Abil-Sin, his son, 18 years.
Sin-muballidh, his son, 20 (or 30) years.

Babylonia conquered by the Elamites; Kudur-Laghghamar (Chedor-laomer)
king of Elam is suzerain, while Eri-Aku (Arioch) governs southern
Babylonia and makes Larsa his capital.

Khammurabi or Ammurapi, the Amraphel of Genesis, 43 (or 55) years (B.C.
2376-2333).
He defeats the Elamites, restores Sin-idinnam to Larsa, and reunites
Babylonia.
Samsu-iluna, his son, 38 (or 35) years.
Abesukh (Abishua) or Ebisum, 25 years.
Ammi-ditana, his son, 25 years.
Ammi-zadok, his son, 21 years.
Samsu-ditana, his son, 31 years.

DYNASTY OF SISKU, B.C. 2174.

Anman, 60 years.
Ki-annibi, 56 years.
Damki-ilisu, 26 years.
Iskipal, 15 years.
Sussi, 24 years.
Gulkisar, 55 years.
Kirgal-daramas, 50 years.
A-dara-kalamma, 28 years.
E-kur-ul-anna, 26 years.
Melamma-kurkurra, 8 years.
Ea-ga ... 20 years.

THE DYNASTY OF THE KASSITES, B.C. 1806.[13]

Gandis, 16 years.
Agum-si, 22 years.
Agu-yasi, 22 years.
Ussi, his son, 9 years.
Adumetas.
Tazzigurumas.
Agum-kak-rime, his son.

Eight unknown kings.
Kara-indas.
Kadasman-Bel (corresponded
with the Egyptian king Amenophis III.)
Kuri-galzu I.
Burna-huryas, his son.
Kuri-galzu II., his son.[14]
Kara-khardas.
Kadasman-kharbe I., his son.

The throne usurped by Nazi-bugas.
Kuri-galzu III., son of Kadas-man-kharbe, 35 (?) years.
Nazi-Maruttas, his son, 26 years, B.C. 1378.
Kadasman-Turgu, his son, 17 years.
Kadasman-buryas, 14 years.
Kudur-Bel, 6 years.
Sagarkti-buryas, his son, 13 years (800 years before Nabonidos).
Bibeyasu, 8 years.
Bel-sum-iddin, 1-1/2 year.
Kadasman-kharbe II., 1-1/2 year.
Rimmon-sum-uzur, 30 years (including
the 7 years during
which the Assyrian king Tig-lath-Bir
held Babylon).
Meli-sipak, 15 years.
Merodach-baladan I., his son, 13 years.
Zamama-sum-iddin, 1 year.
Bel-sum-iddin, 3 years.

THE DYNASTY OF ISIN, B.C. 1229.

Merodach- ... 18 years.
Four unknown kings.
Nebuchadrezzar I.
Bel-nadin-pal.
Merodach-nadin-akhi, 22 years.[15]
Merodach- ... 1-1/2 year.

The throne usurped by Rimmon-baladan.
Merodach-sapik-zer-mati, 12 years.
Nabu-nadin, 8 years.

THE DYNASTY OF THE SEA-COAST, B.C. 1096.

Simbar-sipak, 18 years.
Ea-mukin-zeri, 5 months.
Kassu-nadin-akhi, 3 years.

THE DYNASTY OF BIT-BAZI, B.C. 1075.

E-Ulmas-sakin-sumi, 17 years.
Bir-kudur-uzur I., 3 years.
Silanim-Sukamuna, 3 months.

THE DYNASTY OF ELAM, B.C. 1055.

An ..., an Elamite, 6 years.

THE SECOND DYNASTY OF BABYLON, B.C. 1049.

Nebo-kin abli, 36 years.
Bir-kudur-uzur II. (?), 8 months, 12 days.
Probably four names missing.

B.C.
Samas-mudammik cir. 920
Nebo-sum-iskun cir. 900
Nebo-baladan cir. 880
Merodach-nadin-sumi. cir. 860
Merodach-baladhsu-ikbi cir. 830
Bau-akhi-iddin cir. 810

Probably two names missing.

Nebo-sum-iskun, son of Dakuri cir. 760
Nabonassar, 14 years 747
Nebo-nadin-sumi, his son, 2 years 733
Nebo-sum-yukin, his son, 1 month, 12 days 731

THE DYNASTY OF SAPE.

Yukin-zera or Khinziros, 3 years 730
Pulu (Pul or Poros), called
Tiglath-pileser III. in Assyria, 2 years 727
Ulula, called Shalmaneser IV. in Assyria 725

Merodach-baladan II the Chaldaean from the Sea-coast 721
Sargon of Assyria 709
Sennacherib, his son 705
Merodach-zakir-sumi, 1 month 702
Merodach-baladan III., 6 months 702
Bel-ebus of Babylon 702
Assur-nadin-sumi, son of Sennacherib 700
Nergal-yusezib 694
Musezib-Merodach 693
Sennacherib a second time 689
Esar-haddon, his son 681
Samas-sum-yukin (Saos-du-khinos), his son 668
Kandalanu (Kineladanos) 648
Nabopolassar 626
Nabu-kudurri-uzur (Nebuchadrezzar II.), his son 605
Amil-Marduk (Evil-Merodach), his son 662
Nergal-sarra-uzur (Nergal-sharezer) 560
Labasi-Marduk (Laborosoar-chod), his son, 3 months. 556
Nabu-nahid (Nabonidos) 556
Cyrus conquers Babylon 538
B.C.
Cambyses, his son 529
Gomates (Gaumata) the Magian usurps the throne, 7 months 521
Nebuchadrezzar III., native king 521
Darius (Darayavaush), son of Hystaspes 520
Nebuchadrezzar IV., rebel king 514
Darius restored 513
Xerxes I. (Khshayarsha), his son 485
Samas-erba, rebel king 480
Xerxes restored 479
Artaxerxes I. (Artakhshatra) Longimanus, his son 465
Xerxes II., his son, 2 months 425
Sogdianos, his half-brother, 7 months 425
Darius II. Nothos, his brother 424
Artaxerxes II. Mnemon, his son 405
Okhos (Uvasu), son of Artaxerxes 362
Arses, his son 339
Darius III. Kodomannos 336
Conquered by Alexander the Great 330

[Footnote 12: The first date is that of a chronological tablet compiled
in the reign of Ammi-zadok; the second that of the Dynastic Tablet
compiled probably in the reign of Nabonidos. In the latter the reigns of
illegitimate kings, Pungun-ilu, Immerum, and Eri-Aku, seem to be
included in those of the legitimate rulers of the dynasty. Immerum, the
son of Lilium, was a contemporary of Sumu-la-ilu, and perhaps, like
Nur-Rimmon and Sin-idinnam in the time of Sin-muballidh and Khammurabi,
was vassal king of Larsa in southern Babylonia.]

[Footnote 13: The date is probably from 15 to 20 years too high.]

[Footnote 14: The position of this Kuri-galzu is not certain. One of the
Kuri-galzus calls himself "son of Burna-buryas," but since Nabonidos
states that a Burna-buryas reigned 700 years after Khammurabi, it is
possible that among the eight (or in this ease nine) unknown Kassite
kings there was a Burna-buryas I., B.C. 1640, whose son was Kuri-galzu
I.]

[Footnote 15: As Sennacherib makes Merodach-nadin-akhi defeat the
Assyrians in B.C. 1107, while the Dynastic Tablet places the death of
the Babylonian king in B.C. 1118, there must be a chronological error in
the latter.]

III

ASSYRIAN CHRONOLOGY

Sargon asserts that he was preceded by 330 Assyrian kings, among the
earlier of them being Adasi and his son Bel-bani.

HIGH-PRIESTS OF ASSUR.

B.C.
Isme-Dagon 1850
Samsi-Rimmon I., his son 1820
Igur-kapkapu (?)
Samsi-Rimmon II., his son (?)
Khallu (?)
Irisum, his son (?)

KINGS OF ASSYRIA.

Bel-kapkapu, "the founder
of the monarchy."
Assur-suma-esir (?)
Bir-tuklat-Assur, his son,
(contemporary of the
Babylonian king Kharbe-sipak).
Erba-Rimmon (?)
Assur-nadin-akhe I., his son (?)
Assur-bil-nisi-su cir. 1450
Buzur-Assur 1440
Assur-nadin-akhe II. 1420
Assur-yuballidh, his son cir 1400
Bel-nirari, his son 1380
Pudilu (Pedael), his son 1360
Rimmon-nirari I., his son 1340
Shalmaneser I., his son (the builder of Calah) 1320
Tiglath-Bir I., his son 1300
Conquers Babylon and reigns there 7 years 1290
Assur-nazir-pal I., his son, 6 years 1280
Tiglath-Asaur-Bel 1275
Assur-narara 1260
Nebo-dan, his son 1250
Bel-kudurri-uzur. 1225
Bir-pileser 1215
Assur-dan I., his son[16] 1185
Mutaggil-Nebo, his son 1160
Assur-ris-isi, his son[17] 1140
Tiglath-pileser I., his son 1120
Assur-bil-kala, his son 1090
Samsi-Rimmon I., his brother 1070
Assur-nazir-pal II., his son 1050

Assur-irbi (?)
Tiglath-pileser II 950
Assur-dan II., his son 930
Rimmon-nirari II., his son 911
Tiglath-Bir II., his son 889
Assur-nazir-pal III. his son 883
Shalmaneser II., his son 858
Assur-dain-pal (Sardana-pallos), rebel king 825
Samsi-Rimmon II., his brother 823
Rimmon-nirari II., his son 810
Shalmaneser III. 781
Assur-dan III. 771
Assur-nirari 753
Pulu (Pul), usurper, takes
the name of Tiglath-pileser III. 745
Conquers Babylon 729
Ulula, usurper, takes the name of Shalmaneser IV. 727
Sargon, usurper 722
Sennacherib (Sin-akhe-erba), his son 705
Esar-haddon (Assur-akh-iddin), his son 681
Assur-bani-pal, his son 668
Assur-etil-ilani-yukinni, his son (?)
Sin-sarra-iskun (Sarakos) (?)
Destruction of Nineveh 606

[Footnote 16: A contemporary of the Babylonian king Zamama-sum-iddin. If
this is the last king but one of the Kassite dynasty, and not rather one
of the unknown kings of the dynasty of Isin, the date of Assurdan I.
will have to be pushed about 40 years further back.]

[Footnote 17: A contemporary of the Babylonian king Nebuchadrezzar I.]

IV

HEBREW CHRONOLOGY AS CORRECTED BY THE ASSYRIAN MONUMENTS

The Israelitish Exodus out of Egypt in the fifth year of Meneptah, son
of Ramses II. 1276
Campaign of Ramses III. in southern Palestine cir. 1230
Chushan-rishathaim of Aram-Naharaim or Mitanni conquers Canaan cir. 1225
Saul elected King of Israel cir. 1020
Accession of David cir. 1000
Accession of Solomon cir. 960
Accession of Rehoboam, division of the kingdom cir. 930
Invasion of Palestine by Shishak I. of Egypt 927

JUDAH.

Rehoboam (17 years) cir. 932
Abijah 915
Asa 912
Jehoshapbat 871
Jeboram 846
Ahaziah or Jehoahaz 842
Athaliah 842
Joash 837
Amaziah 797
Uzziah or Azariah 768
Jotham 736
Ahaz 734
Becomes tributary to Tig-lath-pileser 734
Damascus taken by the Assyrians 732
Hezekiah 727
Invasion of Judah by Sennacherib 701
Manasseh 697
Amon 642
Josiah 640
Jehoahaz 608
Jehoiakim 608
Jehoiachin 597
Zedekiah 597
Jerusalem destroyed by Nebuchadrezzar 586

ISRAEL.

Jeroboam (22 years) 932
Nadab 910
Baasha 908
Elah 884
Zimri, for 7 days 882
Omri 882
Ahab 874
Ahab and his allies defeated
by the Assyrians at Qarqar 853
Ahaziah 852
Revolt of Mesha of Moab 851
Joram 850
Jehu 842
He pays tribute to Assyria 841
Jehoanaz 814
Jehoash 798
Jeroboam II. 783
Zeohariah 742
Shallum 741
Menahem 741
Pays tribute to Tiglath-pileser 738
Pekahiah 737
Pekah 736
Hoshea 733 or 729
Samaria taken by the Assyrians 722

V

THE LETTERS OF EBEB-TOB (OR EBED KHEBA), VASSAL KING OF JERUSALEM, TO
AMENOPHIS IV., KING OF EGYPT

I. "To the king my lord thus speaks Ehed-Tob thy servant: At the feet of
the king my lord seven times seven I prostrate myself. What have I done
against the king my lord? They have slandered me before the king my
lord, saying: Ebed-Tob has revolted from the king his lord. Behold,
neither my father nor my mother have exalted me in this place; the arm
of the Mighty King has made me enter the house of my father. Why should
I have committed a sin against the king my lord? By the life of the
king, I say to the Commissioner of the king my lord: Why dost thou love
the Khabiri (Confederates) and hate the (loyal) governors? And yet
continually are they slandering me before the king my lord, because I
say that the provinces of the king my lord are being destroyed.
Continually are they slandering me to the king my lord. But let the king
my lord consider, since the king my lord has established the garrisons
which have taken the fortresses ... may the king send help to his
country. [May he send troops] to his country! The cities of the king my
lord are lost which Elimelech is destroying, even all the country of the
king; so let the king my lord send help to his country. I say: I will go
down to the king my lord, and shall I not see the tears of the king my
lord? but the enemy are strong against me, and I have not been able to
go down to the king my lord. So let the king incline towards my face and
despatch a garrison to me, and I will go down and see the tears of the
king my lord. Since by the life of the king, when the Commissioner
departed, I say: The provinces of the king are being destroyed, (yet)
thou dost not listen to me. All the governors are destroyed, no governor
remains to the king my lord. May the king turn his face to the men and
send the troops of the king my lord. No provinces remain unto the king;
the Khabiri have wasted all the provinces of the king. If troops come
this year, the provinces of the king my lord will be preserved; but if
no troops come, the provinces of the king my lord will be destroyed.--To
the Secretary of the king my lord, Ebed-Tob thy servant: make a clear
report of my words to the king my lord that all the provinces of the
king my lord are being destroyed."

II. "To the king my lord, my Sun-god, thus speaks Ebed-Tob thy servant:
At the feet of the king my lord seven times seven I prostrate myself.
Behold, the king my lord has established his name at the rising of the
sun and the setting of the sun. They have uttered slanders against me.
Behold, I am not a governor, a dependent of the king my lord. Behold, I
am the king's friend, and I pay tribute to the king, even I. Neither my
father nor my mother, but the arm of the Mighty King has established me
in the house of my father. [When the governor of the king my lord] came
to me, I gave him 13 prisoners (?) and 10 slaves. Suta (Seti) the
Commissioner of the king came to me; I gave 21 slavewomen and 20 male
prisoners into the hands of Suta as a present for the king my lord. May
the king give counsel to his country! The country of the king is being
destroyed, all of it. Hostilities are being carried on against me.
Behold, the mountains of Seir (see Josh, xv. 10) as far as Gath-Carmel
have united against all the other governors and are at war with myself.
If one looks, shall not one see the tears of the king my lord because
war has been made upon me? While there were ships in the midst of the
sea the arm of the Mighty King possessed Naharaim and Babylonia, but now
the Khabiri possess the cities of the king (of Egypt). Not a single
governor remains (among them) to the king my lord; all are destroyed.
Behold, Turbazu has been slain in the gate of the city of Zilu (Zelah),
and the king does nothing. Behold, Zimrida of Lachish has been thrown to
the ground by (his) servants and murdered. Yaptikh-Addu (Jephthah-Hadad)
has been slain in the gate of the city of Zilu, and the king does
nothing.... Let the king [my lord] send help [to his country], let the
king turn his face [to his servants]. Let him despatch troops to the
country [of Jerusalem]. [Behold], if no troops come this year, all the
provinces of the king my lord will be utterly destroyed. They do not
tell to the face of the king my lord that the country of the king my
lord is destroyed and all the governors are destroyed. If no troops come
this year, let the king send a Commissioner, and let him come to me with
allies, and we will die with the king our lord.--To the Secretary of the
king my lord, Ebed-Tob thy servant: At thy feet [I prostrate myself].
Make a clear report of these my words to the king my lord that thy
faithful servant am I."

III. "To the king my lord thus speaks Ebed-Tob thy servant: at the feet
of my lord the king seven times seven I prostrate myself. Behold, has
not Malchiel revolted to the sons of Labai and the sons of Arzai to
demand the country of the king for themselves? As for the governor who
does this deed, why does not the king question him? Behold, Malchiel and
Tagi (the father-in-law of Malchiel) are they who have done this, since
they have taken the city of Rubute (Rabbah, Josh. xv. 60).... There is
no royal garrison. May the king live for ever! Verily Puru (Pa-Hor) has
gone down to him; he has left me and is in the city of Gaza. But let the
king remember him and send fifty men as a garrison to defend the
country. All the country of the king has revolted. Send Yikhbil-Khamu,
and let him consider the country of the king. To the Secretary of the
king, Ebed-Tob thy servant: make a clear report of my words to the king:
'Abundant good fortune be unto thee! I am thy servant.'"

IV. "To the king my lord thus speaks Ebed-Tob thy servant: at the feet
of the king my lord seven times seven I prostrate myself. [Behold the
deed] which Malchiel and Suardatum have done against the country of the
king my lord, hiring (?) the forces of the cities of Gezer, of Gath, and
of Keilah, and occupying the country of the city of Rubute (Rabbah). The
country of the king has gone over to the Khabiri. And now at this moment
the city of the mountain of Jerusalem (Uru-salim), whose name is Bit-Bir
(the temple of the god Bir), the city of the king, is separated from the
locality of the men of Keilah. Let the king listen to Ebed-Tob thy
servant, and let him despatch troops that I may restore the country of
the king to the king. But if no troops arrive, the country of the king
is gone over to the Khabiri. This is the deed of Suardatum and Malchiel.
But may the king send help to his country."

V. _The commencement is lost_.--"And now as to the city of Jerusalem, if
this country belongs to the king, why is it that Gaza is made the seat
of the garrison for the king? Behold, the country of the city of
Gath-Carmel has fallen away to Tagi and the men of Gath. He is in
Bit-Sani, and we have effected that they should give Labai and the
country of the Bedawin (Suta) to the Khabiri. Malchiel has sent to Tagi
and takes his sons as servants. He has granted all their requests to the
men of Keilah, and we have delivered the city of Jerusalem. The garrison
whom thou sentest by the hand of Khapi (Apis), the son of Miyaria
(Meri-Ra) Hadad-el has taken and has established in his house in Gaza."

VI. "To the king my lord thus speaks Ebed-Tob thy servant: at the feet
of the king my lord seven times seven I prostrate myself. [Let the king
listen to] the words [of his servant which] have been conveyed to
[him].... Let the king know that all the provinces have united in
hostility against me, and let the king send help to his country. Behold,
the country of the cities of Gezer, of Askalon and of Lachish have given
them food, oil, and whatever they wanted; so let the king send help to
the troops and despatch troops against the men who have committed sin
against the king my lord. If troops come this year, then there will
remain both provinces and governors to the king my lord; but if no
troops arrive, there will remain no provinces or governors to the king
my lord. Behold, this country of the city of Jerusalem neither my father
nor my mother has given to me; the arm of the Mighty King gave it to me,
even to me. Behold, this is the deed of Malchiel and the deed of the
sons of Labai, who have given the country of the king to the Khabiri.
Behold, O king my lord, be just towards me as regards the Babylonians;
let the king ask the Commissioners whether they have acted violently
(?). But they have taken upon themselves a very grievous sin. They have
taken their goods and ... let the king ask (them); they had abundance of
food, abundance of oil and abundance of clothes, until Pauru the
Commissioner of the king came up to the country of the city of
Jerusalem, and Adai revolted, together with the garrison and the
dependents upon the king. Let the king know that (Pauru) said to me:
Adai has revolted from me, do not leave the city. This [year] send me a
garrison and a royal Commissioner. Let thy favour be towards me. I have
sent to the king my lord 5000 prisoners and ... tribute-bearers. The
caravans of the king have been robbed in the field of Ajalon. Let the
king my lord know that I am not able to send a caravan to the king my
lord according to thy instructions. Behold, the king has established his
name in the country of Jerusalem for ever, and he cannot forsake the
territory of the city of Jerusalem.--To the Secretary of the king my
lord, Ebed-Tob thy servant. At thy feet I fall: I am thy servant. Make a
clear report of my words to the king my lord, that I am the vassal of
the king. Abundance of good fortune to thee!--And thou hast performed
deeds I cannot enumerate against the men of the land of Cush. ... bana
is not slain. There are Babylonians in my house. Let the king my lord
ask in regard to them..."

* * * * *

LETTER OF SUWARDATUM TO AMENOPHIS IV.

"To the king my lord, my gods, my Sun-god, thus speaks Suwardata thy
servant, the dust of thy feet: at the feet of the king my lord, my gods,
my Sun-god, seven times seven I prostrate myself. The king my lord
directed me to make war in the city of Keilah; I made war; it is (now)
at peace with me; my city is restored to me. Why does Ebed-Tob send to
the men of Keilah, saying: 'Take silver and march after me'? And the
king my lord knows that Ebed-Tob has taken my city out of my hand. Again
let the king my lord inquire whether I have taken a man, or an ox, or an
ass from him or his jurisdiction. Again Labai is the conspirator who had
taken our cities, and now Labai has taken Ebed-Tob, and they have taken
our cities. And the king knows. To his servant let him grant power, for
I did not know they had done anything until the king had sent an account
of it to his servant."

* * * * *

LETTER FROM LABAI TO AMENOPHIS IV.

"To the king my lord and my Sun-god thus (speaks) Labai thy servant and
the dust of thy feet: at the feet of the king my lord and my Sun-god,
seven times seven I prostrate myself. I have heard the words which the
king has sent to me, and here am I, and the king apportions his country
unto me. Behold, I am a faithful servant of the king, and I have not
sinned, and I have not offended, and I do not withhold my tribute, and I
do not refuse the requests of the Commissioner that is set over me.
Behold, they have slandered me, and the king my lord will not be hard on
my offence. Again it is an offence in me that I have entered the city of
Gezer and ordered the city to assemble, saying, 'The king has taken my
property and the property of Malchiel.' How could I know what Malchiel
has done against me? Again the king has written to Bin-Sumya; he does
not know that Bin-Sumya has marched along with the Bedawin, and lo, I
have delivered him into the hand of Adda-dan. Again, if the king sends
for my wife, how shall I withhold her; and if the king writes to myself,
'Plunge an iron sword in thy heart and die,' how shall I not perform the
commandment of the king?"

IV

THE MOABITE STONE

(_See page 112_)

1. I am Mesha the son of Chemosh-melech, king of Moab, the Dibonite.

2. My father reigned over Moab thirty years, and I reigned

3. after my father. I made this monument to (the god) Chemosh at
Korkhah, as a monument

4. of salvation, for he saved me from all invaders, and let me see my
desire upon all my enemies. Omri

5. was king of Israel, and he oppressed Moab many days, for Chemosh was
angry with his

6. land. His son followed him, and he also said: I will oppress Moab. In
my days [Chemosh] said:

7. I will see my desire on him and his house, and Israel shall surely
perish for ever. Omri took the land of

8. Medeba (Numb. xxi. 30), and [Israel] dwelt in it during his days and
half the days of his son, altogether forty years. But there dwelt in it

9. Chemosh in my days. I built Baal-Meon (Josh. xiii. 17) and made
therein the reservoirs; I built

10. Kirjathain (Numb, xxxii. 37). The men of Gad dwelt in the land of
Ataroth (Numb, xxxii. 3) from of old, and the king of Israel built there

11. (the town) of Ataroth; but I made war against the town and took it.
And I slew all the [people]

12. of the town, for the pleasure of Chemosh and Moab. I took from
thence the Ariel (champion) of (the god) Doda and tore

13. him before Chemosh in Kerioth (Jer. xlviii. 24). And I placed
therein the men of Sharon and the men

14. of Me-khereth. And Chemosh said unto me: Go, seize Nebo upon Israel;
and

15. I went in the night and fought against it from the break of dawn
till noon; and I took

16. it, and slew all (therein), 7000 men, [boys], women, [girls],

17. and female slaves, and devoted them to Ashtor-Chemosh. And I took
from it the Ariels of Yahveh, and tore them before Chemosh. And the king
of Israel had built

18. Jahaz (Isa. xv. 4), and dwelt in it, whilst he waged war against me,
(but) Chemosh drove him out before me. And

19. I brought from Moab 200 men, all chiefs, and carried them to Jahaz,
which I took

20. to add to it Dibon. I built Korkhah, the wall of the forests and the
wall

21. of the citadel: I built its gates and I built its towers. And

22. I built the temple of Moloch, and I made sluices of the
water-ditches in the middle

23. of the town. And there was no cistern in the middle of the town of
Korkhah, and I said to all the people: Make for

24. yourselves every man a cistern in his house. And I dug the canals
for Korkhah by means of the prisoners

25. of Israel. I built Aroer and I made the road in [the province of]
the Arnon. [And]

26. I built Beth-Bamoth, for it was destroyed. I built Bezer (Deut. iv.
43), for [it was] in ruins.

27. [And all the chiefs] of Dibou were fifty, for all Dibon was subject
(to me); and I placed

28. 100 [chiefs] in the towns which I added to the land. I built

29. Beth-Medeba (Numb. xxi. 30), and Beth-diblathain (Jer. xlviii. 22),
and Beth-baal-meon, and transported thereto the ...

30. [and the shepherds] of the flocks of the land. And at Horonaim (Isa.
xv. 5) there dwelt...

31. ... And Chemosh said unto me: Go down, make war upon Horonaim. I
went down [and made war]

32. [and took the city]; and Chemosh dwelt in it in my days. I went up
from thence ...

33. ... And I ...

VII

THE TREATY BETWEEN RAMSES II. AND THE HITTITES (_Brugsch's Translation_)

(_See page 79_)

In the year 21, in the month of Tybi, on the 21st day of the month, in
the reign of King Ramessu Mi-Amun, the dispenser of life eternally and
for ever, the worshipper of the divinities Amun-Ra (of Thebes),
Hor-em-khu (of Heliopolis), Ptah (of Memphis), Mut the lady of the Asher
Lake (at Karnak), and Khonsu the peace-loving, there took place a public
sitting on the throne of Horus among the living, resembling his father,
Hor-em-khu in eternity, in eternity, evermore.

On that day the king was in the city of Ramses, presenting his
peace-offerings to his father Amun-Ra and to the gods Hor-em-khu-Tum,
the lord of Heliopolis (On), and to Amun of Ramessu Mi-Amun, to Ptah of
Ramessu Mi-Amun, and to Sutekh, the strong, the son of Nut the goddess
of heaven, that they might grant to him many thirty years' jubilee
feasts, and innumerable happy years, and the subjection of all peoples
under his feet for ever.

Then came forward the ambassador of the king and the governor [of his
house, by name ..., and presented the ambassadors] of the great king of
the Hittites, Khata-sir, who were sent to Pharaoh to propose friendship
with the king Ramessu Mi-Amun, the dispenser of life, eternally and for
ever, just as his father, the Sun-god [dispenses it] each day.

This is the copy of the contents of the silver tablet which the great
king of the Hittites, Khata-sir, had caused to be made, and which was
presented to the Pharaoh by the hand of his ambassador Tar-tisubu and
his ambassador Rames, to propose friendship to the king Ramessu Mi-Amun,
the bull among the princes, who places his boundary-marks where it
pleases him in all lands.

The treaty which had been proposed by the great king of the Hittites,
Khata-sir, the powerful, the son of Mar-sir, the great king of the
Hittites, the powerful, the grandson of Sapalili, the great king of the
Hittites, the powerful, on the silver tablet, to Ramessu Mi-Amun, the
great prince of Egypt, the powerful--this was a good treaty for
friendship and concord, which assured peace [and established concord]
for a longer period than was previously the case for a long time. For it
was the agreement of the great prince of Egypt in common with the great
king of the Hittites that the god should not allow enmity to exist
between them, on the basis of a treaty.

To wit, in the times of Mutal, the great king of the Hittites, my
brother, he was at war with [Meneptah Seti I.] the great prince of
Egypt.

But now, from this very day forward, Khata-sir, the great king of the
Hittites, shall look upon this treaty so that the agreement may remain
which the Sun-god Ra has made, which the god Sutekh has made, for the
people of Egypt and for the people of the Hittites, that there should be
no enmity between them for evermore.

And these are the contents:--

Khata-sir, the great king of the Hittites, is in covenant with Ramessu
Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt, from this very day forward, that
there may subsist a good friendship and a good understanding between
them for evermore.

He shall be my ally; he shall be my friend. I will be his ally; I will
be his friend, for ever.

To wit: in the time of Mutal, the great king of the Hittites, his
brother Khata-sir, after his murder, placed himself on the throne of his
father as the great king of the Hittites I strove for friendship with
Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt, and it is [my wish] that the
friendship and the concord may be better than the friendship and the
concord which before existed, and which was broken.

I declare: I, the great king of the Hittites, will hold together with
[Ramessu Mi-Amun] the great prince of Egypt, in good friendship and good
concord. The sons of the sons of the great king of the Hittites will
hold together and be friends with the sons of the sons of Ramessu
Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt.

In virtue of our treaty for concord, and in virtue of our agreement [for
friendship, let the people] of Egypt [be bound in friendship] with the
people of the Hittites. Let a like friendship and a like concord subsist
in such measure for ever.

Never let enmity rise between them. Never let the great king of the
Hittites invade the land of Egypt, if anything has been plundered from
it (i.e. the land of the Hittites). Never let Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great
prince of Egypt, overstep the boundary [of the land of the Hittites], if
anything shall have been plundered from [the land of Egypt].

The just treaty which existed in the times of Sapalili, the great king
of the Hittites, likewise the just treaty which existed in the times of
Mutal, the great king of the Hittites, my brother, that will I keep.

Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt, declares that he will keep
it. [We have come to an understanding about it] with one another at the
same time from this day forward, and we will fulfil it, and will act in
a righteous manner.

If another shall come as an enemy to the lands of Ramessu Mi-Amun, the
great prince of Egypt, then let him send an embassy to the great king of
the Hittites to this effect: "Come and make me stronger than him." Then
shall the great king of the Hittites [assemble his warriors], and the
king of the Hittites [shall come] and smite his enemies. But if it
should not be the wish of the great king of the Hittites to march out in
person, then he shall send his warriors and his chariots that they may
smite his enemies. Otherwise [he would incur] the wrath of Ramessu
Mi-Amun [the great prince of Egypt. And if Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great
prince of Egypt, should banish for a crime] subjects from his country,
and they should commit further crime against him, then shall the king of
the Hittites come forward to kill them. The great king of the Hittites
shall act in common with [the great prince of Egypt].

[If another should come as an enemy to the lands of the great king of
the Hittites, then shall he send an embassy to the great prince of Egypt
with the request that] he would come in great power to kill his enemies;
and if it be the intention of Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of
Egypt, (himself) to come, he shall [smite the enemies of the great king
of the Hittites. If it is not the intention of the great prince of Egypt
to march out in person, then he shall send his warriors and his two-]
horse chariots, while he sends back the answer to the people of the
Hittites.

If any subjects of the great king of the Hittites have offended him,
then Ramessu Mi-Amun [the great prince of Egypt, shall not receive them
in his land, but shall advance to kill them] ... the oath with the wish
to say, I will go ... until ... Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of
Egypt, living for ever ... that he may be given for them (?) to the
lord, and that Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt, may speak
according to his agreement for evermore ...

[If servants shall flee away] out of the territories of Ramessu Mi-Amun
[the great prince of Egypt, to betake themselves to] the great king of
the Hittites, the great king of the Hittites shall not receive them, but
the great king of the Hittites shall give them up to Ramessu Mi-Amun,
the great prince of Egypt [that they may be punished].

If servants of Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt, leave his
country and betake themselves to the land of the Hittites, to make
themselves servants of another, they shall not remain in the land of the
Hittites [but shall be given up] to Ramessu Mi-Amuu, the great prince of
Egypt.

If, on the other hand, there should flee away [servants of the great
king of the Hittites, in order to betake themselves to] Ramessu Mi-Amun,
the great prince of Egypt [in order to stay in Egypt], then those who
have come from the land of the Hittites in order to betake themselves to
Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt, shall not be [received] by
Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt, (but) the great prince of
Egypt, Ramessu Mi-Amun, [shall deliver them up to the great king of the
Hittites].

[And if there shall leave the land of the Hittites persons] of skilled
mind, so that they come to the land of Egypt to make themselves servants
of another, then Ramessu Mi-Amun shall not allow them to settle, he
shall deliver them up to the great king of the Hittites.

When this [treaty] shall be known [by the inhabitants of the land of
Egypt and of the land of the Hittites, then shall they not offend
against it, for all that stands written upon] the silver tablet, these
are words which will have been approved by the company of the gods,
among the male deities and among the female deities, among those namely
of the land of the Hittites, and by the company of the gods, among the
male deities and among the female deities, among those namely of the
land of Egypt. They are witnesses for me [to the validity] of these
words.

This is the catalogue of the gods of the land of the Hittites:--

[Sutekh of the city of] Tump (Tennib).
Sutekh of the land of the Hittites.
Sutekh of the city of Arnema.
Sutekh of the city of Zaranda,
Sutekh of the city of Pairaka.
Sutekh of the city of Khisasap.
Sutekh of the city of Sarsu.
Sutekh of the city of Aleppo.
Sutekh of the city of ...
[Sutekh of the city of ...]
Sutekh of the city of Sarpina.
Astartha of the land of the Hittites.
The god of the land of Zaiath-Khirri.
The god of the land of Ka ...
The god of the land of Kher ...
The goddess of the city of Akh ...
[The goddess of the city of ... ] and of the land of A ... ua.
The goddess of the land of Zaina.
The god of the land of ... nath ... er.

[I have invoked these male and these] female [deities of the land of the
Hittites; these are the gods] of the land, as [witnesses to] my oath.
[With them have been associated the male and the female deities] of the
mountains and of the rivers of the land of the Hittites, the gods of the
land of Kazawadana (Cappadocia), Amun, Ra, Sutekh, and the male and
female deities of the land of Egypt, of the earth, of the sea, of the
winds, and of the storms.

With regard to the commandment which the silver tablet contains for the
people of the Hittites and for the people of Egypt, he who shall not
observe it shall be given over [to the vengeance] of the company of the
gods of the Hittites, and shall be given over [to the vengeance of the]
company of the gods of Egypt, [he] and his house and his servants.

But he who shall observe these commandments which the silver tablet
contains, whether he be of the people of the Hittites or [of the people
of the Egyptians], because he has not neglected them, the company of the
gods of the land of the Hittites, and the company of the gods of the
land of Egypt shall secure his reward and preserve life [for him] and
his servants, and those who are with him and with his servants.

If there flee away [one] of the inhabitants [from the land of Egypt], or
two, or three, and they betake themselves to the great king of the
Hittites, the great king of the Hittites shall take them and send them
back to Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt.

Now with regard to the inhabitant of the land of Egypt who is delivered
up to Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great prince of Egypt, his fault shall not be
avenged upon him, his house shall not be taken away, nor his wife nor
his children. He shall not be put to death, neither shall he be
mutilated in his eyes, nor in his ears, nor in his mouth, nor on the
soles of his feet, so that thus no crime shall be brought forward
against him.

In the same way shall it be done if inhabitants of the land of the
Hittites take to flight, be it one alone or two or three, to betake
themselves to Ramessu Mi-Amun, the great king of Egypt; Ramessu Mi-Amun,
the great king of Egypt, shall cause them to be seized, and they shall
be delivered up to the great prince of the Hittites.

With regard to him who is delivered up, his crime shall not be brought
forward against him. His house shall not be destroyed, nor his wife, nor
his children; he shall not be put to death, he shall not be mutilated in
his eyes, nor in his ears, nor on his mouth, nor on the soles of his
feet, nor shall any accusation be brought forward against him.

That which is in the middle of this silver tablet and on its front side
is a likeness of the god Sutekh embracing the great prince of the
Hittites, surrounded by an inscription to this effect: "The seal of the
god Sutekh the sovereign of heaven," and "The seal of the writing made
by Khata-sir, the great and powerful prince of the Hittites, the son of
Mar-sir, the great and powerful prince of the Hittites." That which is
in the middle of the frame is the seal of Sutekh the sovereign of
heaven. That which is on the other side (of the tablet) is the likeness
of the god of the Hittites embracing the great princess of the Hittites,
surrounded by an inscription to the following effect: "The seal of the
Sun-god of the city of Iranna, the lord of the earth," and "The seal of
Puu-khipa, the great princess of the land of the Hittites, the daughter
of the land of Qazawadana, the [servant of the goddess Iskhara of]
Iranna, the regent of the earth; the servant of the goddess." That which
is in the middle of the frame is the seal of the Sun-god of Iranna, the
lord of all the earth.

VIII

THE TRAVELS OF A MOHAR

A SATIRICAL ACCOUNT OF A TOURIST'S MISADVENTURES IN CANAAN, WRITTEN IN
THE TIME OF RAMSES II., THE PHARAOH OF THE OPPRESSION

(_See page 189_)

I will portray for thee the likeness of a Mohar; I will let thee know
what he does. Thou hast not gone to the land of the Hittites, nor hast
thou beheld the land of Aupa. The appearance of Khatuma thou knowest
not. Likewise the land of Igadai, what is it like? The Zar (Plain) of
Sesostris and the city of Aleppo are on none of its sides. How is its
ford? Thou hast not taken thy road to Kadesh (on the Orontes) and
Tubikhi (the Tibhath of 1 Chr. xviii. 8), neither hast thou gone to the
Shasu (Bedawin) with numerous foreign soldiers, neither hast thou
trodden the way to the Magharat (the caves of the Magoras near Beyrout),
where the heaven is dark in the daytime. The place is planted with maple
trees, oaks, and acacias, which reach up to heaven, full of beasts,
bears and lions, and surrounded by Shasu in all directions. Thou hast
not gone up to the mountain of Shaua (in the northern Lebanon), neither
hast thou trodden it; there thy hands hold fast to the [rein] of thy
chariot; a jerk has shaken thy horses in drawing it. I pray thee, let us
go to the city of Beeroth (cisterns). Thou must hasten to its ascent,
after thou hast passed over its ford in front of it.

Do thou explain the attraction to be a Mohar! Thy chariot lies there
[before] thee; thy [strength] has fallen lame; thou treadest the
backward path at eventide. All thy limbs are ground small. Thy [bones]
are broken to pieces. Sweet is [sleep]. Thou awakest. There has been a
time for a thief in this unfortunate night. Thou wast alone, in the
belief that the brother could not come to the brother. Some grooms
entered into the stable; the horse kicks out; the thief goes back in the
night; thy clothes are stolen. Thy groom wakes up in the night; he sees
what has happened to him; he takes what is left, he goes to the
evil-doers, he mixes himself up with the tribes of the Shasu. He acts as
if he were an Amu (Asiatic). The enemies come, they [feel about] for the
robber. He is discovered, and is immovable from terror. Thou awakest,
thou findest no trace of them, for they have carried off thy property.

Become (again) a Mohar, who is fully accoutred. Let thy ear be full of
that which I relate to thee besides.

The town 'Hidden'--such is the meaning of its name Gebal--what is its
state? Its goddess (we will speak of) at another time. Thou hast not
visited it. Be good enough to look out for Beyrout, Sidon, and Sarepta.
Where are the fords of the land of Nazana? The land of Usu (Palaetyrus),
what is its state? They speak of another city in the sea, Tyre the haven
is her name. Drinking water is brought to her in boats. She is richer in
fish than in sand. I will tell thee of something else. Dangerous is it
to enter into Zorah. Thou wilt say it is burning with a very painful
sting (?) Mohar, come! Go forward on the way to the land of Pa-Kakina.
Where is the road to Achshaph? Towards no city. Pray look at the
mountain of User. How is its crest? Where is the mountain of Shechem?
Who can surmount it? Mohar, whither must you take a journey to the city
of Hazor? How is its ford? Let me (choose) the road to Hamath, Dagara,
(and) Dagar-el. Here is the road where all Mohars meet. Be good enough
to spy out its road, cast a look on Ya ... When one goes to the land of
Adamim, to what is one opposite? Do not draw back, but instruct us!
Guide us that we may know, thou leader!

I will name to thee other cities besides these. Thou hast not gone to
the land of Takhis, Kafir-Malona, Tamnah, Kadesh, Dapul, Azai,
Har-Nammata, nor hast thou beheld Kirjath-eneb near Beth-Sopher
(Kirjath-Sepher or Debir); nor dost thou know Adullam (and) Zidiputha,
nor dost thou know any better the name of Khalza in the land of Aupa,
the bull on its frontiers (?). Here is the place where all the mighty
warriors are seen. Be good enough to look and see how Qina is situated,
and tell me about Rehob. Describe Beth-sha-el (Bethel) along with
Tarqa-el. The ford of the land of the Jordan, how is it crossed? Teach
me to know the passage in order to enter into the city of Megiddo which
lies in front of it. Verily thou art a Mohar, well skilled in the work
of the strong hand. Pray, is there found a Mohar like thee, to place at
the head of the army, or a _seigneur_ who can beat thee in shooting?

Drive along the edge of the precipice, on the slippery height, over a
depth of 2000 cubits, full of rocks and boulders. Thou takest thy way
back in a zigzag, thou bearest thy bow, thou takest the iron in thy left
hand. Thou lettest the old men see, if their eyes are good, how,
worn-out with fatigue, thou supportest thyself with thy hand. _Il est
perdu, le chameau, le Mohar! Eh bien![18]_ Make to thyself a name among
the Mohars and the knights of the land of Egypt. Let thy name be like
that of Qazirnai the lord of Aser, because he discovered lions in the
interior of the balsam-forest of Baka at the narrow passes, which are
rendered dangerous by the Shasu who lie in ambush among the trees. (The
lions) measured fourteen cubits by five cubits. Their noses reached to
the soles of their feet. Of a grim appearance, without softness, they
cared not for caresses. Thou art alone, no stronger one is with thee, no
_armee_ is behind thee, no Ariel (see 2 Sam. xxiii. 20, Isa. xxix. 1)
who prepares the way for thee, and gives thee counsel on the road before
thee. Thou knowest not the road. The hair on thy head stands on end; it
bristles up. Thy soul is given into thy hands. Thy path is full of rocks
and boulders, there is no way out near; it is overgrown with creepers
and wolf's-foot. Abysses are on one side of thee, the mountain and the
wall of rock on the other. Thou drivest in against it. The chariot jumps
on which thou art. Thou art troubled to hold up thy horses. If it falls
into the abyss, the pole drags thee down too. Thy _ceintures_ are pulled
away. They fall down. Thou shacklest the horse, because the pole is
broken on the path of the narrow pass. Not knowing how to tie it up,
thou understandest not how it is to be repaired. The _essieu_ is left on
the spot, as the load is too heavy for the horses. Thy courage has
evaporated. Thou beginnest to run. The heaven is cloudless. Thou art
thirsty; the enemy is behind thee; a trembling seizes thee; a twig of
thorny acacia worries thee; thou thrustest it aside; the horse is
scratched, till at length thou findest rest.

Explain thou thy attraction to be a Mohar!

Thou comest into Joppa. Thou findest the date-palm in full bloom in its
time. Thou openest wide the aperture of thy mouth in order to eat. Thou
findest that the maid who keeps the garden is fair. She does whatever
thou wantest of her.... Thou art recognised, thou art brought to trial,
and owest thy preservation to being a Mohar. Thy girdle of the finest
stuff, thou payest it as the price of a bad rag. Thou sleepest every
evening with a rug of fur over thee. Thou sleepest a deep sleep, for
thou art weary. A thief takes thy bow and thy sword from thy side; thy
quiver and thy armour are broken to pieces in the darkness; thy pair of
horses run away. The groom takes his course over a slippery path that
rises in front of him. He breaks thy chariot in pieces; he follows thy
foot-tracks. [He finds] thy equipments, which had fallen on the ground,
and had sunk into the sand, leaving only an empty space.

Prayer does not avail thee; even when thy mouth says: "Give food in
addition to water that I may reach my goal in safety," they are deaf and
will not hear. They say not yes to thy words. The iron-workers enter
into the smithy; they rummage in the workshops of the carpenters; the
handi-craftsmen and soldiers are at hand; they do whatever thou
requirest. They put together thy chariot: they put aside the parts of it
that have been made useless; thy spokes are _faconne_ quite new; thy
wheels are put on, they put the _courroies_ on the axles and on the
hinder part; they splice thy yoke, they put on the box of thy chariot;
the [workmen] in iron forge the ...; they put the ring that is wanting
on thy whip, they replace the _lunieres_ upon it.

Thou goest quickly onward to fight on the battlefield, to do the deeds
of a strong hand and of firm courage.

Before I wrote I sought me out a Mohar who knows his power, who leads
the _jeunesse_, a chief in the _armee_ [who goes forward] even to the
end of the world.

Answer me not, "That is good, this is bad;" repeat not to me thy
opinion. Come, I will tell thee all which lies before thee at the end of
thy journey.

I begin for thee with the palace of Sesostris (Ramses II.). Thou hast
not set foot in it by force. Thou hast not eaten the fish in the brook
of .... Thou hast not washed thyself in it. With thy permission I will
remind thee of Huzana (near El-Arish); where is its fortress? Come, I
pray thee, to the palace of the land of Uzi, of Sesostris Osymandyas in
his victories, to Saz-el together with Absaqbu. I will inform thee of
the land of Ainin (the Two Springs), the customs of which thou knowest
not. The land of the lake of Nakhai and the land of Rehoburtha
(Rehoboth, Gen. xxvi. 22) thou hast not seen since thou wast born, O
Mohar. Rapih (the modern boundary between Egypt and Turkey) is widely
extended. What is its wall like? It extends for a mile in the direction
of Gaza.

[Footnote 18: By the use of French words and expressions Brugsch
endeavours to represent the Canaanitish terms which the Egyptian writer
has affectedly introduced into his work.]

IX

THE NEGATIVE CONFESSION OF THE EGYPTIANS

(_Sir P. Le Page Renouf's Translation_)

(_See page 186_)

The 125th chapter of the Book of the Dead contains the confession which
the soul of the dead man was required to make before Osiris and the
forty-two divine judges of the dead, before he could be justified and
admitted to the Paradise of Aalu:--

Said on arriving at the Hall of Righteousness, that N (the soul of the
dead man) may be loosed from all the sins which he hath committed, and
that he may look upon the divine countenances.

He saith:--Hail to thee, mighty God, lord of Righteousness!

I am come to thee, O my Lord! I have brought myself that I may look upon
thy glory. I know thee, and I know the name of the forty-two gods who
make their appearance with thee in the Hall of Righteousness; devouring
those who harbour mischief and swallowing their blood, upon the day of
the searching examination in the presence of Un-neferu (Osiris).

Verily "Thou of the Pair of Eyes, Lord of Righteousness," is thy name.

Here am I; I am come to thee; I bring to thee Right and have put a stop
to Wrong.

I am not a doer of wrong to men.

I am not one who slayeth his kindred.

I am not one who telleth lies instead of truth.

I am not conscious of treason.

I am not a doer of mischief.

I do not exact as the first-fruits of each day more work than should be
done for me.

My name cometh not to the Bark of the god who is at the Helm.

I am not a transgressor against the God.

I am not a tale-bearer.

I am not a detractor.

I am not a doer of that which the gods abhor.

I hurt no servant with his master.

I cause no famine.

I cause not weeping.

I am not a murderer.

I give not orders for murder.

I cause not suffering to men.

I reduce not the offering in the temples.

I lessen not the cakes of the gods.

I rob not the dead of their funereal food.

I am not an adulterer.

I am undefiled in the sanctuary of the god of my domain.

I neither increase nor diminish the measures of grain.

I am not one who shorteneth the palm's length.

I am not one who cutteth short the field's measurement.

I put not pressure upon the beam of the balance.

I snatch not the milk from the mouth of infants.

I drive not the cattle from their pastures.

I net not the birds of the manors of the gods.

I catch not the fish of their ponds.

I stop not the water at its appointed time.

I divide not an arm of the water in its course.

I extinguish not the lamp during its appointed time.

I do not defraud the Divine Circle of their sacrificial joints.

I drive not away the cattle of the sacred estate.

I stop not a god when he cometh forth.

I am pure, I am pure, I am pure, I am pure!

X

LETTERS OF KHAMMURABI OR AMMURAPI (THE AMRAPHEL OP GEN. xiv. 1) TO
SIN-IDINNAM, KING OF LARSA (THE ELLASAR OF GENESIS)

I. "To Sin-idinnam thus says Khammurabi: The goddesses of the land of
Emudbalum restored your courage to you on the day of the defeat of
Kudur-Laghghamar (Chedor-laomer). Because they have supported you among
the army of thy hand, turn back the army and let them restore the
goddesses to their own seats."

II. "To Sin-idinnam thus says Khummarabi: When you have seen this letter
you will understand in regard to Amil-Samas and Nur-Nintu, the sons of
Gisdubba, that if they are in Larsa or in the territory of Larsa you
will order them to be sent away, and that one of your servants on whom
you can depend shall take them and bring them to Babylon."

III. "To Sin-idinnam thus says Khammurabi: As to the officials who have
resisted you in the accomplishment of their work, do not impose upon
them any additional task, but oblige them to do what they ought to have
performed, and then remove them from the influence of him who has
brought them."

Sin-idinnam seems to have been the legitimate prince of Larsa, who had
been expelled from his dominions by the Elamite invader Eri-Aku or
Arioch, and had taken refuge at the court of Khammurabi in Babylon.
After the overthrow of the Elamites, Sin-idinnam was restored by
Khammurabi to his ancestral principality.

XI

THE BABYLONIAN ACCOUNT OF THE DELUGE

1. Sisuthros spake thus unto him, even to Gilgames:

2. 'Let me reveal unto thee, O Gilgames, the tale of my preservation,

3. and the oracle of the gods let me declare unto thee.

4. The city of Surippak, which, as thou knowest, is built [on the bank]
of the Euphrates,

5. this city was (already) old when the gods within it

6. set their hearts to cause a flood, even the great gods

7. [as many as] exist: Anu the father of them,

8. the warrior Bel their prince,

9. Bir their throne-bearer, En-nugi (Hades) their chief.

10. Ea the lord of wisdom conferred with them, and

11. repeated their words to the reed-bed: 'Reed-bed, O reed-bed! Frame,
O frame!

12. Hear, O reed-bed, and understand, O frame!

13. O man of Surippak, son of Ubara-Tutu,

14. frame the house, build a ship: leave what thou canst; seek life!

15. Resign (thy) goods, and cause thy soul to live,

16. and bring all the seed of life into the midst of the ship.

17. As for the ship which thou shalt build,

18. ... cubits shall be in measurement its length;

19. and ... cubits the extent of its breadth and its height.

20. Into the deep [then] launch it.'

21. I understood and spake to Ea my lord:

22. 'As for the building of the ship, O my lord, which thou hast ordered
thus,

23. I will observe and accomplish it.

24. [But what] shall I answer the city, the people and the old men?'

25. [Ea opened his mouth and] says, he speaks to his servant, even to
me:

26. ['If they question thee] thou shalt say unto them:

27. Since (?) Bel is estranged from me and

28. I will not dwell in your city, I will not lay my head [in] the land
of Bel;

29. but I will descend into the deep; with [Ea] my lord will I dwell.

30. (Bel) will rain fertility on you,

31. [flocks] of birds, shoals of fish.'

_Lines 32 to 42 are lost_.

43. On the fifth day I laid the plan of it (i.e. the ship);

44. in its hull (?) its walls were 10 _gar_ (120 cubits?) high;

45. 10 _gar_ were the size of its upper part.'

Another version of the account of the Deluge, of which a fragment has
been preserved, puts a wholly different speech into the mouth of Ea, and
gives the hero of the story the name of Adra-Khasis. This fragment is as
follows:--

'I will judge him above and below,
[But] shut [not thou thy door]
[until] the time that I shall tell thee of.
[Then] enter the ship, and close the door of the vessel.
[Bring into] it thy corn, thy goods, [thy] property,
thy [wife], thy slaves, thy handmaids, and the sons of [thy]
people,
the [cattle] of the field, the beasts of the field, as many as
I appoint ...
I will tell thee of (the time), and the door [of thy ship]
shall preserve them.'
Adra-Khasis opened his mouth and says,
he speaks to Ea [his] lord:

'[O my lord,] none has ever made a ship [on this wise]
that it should sail over the land.' ...

Here the fragment is broken off. The other version proceeds thus:--

46. 'I fashioned its side, and closed it in;

47. I built six storeys (?), I divided it into seven parts;

48. its interior I divided into nine parts.

49. I cut worked (?) timber within it.

50. I looked upon the rudder and added what was lacking.

51. I poured 6 _sars_ of pitch over the outside;

52. [I poured] 3 _sars_ of bitumen over the inside;

53. 3 _sars_ of oil did the men carry who brought it ...

54. I gave a _sar_ of oil for the workmen to eat;

55. 2 _sars_ of oil the sailors stored away.

56. For the [workmen?] I slaughtered oxen;

57. I killed [sheep?] daily.

58. Beer, wine, oil and grapes

59. [I distributed among] the people like the waters of a river, and

60. [I kept] a festival like the festival of the new year.

61. ... I dipped my hand [in] oil:

62. [I said to] Samas (the Sun-god): 'The storeys (?) of the ship are
complete;

63. the ... is strong, and

64. the oars (?) I introduced above and below.'

65. [Those who should be saved?] went two-thirds of them.

66. With all I had I filled it; with all the silver I possessed I filled
it;

67. with all the gold I possessed I filled it;

68. with all that I possessed of the seed of life of all kinds I filled
it.

69. I brought into the ship all my slaves and my handmaids,

70. the cattle of the field, the beasts of the field, the sons of my
people, all of them did I bring into it.

71. The Sun-god appointed the time and

72. utters the oracle: 'In the night will I cause the heavens to rain
destruction;

73. enter the ship, and close thy door.'

74. That time drew near whereof he uttered the oracle:

75. 'On this night will I cause the heavens to rain destruction.'

76. I watched with dread the dawning of the day;

77. I feared to behold the day.

78. I entered into the ship and closed my door.

79. When I had closed the ship, to Buzur-sadi-rabi the sailor

80. I entrusted the palace with all its goods.

81. Mu-seri-ina-namari (the waters of the morning at dawn)

82. arose from the horizon of heaven, a black cloud;

83. the storm-god Rimmon thundered in its midst, and

84. Nebo and Merodach the king marched in front;

85. the throne-bearers marched over mountain and plain;

86. the mighty god of death lets loose the whirlwind;

87. Bir marches causing the storm (?) to descend;

88. the spirits of the underworld lifted up (their) torches,

89. with the lightning of them they set on fire the world;

90. the violence of the storm-god reached to heaven;

91. all that was light was turned to [darkness].

92. In the earth like ... [men] perished (?)

_Two lines are lost here_.

95. Brother beheld not his brother, men knew not one another. In the
heaven

96. the gods feared the deluge, and

97. hastened to ascend to the heaven of Anu.

98. The gods cowered like a dog who lies in a kennel.

99. Istar cried like a woman in travail,

100. the great goddess spoke with a loud voice:

101. 'The former generation is turned to clay.

102. The evil which I prophesied in the presence of the gods,

103. when I prophesied evil in the presence of the gods,

104. I prophesied the storm for the destruction of my people.

105. What I have home, where is it?

106. Like the spawn of the fish it fills the deep.'

107. The gods wept with her because of the spirits of the underworld;

108. the gods sat dejected in weeping,

109. their lips were covered ...

110. Six days and nights

111. rages the wind; the flood and the storm devastate.

112. The seventh day when it arrived the flood ceased, the storm

113. which had fought like an army

114. rested, the sea subsided, and the tempest of the deluge was ended.

115. I beheld the deep and uttered a cry,

116. for the whole of mankind was turned to clay;

117. like the trunks of trees did the bodies float.

118. I opened the window and the light fell upon my face;

119. I stooped, and sat down weeping;

120. over my face ran my tears.

121. I beheld a shore beyond the sea;

122. twelve times distant rose a land.

123. On the mountain of Nizir the ship grounded;

124. the mountain of the country of Nizir held the ship and allowed it
not to float.

125. One day and a second day did the mountain of Nizir hold it.

126. A third day and a fourth day did the mountain of Nizir hold it.

127. A fifth day and a sixth day did the mountain of Nizir hold it.

128. When the seventh day came I sent forth a dove and let it go.

129. The dove went and returned; a resting-place it found not and it
turned back.

130. I sent forth a swallow and let it go; the swallow went and
returned;

131. a resting-place it found not and it turned back.

132. I sent forth a raven and let it go;

133. the raven went and saw the going down of the waters, and

134. it approached, it waded, it croaked and did not turn back.

135. Then I sent forth (everything) to the four points of the compass; I
offered sacrifices;

136. I built an altar on the summit of the mountain.

137. I set libation-vases seven by seven;

138. beneath them I piled up reeds, cedar-wood and herbs.

139. The gods smelt the savour, the gods smelt the sweet savour;

140. the gods gathered like flies over the sacrificer.

141. Already at the moment of her coming, the great goddess

142. lifted up the mighty bow which Anu had made according to his wish
(?).

143. 'These gods,' (she said), 'by my necklace, never will I forget!

144. Those days, I will think of them and never will forget them.

145. Let the gods come to my altar;

146. (but) let not Bel come to my altar,

147. since he did not take counsel but caused a flood and counted my men
for judgment.'

148. Already at the moment of his coming, Bel

149. saw the ship and stood still;

150. he was filled with wrath at the gods, the spirits of heaven,
(saying):

151. 'Let no living soul come forth, let no man survive in the
judgment!'

152. Bir opened his mouth and says, he speaks to the warrior Bel:

153. 'Who except Ea can devise a speech?

154. for Ea understands all kinds of wisdom.'

155. Ea opened his mouth and speaks, he says to the warrior Bel:

156. 'Thou art the seer of the gods, O warrior!

157. Why, O why didst thou not take counsel, but didst cause a deluge?

158. (Let) the sinner bear his own sin, (let) the evil-doer bear his own
evil-doing.

159. Grant (?) that he be not cut off, be merciful that he be not
[destroyed].

160. Instead of causing a deluge, let lions come and minish mankind;

161. instead of causing a deluge, let hyaenas come and minish mankind;

162. instead of causing a deluge, let there be a famine and let it
[devour] the land;

163. instead of causing a deluge, let the plague-god come and minish
mankind!

164. I did not reveal (to men) the oracle of the great gods,

165. but sent a dream to Adra-khasis and he heard the oracle of the
gods.'

166. Then Bel again took counsel and ascended into the ship.

167. He took my hand and caused me, even me, to ascend,

168. he took up my wife (also, and) caused her to bow at my side;

169. he turned to us and stood between us; he blessed us (saying):

170. 'Hitherto Sisuthros has been mortal, but

171. henceforth Sisuthros and his wife shall be like unto the gods, even
unto us, and

172. Sisuthros shall dwell afar at the mouth of the rivers,'

173. Then he took us afar, at the mouth of the rivers he made us dwell.

XII

THE BABYLONIAN EPIC OF THE CREATION

TABLET I.

When the heaven above was not yet named
or the earth beneath had recorded a name,
the primaeval (_ristu_) deep was their generator,
Mummu-Tiamat (the chaos of the sea) was the mother of
them all.
Their waters were embosomed together, and
the corn-field was unharvested, the reed-bed was ungrown.
When the gods had not yet appeared, any one of them,
by no name were they recorded, no destiny [was fixed].
Then the great gods were created,
Lakhmu and Lakhamu issued forth [the first],
until they grew up [when]
Ansar and Kisar (the upper and lower firmaments) were
created.
Long were the days, extended [was the time, till]
the gods [Anu, Bel, and Ea were born],
Ansar [and Kisar gave them birth].

* * * * *

The deep [opened] its mouth [and said,]
to [Tiamat], the glorious, [it spake]:
While their path ...
I will overthrow their path ...
Let lamentations arise, let complaining [be made]
[When] Tiamat [undertakes] this [work]

* * * * *

Their way shall be difficult ...
[Then] the god Mummu answered [his] father the deep:

* * * * *

Their way [shall be overthrown],
the light shall be darkened, let [it be] as the night!
The deep [heard] him and [his] countenance was lightened;
evil planned they against the gods.

* * * * *

Tiamat, the mother of the gods, lifted up herself against
them,
gathering her forces, madly raging.
The gods united themselves together with her,
until (all) that had been created marched at her side.
Banning the day they followed Tiamat,
wrathful, devising mischief, untiring (?) day and night,
prepared for the conflict, fiercely raging,
they gathered themselves together and began the battle.
The mother of the deep (?) (_Khubur_), the creatress of them all,
added victorious weapons, creating monstrous serpents,
with sharp fangs, unsparing in their attack.
With poison for blood she filled their bodies.
Horrible adders she clothed with terror,
she decked them with fear, and raised high their ...
'May their appearance ...
Make huge their bodies that none may withstand their
breast!'
She created the adder, the horrible serpent, the Lakhamu,
the great monster, the raging dog, the scorpion-man,
the dog-days, the fish-man and the (Zodiacal) ram,
who carry weapons that spare not, who fear not the battle,
insolent of heart, unconquerable by the enemy.
Moreover that she might create (?) eleven such-like monsters,
among the gods, her sons, whom she had summoned together,
she raised up Kingu, and magnified him among them:
'To march before the host, be that thy duty!
Order the weapons to be uplifted and the onset of battle!'
That he might be the first in the conflict, the leader in
victory,
she took his hand and set him on a throne:
'I have uttered the spell for thee; exalt thyself among the
gods,
assume dominion over all the gods!
Highly shalt thou be exalted, thou that art alone my
husband;
thy name shall be magnified over [all the world]!'
Then she gave to him the tablets of destiny, and laid them
on his breast:
'Let thy command be obeyed, let the word of thy mouth be
established!'
When Kingu had exalted himself, and made himself like
Anu (the god of heaven),
she determined for the gods her sons their destiny:
'The opening of your mouth shall quench the fire;
The exalted of Kidmuri (i.e. Kingu) shall dissolve its flame.'

* * * * *

TABLET II.

(_Begins with a speech of Ansar to Merodach_.)

"Tiamat our mother has risen up against us,
gathering her forces, madly raging.
The gods have united themselves together with her,
until (all) that has been created marches at her side.
Banning the day they have followed Tiamat,
wrathful, devising mischief, untiring (?) day and night,
prepared for the conflict, fiercely raging,
they have gathered themselves together and begun the battle.
The mother of the deep (?), the creatress of them all,
has added victorious weapons, creating monstrous serpents,
with sharp fangs, unsparing in their attack.
With poison for blood she has filled their bodies.
Horrible adders she has clothed with terror,
she has decked them with fear, and raised high their ...
'May their appearance ...
may their bodies be huge so that none may withstand their
breast!'
She has created the adder, the horrible serpent, the Lakh-amu,
the great monster, the raging dog, the scorpion-man,
the dog-days, the fish-man (Aquarius), and the (Zodiacal)
ram,
who carry weapons that spare not, who fear not the battle,
insolent of heart, unconquerable by the enemy.
Moreover that she may create (?) eleven such-like monsters,
among the gods, her sons, whom she has summoned together,
she has raised up Kingu and magnified him among them.
'To march before the host,' (she has said,) 'be that thy
duty!
Order the weapons to be uplifted and the onset of battle!'
That he may be the first in the conflict, the leader in victory,
she has taken his hand and seated him on a throne:
'I have uttered the spell for thee; exalt thyself among the
gods,
assume dominion over all the gods!
Highly shalt thou be exalted, thou that art alone my
husband;
thy name shall be magnified over [all the world]!'
Thereupon she has given him the tablets of destiny and laid
them on his breast:
'Let thy command be obeyed, let the word of thy mouth be
established!'
When Kingu had exalted himself, and made himself as Anu,
she determined for the gods her sons their destiny:
'The opening of your mouth shall quench the fire;
the exalted of Kidmuri shall dissolve its flame!'
[When Merodach heard this, his heart] was grievously troubled,
he ... ... and his lips he bit;
.....his heart grew angry
......his cry.
......[he determined on] battle.
[Then spake he to] his father (Ea): 'Be not troubled;
......thou shalt become the lord of the deep.
......with Tiamat will I contend.'"

* * * * *

Merodach [heard] the words of his father,
in the fulness (?) of his heart he said to his father:
'O lord of the gods, offspring (?) of the great gods,
if indeed I am your avenger,
Tiamat to overpower and you to rescue,
make ready an assembly, prepare a banquet(?).
Enter joyfully into Ubsugina (the seat of oracles) all together.
With my mouth like you will I give the oracle.
What I create shall never be changed,
the word of my lip shall never go back or be unfulfilled!'

TABLET III.

Thereupon Ansar opened his mouth,
to [Gaga] his [messenger] he uttered the word:
'O angel [Gaga] who rejoicest my heart,
[to Lakhmu and Lakh]amu will I send thee;
[the command of my heart] thou shalt gladly hear(?):
'Ansar, your son, has sent me,
the wish of his heart he has caused me to know.
Tiamat our mother has risen up against us,
gathering her forces, madly raging.
The gods, all of them, have united themselves unto her,
all whom she has created march at her side.
Banning the day they have followed Tiamat,
wrathful, devising mischief, untiring (?) day and night,
prepared for the conflict, fiercely raging,
they have gathered themselves together and begin the fray.
The mother of the deep (?), the creatress of them all,
has given them victorious weapons, creating monstrous serpents
with sharp fangs, unsparing in the onset.
With poison for blood she has filled their bodies.
Horrible adders she has clothed with terror,
she has decked them with fear, and raised high their ...
'May their appearance ...
May their bodies grow huge so that none may stand before them!'
She has created the adder, the horrible serpent, the Lakhamu,
the great monster, the raging dog, the scorpion-man,
the dog-days, the fish-man and the ram,
who carry weapons that spare not, who fear not the conflict,
insolent of heart, unconquerable by the enemy.
Moreover that she may have eleven such monsters,
among the gods, her sons, whom she has summoned together,
she has raised up Kingu and magnified him among them:
'To march before the host, be that thy duty!
Order the weapons to be uplifted and the onset of battle!'
That he may be first in the conflict, the leader in victory,
she has taken his hand and set him on a throne:
'I have uttered the spell for thee, exalt thyself among the gods,
assume dominion over all the gods!
Highly shalt thou be exalted, thou that art alone my husband;
thy name shall be magnified over [all the world]!'
Then she gave him the tablets of destiny, and laid them on his breast:
'Let thy command be obeyed; let the word of thy mouth be established!'
When Kingu had exalted himself and made himself as Anu
she determined for the gods her sons their destiny:
'The opening of your mouth shall quench the fire,
the exalted of Kidmuri shall dissolve its flame.'
I sent forth Anu, but he would not meet her;
Ea was terrified and turned back.
Then I bade Merodach, the counsellor of the gods, your son;
to attack Tiamat his heart urged him.
He opened his mouth and spake unto me:
'If I am indeed your avenger,
Tiamat to overpower, you to rescue,
make ready an assembly, prepare a banquet (?).
Enter joyfully into Ubsugina, all together.
With my mouth, like you, will I then pronounce an oracle,
what I create shall never be changed;
the word of my lip shall never go back or be unfulfilled.'
Hasten therefore and determine at once for him his destiny
that he may go forth and meet your mighty foe!'
Lakhmu and Lakhamu heard this and lamented,
the gods of heaven, all of them, bitterly grieved:
'Foolish are they who thus desire battle (?);
nor can we understand the [design] of Tiamat.'
Then they came together and marched ...
the great gods, all of them, who determine [destinies].
They came before (?) Ansar, they filled [his abode],
they crowded one on the other in the gathering ...
they sat down to the feast, [they devoured] the food;
they eat bread, they drank [wine],
with sweet honey wine they filled themselves,
they drank beer, and delighted their soul (?)
....they ascended into their [seats],
to determine the destiny of Merodach their avenger.

* * * * *

TABLET IV.

Then they set him on a princely throne;
before his fathers he seated himself as ruler.
'Yea, thou art glorious among the great gods,
thy destiny has no rival, thy name (?) is Anu;
from this day forward unchanged be thy command,
high and low entreat thy hand!
Let the word of thy mouth be established, thy judgment never be violated,
let none among the gods overpass thy bounds!
as an adornment has (thy hand) founded the shrine of the gods,
may the place of their gathering (?) become thy home.
O Merodach, thou art he that avenges us,
we give unto thee the sovereignty over the multitudes of the universe.
Thou givest counsel, let thy word be exalted;
may thy weapons be victorious, may thine enemies tremble!
O lord, be gracious to the soul of him who putteth his trust in thee,
but pour out the soul of the god who has hold of evil.'
Then place they in their midst a robe;
they spake to Merodach their first-born:
'May thy destiny, O lord, excel that of the gods;
command destruction and creation, and so it shall be done.
Set thy mouth that it may destroy the robe;
bid it return and the robe shall be restored!'
He spake and with his mouth destroyed the robe;
he spake to it again, and the robe was re-created.
When the gods his fathers beheld (the power) of the word of his mouth,
they rejoiced, they saluted Merodach the king,
they bestowed upon him the sceptre, the throne and reign,
they gave him a weapon unrivalled, consuming the hostile:
'Go,' (they said,) 'and cut off the life of Tiamat,
let the winds carry her blood to secret places.'
(Thus) the gods, his fathers, determined for Bel his destiny,
they showed his path, and they bade him listen and take the road.
He made ready the bow and used it as his weapon;
he made the club swing, he fixed its seat;
then he lifted up the weapon which he caused his right hand to hold;
the bow and the quiver he hung at his side.
He set the lightning before him,
with glancing flame he filled its body.
He made also a net to enclose the dragon Tiamat.
He seized the four winds that they might not issue out of it,
the south wind, the north wind, the east wind (and) the west wind;
he made them enter the net, the gift of his father Anu.
He created the evil wind, the hostile wind, the storm, the tempest,
the four winds, the seven winds, the whirlwind, the unending wind:
he caused the winds he had created to issue forth, seven in all,
confounding the dragon Tiamat, as they swept after him.
Then Bel lifted up the Deluge, his mighty weapon:
he rode in a chariot incomparable, (and) terrible.
He stood firm, and harnessed four horses to its side,
[steeds] that spare not, spirited and swift,
[with sharp] teeth, that carry poison,
which know how to sweep away [the opponent].
[On the right] ... mighty in battle,
on the left they open ...
......before thee.

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