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Early Britain--Roman Britain by Edward Conybeare

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[Footnote 257: Spartianus (A.D. 300), 'Hist. Rom.']

[Footnote 258: About a fifth of the known legionary inscriptions of
Britain have been found in Scotland.]

[Footnote 259: See p. 233.]

[Footnote 260: At the Battle of the Standard, 1138.]

[Footnote 261: That Hadrian and not Severus (by whose name it is
often called) was the builder of the Wall as well as of the adjoining
fortresses is proved by his inscriptions being found not only in them,
but in the "mile-castles" [see C.I.L. vii. 660-663]. Out of the 14
known British inscriptions of this Emperor, 8 are on the Wall; out of
the 57 of Severus, 3 only.]

[Footnote 262: Hadrian divided the Province of Britain [see p. 142]
into "Upper" and "Lower"; but by what boundary is wholly conjectural.
All we know is that Dion Cassius [Xiph. lv.] places Chester and
Caerleon in the former and York in the latter. The boundary _may_ thus
have been the line from Mersey to Humber; "Upper" meaning "nearer to

[Footnote 263: Neilson, 'Per Lineam Valli,' p.I.]

[Footnote 264: See further pp. 203-212.]

[Footnote 265: The figure has been supposed to represent Rome seated
on Britain. But the shield is not the oblong buckler of the Romans,
but a round barbaric target.]

[Footnote 266: So Tacitus speaks of "_Submotis velut in aliam insulam
hostibus_" by Agricola's rampart. And Pliny says, "_Alpes Gcrmaniam ab
Italia submovent_."]

[Footnote 267: Corpus Inscript. Lat, vii. 1125.]

[Footnote 268: Dio Cassius, lxxii. 8.]

[Footnote 269: Aelius Lampridius, 'De Commodo,' c. 8.]

[Footnote 270: Inscriptions in the Newcastle Museum show that bargemen
from the Tigris were quartered on the Tyne.]

[Footnote 271: Dio Cassius, lxxii. 9.]

[Footnote 272: Julius Capitolinus, 'Pertinax,' c. 3.]

[Footnote 273: Orosius, 'Hist' 17.]

[Footnote 274: Herodian, 'Hist.' iii. 20.]

[Footnote 275: Lucius Septimus Severus.]

[Footnote 276: Herodian, 'Hist. III.' 46. He is a contemporary

[Footnote 277: Also called Bassianus. His throne name was Marcus
Aurelius Antoninus Pius.]

[Footnote 278: Publius Septimus Geta Antoninus Pius.]

[Footnote 279: Aelius Spartianus, 'Severus,' c. 23.]

[Footnote 280: Dion Cassius, lxxvi. 12.]

[Footnote 281: Severus gave as a _mot d'ordre_ to his soldiers the "No
quarter" proclamation of Agamemnon. ('Iliad,' vi. 57): [Greek: _ton
metis hupekphugoi aipun olethron_].]

[Footnote 282: Dion Cassius, lxxvi. 12.]

[Footnote 283: See p. 195.]

[Footnote 284: Aurelius Victor (20) makes him (as Mommsen and others
think) restore _Antonine's_ rampart: "_vallum per_ xxxii. _passuum
millia a mari ad mare_." But more probably xxxii. is a misreading for

[Footnote 285: The very latest spade-work on the Wall (undertaken by
Messrs. Haverfield and Bosanquet in 1901) shows that the original wall
and ditch ran through the midst of the great fortresses of Chesters
and Birdoswald, which are now astride, so to speak, of the Wall;
pointing to the conclusion that Severus rebuilt and enlarged them. In
various places along the Wall itself the stones bear traces of mortar
on their exterior face, showing that they have been used in some
earlier work.]

[Footnote 286: This is the number _per lineam valli_ given in the
'Notitia.' Only twelve have been certainly identified. They are
commonly known as "stations."]

[Footnote 287: Antiquaries have given these structures the name of
"mile-castles." They are usually some fifty feet square.]

[Footnote 288: The familiar name of "Wallsend" coals reminds us of
this connection between the Tynemouth colliery district and the Wall's

[Footnote 289: So puzzling is the situation that high authorities
on the subject are found to contend that the work was perfunctorily
thrown up, in obedience to mistaken orders issued by the departmental
stupidity of the Roman War Office, that in reality it was never
either needed or used, and was obsolete from the very outset. But this
suggestion can scarcely be taken as more than an elaborate confession
of inability to solve the _nodus_.]

[Footnote 290: It should be noted that the "Vallum" is no regular
Roman _muris caespitius_ like the Rampart of Antoninus, though traces
have been found here and there along the line of some intention to
construct such a work (see 'Antiquary,' 1899, p. 71).]

[Footnote 291: In more than one place the line of fortification
swerves from its course to sweep round a station.]

[Footnote 292: Near Cilurnum the fosse was used as a receptacle for
shooting the rubbish of the station, and contains Roman pottery of
quite early date.]

[Footnote 293: See p. 233.]

[Footnote 294: See p. 232.]

[Footnote 295: The existing military road along the line of the Wall
does not follow the track of its Roman predecessor. It was constructed
after the rebellion of 1745, when the Scots were able to invade
England by Carlisle before our very superior forces at Newcastle could
get across the pathless waste between to intercept them.]

[Footnote 296: Mithraism is first heard of in the 2nd century A.D.,
as an eccentric cult having many of the features of Christianity,
especially the sense of Sin and the doctrine that the vicarious
blood-shedding essential to remission must be connected with a New
Baptismal Birth unto Righteousness. The Mithraists carried out this
idea by the highly realistic ceremonies of the _Taurobolium_; the
penitent neophyte standing beneath a grating on which the victim
was slain, and thus being literally bathed in the atoning blood,
afterwards being considered as born again [_renatus_]. It thus evolved
a real and heartfelt devotion to the Supreme Being, whom, however
(unlike Christianity), it was willing to worship under the names of
the old Pagan Deities; frequently combining their various attributes
in joint Personalities of unlimited complexity. One figure has the
head of Jupiter, the rays of Phoebus, and the trident of Neptune;
another is furnished with the wings of Cupid, the wand of Mercury, the
club of Hercules, and the spear of Mars; and so forth. Mithraism thus
escaped the persecution which the essential exclusiveness of their
Faith drew down upon Christians; gradually transforming by its deeper
spirituality the more frigid cults of earlier Paganism, and making
them its own. The little band of truly noble men and women who in the
latter half of the 4th century made the last stand against the triumph
of Christianity over the Roman world were almost all Mithraists. For
a good sketch of this interesting development see Dill, 'Roman Society
in the Last Century of the Western Empire.']

[Footnote 297: Of the 1200 in the 'Corpus Inscript. Lat.' (vol. vii.),
500 are in the section _Per Lineam Valli_.]

[Footnote 298: 'Corpus Inscript. Lat.' vol. vii., No. 759.]

[Footnote 299: Some authorities consider him to have been her own

[Footnote 300: See p. 126.]

[Footnote 301: The Gelt is a small tributary joining the Irthing
shortly before the latter falls into the Eden.]

[Footnote 302: Polybius (vi. 24) tells us that in the Roman army of
his day a _vexillum_ or _manipulum_ consisted of 200 men under two
centurions, each of whom had his _optio_. Vegetius (II. 1) confines
the word _vexillatio_ to the cavalry, but gives no clue as to its

[Footnote 303: On this inscription see Huebner, C.I.L. vii. 1. A
drawing will be found in Bruce's 'Handbook to the Wall' (ed. 1895), p.

[Footnote 304: The name _Cilurnum_ may be connected with this wealth
of water. In modern Welsh _celurn_ = caldron.]

[Footnote 305: "All hast thou won, all hast thou been. Now be God the
winner." (These final words are equivocal, in both Latin and English.
They might signify, "Now let God be your conqueror," and "Now, thou
conqueror, be God," _i. e_. "die"; for a Roman Emperor was deified at
his decease.) Spartianus, 'De Severo,' 22.]

[Footnote 306: Aelius Spartianus, 'Severus,' c. 22.]

[Footnote 307: See p. 46.]

[Footnote 308: Dio Cassius, lxxvi. 16.]

[Footnote 309: _Ibid_. lxxvii. I.]

[Footnote 310: In 369. See p. 230.]

[Footnote 311: Constans in 343. See p. 230.]

[Footnote 312: See Bruce, 'Handbook to Wall' (ed. 1895), p. 267.]

[Footnote 313: Such tablets, called _tabulae honestae missionis_
("certificates of honourable discharge"), were given to every
enfranchised veteran, and were small enough to be carried easily on
the person. Four others, besides that at Cilurnum, have been found in

[Footnote 314: None of the above-mentioned _tabulae_ found are later
than A.D. 146, which, so far as it goes, supports the contention that
Marcus Aurelius was the real extender of the citizenship; Caracalla
merely insisting on the liabilities which every Roman subject had
incurred by his rise to this status.]

[Footnote 315: See pp. 175, 176. Only those fairly identifiable are
given; the certain in capitals, the highly probable in ordinary
type, and the reasonably probable in italics. For a full list
of Romano-British place-names, see Pearson, 'Historical Maps of

[Footnote 316: Probus was fond of thus dealing with his captives. He
settled certain Franks on the Black Sea, where they seized shipping
and sailed triumphantly back to the Rhine, raiding on their way the
shores of Asia Minor, Greece, and Africa, and even storming Syracuse.
They ultimately took service under Carausius. [See Eumenius, Panegyric
on Constantius.] The Vandals he had captured on the Rhine, after their
great defeat by Aurelius on the Danube.]

[Footnote 317: This name may also echo some tradition of barbarians
from afar having camped there.]

[Footnote 318: Eutropius (A.D. 360), 'Breviarium,' x. 21.]

[Footnote 319: By the analogy of Saxon and of Lombard (_Lango-bardi_
= "Long-spears"), this seems the most probable original derivation of
the name. In later ages it was, doubtless, supposed to have to do with
_frank_ = free. The franca is described by Procopius ('De Bell. Goth.'
ii. 25.), and figures in the Song of Maldon.]

[Footnote 320: See Florence of Worcester (A.D. 1138); also the Song of

[Footnote 321: Eutropius, ix. 21.]

[Footnote 322: The Franks of Carausius had already swept that sea (see
p. 219).]

[Footnote 323: Mamertinus, 'Paneg. in Maximian.']

[Footnote 324: Caesar, originally a mere family name, was adapted
first as an Imperial title by the Flavian Emperors.]

[Footnote 325: Henry of Huntingdon makes her the daughter of Coel,
King of Colchester; the "old King Cole" of our nursery rhyme, and as
mythical as other eponymous heroes. Bede calls her a concubine, a slur
derived from Eutropius (A.D. 360), who calls the connection _obscurius
matrimonium_ (Brev. x. 1).]

[Footnote 326: Eumenius, 'Panegyric on Constantine,' c. 8.]

[Footnote 327: Eumenius, 'Panegyric on Constantius,' c. 6.]

[Footnote 328: Salisbury Plain has been suggested as the field.]

[Footnote 329: The historian Victor, writing about 360 A.D., ascribes
the recovery of Britain to this officer rather than to the personal
efforts of Constantius. The suggestion in the text is an endeavour to
reconcile his statement with the earlier panegyrics of Eumenius.]

[Footnote 330: See p. 59. An inscription found near Cirencester
proves that place to have been in Britannia Prima. It is figured
by Haverfield ('Eng. Hist. Rev.' July 1896), and runs as follows:
_Septimius renovat Primae Provinciae Rector Signum et erectam prisca
religione columnam_. This is meant for two hexameter lines, and refers
to Julian's revival of Paganism (see p. 233).]

[Footnote 331: Specimens of these are given by Harnack in the
'Theologische Literaturzeitung' of January 20 and March 17, 1894.]

[Footnote 332: See Sozomen, 'Hist. Eccl.' I, 6.]

[Footnote 333: See p. 123.]

[Footnote 334: The name commonly given to the really unknown author
of the 'History of the Britons.' He states that the tombstone of
Constantius was still to be seen in his day, and gives Mirmantum
or Miniamantum as an alternative name for Segontium. Bangor and
Silchester are rival claimants for the name, and one 13th-century MS.
declares York to be signified.]

[Footnote 335: The Sacred Monogram known as _Labarum_. Both name
and emblem were very possibly adapted from the primitive cult of the
Labrys, or Double Axe, filtered through Mithraism. The figure is never
found as a Christian emblem before Constantine, though it appears as
a Heathen symbol upon the coinage of Decius (A.D. 250). See Parsons,
'Non-Christian Cross,' p. 148.]

[Footnote 336: Hilary (A.D. 358), 'De Synodis,' Sec. 2.]

[Footnote 337: Ammianus Marcellinus, 'Hist.' XX. I.]

[Footnote 338: Jerome calls her "fertilis tyrannorum provincia." ['Ad
Ctesiph.' xliii.] It is noteworthy that in all ecclesiastical notices
of this period Britain is always spoken of as a single province, in
spite of Diocletian's reforms.]

[Footnote 339: See p. 202.]

[Footnote 340: These Scotch pirate craft (as it would seem) are
described by Vegetius (A.D. 380) as skiffs (_scaphae_), which, the
better to escape observation, were painted a neutral tint all over,
ropes and all, and were thus known as _Picts_. The crews were dressed
in the same colour--like our present khaki. These vessels were large
open boats rowing twenty oars a side, and also used sails. The very
scientifically constructed vessels which have been found in the silt
of the Clyde estuary may have been _Picts_. See p. 80.]

[Footnote 341: Henry of Huntingdon, 'History of the English,' ii. I.]

[Footnote 342: Murat, CCLXIII. 4.]

[Footnote 343: See p. 225.]

[Footnote 344: Jerome, in his treatise against Jovian, declares that
he could bear personal testimony to this.]

[Footnote 345: See p. 194.]

[Footnote 346: Marcellinus dwells upon the chopping seas which
usually prevailed in the Straits; and of the rapid tide, which is also
referred to by Ausonius (380), "Quum virides algas et rubra corallia
nudat Aestus," etc.]

[Footnote 347: To him is probably due the reconstruction of the
"Vallum" as a defence against attacks from the south, such as the
Scots were now able to deliver. See p. 207.]

[Footnote 348: Marcellinus, 'Hist.' XXVIII. 3. See p. 202.]

[Footnote 349: 'De Quarto Consulatu Honorii,' I. 31.]

[Footnote 350: Theodosius married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I.]

[Footnote 351: For the later migrations to Brittany see Elton's
'Origins,' p. 350. Samson, Archbishop of York, is said to have fled
thither in 500, and settled at Dol. Sidonius Apollinaris speaks of
Britons settled by the Loire.]

[Footnote 352: 'In Primum Consulatum Stilichonis,' II. 247.]

[Footnote 353: Alone amongst the legions it is not mentioned in the
'Notitia' as attached to any province.]

[Footnote 354: 'Epithalamium Paladii,' 85.]

[Footnote 355: The first printed edition was published 1552.]

[Footnote 356: See p. 90.]

[Footnote 357: _Portus Adurni_. Some authorities, however, hold this
to be Shoreham, others Portsmouth, others Aldrington. The remaining
posts are less disputed. They were Branodunum (Brancaster), Garianonum
(Yarmouth), Othona (Althorne[?] in Essex), Regulbium (Reculver),
Rutupiae (Richborough), Lemanni (Lyminge), Dubris (Dover), and

[Footnote 358: There were six "Counts" altogether in the Western
Empire, and twelve "Dukes." Both Counts and Dukes were of
"Respectable" rank, the second in the Diocletian hierarchy.]

[Footnote 359: See p. 237.]

[Footnote 360: This word, however, may perhaps signify _Imperial_
rather than _London_.]

[Footnote 361: Olympiodorus (A.D. 425).]

[Footnote 362: 'Hist. Nov.' vi. 10. He is a contemporary authority.]

[Footnote 363: Tennyson, 'Guinevere,' 594. The dragon standard first
came into use amongst the Imperial insignia under Augustus, and the
red dragon is mentioned by Nennius as already the emblem of Briton
as opposed to Saxon. The mediaeval Welsh poems speak of the legendary
Uther, father of Arthur, as "Pendragon," equivalent to Head-Prince, of

[Footnote 364: See Rhys, 'Celtic Britain,' pp. 116, 136.]

[Footnote 365: Gildas (xxiii,) so calls him.]

[Footnote 366: "The groans of the Britons" are said by Bede to have
been forwarded to Aetius "thrice Consul," _i.e._ in 446, on the eve of
the great struggle with Attila.]

[Footnote 367: Nennius (xxviii.) so calls them, and they are commonly
supposed to have been clinker-built like the later Viking ships. But
Sidonius Apollinaris (455) speaks of them as a kind of coracle. See p.

"Quin et Armorici piratam Saxona tractus Sperabant, cui
_pelle_ salum sulcare Britannum Ludus, et _assuto_ glaucum
mare findere lembo."

('Carm.' vii. 86.)]

[Footnote 368: See Elton, 'Origins,' ch. xii.]

[Footnote 369: Henry of Huntingdon, 'Hist. of the English,' ii. 1.]

[Footnote 370: Nennius, xlix. This is the reading of the oldest MSS.;
others are _Nimader sexa_ and _Enimith saxas_. The regular form would
be _Nimap eowre seaxas_.]

[Footnote 371: A coin of Valentinian was discovered in the Cam valley
in 1890. On the reverse is a Latin Cross surrounded by a laurel

[Footnote 372: _Cymry_ signifies _confederate_, and was the name
(quite probably an older racial appellation revived) adopted by the
Western Britons in their resistance to the Saxon advance.]

[Footnote 373: Arthur is first mentioned (in Nennius and the 'Life
of Gildas') as a Damnonian "tyrant" (i.e. a popular leader with no
constitutional status), fighting against "the kings of Kent." This
notice must be very early--before the West Saxons came in between
Devon and the Kentish Jutes. His early date is confirmed by his
mythical exploits being located in every Cymric region--Cornwall,
Wales, Strathclyde, and even Brittany.]

[Footnote 374: The ambition of Henry V. for Continental dominion was
undoubtedly thus quickened.]

[Footnote 375: Procopius, 'De Bello Gothico,' iv. 20.]

[Footnote 376: These presumably represent the Saxons, who were
next-door neighbours to the Frisians of Holland. But Mr. Haverfield's
latest (1902) map makes Frisians by name occupy Lothian.]

[Footnote 377: Ptolemy's map shows how this error arose; Scotland, by
some extraordinary blunder, being therein represented as an _eastward_
extension at right angles to England, with the Mull of Galloway as its
northernmost point.]

[Footnote 378: This fable probably arose from the mythical visit of
Ulysses (see p. 64 _n_.), who, as Claudian ('In Rut.' i. 123) tells,
here found the Mouth of Hades.]

[Footnote 379: Procopius, 'De Bello Gothico,' ii. 6.]

[Footnote 380: See my 'Alfred in the Chroniclers,' p. 6.]

[Footnote 381: See p. 175.]

[Footnote 382: See p. 168.]

[Footnote 383: 'Anglo-Saxon Chronicle,' A. 491: "This year Ella and
Cissa stormed Anderida and slew all that dwelt therein, so that not
one Briton was there left."]

[Footnote 384: Chester itself, one of the last cities to fall,
is called "a waste chester" as late as the days of Alfred ('A.-S.
Chron.,' A. 894).]

[Footnote 385: In the districts conquered after the Conversion of the
English there was no such extermination, the vanquished Britons being

[Footnote 386: For the British survival in the Fenland see my 'History
of Cambs.,' III., Sec. 11.]

[Footnote 387: Romano-British relics have been found in the Victoria
Cave, Settle.]

[Footnote 388: 'Comm. on Ps. CXVI.' written about 420 A.D.]

[Footnote 389: 'Epist. ad. Corinth.' 5.]

[Footnote 390: Catullus, in the Augustan Age, refers to Britain as the
"extremam Occidentis," and Aristides (A.D. 160) speaks of it as "that
great island opposite Iberia."]

[Footnote 391: 'Menol. Graec.,' June 29. A suspiciously similar
passage (on March 15) speaks of British ordinations by Aristobulus,
the disciple of St. Paul.]

[Footnote 392: Nero. This would be A.D. 66.]

[Footnote 393: It is less generally known than it should be that the
head of St. Paul as well as of St. Peter has always figured on the
leaden seal attached to a Papal Bull.]

[Footnote 394: Tennyson, 'Holy Grail,' 53. This thorn, a patriarchal
tree of vast dimensions, was destroyed during the Reformation. But
many of its descendants exist about England (propagated from
cuttings brought by pilgrims), and still retain its unique season
for flowering. In all other respects they are indistinguishable from
common thorns.]

[Footnote 395: See also William of Malmesbury, 'Hist. Regum,' Sec. 20.]

[Footnote 396: See p. 62.]

[Footnote 397: See Introduction to Tennyson's 'Holy Grail' (G.C.
Macaulay), p. xxix.]

[Footnote 398: See Bp. Browne, 'Church before Augustine,' p. 46.]

[Footnote 399: Chaucer, 'Sumpnour's Tale.']

[Footnote 400: Epig. xi. 54: "Claudia coeruleis ... Rufina Britannis

[Footnote 401: See p. 141.]

[Footnote 402: Epig. v. 13.]

[Footnote 403: Tacitus, 'Ann.' xiii. 32.]

[Footnote 404: See p. 69.]

[Footnote 405: Lanciani, 'Pagan and Christian Rome,' p. 110. The house
was bought by Pudens from Aquila and Priscilla, and made a titular
church by Pius I.]

[Footnote 406: Homily 4 on Ezechiel, 6 on St. Luke.]

[Footnote 407: 'Adversus Judaeos,' c. 7.]

[Footnote 408: 'Eccl. Hist.' iv.]

[Footnote 409: Pope from 177-191.]

[Footnote 410: Haddan and Stubbs, i. 25. The 'Catalogus' was composed
early in the 4th century, but the incident is a later insertion.]

[Footnote 411: See p. 225.]

[Footnote 412: He is mentioned by Gildas, along with Julius and Aaron
of Caerleon. These last were already locally canonized in the 9th
century, as the 'Liber Landavensis' testifies; and the sites of their
respective churches could still be traced, according to Bishop Godwin,
in the 17th century.]

[Footnote 413: Eborius of York, Restitutus of London, and Adelfius of
"Colonia Londinensium." The last word is an obvious misreading. Haddan
and Stubbs ('Concilia,' p. 7) suggest _Legionensium_, i.e. Caerleon.]

[Footnote 414: It is more reasonable to assume this than to
imagine, with Mr. French, that these three formed the entire British
episcopate. And there is reason to suppose that York, London, and
Caerleon were metropolitan sees.]

[Footnote 415: Canon x.: De his qui conjuges suas in adulterio
deprehendunt, et iidem sunt fideles, et prohibentur nubere; Placuit
... ne viventibus uxoribus suis, licet adulteris, alias accipiant.
[Haddan, 'Concilia,' p. 7.]]

[Footnote 416: 'Ad Jovian' (A.D. 363).]

[Footnote 417: 'Contra Judaeos' (A.D. 387).]

[Footnote 418: 'Serm. de Util. Lect. Script.']

[Footnote 419: Hom. xxviii., in II. Corinth.]

[Footnote 420: This text seems from very early days to have been a
sort of Christian watchword (being, as it were, an epitome of the
Faith). The Coronation Oath of our English Kings is still, by ancient
precedent, administered on this passage, _i.e._ the Book is opened for
the King's kiss at this point. In mediaeval romance we find the words
considered a charm against ghostly foes; and to this day the text is
in use as a phylactery amongst the peasantry of Ireland.]

[Footnote 421: Ep. xlix. ad Paulinum. These pilgrimages are also
mentioned by Palladius (420) and Theodoret (423).]

[Footnote 422: Ep. lxxxiv. ad Oceanum.]

[Footnote 423: Ep. ci. ad Evang.]

[Footnote 424: Whithern (in Latin _Casa Candida_) probably derived its
name from the white rough-casting with which the dark stone walls of
this church were covered, a strange sight to Pictish eyes, accustomed
only to wooden buildings.]

[Footnote 425: The practice, now so general, of dedicating a church
to a saint unconnected with the locality, was already current at Rome.
But hitherto Britain had retained the more primitive habit, by which
(if a church was associated with any particular name) it was called
after the saint who first built or used it, or, like St. Alban's,
the martyr who suffered on the spot. Besides Whithern, the church of
Canterbury was dedicated about this time to St. Martin, showing the
close ecclesiastical sympathy between Gaul and Britain.]

[Footnote 426: The cave is on the northern shore of the Thuner-See,
near Sundlauenen. Beatus is said to have introduced sailing into the
Oberland by spreading his mantle to the steady breeze which blows
down the lake by night and up it during the day. The name of Justus is
preserved in the Justis-thal near Merlingen.]

[Footnote 427: This name is merely the familiar Welsh _Morgan_, which
signifies _sea-born_, done into Greek.]

[Footnote 428: See Orosius, 'De Arbit. Lib.,' and other authorities in
Haddan and Stubbs.]

[Footnote 429: Sidonius, Ep. ix. 3.]

[Footnote 430: Constantius, the biographer of Germanus, says they were
sent by a Council of Gallican Bishops; but Prosper of Aquitaine (who
was in Rome at the time) declares they were commissioned by Pope
Celestine. Both statements are probably true.]

[Footnote 431: The lives of Germanus, Patrick, and Ninias will be
found in a trustworthy and well-told form in Miss Arnold-Foster's
'Studies in Church Dedication.']

[Footnote 432: See p. 185.]

[Footnote 433: Bede, 'Eccl. Hist.' I. xxvi.]

[Footnote 434: Many existing churches are more or less built of Roman
material. The tower of St. Albans is a notable example, and that of
Stoke-by-Nayland, near Colchester. At Lyminge, near Folkestone, so
much of the church is thus constructed that many antiquaries have
believed it to be a veritable Roman edifice.]

[Footnote 435: See Lanciani, 'Pagan and Christian Rome,' p. 115.]

[Footnote 436: At Frampton, near Dorchester, and Chedworth, near
Cirencester, stones bearing the Sacred Monogram have been found
amongst the ruins of Roman "villas."]

[Footnote 437: The British rite was founded chiefly on the Gallican,
and differed from the Roman in the mode of administering baptism, in
certain minutiae of the Mass, in making Wednesday as well as Friday a
weekly fast, in the shape of the sacerdotal tonsure, in the Kalendar
(especially with regard to the calculation of Easter), and in the
recitation of the Psalter. From Canon XVI. of the Council of Cloveshoo
(749) it appears that the observance of the Rogation Days constituted
another difference.]

[Footnote 438: The Mission of St. Columba the Irishman to Britain was
a direct result of the Mission of St. Patrick the Briton to Ireland.]

[Footnote 439: Magna Charta opens with the words _Ecclesia Anglicana
libera sit_; and the Barons who won it called themselves "The Army of
the Church."]

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