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Early Britain--Roman Britain by Edward Conybeare

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swords of the English mercenaries,[369] has a very true ring
about it. So has also the sequel, which tells how, when the inevitable
quarrel arose between employers and employed, the Saxon leader gave
the signal for the fray by suddenly shouting to his men, _Nimed eure
saxes_[370] (_i.e._ "Draw your knives!"), and massacred the hapless
Britons of Kent almost without resistance.

D. 3.--The date of this first English settlement is doubtful. Bede
fixes it as 449, which agrees with the order of events in Gildas, and
with the notice in Nennius that it was forty years after the end of
Roman rule in Britain [_transacto Romanorum in Britannia imperio_].
But Nennius also declares that this was in the fourth year of
Vortigern, and that his accession coincided with that of the nephew
and successor of Honorius, Valentinian III., son of Galla Placidia,
which would bring in the Saxons 428. It may perhaps be some very
slight confirmation of the later date, that Valentinian is the last
Emperor whose coins have been found in Britain.[371]

D. 4.--Anyhow, the arrival of the successive swarms of Anglo-Saxons
from the mouth of the Elbe, and their hard-won conquest of Eastern
Britain during the 5th century, is certain. The western half of the
island, from Clydesdale southwards, resisted much longer, and, in
spite of its long and straggling frontier, held together for more
than a century. Not till the decisive victory of the Northumbrians at
Chester (A.D. 607), and that of the West Saxons at Beandune (A.D. 614)
was this Cymrian federation finally broken into three fragments, each
destined shortly to disintegrate into an ever-shifting medley of petty
principalities. Yet in each the ideal of national and racial unity
embodied in the word Cymry[372] long survived; and titles borne to
this day by our Royal House, "Duke of Cornwall," "Prince of Wales,"
"Duke of Albany," are the far-off echoes, lingering in each, of the
Roman "Comes Britanniae" and "Dux Britanniarum." The three feathers of
the Principality may in like manner be traced to the _tufa_, or plume,
borne before the supreme authority amongst the Romans of old, as the
like are borne before the Supreme Head of the Roman Church to this
day. And age after age the Cymric harpers sang of the days when
British armies had marched in triumph to Rome, and the Empire had
been won by British princes, till the exploits of their mystical
"Arthur"[373] became the nucleus of a whole cycle of mediaeval
romance, and even, for a while, a real force in practical

D. 5.--And as the Britons never quite forgot their claims on the
Empire, so the Empire never quite forgot its claims on Britain. How
entirely the island was cut off from Rome we can best appreciate by
the references to it in Procopius. This learned author, writing under
Justinian, scarcely 150 years since the day when the land was fully
Roman, conceives of Britannia and Brittia as two widely distant
islands--the one off the coast of Spain, the other off the mouth
of the Rhine.[375] The latter is shared between the Angili,
Phrissones,[376] and Britons, and is divided _from North to
South_[377] by a mighty Wall, beyond which no mortal man can
breathe. Hither are ferried over from Gaul by night the souls of the
departed;[378] the fishermen, whom a mysterious voice summons to the
work, seeing no one, but perceiving their barks to be heavily sunk in
the water, yet accomplishing the voyage with supernatural celerity.

D. 6.--About the same date Belisarius offered to the Goths,[379] in
exchange for their claim to Sicily, which his victories had already
rendered practically nugatory, the Roman claims to Britain, "a much
larger island," which were equally outside the scope of practical
politics for the moment, but might at any favourable opportunity be
once more brought forward. And, when the Western Empire was revived
under Charlemagne, they were in fact brought forward, and actually
submitted to by half the island. The Celtic princes of Scotland, the
Anglians of Northumbria, and the Jutes of Kent alike owned the new
Caesar as their Suzerain. And the claim was only abrogated by the
triumph of the counter-claim first made by Egbert, emphasized by
Edward the Elder, and repeated again and again by our monarchs
their descendants, that the British Crown owes no allegiance to any
potentate on earth, being itself not only Royal, but in the fullest
sense Imperial.[380]


Survivals of Romano-British civilization--Romano-British
Church--Legends of its origin--St. Paul--St. Peter--Joseph
of Arimathaea--Glastonbury--Historical notices--Claudia and
Pudens--Pomponia--Church of St. Pudentiana--Patristic references
to Britain--Tertullian--Origen--Legend of Lucius--Native
Christianity--British Bishops at Councils--Testimony of Chrysostom and

E. 1.--Few questions have been more keenly debated than the extent to
which Roman civilization in Britain survived the English Conquest.
On the one hand we have such high authorities as Professor Freeman
assuring us that our forefathers swept it away as ruthlessly and as
thoroughly as the Saracens in Africa; on the other, those who consider
that little more disturbance was wrought than by the Danish invasions.
The truth probably lies between the two, but much nearer to the former
than the latter. The substitution of an English for the Roman name of
almost every Roman site in the country[381] could scarcely have taken
place had there been anything like continuity in their inhabitants.
Even the Roman roads, as we have seen,[382] received English
designations. We may well believe that most Romano-British
towns shared the fate of Anderida (the one recorded instance of
destruction),[383] and that the word "chester" was only applied to
the Roman _ruins_ by their destroyers.[384] But such places as London,
York, and Lincoln may well have lived on through the first generation
of mere savage onslaught, after which the English gradually began to
tolerate even for themselves a town life.

E. 2.--And though in the country districts the agricultural population
were swept away pitilessly to make room for the invaders,[385] till
the fens of Ely[386] and the caves of Ribblesdale[387] became the
only refuge of the vanquished, yet, undoubtedly, many must have
been retained as slaves, especially amongst the women, to leaven the
language of the conquerors with many a Latin word, and their ferocity
with many a recollection of the gentler Roman past.

E. 3.--And there was one link with that past which not all the
massacres and fire-raisings of the Conquest availed to break. The
Romano-British populations might be slaughtered, the Romano-British
towns destroyed, but the Romano-British Church lived on; the most
precious and most abiding legacy bestowed by Rome upon our island.

E. 4.--The origin of that Church has been assigned by tradition
to directly Apostolic sources. The often-quoted passage from
Theodoret,[388] of St. Paul having "brought help" to "the isles of the
sea" [[Greek: tais en to pelagei diakeimenais nesois]], can scarcely,
however, refer to this island. No classical author ever uses the
word [Greek: pelagos] of the Oceanic waters; and the epithet [Greek:
diakeimenais], coming, as it does, in connection with the Apostle's
preaching in Italy and Spain, seems rather to point to the islands
between these peninsulas--Sardinia, Corsica, and the Balearic Islands.
But the well-known words of St. Clement of Rome,[389] that St. Paul's
missionary journeys extended to "the End of the West" [Greek: to terma
tes duseos], were, as early as the 6th century, held to imply a visit
to Britain (for our island was popularly supposed by the ancients to
lie west of Spain).[390] The lines of Venantius (A.D. 580) even seem
to contain a reference to the tradition that he landed at Portsmouth:

"Transit et Oceanum, vel qua facit insula portum, Quasque
Britannus habet terras atque ultima Thule."

["Yea, through the ocean he passed, where the Port is made by
an island, And through each British realm, and where the world
endeth at Thule."]

E. 5.--The Menology of the Greek Church (6th century) ascribes the
organization of the British Church to the visitation, not of St. Paul,
but of St. Peter in person.

[Greek: O Petros ... ehis Bretannian paraginetai. Entha do
cheirotribosas [_sic_] kai polla ton hakatanomaton hethnon
eis ton tou Christou pistin epispasamenos ... kai pollous
toi logoi photisas tos charitos, ekklaesias te sustesamenos,
episkopous te kai presbuterous kai diakonous
cheipotonhesas, dodekatoi etei tou Kaisaros authis eis Romen

["Peter ... cometh even unto Britain. Yea, there abode he
long, and many of the lawless folk did he draw to the Faith of
Christ ... and many did he enlighten with the Word of Grace.
Churches, too, did he set up, and ordained bishops and priests
and deacons. And in the twelfth year of Caesar[392] came he
again unto Rome."]

The 'Acta Sanctorum' also mentions this tradition (filtered through
Simeon Metaphrastes), and adds that St. Peter was in Britain during
Boadicea's rebellion, when he incurred great danger.

E. 6--The 'Synopsis Apostolorum,' ascribed to Dorotheus (A.D. 180),
but really a 6th-century compilation, gives us yet another Apostolic
preacher, St. Simon Zelotes. This is probably due to a mere confusion
between [Greek: Mabritania] [Mauretania] and [Greek: Bretannia]. But
it is impossible to deny that the Princes of the Apostles _may_
both have visited Britain, nor indeed is there anything essentially
improbable in their doing so. We know that Britain was an object of
special interest at Rome during the period of the Conquest, and it
would be quite likely that the idea of simultaneously conquering
this new Roman dominion for Christ should suggest itself to the two
Apostles so specially connected with the Roman Church.[393]

E. 7.--But while we may _possibly_ accept this legend, it is otherwise
with the famous and beautiful story which ascribes the foundation of
our earliest church at Glastonbury to the pilgrimage of St. Joseph of
Arimathaea, whose staff, while he rested on Weary-all Hill, took root,
and became the famous winter thorn, which

"Blossoms at Christmas, mindful of our Lord,"[394]

and who, accordingly, set up, hard by, a little church of wattle to be
the centre of local Christianity.

E. 8.--Such was the tale which accounted for the fact that this humble
edifice developed into the stateliest sanctuary of all Britain. We
first find it, in its final shape, in Geoffrey of Monmouth (1150);
but already in the 10th century the special sanctity of the shrine was
ascribed to a supernatural origin,[395] as a contemporary Life of St.
Dunstan assures us; and it is declared, in an undisputed Charter of
Edgar, to be "the first church in the Kingdom built by the disciples
of Christ." But no earlier reference is known; for the passages
cited from Gildas and Melkinus are quite untrustworthy. So striking a
phenomenon as the winter thorn would be certain to become an object
of heathen devotion;[396] and, as usual, the early preachers would
Christianize the local cult, as they Christianized the Druidical
figment of a Holy Cup (perhaps also local in its origin), into the
sublime mysticism of the Sangreal legend, connected likewise with
Joseph of Arimathaea.[397]

E. 9.--That the original church of Glaston was really of wattle
is more than probable, for the remains of British buildings thus
constructed have been found abundantly in the neighbouring peat. The
Arimathaean theory of its consecration became so generally accepted
that at the Council of Constance (1419) precedence was actually
accorded to our Bishops as representing the senior Church of
Christendom. But the oldest variant of the legend says nothing about
Arimathaea, but speaks only of an undetermined "Joseph" as the leader
[_decurio_][398] of twelve missionary comrades who with him settled
down at Glastonbury. And this may well be true. Such bands (as we
see in the Life of Columba) were the regular system in Celtic mission
work, and survived in that of the Preaching Friars:

"For thirteen is a Covent, as I guess."[399]

E. 10.--And though such high authorities as Mr. Haddan have come to
the conclusion that Christianity in Britain was confined to a small
minority even amongst the Roman inhabitants of the island, and almost
vanished with them, yet the catena of references to British converts
can scarcely be thus set aside. They begin in Apostolic times and
in special connection with St. Paul. Martial tells us of a British
princess named Claudia Rufina[400] (very probably the daughter of that
Claudius Cogidubnus whom we meet in Tacitus as at once a British
King and an Imperial Legate),[2] whose beauty and wit made no little
sensation in Rome; whither she had doubtless been sent at once for
education and as a hostage for her father's fidelity. And one of
the most beautiful of his Epigrams speaks of the marriage of this
foreigner to a Roman of high family named Pudens, belonging to the
Gens Aemilia (of which the Pauline family formed a part):

"Claudia, Rufe, meo nubet peregrina Pudenti,
Macte esto taedis, O Hymenaee, suis.
Diligat illa senem quondam; sed et ipsa marito,
Tunc quoque cum fuerit, non videatur anus."[401]

[To RUFUS. Claudia, from far-off climes, my Pudens weds: With
choicest bliss, O Hymen, crown their heads! May she still love
her spouse when gray and old, He in her age unfaded charms

It may have been in consequence of this marriage that Pudens joined
with Claudius Cogidubnus in setting up the Imperial Temple at
Chichester.[402] And the fact that Claudia was an adopted member of
the Rufine family shows that she was connected with the Gens Pomponia
to which this family belonged.

E. 11.--Now Aulus Plautius, the conqueror of Britain, had married
a Pomponia, who in A.D. 57 was accused of practising an illicit
religion, and, though pronounced guiltless by her husband (to whose
domestic tribunal she was left, as Roman Law permitted), passed
the rest of her life in retirement.[403] When we read of an illicit
religion in connection with Britain, our first thought is, naturally,
that Druidism is intended.[404] But there are strong reasons for
supposing that Pomponia was actually a Christian. The names of her
family are found in one of the earliest Christian catacombs in Rome,
that of Calixtus; and that Christianity had its converts in very
high quarters we know from the case of Clemens and Domitilla, closely
related to the Imperial throne.

E. 12.--Turning next to St. Paul's Second Epistle to Timothy, we find,
in close connection, the names of Pudens and Claudia (along with
that of the future Pope Linus) amongst the salutations from Roman
Christians. And recent excavations have established the fact that the
house of Pudens was used for Christian worship at this date, and is
now represented by the church known as St. Pudentiana.[405] That this
should have been so proves that this Pudens was no slave going under
his master's name (as was sometimes done), but a man of good position
in Rome. Short of actual proof it would be hard to imagine a series
of evidences more morally convincing that the Pudens and Claudia of
Martial are the Pudens and Claudia of St. Paul, and that they, as well
as Pomponia, were Christians. Whether, then, St. Paul did or did
not actually visit Britain, the earliest British Christianity is, at
least, closely connected with his name.

E. 13.--Neither legendary nor historical sources tell us of any
further development of British Christianity till the latter days of
the 2nd century. Then, however, it had become sufficiently widespread
to furnish a common-place for ecclesiastical declamation on
the all-conquering influence of the Gospel. Both Tertullian and
Origen[406] thus use it. The former numbers in his catalogue of
believing countries even the districts of Britain beyond the Roman
pale, _Britannorum inaccessa Romanis loca, Christo vero subdita_[407].
And in this lies the interest of his reference, as pointing to the
native rather than the Roman element being the predominant factor
in the British Church. For just at this period comes in the legend
preserved by Bede,[408] that a mission was sent to Britain by Pope
Eleutherius[409] in response to an appeal from "Lucius Britanniae
Rex." The story, which Bede probably got from the 'Catalogus
Pontificum,'[410] may be apocryphal; but it would never have been
invented had British Christianity been found merely or mainly in the
Roman veneer of the population. Modern criticism finds in it this
kernel of truth, that the persecution which gave the Gallican Church
the martyrs of Lyons, also sent her scattered refugees as missionaries
into the less dangerous regions of Britain;--those remoter parts, in
especial, where even the long arm of the Imperial Government could not
reach them.

E. 14.--The Picts, however, as a nation, remained savage heathens even
to the 7th century, and the bulk of our Christian population must
have been within the Roman pale; but little vexed, it would seem,
by persecution, till it came into conflict with the thorough-going
Imperialism of Diocletian.[411] Its martyrs were then numbered,
according to Gildas, by thousands, according to Bede by hundreds; and
their chief, St. Alban, at least, is a fairly established historical
entity.[412] Nor is there any reason to doubt that after Constantine
South Britain was as fully Christian as any country in Europe. In
the earliest days of his reign (A.D. 314) we find three bishops,[413]
together with a priest and a deacon, representing[414] the British
Church at the Council of Arles (which, amongst other things, condemned
the marriage of the "innocent divorcee"[415]). And the same number
figure in the Council of Ariminum (360), as the only prelates (out of
the 400) who deigned to accept from the Emperor the expenses of their
journey and attendance.

E. 15.--This Council was called by Constantius II. in the semi-Arian
interest, and not allowed to break up till after repudiating the
Nicene formula. But the lapse was only for a moment. Before the
decade was out Athanasius could write of Britain as notoriously
orthodox,[416] and before the century closes we have frequent
references to our island as a fully Christian and Catholic land.
Chrysostom speaks of its churches and its altars and "the power of
the Word" in its pulpits,[417] of its diligent study of Scripture and
Catholic doctrine,[418] of its acceptance of Catholic discipline,[419]
of its use of Catholic formulae: "Whithersoever thou goest," he says,
"throughout the whole world, be it to India, to Africa, or to Britain,
thou wilt find _In the beginning was the Word_."[420] Jerome, in turn,
tells of British pilgrimages to Jerusalem[421] and to Rome;[422] and,
in his famous passage on the world-wide Communion of the Roman See,
mentions Britain by name: "Nec altera Romanae Urbis Ecclesia, altera
totius orbis existimanda est. Et Galliae, et Britanniae, et Africa, et
Persis, et Oriens, et Indio, et omnes barbarae nationes, unum Christum
adorant, unam observant regulam veritatis."[423]

["Neither is the Church of the City of Rome to be held one,
and that of the whole world another. Both Gaul and Britain
and Africa and Persia and the East and India, and all the
barbarian nations, adore one Christ, observe one Rule of


British Missionaries--Ninias--Patrick--Beatus--Heresiarchs--Pelagius
Fastidius--Pelagianism stamped out by Germanus--The Alleluia
Battle--Romano-British churches--Why so seldom found--Conclusion.

F. 1.--The fruits of all this vigorous Christian life soon showed
themselves in the Church of Britain by the evolution of noteworthy
individual Christians. First in order comes Ninias, the Apostle of the
Southern Picts, commissioned to the work, after years of training at
Rome, by Pope Siricius (A.D. 394), and fired by the example of St.
Martin, the great prelate of Gaul. To this saint (or, to speak more
exactly, under his invocation) Ninias, on hearing of his death in A.D.
400, dedicated his newly-built church at Whithern[424] in Galloway,
the earliest recorded example of this kind of dedication in
Britain.[425] Galloway may have been the native home of Ninias, and
was certainly the head-quarters of his ministry.

F. 2.--The work of Ninias amongst the Picts was followed in the next
generation by the more abiding work of St. Patrick amongst the Scots
of Ireland. Nay, even the Continent was indebted to British piety;
though few British visitors to the Swiss Oberland remember that the
Christianity they see around them is due to the zeal of a British
Mission. Yet there seems no solid reason for doubting that so it is.
Somewhere about the time of St. Patrick, two British priests, Beatus
and Justus, entered the district by the Brunig Pass, and set up their
first church at Einigen, near Thun. There Justus abode as the settled
Missioner of the neighbourhood, while Beatus made his home in the
ivy-clad cave above the lake which still bears his name,[426] sailing
up and down with the Gospel message, and evangelizing the valleys
and uplands now so familiar to his fellow-countrymen--Grindelwald,
Lauterbrunnen, Muerren, Kandersteg.

F. 3.--And while the light of the Gospel was thus spreading on every
side from our land, Britain was also becoming all too famous as the
nurse of error. The British Pelagius,[427] who erred concerning
the doctrine of free-will, grew to be a heresiarch of the first
order;[428] and his follower Fastidius, or Faustus, the saintly Abbot
of Lerins in the Hyeres, the friend of Sidonius Apollinaris,[429] was,
in his day, only less renowned. He asserted the materiality of the
soul. Both were able writers; and Pelagius was the first to adopt the
plan of promulgating his heresies not as his own, but as the tenets of
supposititious individuals of his acquaintance.

F. 4.--Pelagianism spread so widely in Britain that the Catholics
implored for aid from over-sea. St. Germanus of Auxerre, and St.
Lupus, Bishop of Troyes (whose sanctity had disarmed the ferocity even
of Attila), came[430] accordingly (in 429) and vindicated the faith in
a synod held at Verulam so successfully that the neighbouring shrine
of St. Alban was the scene of a special service of thanksgiving. In
a second Mission, fifteen years later, Germanus set the seal to his
work, stamping out throughout all the land both this new heresy and
such remains of heathenism as were still to be found in Southern
Britain. While thus engaged on the Border he found his work endangered
by a raiding host of Picts or Saxons, or both. The Saint, who had been
a military chieftain in his youth, promptly took the field at the head
of his flock, many of whom were but newly baptized. It was Easter Eve,
and he took advantage of the sacred ceremonies of that holy season,
which were then actually performed by night. From the New Fire, the
"Lumen Christi," was kindled a line of beacons along the Christian
lines, and when Germanus intoned the threefold Easter Alleluia,
the familiar strain was echoed from lip to lip throughout the host.
Stricken with panic at the sudden outburst of light and song, the
enemy, without a blow, broke and fled.[431]

F. 5.--This story, as told by Constantius, and confirmed by both
Nennius and Bede, incidentally furnishes us with something of a key
to the main difficulty in accepting the widely-spread Romano-British
Christianity to which the foregoing citations testify. What, it is
asked, has become of all the Romano-British churches? Why are no
traces of them found amongst the abundant Roman remains all over the
land? That they were the special objects of destruction at the Saxon
invasion we learn from Gildas. But this does not account for their
very foundations having disappeared; yet at Silchester[432] alone have
modern excavations unearthed any even approximately certain example of
them. Where are all the rest?

F. 6.--The question is partly answered when we read that the soldiers
of Germanus had erected in their camp a church of wattle, and that
such was the usual material of which, even as late as 446, British
churches were built (as at Glastonbury). Seldom indeed would such
leave any trace behind them; and thus the country churches of Roman
Britain would be sought in vain by excavators. In the towns, however,
stone or brick would assuredly be used, and to account for the paucity
of ecclesiastical ruins three answers may be suggested.

F. 7.--First, the number of continuously unoccupied Romano-British
cities is very small indeed. Except at Silchester, Anderida, and
Uriconium, almost every one has become an English town. But when this
took place early in the English settlement of the land, the ruins of
the Romano-British churches would still be clearly traceable at the
conversion of the English, and would be rebuilt (as St. Martin's at
Canterbury was in all probability rebuilt)[433] for the use of English
Christianity, the old material[434] being worked up into the new
edifices. It is probable that many of our churches thus stand on the
very spot where the Romano-British churches stood of old. But this
very fact would obliterate the remains of these churches.

F. 8.--Secondly, it is very possible that many of the heathen temples
may, after the edict of Theodosius (A.D. 392), have been turned into
churches (like the Pantheon at Rome), so that _their_ remains may mark
ecclesiastical sites. There are reasons for believing that in various
places, such as St. Paul's, London, St. Peter's, Cambridge, and St.
Mary's, Ribchester, Christian worship did actually thus succeed Pagan
on the same site.

F. 9.--Thirdly, as Lanciani points out, the earliest Christian
churches were simply the ordinary dwelling-houses of such wealthier
converts as were willing to permit meetings for worship beneath their
roof, which in time became formally consecrated to that purpose. Such
a dwelling-house usually consisted of an oblong central hall, with
a pillared colonnade, opening into a roofed cloister or peristyle on
either side, at one end into a smaller guest-room [_tablinum_], at the
other into the porch of entry. The whole was arranged thus:

Small Guest Room. P P e e r r i Central Hall, i s with pillars
s t on each side t y (often roofless). y l l e e Porch of

It will be readily seen that we have here a building on the lines of
an ordinary church. The small original congregation would meet, like
other guests, in the reception-room. As numbers increased, the hall
and adjoining cloisters would have to be used (the former being roofed
in); the reception-room being reserved for the most honoured members,
and ultimately becoming the chancel of a fully-developed church, with
nave and aisles complete.[435] It _may_ be, therefore, that some of
the Roman villas found in Britain were really churches.[436]

F. 10.--This, however, is a less probable explanation of the absence
of ecclesiastical remains; and the large majority of Romano-British
church sites are, as I believe, still in actual use amongst us for
their original purpose. And it may be considered as fairly proved,
that before Britain was cut off from the Empire the Romano-British
Church had a rite[437] and a vigorous corporate life of its own, which
the wave of heathen invasion could not wholly submerge. It lived on,
shattered, perhaps, and disorganized, but not utterly crushed, to
be strengthened in due time by a closer union with its parent stem,
through the Mission of Augustine, to feel the reflex glow of its own
missionary efforts in the fervour of Columba and his followers,[438]
and, finally, to form an integral part of that Ecclesia Anglicana
whose influence knit our country into one, and inspired the Great
Charter of our constitutional liberties.[439] Her faith and her
freedom are the abiding debt which Britain owes to her connection with


Aaron of Caerleon, 259
Addeomarus, 130
Adder-beads, 71
Adelfius, 259
Adminius, 126, 128, 130
Aetius, 245
Agricola, 156, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165
Agriculture, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 191, 231
Agrippina, 140, 149, 150
Akeman Street, 166
Alaric, 237, 243
Alban, St., 227, 259
Albany, 247
Albinus, 200
Albion, 32
Alexander Severus, 71
Allectus, 220, 223, 224, 231
Alleluia Battle, 264
Alpine dogs, 191
Amber, 48, 49
Ambleteuse, 86, 95
Amboglanna, 174, 204
Aminus. _See_ Adminius
Amphitheatres, 185, 224
Ancalites, 55, 120
Ancyran Tablet, 128
Anderida, 56, 240, 250, 265
Anglesey, 154, 161
Antedrigus, 131, 146
Antonines, 213
Antoninus Pius, 171, 197, 214
Aquae Sulis, 183. _See_ Bath
Aquila, 257
Arianism, 230
Arms, 49, 178
Army of Britain, 159, 160, 199, 200, 218, 228, 230, 235, 242
Army of Church, 268
Arthur, 247
Arthur's Well, 205
Asclepiodotus, 224
Ash-pits, 177, 186
Asturians, 204, 205
Atrebates, 55, 56, 82, 87, 125, 127, 142
Attacotti, 46, 194, 233
Augusta, 180, 233
Augustine, 243
Augustus, 128, 129
Avebury, 30

Bards, 66
Barham Down, 110, 114
Barns, British, 40
Barrows, 29, 60
Basilicas, 185
Baskets, 43
Basques, 51
Bath, 60, 170, 174, 183
Battle Bridge, 157
Beads, 48, 128
Beatus, St., 262
Bee-keeping, 42
Beer, 42
Belgae, 52, 57, 61
Belisarius, 249
Bericus. _See_ Vericus
Bibroci, 55, 56, 120
Birdoswald, 174, 203, 204
Bishops, British, 230, 255, 259
Boadicea, 152, 157, 158, 253
Borcovicus, 205
Boulogne, 86, 220, 223, 233
Breeches, 47
Brigantes, 49, 57, 146, 148, 160, 197, 206
Brige, 175
Britain, "Upper" and "Lower," 195
Britannia coins, 197
Britannia I. and II., 59, 225
Britannicus, 136, 140, 199
British coins, 38, 125, 126, 127
" Lion, 126, 210 221
Britons, Origin of, 32
Brittany, 235
Bronze, 30, 33
Brownies, 29
Brutus, 151

Cadiz, 34
Cadwallon. _See_ Cassivellaunus
Caer Caradoc, 148
Caergwent, 184
Caerleon, 150, 166, 179, 182, 195, 239, 259
Caer Segent, 56
Caesar, Julius:
Earlier career, 73-83
First invasion, 83-101
Second invasion, 102-123
Caesar (as title), 222
Caesar's horse, 107
Caledonians, 163, 194, 201, 202, 213, 232
Caligula, 126, 130
Calleva, 56, 172, etc. _See_ Silchester
Cambridge, 171, 175, 178, 266
Camelodune, 127, 135, 147, 152, 154, 176
Cangi, 146
Cannibalism, 46, 233
Canterbury, 265
Caracalla, 171, 201, 212-214
Caractacus (Caradoc, Caratac), 127, 134, 137, 147, 148, 149
Carausius, 180, 220, 221, 245
Carlisle, 175, 204
Cartismandua, 148, 150, 160
Cassi, 54, 55, 120
Cassiterides, 34
Cassivellaunus (Caswallon), 109, 113-122, 127
Cateuchlani (Cattivellauni), 55, 58, 59, 109, 121, 127
Cattle, British, 45
Celestine, Pope, 263
Celtic types, 50
Cerealis, 160
Cerne Abbas, 65
Chariots, British, 50, 92, 99, 115, 129, 134, 163
Charnwood, 190
Chedworth, 58, 267
Chester, 162, 167, 174, 179, 182, 195, 247, 250
"Chester" (suffix), 175, 183, 250
Chesters. _See_ Cilurnum
Chichester, 141
Chives, 205
Christianity, British, 225-230, 251-268
Churches, British, 185, 264-267
Cicero, 36, 75, 77, 104-106, 122, 151
Cilurnum, 204, 205, 211
Cirencester, 225. _See_ Corinium
Citizenship, Roman, 140, 141, 213, 214
Clans, British, 52, 55-59
Claudia Rufina, 141, 256, 257
Claudius, 131, 134-143, 147, 149, 150
Clement, St., 252
Climate, British, 40, 185
Cogidubnus, 141, 256
Cohorts, 86, 114, 239
Coins, British, 38, 54, 125-127
" Romano-British, 139, 177, 197, 221, 246
Colchester (Colonia), 167, 171, 175, 176, 222. _See_ Camelodune
Colonies, 147, 152-154, 175
Columba, 71, 72, 268
Comitatenses, 239
Commius, 54, 83, 87, 94, 101, 121, 124-127, 130
Commodus, 199, 200
Constans, 230
Constantine I., 222, 227-229
" III., 242
Constantius I., 180, 222-224, 227-229
Constantius II., 231, 260
Cony Castle, 30
Coracles, 37, 245
Corinium 179, 189-191. _See_ Cirencester
Corn-growing, 40, 191, 231
Coronation Oath, 260
Council of Ariminum, 230, 260
" Arles, 230, 259
" Cloveshoo, 267
" Constance, 255
" Nice, 230
Count of Britain, 240, 243, 247
" the Saxon Shore, 220, 240, 243
Counts of the Empire, 240
Coway Stakes, 119
Cromlechs, 29
Cymbeline (Cunobelin), 54, 126-128
Cymry, 247

Damnonii, 57, 58, 61, 80, 247
Deal, 89, 108
Decangi, 146
Decentius, 231
Decurions, 182
Dedication of churches, 261
Dene Holes, 41
"Dioceses," 222
Diocletian, 59, 71, 219, 221, 222, 224-227
Divitiacus, 82, 109
Divorce, 259
"Divus," 123, 227
Dobuni, 57, 132
Dogs, British, 190
Dol, 235
Dolmens, 29
Domestic animals, 45, 46
Domitian, 163
Domitilla, 257
Dorchester, 61
Dover, 87
Dragon standard, 244
"Druidesses," 71, 154, 155
Druidism, 62-72
Duke of the Britains, 239, 243, 247
Duke of the Britons, 245
Duns, 60
Durotriges, 57, 61

Eagles, Legionary, 90, 91, 228
Eboracum, 174
Eborius, 259
Elephants, 107, 119, 134
Eleutherius, 258
Emeriti, 214
English, 232, 245, 246
Epping Forest, 47, 190
Equinoctial hours, 39, 40
Erinus Hispanicus, 204
Ermine Street, 166-170
Exports, British, 128, 129

Fastidius, Faustus, 263
Flavians, 133
Fleam Dyke, 144, 145
Fleet, British, 182, 221
Forests, 47, 56-58, 189
Fosse Way, 166, 167, 169
Frampton, 267
Franks, 219, 224, 237
Frisians, 200, 220, 248
Fruit-trees, 186

Gael, 32, 50
Galerius, 222, 227, 228
Galgacus, 163
Galloway, 46, 194, 233, 248, 261
Gates of London, 179
Geese, 46
Gelt, R., 210
Genuini, 197
Germanus, 263-265
Gerontius (Geraint), 242
Geta, 201, 213
Gladiators, 136, 137, 224
Glass, 48, 129
Glastonbury, 27, 57, 254, 255
Glazed ware, 188
Gnossus, 37
Gog-Magog Hills, 219
Gold, 30, 39, 48
Goths, 249
Grindelwald, 262
Gulf Stream, 40

Hadrian, 181, 194-197
Hair-dye, 48, 129
Handicrafts, 187, 188
Hardway, 36
Hasta Pura, 138
Havre, 223
Helena, 222, 227
"Hengist and Horsa," 245
Heretics, 263
Honorius, 242, 243
Horseshoes, 177
Hounds, 190
Hugh, St., 185
Huntingdon, 171
Hypocausts, 189, 205

Iberians, 51
Iceni, 54, 57, 58, 59, 120, 130, 142-146, 152, 157, 170
Icknield Street, 144, 145, 167, 170, 186
Ictis, 35
Ierne, 32, 234, 236. _See_ Ireland
Immanuentius, 109
Imperial visits, 134, 194, 201, 223, 230
Ireland, 162, 232, 262, 268. _See_ Ierne
Iron, 33, 50
Itinerary, 171, 172, 173, 175

Jadite, 29
Jerome, St., 46, 191, 233, 260
Jerusalem, 160, 181, 260
Joseph of Arimathaea, 254
Julia Domna, 209, 210, 213
" Lex, 192, 243
Julian, 191, 225, 231, 232
Julianus, 200
Julius Caesar. _See_ Caesar
" Classicianus, 158
" Firmicus, 230
" of Caerleon, 259
Juridicus Britanniae, 181
Justinian, 181, 248
Justus, 262

Kalendar of Druids, 64
"Keels," Saxon, 221, 245
Kent, 55, 121, 127, 142, 247-249
Kilns, 187
King's Cross, 157
Koridwen, 155

Labarum, 188, 228, 229, 267
Labienus, 107, 122, 123
Lambeth, 168
Lead-mining, 39, 146, 188
Legates, 141, 197, 200, 232
Legion II., 133, 150, 157, 174, 182, 239
" VI., 174, 182, 239
" VII., 99
" IX., 133, 154, 157, 178, 181, 194
" X., 91, 99
" XIV., 133, 150, 156, 160
" XX., 133, 150, 157, 160, 174, 182, 234, 237, 240
Legionary feeling, 91, 157
Legions, Roman, 86, 90, 91, 231, 238, 239
Leicester, 183
Libelli, 226
Liber Landavensis, 259
Licinius, 228
Ligurians, 51
Lincoln, 171, 175, 185, 250, 259
Linus, 257
Lion, British, 126, 210, 221
Loddon, R., 134
Logris, 51
Lollius Urbicus, 197, 198
London, 60, 117, 118, 122, 154, 156, 157, 166, 168, 169, 171,
179-183, 224, 233, 241, 250, 259
Lupicinus, 232
Lupus, 263
Lyminge, 265
Lyons, 200, 258

Magna, 208
Magnentius, 230, 231
Maiden Castle, 61
" Way, 169
Mandubratius, 109, 122, 127
Mansions, 189
Manures, 40
Marcus Aurelius, 215
Marseilles, 35, 38
Martial, 43, 141, 255-257
Martin, St., 261, 262
Martyrs, British, 227, 259
Mastiffs, 190
Mater Deum, 209, 210
Maxentius, 228
Maximian, 222, 225, 227, 228
Maximin, 228
Maximus, 235
Mead, 42
Meatae, 201, 202, 232
Mendips, 39, 188
Mile Castles, 195, 204
Milestones, 180
Millstones, 44
Missionaries, British, 261, 262
Mistletoe, 67, 68
Mithraism, 207, 208, 228
Mona, 154, 155, 161
Money-box, 184
Morgan, 263
Mutter-recht, 46

Narcissus, 131
Needwood, 58, 190
Nennius, 171-173, 244-247
Neolithic Age, 28-30
Nero, 151, 158, 159
Nervii, 54
Newcastle, 204
Ninias, 261, 262, 264
North Tyne R., 211
Notitia, 171, 173, 174, 237-242

Oberland, 262
Ocean, 33, 85, 97, 122, 131, 236, 238, 256
Ogre, 29
"Old England's Hole," 111
Optio, 211
Ordovices, 57, 147, 161
Ostorius, 142-149
Otho, 159, 160

Paganism suppressed, 230
Palaeolithic period, 26-28
Pansa, 198
Pantheon, Druidic, 62, 64
Parisii, 54, 58, 82
Parjetting, 187
Patrick, St., 71, 262
Paul, St., 251-257
Pax Romana, 165, 178, 187
Pearls, British, 128
Peel Crag, 203
Pelagius, 263
Perennis, 199
Pertinax, 200
Peter, St., 252, 253
Petronius, 158
Phoenicians, 33-37
Picts, 193, 207, 232-236, 245, 259, 261, 264
Pilgrims, British, 260
Pilgrims' Way, 36
Pillars, multiple, 185
Pilum, 158
Pirates, 219-221, 235, 245
Plautius, 131, 134, 137, 147, 256
Plough, British, 40
Pomponia, 256
Population, 59, 178
Portsmouth Harbour, 132, 240, 252
Port Way, 186
Posidonius, 36, 82
Posting, 189, 227
Postumus, 218
Pottery, 30, 187
Praetorium, 181
Prasutagus, 152
Precedents, British, 182
Prefectures, 221
Prince of Wales, 247
Priscilla, 257
Priscus, 159
Probus, 192, 218
Pro-consuls, 74, 77, 142, 198
Procurator of Britain, 152, 153, 158
Prosper, 263
Provinces, 59, 74, 77, 195, 198, 222, 225, 230, 240
Ptolemy, 171-175
Pudens, 141, 256, 257
Pytheas, 34-36, 38-40, 42, 45, 49, 51, 55

Querns, 44
Quiberon, Battle off, 81
Quintus Cicero, 104, 105, 106

Radagaisus, 237
Rampart of Agricola, 163, 194, 198, 201, 234
Rationalis Britanniarum, 241
Regni, 57, 142
Ribchester, 176, 266
Richborough, 88, 108, 121, 175, 223, 233, 235, 239
Rings, 186
Rite, British, 267
River-bed men, 26, 27
Rogation Days, 267
Roman citizenship, 140, 141, 213, 214
Roman roads, 117, 166-171
Royal roads, 167
Rycknield Street, 166, 170

Saexe, 219, 246
Sallustius Lucullus, 164
Samian pottery, 188
"Sarsen," 30, 31
Sarum, 175
Saturnalia, 132
Saxons, 193, 206, 219, 233, 234, 236, 238, 244, 245
_See_ English
Saxon Shore, 219
Scotch dogs, 191
Scots, 232-238, 246, 262
Scythed chariots, 100
Seers, 66
Segontium, 127, 172, 228
Selwood, 38, 190
Seneca, 140, 152
Settle, 251
Severus, 200-203, 209-213, 231
Sherwood, 58, 190
Shields, British, 49, 50
" Roman, 178
Ships, British, 37, 80
" Venetian, 79, 80
" Caesar's, 81, 103
" Scotch, 232
" Saxon, 245
Silchester, 56, 162, 175,179, 183-188, 264, 265
Silurians, 51, 57, 146-150, 161
Silver, 39, 186
Simon Magus, 71
" Zelotes, 253
"Snake's Egg," 70, 71
South Foreland, 89
Spain, 77, 103, 155, 200, 222, 242
Squads, 239
Squared word, 189
Stamford, Battle of, 232, 246
Staters, 38
"Stations," 202, 203
Stilicho, 235-237, 242
Stoke-by-Nayland, 265
Stonehenge, 30, 31
"Streets," 169
Suetonius Paulinus, 154-158, 161
Sul, 183
Sussex, 50, 128, 142
Sylla, 75
Syracuse, 219

Tabulae Missionis, 214
Tartan, 47
Tasciovan, 54, 127, 128, 130, 156
Tattooing, 48
Taxation, 192
Thames, 56, 117-119, 122, 134
Thanet, 36, 108, 245
Theatres, 153, 184
Theodosius the Elder, 233, 234
" " Great, 230, 235, 242, 268
Thimbles, Roman, 177
Tides, 88, 93, 96, 108, 124, 233
Tin, 33-38. 128
Tincommius, 54, 125, 128
Titus, 133, 137
Togodumnus, 134, 147
Tonsure, Druidic, 72
Treasury, 180, 241
Trebatius, 104
Trees, 47
Tribal boundaries, 56-58
Tribune, 114, 138, 209, 239
Trident, 49
Trinobantes, 55, 57, 59, 109, 122, 127
Triumphs, 135, 149
Tufa, 244, 247
Turf wall, 197, 198, 206
Tyrants, 53, 54, 247

"Ugrians," 29-31, 62
Ulpius Marcellus, 199, 211
Ulysses, 64, 248
Uriconium, 150, 179, 184
Ushant, 155
Uther, 244

Valens, 234
Valentia, 225, 234, 237, 240
Valentinian I., 230, 233
" II., 235
" III., 177, 246
Vallum, 205-207, 233
Vandals, 219, 237
Varus, 130
Veneti, 79-81
Verica, 125
Vericus, 130, 142, 143, 152
Verulam, 120, 127, 156, 157, 168, 227, 263
Vespasian, 133, 137, 159
Vexillatio, 210
Via Devana, 166, 167
Vicar of Britain, 240, 243
Victorinus, 218
Villages, 27, 44, 45, 129
Villas, 188, 189, 267
Vine-growing, 192
Visi-goths, 243
Volisius, 54
Vortigern, 245

Wagons, 36
Wall (of Hadrian), 174, 195, 196, 202-212
Wall (of London, etc.), 179
Water-supply, 60, 162, 211
Watling Street, 118, 166-170
Wattle churches, 254, 255, 265
Weald, 57, 189
Wells, 186
West Saxons, 248
Whitherne, 261, 262
Wight, I. of, 36, 133, 189, 224
Winchester, 175
Winter thorn, 254


[Footnote 1: Published by the Record Office, 1848.]

[Footnote 2: Published by the Royal Academy of Berlin. Vol. VII.
contains the Romano-British Inscriptions.]

[Footnote 3: His later books only survive in the epitome of
Xiphilinus, a Byzantine writer of the 13th century.]

[Footnote 4: See p. 171.]

[Footnote 5: See p. 256.]

[Footnote 6: In the British (?) village near Glastonbury the bases of
shed antlers are found hafted for mallets.]

[Footnote 7: This name is simply given for archaeological convenience,
to indicate that these aborigines were non-Aryan, and perhaps of
Turanian affinity.]

[Footnote 8: Skeat, however, traces "ogre" (the Spanish "ogro") to the
Latin _Orcus_.]

[Footnote 9: The latest excavations (1902) prove Stonehenge to be
a Neolithic erection. No metal was found, but quantities of flint
implements, broken in the arduous task of dressing the great Sarsen
monoliths. The process seems to have been that still used for granite,
viz. to cut parallel channels on the rough surface, and then break and
rub down the ridges between. This was done by the use of conical lumps
of Sarsen stone, weighing from 20 to 60 lbs., several of which were
discovered bearing traces of usage, both in pounding and rubbing. The
monoliths examined were found to be thus tooled accurately down to the
very bottom, 8 or 9 feet below ground. At Avebury the stones are not

[Footnote 10: _Sarsen_ is the same word as _Saracen_, which in
mediaeval English simply means _foreign_ (though originally derived
from the Arabic _sharq_ = Eastern). Whence the stones came is still
disputed. They _may_ have been boulders deposited in the district by
the ice-drift of the Glacial Epoch.]

[Footnote 11: Professor Rhys assigns 600 B.C. as the approximate date
of the first Gadhelic arrivals, and 200 B.C. as that of the first

[Footnote 12: Whether or no this word is (as some authorities hold)
derived from the Welsh _Prutinach_ (=Picts) rather than from the
Brythons, it must have reached Aristotle through Brythonic channels,
for the Gadhelic form is _Cruitanach_.]

[Footnote 13: A certain amount of British folk-lore was brought
back to Greece, according to Plutarch ('De defect. orac.' 2), by
the geographer Demetrias of Tarsus about this time. He refers to the
cavern of sleeping heroes, so familiar in our mediaeval legends.]

[Footnote 14: The word is said to be derived from the root _kash_,
"shine." Some authorities, however, maintain that it came into
Sanscrit from the Greek.]

[Footnote 15: 'Hist.' III. 112.]

[Footnote 16: See p. 48.]

[Footnote 17: For a full notice of Pytheas see Elton, 'Origins of
English History,' pp. 13-75. See also Tozer's 'Ancient Geography,'
chap. viii.]

[Footnote 18: Posidonius of Rhodes, the tutor of Cicero, visited
Britain about 100 B.C., and wrote a History of his travels in fifty
volumes, only known to us by extracts in Strabo (iii. 217, iv. 287,
vii. 293), Diodorus Siculus (v. 28, 30), Athenaeus, and others. See
Bake's 'Posidonius' (Leyden, 1810).]

[Footnote 19: The ingots of bronze found in the recent [1900]
excavations at Gnossus, in Crete, which date approximately from
2000 B.C., are of this shape. Presumably the Britons learnt it from
Phoenician sources.]

[Footnote 20: _Saxon_ coracles are spoken of even in the 5th century
A.D. See p. 245.]

[Footnote 21: 'Coins of the Ancient Britons,' p. 24.]

[Footnote 22: This familiar feature of our climate is often touched on
by classical authors. Minucius Felix (A.D. 210) is observant enough
to connect it with our warm seas, "its compensation," due to the Gulf

[Footnote 23: 'Nat. Hist.' xviii. 18.]

[Footnote 24: _Ibid_. xvii. 4.]

[Footnote 25: Solinus (A.D. 80) adds that bees, like snakes, were
unknown in Ireland, and states that bees will even desert a hive if
Irish earth be brought near it!]

[Footnote 26: Matthew Martin, 'Western Isles,' published 1673. Quoted
by Elton ('Origins of English Hist.,' p. 16), who gives Martin's date
as 1703.]

[Footnote 27: Strabo, iv. 277. The word _basket_ is itself of Celtic
origin, and passed into Latin as it has passed into English.
Martial ('Epig.' xiv. 299) says: "Barbara de pictis veni _bascauda_
Britannis." Strabo wrote shortly before, Martial shortly after, the
Roman Conquest of Britain.]

[Footnote 28: One of these primitive mortars, a rudely-hollowed block
of oolite, with a flint pestle weighing about 6 lbs., was found near
Cambridge in 1885.]

[Footnote 29: Diod. Siculus, 'Hist.' v. 21.]

[Footnote 30: 'British Barrows,' p. 750.]

[Footnote 31: 'Geog.' IV.]

[Footnote 32: 'Legend of Montrose,' ch. xxii.]

[Footnote 33: Diod. Sic. v. 30: "Saga crebris tessellis florum instar
distincta." This _sagum_ was obviously a tartan plaid such as are now
in use. The kilt, however, was not worn. It is indeed a comparatively
quite modern adaptation of the belted plaid. Ancient Britons wore
trousers, drawn tight above the ankles, after the fashion still
current amongst agricultural labourers. They were already called
"breeches." Martial (Ep. x. 22) satirizes a life "as loose as the old
breeches of a British pauper."]

[Footnote 34: Pliny, 'Nat. Hist.' viii. 48.]

[Footnote 35: _Id_. xxviii. 2. Fashions about hair seem to have
changed as rapidly amongst Britons (throughout the whole period of
this work) as in later times. The hair was sometimes worn short,
sometimes long, sometimes strained back from the forehead; sometimes
moustaches were in vogue, sometimes a clean shave, more rarely a full
beard; but whiskers were quite unknown.]

[Footnote 36: Tozer ('Ancient Geog.' p. 164) states that amber is also
exported from the islands fringing the west coast of Schleswig, and
considers that these rather than the Baltic shores were the "Amber
Islands" of Pytheas.]

[Footnote 37: 'Nat. Hist.' xxxvii. 1.]

[Footnote 38: See p. 128.]

[Footnote 39: A lump weighing nearly 12 lbs. was dredged up off
Lowestoft in 1902.]

[Footnote 40: A.D. 50.]

[Footnote 41: Seneca speaks of the blue shields of the Yorkshire

[Footnote 42: See Elton, 'Origins of English History,' p. 116.]

[Footnote 43: Thurnam, 'British Barrows' (Archaeol. xliii. 474).]

[Footnote 44: Propertius, iv. 3, 7.]

[Footnote 45: 'Celtic Britain,' p. 40.]

[Footnote 46: This seems the least difficult explanation of this
strange name. An alternative theory is that it = _Cenomanni_ (a Gallic
tribe-name also found in Lombardy). But with this name (which must
have been well known to Caesar) we never again meet in Britain. And it
is hard to believe that he would not mention a clan so important and
so near the sphere of his campaign as the Iceni.]

[Footnote 47: See p. 109.]

[Footnote 48: These tribes are described by Vitruvius, at the
Christian era, as of huge stature, fair, and red-haired. Skeletons of
this race, over six feet in height, have been discovered in Yorkshire
buried in "monoxylic" coffins; i.e. each formed of the hollowed trunk
of an oak tree. See Elton's 'Origins,' p. 168.]

[Footnote 49: This correspondence, however, is wholly an antiquarian
guess, and rests on no evidence. It is first found in the forged
chronicle of "Richard of Cirencester." The _names_ are genuine, being
found in the 'Notitia,' though dating only from the time of Diocletian
(A.D. 296). But, on our theory, the same administrative divisions must
have existed all along. See p. 225.]

[Footnote 50: General Pitt Rivers, however, in his 'Excavations in
Cranborne Chase' (vol. ii. p. 237), proves that the ancient water
level in the chalk was fifty feet higher than at present, presumably
owing to the greater forest area. "Dew ponds" may also have existed in
these camps. But these can scarcely have provided any large supply of

[Footnote 51: The word is commonly supposed to represent a Celtic form
_Mai-dun_. But this is not unquestionable.]

[Footnote 52: 'De Bello Gall.' vi. 13.]

[Footnote 53: 'De Bell. Gall.' vi. 14.]

[Footnote 54: Jerome ('Quaest. in Gen.' ii.) says that Varro, Phlegon,
and all learned authors testify to the spread of Greek [at the
Christian era] "from Taurus to Britain." And Solinus (A.D. 80) tells
of a Greek inscription in Caledonia, "ara Graecis literis
scripta"--as a proof that Ulysses (!) had wandered thither (Solinus,
'Polyhistoria,' c. 22). See p. 248.]

[Footnote 55: 'De Bell, Gall.' vi. 16.]

[Footnote 56: 'Hist.' v. 31.]

[Footnote 57: 'Celtic Britain,' p. 69.]

[Footnote 58: 'Nat. Hist.' xvi. 95.]

[Footnote 59: So Caesar, 'De Bell. Gall.' vi. 17.]

[Footnote 60: Pliny, 'Nat. Hist.' xxiv. 62. Linnaeus has taken
_selago_ as his name for club-moss, but Pliny here compares the herb
to _savin_, which grows to the height of several feet. _Samolum_ is
water-pimpernel in the Linnaean classification. Others identify it
with the _pasch-flower_, which, however, is far from being a marsh

[Footnote 61: Suetonius (A.D. 110), 'De xii. Caes.' v. 25.]

[Footnote 62: Pliny, 'Nat. Hist.' xxx. 3.]

[Footnote 63: Tacitus, 'Annals,' xiv. 30. See p. 154.]

[Footnote 64: Pliny, 'Nat. Hist.' xxix. 12.]

[Footnote 65: See Brand, 'Popular Antiquities,' under _Ovum Anguinum_.
He adds that _Glune_ is the Irish for glass.]

[Footnote 66: Lampridius, in his life of Alexander Severus, tells us
of a "Druid" sorceress who warned the Emperor of his approaching doom.
Another such "Druidess" is said to have foretold Diocletian's rise.
See Coulanges, '_Comme le Druidisme a disparu_,' in the _Revue
Celtique_, iv. 37.]

[Footnote 67: See Professor Rhys, 'Celtic Britain,' p. 70. The
Professor's view that the "schismatical" tonsure of the Celtic clergy,
which caused such a stir during the evangelization of England, was a
Druidical survival, does not, however, seem probable in face of the
very pronounced antagonism between those clergy and the Druids. That
tonsure was indeed ascribed by its Roman denouncers to Simon Magus
[see above], but this is scarcely a sufficient foundation for the

[Footnote 68: They may very possibly have been connected with the
Veneti of Venice at the other extremity of "the Gauls."]

[Footnote 69: See p. 37.]

[Footnote 70: Caesar, 'Bell. Gall.' iii. 9, 13.]

[Footnote 71: Elton, 'Origins of English Hist.,' p. 237. Though less
massive, these vessels are built much as the Venetian. But it is just
as probable they may really be "picts." See p. 232.]

[Footnote 72: This opening of Britain to continental influences may
perhaps account for Posidonius having been able to make so thorough a
survey of the islands. See p. 36.]

[Footnote 73: Elton ('Origins of English Hist.') conjectures that
these tribes did not migrate to Britain till after Caesar's day. But
there is no evidence for this, and my view seems better to explain the

[Footnote 74: Solinus (A.D. 80) says of Britain, "_alterius orbis
nomen mereretur_." This passage is probably the origin of the Pope's
well-known reference to St. Anselm, when Archbishop of Canterbury, as
"_quasi alterius orbis antistes_."]

[Footnote 75: A Roman legion at this date comprised ten "cohorts,"
_i.e._ some six thousand heavy-armed infantry, besides a small
light-armed contingent, and an attached squadron of three hundred
cavalry. Each of Caesar's transports must thus have carried from one
hundred and fifty to two hundred men, and at this rate the eighteen
cavalry vessels (reckoning a horse as equivalent to five men, the
usual proportion for purposes of military transport) would suffice for
his two squadrons.]

[Footnote 76: An ancient ship could not sail within eight points of
the wind (see Smith, 'Voyage of St. Paul'). Thus a S.W. breeze, while
permitting Caesar to leave Boulogne, would effectually prevent these
vessels from working out of Ambleteuse.]

[Footnote 77: Hence the name Dubris = "the rivers."]

[Footnote 78: The claims of Richborough [Ritupis] to be Caesar's
actual landing-place have been advocated by Archdeacon Baddeley, Mr.
G. Bowker, and others. But it is almost impossible to make this place
square with Caesar's narrative.]

[Footnote 79: This was four days before the full moon, so that the
tide would be high at Dover about 6 p.m.]

[Footnote 80: The "lofty promontory" rounded is specially noticed by
Dio Cassius.]

[Footnote 81: The principle of the balista that of the sling, of the
catapult that of the bow. Ammianus Marcellinus (xv. 12) speaks of "the
snowy arms" of the Celtic women dealing blows "like the stroke of a

[Footnote 82: Valerius Maximus (A.D. 30) has recorded one such act of
daring on the part of a soldier named Scaeva, who with four comrades
held an isolated rock against all comers till he alone was left, when
he plunged into the sea and swam off, with the loss of his shield. In
spite of this disgrace Caesar that evening promoted him on the field.
The story has a suspicious number of variants, but off Deal there
_is_ such a patch of rocks, locally called the Malms; so that it may
possibly be true ('Memorabilia,' III. 2, 23).]

[Footnote 83: Valerius Maximus (A.D. 30) states that the Romans landed
on a _falling_ tide, which cannot be reconciled with Caesar's own
narrative (see p. 88). The idea may have originated in the fact that
it was probably the approaching turn of the tide which forced him to
land at Deal. He could not have reached Richborough before the ebb

[Footnote 84: Every soldier was four feet from his nearest neighbour
to give scope for effective sword-play. No other troops in history
have ever had the morale thus to fight at close quarters.]

[Footnote 85: See Plutarch, 'De placitis philosophorum.']

[Footnote 86: Each chariot may have carried six or seven men, like
those of the Indian King Porus. See Dodge, 'Alexander,' p. 554.]

[Footnote 87: Pomponius Mela ('De Situ Orbis,' I) tells us that by his
date (50 A.D.) it had come in: "Covinos vocant, quorum falcatis axibus

[Footnote 88: It is thus represented by Giraldus Cambrensis, who gives
us the story of Caesar's campaigns from the British point of view, as
it survived (of course with gross exaggerations) in the Cymric legends
of his day.]

[Footnote 89: Lucan, the last champion of anti-Caesarism, sung, two
generations after its overthrow, the praises and the dirge of the

[Footnote 90: See my 'Alfred in the Chroniclers,' p. 44.]

[Footnote 91:'Ad Treb.' Ep. VI.]

[Footnote 92: 'Ad Treb.' Ep. VII.]

[Footnote 93: Ep. 10.]

[Footnote 94: Ep. 16.]

[Footnote 95: Ep. 17.]

[Footnote 96: IV. 15.]

[Footnote 97: III. 1.]

[Footnote 98: II. 16.]

[Footnote 99: II. 15.]

[Footnote 100: III. 10.]

[Footnote 101: Wace ('Roman de Ron,' 11,567) gives 696 as the exact

[Footnote 102: 'Strategemata,' viii. 23.]

[Footnote 103: This was probably not Deal, which had not proved a
satisfactory station, but Richborough, where the Wantsum, then a broad
arm of the sea between Kent and Thanet, provided an excellent harbour
for a large fleet. It was, moreover, the regular emporium of the tin
trade (see p. 36), and a British trackway thus led to it.]

[Footnote 104: Otherwise _Cadwallon_, which, according to Professor
Rhys, signifies War King, and may possibly have been a title rather
than a personal name. But it remained in use as the latter for many
centuries of British history.]

[Footnote 105: Vine, 'Caesar in Kent,' p. 171. The spot is "in Bourne
Park, not far from the road leading up to Bridge Hill."]

[Footnote 106: See p. 244.]

[Footnote 107: See II. G. 8. The tradition of this sentiment long
survived. Hegesippus (A.D. 150) says: "Britanni ... quidesse servitus
ignorabant; soli sibi nati, semper sibi liberi" ('De Bello Judiaco,'
II. 9).]

[Footnote 108: Polyaenus (A.D. 180) in his 'Strategemata' (viii. 23)
ascribes their panic to Caesar's elephant. See p. 107.]

[Footnote 109: At Ilerda. See Dodge, 'Caesar,' xxviii.]

[Footnote 110: Frontinus (A.D. 90), 'Strategemata II.' xiii. II.]

[Footnote 111: Coins of all three bear the words COMMI. F. (_Commii
Filius_), but Verica alone calls himself REX. Those of Eppillus were
struck at Calleva (Silchester?).]

[Footnote 112: See p. 54.]

[Footnote 113: This is the spelling adopted by Suetonius.]

[Footnote 114: The lion was already a specially British emblem.
Ptolemy ('de Judiciis II.' 3) ascribes the special courage of Britons
to the fact that they are astrologically influenced by Leo and Mars.
It is interesting to remember that our success in the Crimean War
was prognosticated from Mars being in Leo at its commencement (March
1854). Tennyson, in 'Maud,' has referred to this--"And pointed to
Mars, As he hung like a ruddy shield on the Lion's breast."]

[Footnote 115: See p. 38.]

[Footnote 116: The site of this town is quite unknown. Caesar mentions
the Segontiaci amongst the clans of S.E. Britain.]

[Footnote 117: In S.E. Essex, near Colchester. See p. 176.]

[Footnote 118: See pp. 109, 122.]

[Footnote 119: Aelian (A.D. 220), 'De Nat. Animal.' xv. 8.]

[Footnote 120: [Greek: Elephantina psalia, kai periauchenia, kai
lingouria kai huala skeue, kai rhopos toioutos]. Strabo is commonly
supposed to mean that these were the _imports_ from Gaul. But his
words are quite ambiguous, and such of the articles he mentions as are
found in Britain are clearly of native manufacture. British graves
are fertile (see p. 48) in the "amber and glass ornaments" (the former
being small roughly-shaped fragments pierced for threading, the latter
coarse blue or green beads), and produce occasional armlets of narwhal
ivory. Glass beads have been found (1898) in the British village near
Glastonbury, and elsewhere.]

[Footnote 121: Strabo, v. 278.]

[Footnote 122: Propertius, II. 1. 73: Esseda caelatis siste Britanna

[Footnote 123: _Ibid_. II. 18. 23. See p. 47.]

[Footnote 124: Virgil, 'Georg.' III. 24.]

[Footnote 125: Virgil, 'Eccl.' I. 65; Horace, 'Od.' I. 21. 13, 35. 30,
III. 5. 3; Tibullus, IV. 1. 147; Propertius, IV. 3. 7.]

[Footnote 126: Suetonius, 'De XII. Caes.' IV. 19.]

[Footnote 127: The lofty spur of the Chiltern Hills which overhangs
the church of Ellsborough is traditionally the site of his tomb.]

[Footnote 128: This whole episode is from 'Dio Cassius' (lib. xxxix.
Section 50).]

[Footnote 129: He places Cirencester in their territory, while both
Bath and Winchester belonged to the Belgae. To secure Winchester,
where they would be on the line of the tin-trade road (see p.
36), would be the first object of the Romans if they did land at
Portsmouth. Their further steps would depend upon the disposition of
the British armies advancing to meet them,--the final objective of the
campaign being Camelodune, the capital of the sons of Cymbeline.]

[Footnote 130: This is stated by both Geoffrey of Monmouth and Matthew
of Westminster.]

[Footnote 131: For three centuries this legion was quartered at
Caerleon-upon-Usk, and the Twentieth at Chester. See Mommsen, 'Roman
Provinces,' p. 174.]

[Footnote 132: This was the honorary title of several legions; as
there are several "Royal" regiments.]

[Footnote 133: Tac, 'Hist.' III. 44.]

[Footnote 134: The Flavian family was of very humble origin.]

[Footnote 135: Bede, from Suetonius, tells us that Vespasian with his
legion fought in Britain thirty-two battles and took twenty towns,
besides subduing the Isle of Wight ('Sex. Aet.' A.D. 80).]

[Footnote 136: If the Romans were advancing eastward from the Dobunian
territory it may have been the Loddon. Mommsen cuts the knot in true
German fashion by refusing to identify the Dobuni of Ptolemy with
those of Dion, and placing the latter in Kent on his own sole
authority. ('Roman Provinces,' p. 175.)]

[Footnote 137: [Greek: dusdiexoda.]]

[Footnote 138: See p. 139.]

[Footnote 139: 'Orosius,' VII. 5.]

[Footnote 140: A victorious Roman general was commonly thus hailed by
his troops after any signal victory. But by custom this could only be
done once in the same campaign.]

[Footnote 141: Suet. v. 21.]

[Footnote 142: Dio Cassius, lx. 23. The boy, who was the child of
Messalina, had previously been named _Germanicus_.]

[Footnote 143: Suet. v. 28.]

[Footnote 144: Suet. v. 21.]

[Footnote 145: Tac., 'Ann.' xii. 56.]

[Footnote 146: Dio Cassius, lx. 30.]

[Footnote 147: Suet. v. 24.]

[Footnote 148: Dio Cassius, lx. 30.]

[Footnote 149: Eutropius, vii. 13.]

[Footnote 150: Muratori, Thes. mcii. 6.]

[Footnote 151: 'De XII. Caesaribus,' v. 28.]

[Footnote 152: Dio Cassius, lx. 23.]

[Footnote 153: See Haverfield in 'Authority and Archaeology,' p. 319]

[Footnote 154: 'Laus Claudii' (Burmann, 'Anthol.' ii. 8).]

[Footnote 155: See p. 152.]

[Footnote 156: The inscription runs thus:

IN. BRIT. _Colle_ GIVM. FABRO. ET. QVI. IN. E. . . . . .

(The italics are almost certain restoration of illegible letters.)]

[Footnote 157: See p. 256.]

[Footnote 158: Claudia, the British Princess mentioned by Martial
as making a distinguished Roman marriage, may very probably be his

[Footnote 159: See p. 130.]

[Footnote 160: Thus in St. Luke ii. we find Cyrenius _Pro-praetor_
([Greek: hegemon]) of Syria, but in Acts xviii. Gallio _Pro-consul_
([Greek: hanthupatos]) of Achaia.]

[Footnote 161: See p. 131.]

[Footnote 162: See p. 170.]

[Footnote 163: His reputation for strength, skill, and daring cost him
his life a few years later, under Nero (Tac, 'Ann.' xvi. 15).]

[Footnote 164: Pigs of lead have been found in Denbighshire stamped
CANGI or DECANGI. Mr. Elton, however, locates the tribe in Somerset.
Coins testify to Antedrigus, the Icenian, being somehow connected with
this tribe.]

[Footnote 165: A Roman "Colony" was a town peopled by citizens of
Rome (old soldiers being preferred) sent out in the first instance to
dominate the subject population amid whom they were settled. Such was

[Footnote 166: Tacitus, 'Annals,' xii. 38.]

[Footnote 167: The distinction of an actual triumph was reserved for
Emperors alone.]

[Footnote 168: Tacitus, 'Annals,' xii. 39.]

[Footnote 169: See p. 239. Uriconium alone has as yet furnished
inscriptions of the famous Fourteenth Legion, _"Victores Britannici."_
(See p. 160.)]

[Footnote 170: 'Ep. ad Atticum,' vi. 1.]

[Footnote 171: See Dio Cassius, xii. 2.]

[Footnote 172: The Procurator of a Province was the Imperial Finance
Administrator. (See Haverfield, 'Authority and Archaeology,' p. 310.)]

[Footnote 173: An inscription calls the place _Colonia Victricensis_.]

[Footnote 174: Tacitus, 'Ann.' xiv. 32.]

[Footnote 175: Demeter and Kore. M. Martin ('Hist. France,' i. 63)
thinks there is here a confusion between the Greek Kore (Proserpine)
and Koridwen, the White Fairy, the Celtic Goddess of the Moon and also
(as amongst the Greeks) of maidenhood. But this is not proven.]

[Footnote 176: The former is Strabo's variant of the name (which may
possibly be connected with [Greek: _semnos_]), the latter that of
Dionysius Periegetes ('De Orbe,' 57). In Caesar we find a third form
_Namnitae_, which Professor Rhys connects with the modern Nantes.]

[Footnote 177: See p. 127.]

[Footnote 178: As Agricola, his father-in-law, was actually with
Suetonius, Tacitus had exceptional opportunities for knowing the

[Footnote 179: Suetonius probably retreated southward when he
left London, and reoccupied its ruins when the Britons, instead of
following him, turned northwards to Verulam.]

[Footnote 180: The Roman _pilum_ was a casting spear with a heavy
steel head, nine inches long.]

[Footnote 181: Tac., 'Agricola,' c. 12.]

[Footnote 182: That the well-known coins commemorating these victories
and bearing the legend IVDAEA CAPTA are not infrequently found in
Britain, indicates the special connection between Vespasian and our
island. The great argument used by Titus and Agrippa to convince the
Jews that even the walls of Jerusalem would fail to resist the onset
of Romans was that no earthly rampart could compare with the ocean
wall of Britain (Josephus, D.B.J., II. 16, vi, 6).]

[Footnote 183: The spread of Latin oratory and literature in Britain
is spoken of at this date by Juvenal (Sat. xv. 112), and Martial
(Epig. xi. 3), who mentions that his own works were current here:
"Dicitur et nostros cantare Britannia versus."]

[Footnote 184: Mr. Haverfield suggests that Silchester may also be an
Agricolan city (see p. 184).]

[Footnote 185: Juvenal mentions these designs (II. 159):

"--Arma quidem ultra
Litora Juvernae promovimus, et modo captas
Orcadas, et minima contentos nocte Britannos"
(i.e. those furthest north).]

[Footnote 186: According to Dio Cassius this voyage of discovery was
first made by some deserters ('Hist. Rom.' lxix. 20).]

[Footnote 187: The little that is known of this rampart will be found
in the next chapter (see p. 198).]

[Footnote 188: Sallustius Lucullus, who succeeded Agricola as
Pro-praetor, was slain by Domitian only for the invention of an
improved lance, known by his name (as rifles now are called Mausers,

[Footnote 189: See p. 117.]

[Footnote 190: All highways were made Royal Roads before the end
of the 12th century, so that the course of the original four became
matter of purely antiquarian interest.]

[Footnote 191: Where it struck that sea is disputed, but Henry of
Huntingdon's assertion that it ran straight from London to Chester
seems the most probable.]

[Footnote 192: The lines of these roads, if produced, strike the
Thames not at London Bridge, but at the old "Horse Ferry" to Lambeth.
This _may_ point to an alternative (perhaps the very earliest) route.]

[Footnote 193: Guest ('Origines Celticae') derives "Ermine" from A.S.
_eorm_=fen, and "Watling" from the Welsh Gwyddel=Goidhel=Irish. The
Ermine Street, however, nowhere touches the fenland; nor did any
Gaelic population, so far as is known, abut upon the Watling Street,
at any rate after the English Conquest. Verulam was sometimes called
Watling-chester, probably as the first town on the road.]

[Footnote 194: The distinction between "Street" and "Way" must not,
however, be pressed, as is done by some writers. The Fosse Way is
never called a Street, though its name [_fossa_] shows it to have been
constructed as such; and the Icknield Way is frequently so called,
though it was certainly a mere track--often a series of parallel
tracks (_e.g._ at Kemble-in-the-Street in Oxfordshire)--as it mostly
remains to this day.]

[Footnote 195: This may still be seen in places; _e.g._ on the
"Hardway" in Somerset and the "Maiden Way" in Cumberland. See
Codrington, 'Roman Roads in Britain.']

[Footnote 196: Camden, however, speaks of a Saxon charter so
designating it near Stilton ('Britannia,' II. 249).]

[Footnote 197: The whole evidence on this confused subject is well set
out by Mr. Codrington ('Roman Roads in Britain').]

[Footnote 198: It is, however, possible that the latter is named from
Ake-manchester, which is found as A.S. for Bath, to which it must have
formed the chief route from the N. East.]

[Footnote 199: See p. 144. Bradley, however, controverts this,
pointing out that the pre-Norman authorities for the name only refer
to Berkshire.]

[Footnote 200: Thus Iter V. takes the traveller from London to Lincoln
_via_ Colchester, Cambridge, and Huntingdon, though the Ermine Street
runs direct between the two. The 'Itinerary' is a Roadbook of the
Empire, giving the stages on each route set forth, assigned by
commentators to widely differing dates, from the 2nd century to the
5th. In my own view Caracalla is probably the Antoninus from whom it
is called. But after Antoninus Pius (138 A.D.) the name was borne (or
assumed) by almost every Emperor for a century and more.]

[Footnote 201: See p. 237.]

[Footnote 202: Ptolemy also marks, in his map of Britain, some fifty
capes, rivers, etc., and the Ravenna list names over forty.]

[Footnote 203: The longitude is reckoned from the "Fortunate Isles,"
the most western land known to Ptolemy, now the Canary Islands.
Ferro, the westernmost of these, is still sometimes found as the Prime
Meridian in German maps.]

[Footnote 204: Thus the north supplies not only inscriptions relating
to its own legion (the Sixth), but no fewer than 32 of the Second, and
22 of the Twentieth; while at London and Bath indications of all three
are found.]

[Footnote 205: The Latin word _castra_, originally meaning "camp,"
came (in Britain) to signify a fortified town, and was adopted into
the various dialects of English as _caster, Chester_, or _cester_;
the first being the distinctively N. Eastern, the last the S. Western

[Footnote 206: Amongst these, however, must be named the high
authority of Professor Skeat. See 'Cambs. Place-Names.']

[Footnote 207: Pearson's 'Historical Maps of England' gives a complete
list of these.]

[Footnote 208: This industry flourished throughout the last half of
the 19th century. The "coprolites" were phosphatic nodules found in
the greensand and dug for use as manure.]

[Footnote 209: These are of bronze, with closed ends, pitted for the
needle as now, but of size for wearing upon the _thumb_.]

[Footnote 210: There seems no valid reason for doubting that the
horseshoes found associated with Roman pottery, etc., in the ashpits
of the Cam valley, Dorchester, etc., are actually of Romano-British
date. Gesner maintains that our method of shoeing horses was
introduced by Vegetius under Valentinian II. The earlier shoes seem
to have been rather such slippers as are now used by horses drawing
mowing-machines on college lawns. They were sometimes of rope: _Solea
sparta pes bovis induitur_ (Columella), sometimes of iron: _Et supinam
animam gravido derelinquere caeno Ferream ut solam tenaci in voragine
mula_ (Catullus, xvii. 25). Even gold was used: _Poppaea jumentis suis
soleas ex auro induebat_ (Suet., 'Nero,' xxx.). The Romano-British
horseshoes are thin broad bands of iron, fastened on by three nails,
and without heels. See also Beckmann's 'History of Inventions' (ed.

[Footnote 211: This is true of the whole of Britain, even along the
Wall, as a glance at the cases in the British Museum will show. There
may be seen the most interesting relic of this class yet discovered,
a bronze shield-boss, dredged out of the Tyne in 1893 [see 'Lapid.
Sept.' p. 58], bearing the name of the owner, Junius Dubitatus, and
his Centurion, Julius Magnus, of the Ninth Legion.]

[Footnote 212: The wall of London is demonstrably later than the town,
old material being found built into it. So is that of Silchester.]

[Footnote 213: York was not three miles in circumference, Uriconium
the same, Cirencester and Lincoln about two, Silchester and Bath
somewhat smaller.]

[Footnote 214: Roman milestones have been found in various places,
amongst the latest and most interesting being one of Carausius
discovered in 1895, at Carlisle. It had been reversed to substitute
the name of Constantius (see p. 222.). It may be noted that the
earliest of post-Roman date are those still existing on the road
between Cambridge and London, set up in 1729.]

[Footnote 215: See p. 117. When the existing bridge was built, Roman
remains were found in the river-bed.]

[Footnote 216: The Thames to the south, the Fleet to the west, and the
Wall Brook to the east and north.]

[Footnote 217: See p. 233. The city wall may well be due to him.]

[Footnote 218: See p. 233.]

[Footnote 219: On this functionary, see article by Domaszewski in
the 'Rheinisches Review,' 1891. His appointment was part of the
pacificatory system promoted by Agricola.]

[Footnote 220: An _archigubernus_ (master pilot) of this fleet left
his property to one of his subordinates in trust for his infant son.
The son died before coming of age, whereupon the estate was claimed by
the next of kin, while the trustee contended that it had now passed
to him absolutely. He was upheld by the Court. Another York decision
established the principle that any money made by a slave belonged
to his _bona fide_ owner. And another settled that a _Decurio_ (a
functionary answering to a village Mayor in France) was responsible
only for his own _Curia_.]

[Footnote 221: Inscriptions of the Twentieth have been found here.]

[Footnote 222: _Legra-ceaster_, the earliest known form of the name,
signifies Camp-chester _(Legra = Laager)_. In Anglo-Saxon writings the
name is often applied to Chester. This, however, was _the_ Chester,
_par excellence_, as having remained so long unoccupied. In the days
of Alfred it is still a "waste Chester" in the A.S. Chronicle.
The word _Chester_ is only associated with Roman fortifications in
Southern Britain. But north of the wall, as Mr. Haverfield points out,
we find it applied to earthworks which cannot possibly have ever been
Roman. (See 'Antiquary' for 1895, p. 37.)]

[Footnote 223: Bath was frequented by Romano-British society for its
medicinal waters, as it has been since. The name _Aquae_ (like
the various _Aix_ in Western Europe) records this fact. Bath was
differentiated as _Aquae Solis_; the last word having less reference
to Apollo the Healer, than to a local deity _Sul_ or _Sulis_. Traces
of an elaborate pump-room system, including baths and cisterns still
retaining their leaden lining, have here been discovered; and even
the stock-in-trade of one of the small shops, where, as now at such
resorts, trinkets were sold to the visitors.(See 'Antiquary,' 1895, p.

[Footnote 224: Similar excavations are in progress at Caergwent, but,
as yet, with less interesting results. Amongst the objects found is a
money-box of pottery, with a slit for the coins. A theatre [?] is now
(1903) being uncovered.]

[Footnote 225: See II. F. 4; also Mr. Haverfield's articles in the
'Athenaeum' (115, Dec. 1894), and in the 'Antiquary' (1899, p. 71).]

[Footnote 226: Mr. Haverfield notes ('Antiquary,' 1898, p. 235) that
British basilicas are larger than those on the Continent, probably
because more protection from weather was here necessary. Almost as
large as this basilica must have been that at Lincoln, where sections
of the curious multiple pillars (which perhaps suggested to St. Hugh
the development from Norman to Gothic in English architecture) may be
seen studding the concrete pavement of Ball Gate.]

[Footnote 227: A plan of this "church" is given by Mr. Haverfield in
the 'English Hist. Review,' July 1896.]

[Footnote 228: An inspection of the Ordnance Map (1 in.) shows this
clearly. It is the road called (near Andover) the _Port Way_.]

[Footnote 229: See p. 46.]

[Footnote 230: The water supply of Silchester seems to have been
wholly derived from these wells, which are from 25 to 30 feet in
depth, and were usually lined with wood. In one of them there were
found (in 1900) stones of various fruit trees (cherry, plum, etc.),
the introduction of which into Britain has long been attributed to
the Romans, (See Earle, 'English Plant Names.') But this find is not
beyond suspicion of being merely a mouse's hoard of recent date.]

[Footnote 231: Roman refineries for extracting silver existed in the
lead-mining districts both of the Mendips and of Derbyshire, which
were worked continuously throughout the occupation. But the Silchester
plant was adapted for dealing with far more refractory ores; for what
purpose we cannot tell.]

[Footnote 232: See paper by W. Gowland in Silchester Report (Society
of Antiquaries) for 1899.]

[Footnote 233: A glance at the maps issued by the Society of
Antiquaries will show this. The massive rampart, forming an irregular
hexagon, cuts off the corners of various blocks in the ground plan.]

[Footnote 234: The well-known Cambridge jug of Messrs. Hattersley is a
typical example.]

[Footnote 235: "Samian" factories existed in Gaul.]

[Footnote 236: See p. 43.]

DE BRITAN. This was found at Wokey Hole, near Wells.]

[Footnote 238: Haverfield, 'Ant.' p. 147.]

[Footnote 239: See 'Corpus Inscript. Lat.' Vol. VII.]

[Footnote 240: A specially interesting touch of this old country house
life is to be seen in the Corinium Museum at Cirencester--a mural
painting whereon has been scratched a squared word (the only known
classical example of this amusement):


[Footnote 241: The word _mansio_, however, at this period signified
merely a posting-station on one or other of the great roads.]

[Footnote 242: Selwood, Sherwood, Needwood, Charnwood, and Epping
Forest are all shrunken relics of these wide-stretching woodlands,
with which most of the hill ranges seem to have been clothed. See
Pearson's 'Historical Maps of England.']

[Footnote 243: Classical authorities only speak of bears in Scotland.
See P. 236.]

[Footnote 244: Cyneget., I. 468.]

[Footnote 245: _Ibid_. 69.]

[Footnote 246: In II. Cons. Stilicho, III. 299: _Magnaque taurorum
fracturae colla Britannae_.]

[Footnote 247: 'Origins of English History,' p. 294.]

[Footnote 248: A brooch found at Silchester also represents this dog.]

[Footnote 249: Symmachus (A.D. 390) represents them as so fierce as to
require iron kennels (Ep. II. 77).]

[Footnote 250: Prudentius (contra Sab. 39): _Semifer, et Scoto sentit
cane milite pejor_.]

[Footnote 251: Proleg. to Jeremiah, lib. III.]

[Footnote 252: Flavius Vopiscus (A.D. 300) tells us that vine-growing
was also attempted, by special permission of the Emperor Probus.]

[Footnote 253: The Lex Julia forbade the carrying of arms by

[Footnote 254: See Elton's 'Origins,' p. 347.]

[Footnote 255: Proem, v.]

[Footnote 256: See Fronto,'De Bello Parthico', I. 217. The latest
known inscription relating to this Legion is of A.D. 109 [C.I.L. vii.

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