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Early Australian Voyages by John Pinkerton

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the greatest conveniency, carry on the trade to New Guinea. I
cannot say how far such a trade might be consistent with their
present charter; but if it should be found advantageous to the
public, and beneficial to the company, I think there can be no
reason assigned why it should not be secured to them, and that too
in the most effectual manner.

A very small progress in it would restore the reputation of the
company, and in time, perhaps, free the nation from the annual
expense she is now at, for the support of the forts and garrisons
belonging to that company on the coasts of Africa; which would alone
prove of great and immediate service, both to the public and to the
company. To say the truth, something of this sort is absolutely
necessary to vindicate the expense the nation is at; for if the
trade, for the carrying on of which a company is established,
proves, by a change of circumstances, incapable of supporting that
company, and thereby brings a load upon the public, this ought to be
a motive, it ought, indeed, to be the strongest motive, for that
company to endeavour the extension of its commerce, or the striking
out, if possible, some new branch of trade, which may restore it to
its former splendour; and in this as it hath an apparent right, so
there is not the least reason to doubt that it would meet with all
the countenance and assistance from the government that it could
reasonably expect or desire.

If such a design should ever be attempted, perhaps the island of New
Britain might be the properest place for them to settle. As to the
situation, extent, and present condition of that island, all that
can be said of it must be taken from the account given by its
discoverer Captain Dampier, which, in few words, amounts to this:
"The island which I call Nova Britannia has about 4 degrees of
latitude, the body of it lying in 4 degrees, the northernmost part
in 2 degrees 30 minutes, and the southernmost in 6 degrees 30
minutes. It has about 5 degrees 18 minutes longitude from east to
west; it is generally high mountainous land, mixed with large
valleys, which, as well as the mountains, appeared very fertile; and
in most places that we saw the trees are very large, tall, and
thick. It is also very well inhabited with strong, well-limbed
negroes, whom we found very daring and bold at several places: as
to the product of it, it is very probable this island may afford as
many rich commodities as any in the world; and the natives may be
easily brought to commerce, though I could not pretend to it in my
circumstances." If any objections should be raised from Dampier's
misfortune in that voyage, it is easy to show that it ought to have
no manner of weight whatever, since, though he was an excellent
pilot, he is allowed to have been but a bad commander; besides, the
Roebuck, in which he sailed, was a worn-out frigate that would
hardly swim; and it is no great wonder that in so crazy a vessel the
people were a little impatient at being abroad on discoveries; yet,
after all, he performed what he was sent for; and, by the discovery
of this island of New Britain, secured us an indisputable right to a
country, that is, or might be made, very valuable.

It is so situated, that a great trade might be carried on from
thence through the whole Terra Australis on one side, and the most
valuable islands of the East Indies on the other. In short, all, or
at least most, of the advantages proposed by the Dutch West India
Company's joining with their East India Company, of which a large
account has already been given, might be procured for this nation,
by the establishing a colony in this island of New Britain, and
securing the trade of that colony to the African Company by law; the
very passing of which law would give the company more than
sufficient credit, to fit out a squadron at once capable of securing
the possession of that island, and of giving the public such
satisfaction as to its importance, as might be requisite to obtain
further power and assistance from the State, if that should be found
necessary. It would be very easy to point out some advantages
peculiarly convenient for that company; but it will be time enough
to think of these whenever the African Company shall discover an
inclination to prosecute this design. At present I have done what I
proposed, and have shown that such a collection of voyages as this
ought not to be considered as a work of mere amusement, but as a
work calculated for the benefit of mankind in general, and of this
nation in particular, which it is the duty of every man to promote
in his station; and whatever fate these reflections may meet with, I
shall always have the satisfaction of remembering that I have not
neglected it in mine, but have taken the utmost pains to turn a
course of laborious reading to the advantage of my country.

But, supposing that neither of these companies should think it
expedient, or, in other words, should not think it consistent with
their interest to attempt this discovery, there is yet a third
company, within the spirit of whose charter, I humbly conceive, the
prosecution of such a scheme immediately lies. The reader will
easily discern that I mean the company for carrying on a trade to
the South Seas, who, notwithstanding the extensiveness of their
charter, confirmed and supported by authority of parliament, have
not, so far as my information reaches, ever attempted to send so
much as a single ship for the sake of discoveries into the South
Seas, which, however, was the great point proposed when this company
was first established. In order to prove this, I need only lay
before the reader the limits assigned that company by their charter,
the substance of which is contained in the following words:-

"The corporation, and their successors, shall, for ever, be vested
in the sole trade into and from all the kingdoms and lands on the
east side of America, from the River Oroonoco, to the southernmost
part of Terra del Fuego, and on the west side thereof from the said
southernmost part of Terra del Fuego, through the South Sea, to the
northernmost part of America, and into and through all the
countries, islands, and places within the said limits, which are
reputed to belong to Spain, or which shall hereafter be found out
and discovered within the limits aforesaid, not exceeding 300
leagues from the continent of America, between the southernmost part
of the Terra del Fuego and the northernmost part of America, on the
said west side thereof, except the Kingdom of Brazil, and such other
places on the east side of America, as are now in the possession of
the King of Portugal, and the country of Surinam, in the possession
of the States-general. The said company, and none else, are to
trade within the said limits; and, if any other persons shall trade
to the South Seas, they shall forfeit the ship and goods, and double
value, one-fourth part to the crown, and another fourth part to the
prosecutor, and the other two-fourths to the use of the company.
And the company shall be the sole owners of the islands, forts,
etc., which they shall discover within the said limits, to be held
of the crown, under an annual rent of an ounce of gold, and of all
ships taken as prizes by the ships of the said company; and the
company may seize, by force of arms, all other British ships trading
in those seas."

It is, I think, impossible for any man to imagine that either these
limits should be secured to the company for no purpose in the world;
or that these prohibitions and penalties should take place,
notwithstanding the company's never attempting to make any use of
these powers; from whence I infer that it was the intent of the
legislature that new discoveries should be made, new plantations
settled, and a new trade carried on by this new corporation,
agreeable to the rules prescribed, and for the general benefit of
this nation; which I apprehend was chiefly considered in the
providing that this new commerce should be put under the management
of a particular company. But I am very well aware of an objection
that may be made to what I have advanced; viz., that, from my own
showing, this southern continent lies absolutely without their
limits; and that there is also a proviso in the charter of that
company that seems particularly calculated to exclude it, since it
recites that.

"The agents of the company shall not sail beyond the southernmost
parts of Terra del Fuego, except through the Straits of Magellan, or
round Terra del Fuego; nor go from thence to any part of the East
Indies, nor return to Great Britain, or any port or place, unless
through the said straits, or by Terra del Fuego: nor shall they
trade in East India goods, or in any places within the limits
granted to the united company of merchants of England trading to
East India (such India goods excepted as shall be actually exported
from Great Britain, and also such gold, silver, wrought plate, and
other goods and commodities, which are the produce, growth, or
manufactures of the West Indies, or continent of America): neither
shall they send ships, or use them or any vessel, within the South
Seas, from Terra del Fuego to the northernmost parts of America,
above three hundred leagues to the westward of, and distant from the
land of Chili, Peru, Mexico, California, or any other the lands or
shores of Southern or Northern America, between Terra del Fuego and
the northernmost part of America, on pain of the forfeiture of the
ships and goods; one-third to the crown, and the other two-thirds to
the East India Company."

But the reader will observe that I mentioned the East India and
African Companies before; and that I now mention the South Sea
Company, on a supposition that the two former may refuse it. In
that case, I presume, the legislature will make the same distinction
that the States of Holland did, and not suffer the private advantage
of any particular company to stand in competition with the good of a
whole people. It was upon this principle that I laid it down as a
thing certain, that the African company would be allowed to settle
the island of Madagascar, though it lies within the limits of the
East India Company's charter, in case it should be found necessary
for the better carrying on of this trade. It is upon the same
principle I say this southern continent lies within the intention of
the South Sea Company's charter, because, I presume, the intent of
that charter was to grant them all the commerce in those seas, not
occupied before by British subjects; for, if it were otherwise, what
a condition should we be in as a maritime power? If a grant does
not oblige a company to carry on a trade within the limits granted
to that company, and is, at the same time, of force to preclude all
the subjects of this nation from the right they before had to carry
on a trade within those limits, such a law is plainly destructive to
the nation's interest and to commerce in general. I therefore
suppose, that, if the South Sea Company should think proper to
revive their trade in the manner I propose, this proviso would be
explained by Parliament to mean no more than excluding the South Sea
Company from settling or trading in or to any place at present
settled in or traded to by the East India Company: for, as this
interpretation would secure the just rights of both companies, and,
at the same time reconcile the laws for establishing them to the
general interest of trade and the nation, there is the greatest
reason to believe this to be the intention of the legislature. I
have been obliged to insist fully upon this matter, because it is a
point hitherto untouched, and a point of such high importance, that,
unless it be understood according to my sense of the matter, there
is an end of all hopes of extending our trade on this side, which is
perhaps the only side on which there is the least probability that
it ever can be extended; for, as to the north-west passage into the
South Seas, that seems to be blocked up by the rights of another
company; so that, according to the letter of our laws, each company
is to have its rights, and the nation in general no right at all.

If, therefore, the settling of this part of Terra Australis should
devolve on the South Sea Company, by way of equivalent for the loss
of their Assiento contract, there is no sort of question but it
might be as well performed by them as by any other, and the trade
carried on without interfering with that which is at present carried
on, either by the East India or African Companies. It would indeed,
in this case, be absolutely necessary to settle Juan Fernandez, the
settlement of which place, under the direction of that company, if
they could, as very probably they might, fall into some share of the
slave-trade from New Guinea, must prove wonderfully advantageous,
considering the opportunity they would have of vending those slaves
to the Spaniards in Chili and Peru. The settling of this island
ought to be performed at once, and with a competent force, since,
without doubt, the Spaniards would leave no means unattempted to
dispossess them: yet, if a good fortification was once raised, the
passes properly retrenched, and a garrison left there of between
three and five hundred men, it would be simply impossible for the
Spaniards to force them out of it before the arrival of another
squadron from hence. Neither do I see any reason why, in the space
of a very few years, the plantation of this island should not prove
of as great consequence to the South Sea Company as that of Curacao
to the Dutch West India Company, who raise no less than sixty
thousand florins per annum for licensing ships to trade there.

From Juan Fernandez to Van Diemen's Land is not above two months'
sail; and a voyage for discovery might be very conveniently made
between the time that a squadron returned from Juan Fernandez, and
another squadron's arrival there from hence. It is true that, if
once a considerable settlement was made in the most southern part of
Terra Australis, the company might then fall into a large commerce
in the most valuable East India goods, very probably gold, and
spices of all sorts: yet I cannot think that even these would fall
within the exclusive proviso of their charter; for that was
certainly intended to hinder their trading in such goods as are
brought hither by our East India Company; and I must confess I see
no difference, with respect to the interest of that company, between
our having cloves, cinnamon, and mace, by the South Sea Company's
ships from Juan Fernandez, and our receiving them from Holland,
after the Dutch East India Company's ships have brought them thither
by the way of the Cape of Good Hope. Sure I am they would come to
us sooner by some months by the way of Cape Horn. If this reasoning
does not satisfy people, but they still remain persuaded that the
South Sea Company ought not to intermeddle with the East India trade
at all, I desire to know why the West India merchants are allowed to
import coffee from Jamaica, when it is well known that the East
India Company can supply the whole demand of this kingdom from
Mocha? If it be answered that the Jamaica coffee comes cheaper, and
is the growth of our own plantations, I reply, that these spices
will not only be cheaper, but better, and be purchased by our own
manufacturers; and these, I think, are the strongest reasons that
can be given.

If it be demanded what certainty I have that spices can be had from
thence, I answer, all the certainty that in a thing of this nature
can be reasonably expected: Ferdinand de Quiros met with all sorts
of spices in the country he discovered; William Schovten, and
Jacques le Maire, saw ginger and nutmegs; so did Dampier; and the
author of Commodore Roggewein's Voyage asserts, that the free
burgesses of Amboyna purchase nutmegs from the natives of New Guinea
for bits of iron. All, therefore, I contend for, is that these bits
of iron may be sent them from Old England.

The reason I recommend settling on the south coast of Terra
Australis, if this design should be prosecuted, from Juan Fernandez,
rather than the island of New Britain, which I mentioned before, is,
because that coast is nearer, and is situated in a better and
pleasanter climate. Besides all which advantages, as it was never
hitherto visited by the Dutch, they cannot, with any colour of
justice, take umbrage at our attempting such a settlement. To close
then this subject, the importance of which alone inclined me to
spend so much of mine and the reader's time about it:

It is most evident, that, if such a settlement was made at Juan
Fernandez, proper magazines erected, and a constant correspondence
established between that island and the Terra Australis, these three
consequences must absolutely follow from thence: 1. That a new
trade would be opened, which must carry off a great quantity of our
goods and manufactures, that cannot, at present, be brought to any
market, or at least, not to so good a market as if there was a
greater demand for them. 2. It would render this navigation, which
is at present so strange, and consequently so terrible, to us, easy
and familiar; which might be attended with advantages that cannot be
foreseen, especially since there is, as I before observed, in all
probability another southern continent, which is still to be
discovered. 3. It would greatly increase our shipping and our
seamen, which are the true and natural strength of this country,
extend our naval power, and raise the reputation of this nation; the
most distant prospect of which is sufficient to warm the soul of any
man who has the least regard for his country, with courage
sufficient to despise the imputations that may be thrown upon him as
a visionary projector, for taking so much pains about an affair that
can tend so little to his private advantage. We will now add a few
words with respect to the advantages arising from having thus
digested the history of circumnavigators, from the earliest account
of time to the present, and then shut up the whole with another
section, containing the last circumnavigation by Rear-Admiral Anson,
whose voyage has at least shown that, under a proper officer,
English seamen are able to achieve as much as they ever did; and
that is as much as was ever done by any nation in the world.

It is a point that has always admitted some debate, whether science
stands more indebted to speculation or practice; or, in other words,
whether the greater discoveries have been made by men of deep study,
or persons of great experience in the most useful parts of
knowledge. But this, I think, is a proposition that admits of no
dispute at all, that the noblest discoveries have been the result of
a just mixture of theory with practice. It was from hence that the
very notion of sailing round the earth took rise; and the ingenious
Genoese first laid down this system of the world, according to his
conception, and then added the proofs derived from experience. It
is much to be deplored that we have not that plan of discovery which
the great Christopher Columbus sent over thither by his brother
Bartholomew to King Henry VII., for if we had we should certainly
find abundance of very curious observations, which might still be
useful to mariners: for it appears clearly, from many little
circumstances, that he was a person of universal genius, and, until
bad usage obliged him to take many precautions, very communicative.

It was from this plan, as it had been communicated to the Portuguese
court, that the famous Magellan came to have so just notions of the
possibility of sailing by the West to the East Indies; and there was
a great deal of theory in the proposal made by that great man to the
Emperor Charles V. Sir Francis Drake was a person of the same
genius, and of a like general knowledge; and it is very remarkable
that these three great seamen met also with the same fate; by which
I mean, that they were constantly pursued by envy while they lived,
which hindered so much notice being taken of their discourses and
discoveries as they deserved. But when the experience of succeeding
times had verified many of their sayings, which had been considered
as vain and empty boastings in their lifetimes, then prosperity
began to pay a superstitious regard to whatever could be collected
concerning them, and to admire all they delivered as oraculous. Our
other discoverer, Candish, was likewise a man of great parts and
great penetration, as well as of great spirit; he had, undoubtedly,
a mighty genius for discoveries; but the prevailing notion of those
times, that the only way to serve the nation was plundering the
Spaniards, seems to have got the better of his desire to find out
unknown countries; and made him choose to be known to posterity
rather as a gallant privateer than as an able seaman, though in
truth he was both.

After these follow Schovten and Le Maire, who were fitted out to
make discoveries; and executed their commission with equal capacity
and success. If Le Maire had lived to return to Holland, and to
have digested into proper order his own accounts, we should, without
question, have received a much fuller and clearer, as well as a much
more correct and satisfactory detail of them than we have at
present: though the voyage, as it is now published, is in all
respects the best, and the most curious of all the circumnavigators.
This was, very probably, owing to the ill-usage he met with from the
Dutch East India Company; which put Captain Schovten, and the
relations of Le Maire, upon giving the world the best information
they could of what had been in that voyage performed. Yet the fate
of Le Maire had a much greater effect in discouraging, than the fame
of his discoveries had in exciting, a spirit of emulation; so that
we may safely say, the severity of the East India Company in Holland
extinguished that generous desire of exploring unknown lands, which
might otherwise have raised the reputation and extended the commerce
of the republic much beyond what they have hitherto reached. This
is so true that for upwards of one hundred years we hear of no Dutch
voyage in pursuit of Le Maire's discoveries; and we see, when
Commodore Roggewein, in our own time, revived that noble design, it
was again cramped by the same power that stifled it before; and
though the States did justice to the West India Company, and to the
parties injured, yet the hardships they suffered, and the plain
proof they gave of the difficulties that must be met with in the
prosecution of such a design, seem to have done the business of the
East India Company, and damped the spirit of discovery, for perhaps
another century, in Holland.

It is very observable that all the mighty discoveries that have been
made arose from these great men, who joined reasoning with practice,
and were men of genius and learning, as well as seamen. To Columbus
we owe the finding America; to Magellan the passing by the straits
which bear his name, by a new route to the East Indies; to Le Maire
a more commodious passage round Cape Horn, and without running up to
California; Sir Francis Drake, too, hinted the advantages that might
arise by examining the north-west side of America; and Candish had
some notions of discovering a passage between China and Japan. As
to the history we have of Roggewein's voyage, it affords such lights
as nothing but our own negligence can render useless. But in the
other voyages, whatever discoveries we meet with are purely
accidental, except it be Dampier's voyage to the coasts of New
Holland and New Guinea, which was expressly made for discoveries;
and in which, if an abler man had been employed in conjunction with
Dampier, we cannot doubt that the interior and exterior of those
countries would have been much better known than they are at
present; because such a person would rather have chosen to have
refreshed in the island of New Britain, or some other country not
visited before, than at that of Timer, already settled both by the
Portuguese and the Dutch.

In all attempts, therefore, of this sort, those men are fittest to
be employed who, with competent abilities as seamen, have likewise
general capacities, are at least tolerably acquainted with other
sciences, and have settled judgments and solid understandings.
These are the men from whom we are to expect the finishing that
great work which former circumnavigators have begun; I mean the
discovering every part and parcel of the globe, and the carrying to
its utmost perfection the admirable and useful science of

It is, however, a piece of justice due to the memory of these great
men, to acknowledge that we are equally encouraged by their examples
and guided by their discoveries. We owe to them the being freed,
not only from the errors, but from the doubts and difficulties with
which former ages were oppressed; to them we stand indebted for the
discovery of the best part of the world, which was entirely unknown
to the ancients, particularly some part of the eastern, most of the
southern, and all the western hemisphere; from them we have learned
that the earth is surrounded by the ocean, and that all the
countries under the torrid zone are inhabited, and that, quite
contrary to the notions that were formerly entertained, they are
very far from being the most sultry climate in the world, those
within a few degrees of the tropics, though habitable, being much
more hot, for reasons which have been elsewhere explained. By their
voyages, and especially by the observations of Columbus, we have
been taught the general motion of the sea, the reason of it, and the
cause and difference of currents in particular places, to which we
may add the doctrine of tides, which were very imperfectly known,
even by the greatest men in former times, whose accounts have been
found equally repugnant to reason and experience.

By their observations we have acquired a great knowledge as to the
nature and variation of winds, particularly the monsoons, or trade
winds, and other periodical winds, of which the ancients had not the
least conception; and by these helps we not only have it in our
power to proceed much farther in our discoveries, but we are
likewise delivered from a multitude of groundless apprehensions,
that frightened them from prosecuting discoveries. We give no
credit now to the fables that not only amused antiquity, but even
obtained credit within a few generations. The authority of Pliny
will not persuade us that there are any nations without heads, whose
eyes and mouths are in their breasts, or that the Arimaspi have only
one eye, fixed in their forehead, and that they are perpetually at
war with the Griffins, who guard hidden treasures; or that there are
nations that have long hairy tales, and grin like monkeys. No
traveller can make us believe that, under the torrid zone, there are
a nation every man of which has one large flat foot, with which,
lying upon his back, he covers himself from the sun. In this
respect we have the same advantage over the ancients that men have
over children; and we cannot reflect without amazement on men's
having so much knowledge and learning in other respects, with such
childish understandings in these.

By the labours of these great men in the two last centuries we are
taught to know what we seek, and how it is to be sought. We know,
for example, what parts of the north are yet undiscovered, and also
what parts of the south. We can form a very certain judgment of the
climate of countries undiscovered, and can foresee the advantages
that will result from discoveries before they are made; all which
are prodigious advantages, and ought certainly to animate us in our
searches. I might add to this the great benefits we receive from
our more perfect acquaintance with the properties of the loadstone,
and from the surprising accuracy of astronomical observations, to
which I may add the physical discoveries made of late years in
relation to the figure of the earth, all of which are the result of
the lights which these great men have given us.

It is true that some of the zealous defenders of the ancients, and
some of the great admirers of the Eastern nations, dispute these
facts, and would have us believe that almost everything was known to
the old philosophers, and not only known but practised by the
Chinese long before the time of the great men to whom we ascribe
them. But the difference between their assertions and ours is, that
we fully prove the facts we allege, whereas they produce no evidence
at all; for instance, Albertus Magnus says that Aristotle wrote an
express treatise on the direction of the loadstone; but nobody ever
saw that treatise, nor was it ever heard of by any of the rest of
his commentators. We have in our hands some of the best
performances of antiquity in regard to geography, and any man who
has eyes, and is at all acquainted with that science, can very
easily discern how far they fall short of maps that were made even a
hundred years ago. The celebrated Vossius, and the rest of the
admirers of the Chinese, who, by the way, derived all their
knowledge from hearsay, may testify, in as strong terms as they
think fit, their contempt for the Western sages and their high
opinion of those in the East; but till they prove to us that their
favourite Chinese made any voyages comparable to the Europeans,
before the discovery of a passage to China by the Cape of Good Hope,
they will excuse us from believing them. Besides, if the ancients
had all this knowledge, how came it not to display itself in their
performances? How came they to make such difficulties of what are
now esteemed trifles? And how came they never to make any voyages,
by choice at least, that were out of sight of land? Again, with
respect to the Chinese, if they excel us so much in knowledge, how
came the missionaries to be so much admired for their superior skill
in the sciences? But to cut the matter short, we are not disputing
now about speculative points of science, but as to the practical
application of it; in which, I think, there is no doubt that the
modern inhabitants of the western parts of the world excel, and
excel chiefly from the labours and discoveries of these great and
ingenious men, who applied their abilities to the improvement of
useful arts, for the particular benefit of their countrymen, and to
the common good of mankind; which character is not derived from any
prejudice of ours, either against the ancients or the Oriental
nations, but is founded on facts of public notoriety, and on general
experience, which are a kind of evidence not to be controverted or

We are still, however, in several respects short of perfection, and
there are many things left to exercise the sagacity, penetration,
and application of this and of succeeding ages; for instance, the
passages to the north-east and north-west are yet unknown; there is
a great part of the southern continent undiscovered; we are, in a
manner, ignorant of what lies between America and Japan, and all
beyond that country lies buried in obscurity, perhaps in greater
obscurity than it was an age ago; so that there is still room for
performing great things, which in their consequences perhaps might
prove greater than can well be imagined. I say nothing of the
discoveries that yet remain with regard to inland countries, because
these fall properly under another head, I mean that of travels. But
it will be time enough to think of penetrating into the heart of
countries when we have discovered the sea-coasts of the whole globe,
towards which the voyages recorded in this chapter have so far
advanced already. But the only means to arrive at these great ends,
and to transmit to posterity a fame approaching, at least in some
measure, to that of our ancestors, is to revive and restore that
glorious spirit which led them to such great exploits; and the most
natural method of doing this is to collect and preserve the memory
of their exploits, that they may serve at once to excite our
imitation, encourage our endeavours, and point out to us how they
may be best employed, and with the greatest probability of success.


Having described his voyage from Brazil to New Holland, this
celebrated navigator thus proceeds:

About the latitude of 26 degrees south we saw an opening, and ran
in, hoping to find a harbour there; but when we came to its mouth,
which was about two leagues wide, we saw rocks and foul ground
within, and therefore stood out again; there we had twenty fathom
water within two miles of the shore: the land everywhere appeared
pretty low, flat, and even, but with steep cliffs to the sea, and
when we came near it there were no trees, shrubs, or grass to be
seen. The soundings in the latitude of 26 degrees south, from about
eight or nine leagues off till you come within a league of the
shore, are generally about forty fathoms, differing but little,
seldom above three or four fathoms; but the lead brings up very
different sorts of sand, some coarse, some fine, and of several
colours, as yellow, white, grey, brown, bluish, and reddish.

When I saw there was no harbour here, nor good anchoring, I stood
off to sea again in the evening of the 2nd of August, fearing a
storm on a lee-shore, in a place where there was no shelter, and
desiring at least to have sea-room, for the clouds began to grow
thick in the western-board, and the wind was already there and began
to blow fresh almost upon the shore, which at this place lies along
north-north-west and south-south-east. By nine o'clock at night we
got a pretty good offing, but the wind still increasing, I took in
my main-top-sail, being able to carry no more sail than two courses
and the mizen. At two in the morning, August 3rd, it blew very
hard, and the sea was much raised, so that I furled all my sails but
my mainsail, though the wind blew so hard, we had pretty clear
weather till noon, but then the whole sky was blackened with thick
clouds, and we had some rain, which would last a quarter of an hour
at a time, and then it would blow very fierce while the squalls of
rain were over our heads, but as soon as they were gone the wind was
by much abated, the stress of the storm being over; we sounded
several times, but had no ground till eight o'clock, August the 4th,
in the evening, and then had sixty fathom water, coral ground. At
ten we had fifty-six fathom, fine sand. At twelve we had fifty-five
fathom, fine sand, of a pale bluish colour. It was now pretty
moderate weather, yet I made no sail till morning, but then the wind
veering about to the south-west, I made sail and stood to the north,
and at eleven o'clock the next day, August 5th, we saw land again,
at about ten leagues distant. This noon we were in latitude 25
degrees 30 minutes, and in the afternoon our cook died, an old man,
who had been sick a great while, being infirm before we came out of

The 6th of August, in the morning, we saw an opening in the land,
and we ran into it, and anchored in seven and a half fathom water,
two miles from the shore, clean sand. It was somewhat difficult
getting in here, by reason of many shoals we met with; but I sent my
boat sounding before me. The mouth of this sound, which I called
Shark's Bay, lies in about 25 degrees south latitude, and our
reckoning made its longitude from the Cape of Good Hope to be about
87 degrees, which is less by one hundred and ninety-five leagues
than is usually laid down in our common draughts, if our reckoning
was right and our glasses did not deceive us. As soon as I came to
anchor in this bay, I sent my boat ashore to seek for fresh water,
but in the evening my men returned, having found none. The next
morning I went ashore myself, carrying pickaxes and shovels with me,
to dig for water, and axes to cut wood. We tried in several places
for water, but finding none after several trials, nor in several
miles compass, we left any further search for it, and spending the
rest of the day in cutting wood, we went aboard at night.

The land is of an indifferent height, so that it may be seen nine or
ten leagues off. It appears at a distance very even; but as you
come nigher you find there are many gentle risings, though none
steep or high. It is all a steep shore against the open sea; but in
this bay or sound we were now in, the land is low by the seaside,
rising gradually in with the land. The mould is sand by the
seaside, producing a large sort of samphire, which bears a white
flower. Farther in the mould is reddish, a sort of sand, producing
some grass, plants, and shrubs. The grass grows in great tufts as
big as a bushel, here and there a tuft, being intermixed with much
heath, much of the kind we have growing on our commons in England.
Of trees or shrubs here are divers sorts, but none above ten feet
high, their bodies about three feet about, and five or six feet high
before you come to the branches, which are bushy, and composed of
small twigs there spreading abroad, though thick set and full of
leaves, which were mostly long and narrow. The colour of the leaves
was on one side whitish, and on the other green, and the bark of the
trees was generally of the same colour with the leaves, of a pale
green. Some of these trees were sweet-scented, and reddish within
the bark, like sassafras, but redder. Most of the trees and shrubs
had at this time either blossoms or berries on them. The blossoms
of the different sorts of trees were of several colours, as red,
white, yellow, etc., but mostly blue, and these generally smelt very
sweet and fragrant, as did some also of the rest. There were also
besides some plants, herbs, and tall flowers, some very small
flowers growing on the ground, that were sweet and beautiful, and,
for the most part, unlike any I had seen elsewhere.

There were but few land fowls. We saw none but eagles of the larger
sorts of birds, but five or six sorts of small birds. The biggest
sort of these were not bigger than larks, some no bigger than wrens,
all singing with great variety of fine shrill notes; and we saw some
of their nests with young ones in them. The water-fowls are ducks
(which had young ones now, this being the beginning of the spring in
these parts), curlews, galdens, crab-catchers, cormorants, gulls,
pelicans, and some water-fowl, such as I have not seen anywhere

The land animals that we saw here were only a sort of raccoons,
different from those of the West Indies, chiefly as to their legs,
for these have very short forelegs, but go jumping upon them as the
others do (and like them are very good meat), and a sort of guanos,
of the same shape and size with other guanos described, but
differing from them in three remarkable particulars; for these had a
larger and uglier head, and had no tail, and at the rump, instead of
the tail there, they had a stump of a tail, which appeared like
another head, but not really such, being without mouth or eyes; yet
this creature seemed by this means to have a head at each end, and,
which may be reckoned a fourth difference, the legs also seemed all
four of them to be fore-legs, being all alike in shape and length,
and seeming by the joints and bending to be made as if they were to
go indifferently either head or tail foremost. They were speckled
black and yellow like toads, and had scales or knobs on their backs
like those of crocodiles, plated on to the skin, or stuck into it,
as part of the skin. They are very slow in motion, and when a man
comes nigh them they will stand still and hiss, not endeavouring to
get away. Their livers are also spotted black and yellow; and the
body, when opened, hath a very unsavoury smell. I did never see
such ugly creatures anywhere but here. The guanos I have observed
to be very good meat, and I have often eaten of them with pleasure;
but though I have eaten of snakes, crocodiles, and alligators, and
many creatures that look frightfully enough, and there are but few I
should have been afraid to eat of if pressed by hunger, yet I think
my stomach would scarce have served to venture upon these New
Holland guanos, both the looks and the smell of them being so

The sea-fish that we saw here (for here was no river, land or pond
of fresh water to be seen) are chiefly sharks. There are abundance
of them in this particular sound, that I therefore gave it the name
of Shark's Bay. Here are also skates, thornbacks, and other fish of
the ray kind (one sort especially like the sea-devil), and gar-fish,
bonetas, etc. Of shell-fish we got here mussels, periwinkles,
limpets, oysters, both of the pearl kind and also eating oysters, as
well the common sort as long oysters, besides cockles, etc. The
shore was lined thick with many other sorts of very strange and
beautiful shells for variety of colour and shape, most finely
spotted with red, black, or yellow, etc., such as I have not seen
anywhere but at this place. I brought away a great many of them,
but lost all except a very few, and those not of the best.

There are also some green turtle weighing about two hundred pounds.
Of these we caught two, which the water ebbing had left behind a
ledge of rock which they could not creep over. These served all my
company two days, and they were indifferent sweet meat. Of the
sharks we caught a great many, which our men ate very savourily.
Among them we caught one which was eleven feet long. The space
between its two eyes was twenty inches, and eighteen inches from one
corner of his mouth to the other. Its maw was like a leather sack,
very thick, and so tough that a sharp knife could scarce cut it, in
which we found the head and bones of a hippopotamus, the hairy lips
of which were still sound and not putrified, and the jaw was also
firm, out of which we plucked a great many teeth, two of them eight
inches long and as big as a man's thumb, small at one end, and a
little crooked, the rest not above half so long. The maw was full
of jelly, which stank extremely. However, I saved for awhile the
teeth and the shark's jaw. The flesh of it was divided among my
men, and they took care that no waste should be made of it.

It was the 7th of August when we came into Shark's Bay, in which we
anchored at three several places, and stayed at the first of them
(on the west side of the bay) till the 11th, during which time we
searched about, as I said, for fresh water, digging wells, but to no
purpose. However, we cut good store of firewood at this first
anchoring-place, and my company were all here very well refreshed
with raccoons, turtle, shark, and other fish, and some fowls, so
that we were now all much brisker than when we came in hither. Yet
still I was for standing farther into the bay, partly because I had
a mind to increase my stock of fresh water, which was begun to be
low, and partly for the sake of discovering this part of the coast.
I was invited to go further by seeing from this anchoring-place all
open before me, which therefore I designed to search before I left
the bay. So on the 11th about noon I steered further in, with an
easy sail, because we had but shallow water. We kept, therefore,
good looking out for fear of shoals, sometimes shortening, sometimes
deepening the water. About two in the afternoon we saw the land
ahead that makes the south of the bay, and before night we had again
sholdings from that shore, and therefore shortened sail and stood
off and on all night, under two topsails, continually sounding,
having never more than ten fathom, and seldom less than seven. The
water deepened and sholdened so very gently, that in heaving the
lead five or six times we should scarce have a foot difference.
When we came into seven fathom either way, we presently went about.
From this south part of the bay we could not see the land from
whence we came in the afternoon; and this land we found to be an
island of three or four leagues long; but it appearing barren, I did
not strive to go nearer it, and the rather because the winds would
not permit us to do it without much trouble, and at the openings the
water was generally shoal: I therefore made no farther attempts in
this south-west and south part of the bay, but steered away to the
eastward, to see if there was any land that way, for as yet we had
seen none there. On the 12th, in the morning, we passed by the
north point of that land, and were confirmed in the persuasion of
its being an island by seeing an opening to the east of it, as we
had done on the west. Having fair weather, a small gale, and smooth
water, we stood further on in the bay to see what land was on the
east of it. Our soundings at first were seven fathom, which held so
a great while, but at length it decreased to six. Then we saw the
land right ahead. We could not come near it with the ship, having
but shoal water, and it being dangerous lying there, and the land
extraordinarily low, very unlikely to have fresh water (though it
had a few trees on it, seemingly mangroves), and much of it probably
covered at high water, I stood out again that afternoon, deepening
the water, and before night anchored in eight fathom, clean white
sand, about the middle of the bay. The next day we got up our
anchor, and that afternoon came to an anchor once more near two
islands and a shoal of coral rocks that face the bay. Here I
scrubbed my ship; and finding it very improbable I should get any
further here, I made the best of my way out to sea again, sounding
all the way; but finding, by the shallowness of the water, that
there was no going out to sea to the east of the two islands that
face the bay, nor between them, I returned to the west entrance,
going out by the same way I came in at, only on the east instead of
the west side of the small shoal: in which channel we had ten,
twelve, and thirteen fathom water, still deepening upon us till we
were out at sea. The day before we came out I sent a boat ashore to
the most northerly of the two islands, which is the least of them,
catching many small fish in the meanwhile, with hook and line. The
boat's crew returning told me that the isle produces nothing but a
sort of green, short, hard, prickly grass, affording neither wood
nor fresh water, and that a sea broke between the two islands--a
sign that the water was shallow. They saw a large turtle, and many
skates and thornbacks, but caught none.

It was August the 14th when I sailed out of this bay or sound, the
mouth of which lies, as I said, in 25 degrees 5 minutes, designing
to coast along to the north-east till I might commodiously put in at
some other port of New Holland. In passing out we saw three water-
serpents swimming about in the sea, of a yellow colour spotted with
dark brown spots. They were each about four foot long, and about
the bigness of a man's wrist, and were the first I saw on this
coast, which abounds with several sorts of them. We had the winds
at our first coming out at north, and the land lying north-easterly.
We plied off and on, getting forward but little till the next day,
when the wind coming at south-south-west and south, we began to
coast it along the shore on the northward, keeping at six or seven
leagues off shore, and sounding often, we had between forty and
forty-six fathom water, brown sand with some white shells. This
15th of August we were in latitude 24 degrees 41 minutes. On the
16th day, at noon, we were in 23 degrees 22 minutes. The wind
coming at east by north, we could not keep the shore aboard, but
were forced to go farther off, and lost sight of the land; then
sounding, we had no ground with eighty-fathom line. However, the
wind shortly after came about again to the southward, and then we
jogged on again to the northward, and saw many small dolphins and
whales, and abundance of cuttle-shells swimming on the sea, and some
water-snakes every day. The 17th we saw the land again and took a
sight of it.

The 18th, in the afternoon, being three or four leagues off shore, I
saw a shoal-point stretching from the land into the sea a league or
more; the sea broke high on it, by which I saw plainly there was a
shoal there. I stood farther off and coasted along shore to about
seven or eight leagues distance, and at twelve o'clock at night we
sounded, and had but twenty fathom, hard sand. By this I found I
was upon another shoal, and so presently steered off west half an
hour, and had then forty fathom. At one in the morning of the 18th
day we had eighty-five fathom; by two we could find no ground, and
then I ventured to steer along shore again due north, which is two
points wide of the coast (that lies north-north-east), for fear of
another shoal. I would not be too far off from the land, being
desirous to search into it wherever I should find an opening or any
convenience of searching about for water, etc. When we were off the
shoal-point I mentioned, where we had but twenty fathom water, we
had in the night abundance of whales about the ship, some ahead,
others astern, and some on each side, blowing and making a very
dismal noise; but when we came out again into deeper water, they
left us; indeed, the noise that they made by blowing and dashing of
the sea with their tails, making it all of a breach and foam, was
very dreadful to us, like the breach of the waves in very shoal
water or among rocks. The shoal these whales were upon had depth of
water sufficient, no less than twenty fathom, as I said, and it lies
in latitude 22 degrees 22 minutes. The shore was generally bold all
along. We had met with no shoal at sea since the Abrohlo shoal,
when we first fell on the New Holland coast in the latitude of 28
degrees, till yesterday in the afternoon and this night. This
morning also, when we expected by the draught we had with us to have
been eleven leagues off shore, we were but four, so that either our
draughts were faulty, which yet hitherto and afterwards we found
true enough as to the lying of the coast, or else here was a tide
unknown to us that deceived us, though we had found very little of
any tide on this coast hitherto; as to our winds in the coasting
thus far, as we had been within the verge of the general trade
(though interrupted by the storm I mentioned), from the latitude of
28 degrees, when we first fell in with the coast, and by that time
we were in the latitude of 25 degrees, we had usually the regular
trade wind (which is here south-south-east) when we were at any
distance from shore; but we had often sea and land breezes,
especially when near shore and when in Shark's Bay, and had a
particular north-west wind or storm that set us in thither. On this
18th of August we coasted with a brisk gale of the true trade wind
at south-south-east, very fair and clear weather; but hauling off in
the evening to sea, were next morning out of sight of land, and the
land now trending away north-easterly, and we being to the northward
of it, and the wind also shrinking from the south-south-east to the
east-south-east (that is, from the true trade wind to the sea
breeze, as the land now lay), we could not get in with the land
again yet awhile so as to see it, though we trimmed sharp and kept
close on a wind. We were this 19th day in latitude 21 degrees 42
minutes. The 20th we were in latitude 19 degrees 37 minutes, and
kept close on a wind to get sight of the land again, but could not
yet see it. We had very fair weather, and though we were so far
from the land as to be out of sight of it, yet we had the sea and
land breezes. In the night we had the land breeze at south-south-
east, a small gentle gale, which in the morning about sun-rising
would shift about gradually (and withal increasing in strength) till
about noon we should have it at east-south-east, which is the true
sea breeze here. Then it would blow a brisk gale so that we could
scarce carry our top-sails double-reefed; and it would continue thus
till three in the afternoon, when it would decrease again. The
weather was fair all the while, not a cloud to be seen, but very
hazy, especially nigh the horizon. We sounded several times this
20th day, and at first had no ground, but had afterwards from fifty-
two to forty-five fathom, coarse brown sand, mixed with small brown
and white stones, with dints besides in the tallow.

The 21st day also we had small land breezes in the night, and sea
breezes in the day, and as we saw some sea-snakes every day, so this
day we saw a great many, of two different sorts or shapes. One sort
was yellow, and about the bigness of a man's wrist, about four feet
long, having a flat tail about four fingers broad. The other sort
was much smaller and shorter, round, and spotted black and yellow.
This day we sounded several times, and had forty-five fathom, sand.
We did not make the land till noon, and then saw it first from our
topmast head; it bore south-east by east about nine leagues
distance, and it appeared like a cape or head of land. The sea
breeze this day was not so strong as the day before, and it veered
out more, so that we had a fair wind to run in with to the shore,
and at sunset anchored in twenty fathom, clean sand, about five
leagues from the Bluff point, which was not a cape (as it appeared
at a great distance), but the easternmost end of an island about
five or six leagues in length, and one in breadth. There were three
or four rocky islands about a league from us, between us and the
Bluff point, and we saw many other islands both to the east and west
of it, as far as we could see either way from our topmast-head, and
all within them to the south there was nothing but islands of a
pretty height, that may be seen eight or nine leagues off; by what
we saw of them they must have been a range of islands of about
twenty leagues in length, stretching from east-north-east to west-
south-west, and, for aught I know, as far as to those of Shark's
Bay, and to a considerable breadth also, for we could see nine or
ten leagues in among them, towards the continent or mainland of New
Holland, if there be any such thing hereabouts; and by the great
tides I met with awhile afterwards, more to the north-east, I had a
strong suspicion that here might be a kind of archipelago of
islands, and a passage possibly to the south of New Holland and New
Guinea into the great South Sea eastward, which I had thoughts also
of attempting in my return from New Guinea, had circumstances
permitted, and told my officers so; but I would not attempt it at
this time, because we wanted water, and could not depend upon
finding it there. This place is in the latitude of 20 degrees 21
minutes, but in the draught that I had of this coast, which was
Tasman's, it was laid down in 19 degrees 50 minutes, and the shore
is laid down as all along joining in one body or continent, with
some openings appearing like rivers, and not like islands as really
they are. This place lies more northerly by 40 minutes than is laid
down in Mr. Tasman's draught, and besides its being made a firm
continued land, only with some openings like the mouths of rivers, I
found the soundings also different from what the pricked line of his
course shows them, and generally shallower than he makes them, which
inclines me to think that he came not so near the shore as his line
shows, and so had deeper soundings, and could not so well
distinguish the islands. His meridian or difference of longitude
from Shark's Bay agrees well enough with my account, which is two
hundred and thirty-two leagues, though we differ in latitude; and to
confirm my conjecture that the line of his course is made too near
the shore, at least not far to the east of this place, the water is
there so shallow that he could not come there so nigh.

But to proceed. In the night we had a small land breeze, and in the
morning I weighed anchor, designing to run in among the islands, for
they had large channels between them of a league wide at least, and
some two or three leagues wide. I sent in my boat before to sound,
and if they found shoal water to return again, but if they found
water enough to go ashore on one of the islands and stay till the
ship came in, where they might in the meantime search for water. So
we followed after with the ship, sounding as we went in, and had
twenty fathom till within two leagues of the Bluff head, and then we
had shoal water and very uncertain soundings; yet we ran in still
with an easy sail, sounding and looking out well, for this was
dangerous work. When we came abreast of the Bluff head, and about
two miles from it, we had but seven fathom, then we edged away from
it, but had no more water, and running in a little farther we had
but four fathoms, so we anchored immediately; and yet when we had
veered out a third of a cable, we had seven fathom water again, so
uncertain was the water. My boat came immediately on board, and
told me that the island was very rocky and dry, and they had little
hopes of finding water there. I sent them to sound, and bade them,
if they found a channel of eight or ten fathom water, to keep on,
and we would follow with the ship. We were now about four leagues
within the outer small rocky islands, but still could see nothing
but islands within us, some five or six leagues long, others not
above a mile round. The large islands were pretty high, but all
appeared dry, and mostly rocky and barren. The rocks looked of a
rusty yellow colour, and therefore I despaired of getting water on
any of them, but was in some hopes of finding a channel to run in
beyond all these islands, could I have spent time here, and either
got to the main of New Holland or find out some other islands that
might afford us water and other refreshments; besides that among so
many islands we might have found some sort of rich mineral, or
ambergris, it being a good latitude for both these. But we had not
sailed above a league farther before our water grew shoaler again,
and then we anchored in six fathom, hard sand.

We were now on the inner side of the island, on whose outside is the
Bluff point. We rode a league from the island, and I presently went
ashore and carried shovels to dig for water, but found none. There
grow here two or three sorts of shrubs, one just like rosemary, and
therefore I called this Rosemary Island; it grew in great plenty
here, but had no smell. Some of the other shrubs had blue and
yellow flowers; and we found two sorts of grain like beans; the one
grew on bushes, the other on a sort of creeping vine that runs along
on the ground, having very thick broad leaves, and the blossom like
a bean blossom, but much larger and of a deep red colour, looking
very beautiful. We saw here some cormorants, gulls, crab-catchers,
etc., a few small land birds, and a sort of white parrots, which
flew a great many together. We found some shell-fish, viz.,
limpets, periwinkles, and abundance of small oysters growing on the
rocks, which were very sweet. In the sea we saw some green turtle,
many sharks, and abundance of water-snakes of several sorts and
sizes. The stones were all of rusty colour, and ponderous.

We saw a smoke on an island three or four leagues off, and here also
the bushes had been burned, but we found no other sign of
inhabitants. It was probable that on the island where the smoke was
there were inhabitants, and fresh water for them. In the evening I
went aboard, and consulted with my officers whether it was best to
send thither, or to search among any other of these islands with my
boat, or else go from hence and coast along shore with the ship,
till we could find some better place than this was to ride in, where
we had shoal water and lay exposed to winds and tides. They all
agreed to go from hence, so I gave orders to weigh in the morning as
soon as it should be light, and to get out with the land breeze.

Accordingly, August 23rd, at five in the morning, we ran out, having
a pretty fresh land breeze at south-south-east. By eight o'clock we
were got out, and very seasonably, for before nine the sea breeze
came on us very strong, and increasing, we took in our top-sails and
stood off under two courses and a mizen, this being as much sail as
we could carry. The sky was clear, there being not one cloud to be
seen, but the horizon appeared very hazy, and the sun at setting the
night before, and this morning at rising, appeared very red. The
wind continued very strong till twelve, then it began to abate; I
have seldom met with a stronger breeze. These strong sea breezes
lasted thus in their turns three or four days. They sprang up with
the sunrise; by nine o'clock they were very strong, and so continued
till noon, when they began to abate; and by sunset there was little
wind, or a calm, till the land breezes came, which we should
certainly have in the morning about one or two o'clock. The land
breezes were between the south-south-west and south-south-east: the
sea breezes between the east-north-east and north-north-east. In
the night while calm, we fished with hook and line, and caught good
store of fish viz., snappers, breams, old-wives, and dog-fish. When
these last came we seldom caught any others; for it they did not
drive away the other fish, yet they would be sure to keep them from
taking our hooks, for they would first have them themselves, biting
very greedily. We caught also a monk-fish, of which I brought home
the picture.

On the 25th of August we still coasted along shore, that we might
the better see any opening; kept sounding, and had about twenty
fathom, clean sand. The 26th day, being about four leagues off
shore, the water began gradually to sholden from twenty to fourteen
fathom. I was edging in a little towards the land, thinking to have
anchored; but presently after the water decreased almost at once,
till we had but five fathom. I durst, therefore, adventure no
farther, but steered out the same way that we came in, and in a
short time had ten fathom (being then about four leagues and a half
from the shore), and even soundings. I steered away east-north-
east, coasting along as the land lies. This day the sea breezes
began to be very moderate again, and we made the best of our way
along shore, only in the night edging off a little for fear of
shoals. Ever since we left Shark's Bay we had fair clear weather,
and so for a great while still.

The 27th day we had twenty fathom water all night, yet we could not
see land till one in the afternoon from our topmast-head. By three
we could just discern land from our quarter-deck; we had then
sixteen fathom. The wind was at north, and we steered east-by-
north, which is but one point in on the land; yet we decreased our
water very fast, for at four we had but nine fathom, the next cast
but seven, which frightened us; and we then tacked instantly and
steed off, but in a short time the wind coming at north-west and
west-north-west, we tacked again and steered north-north-east, and
then deepened our water again, and had all night from fifteen to
twenty fathom.

The 28th day we had between twenty and forty fathom. We saw no land
this day, but saw a great many snakes and some whales. We saw also
some boobies and noddy-birds, and in the night caught one of these
last. It was of another shape and colour than any I had seen
before. It had a small long bill, as all of them have, flat feet
like ducks' feet, its tail forked like a swallow, but longer and
broader, and the fork deeper than that of the swallow, with very
long wings; the top or crown of the head of this noddy was coal-
black, having also small black streaks round about and close to the
eyes; and round these streaks on each side, a pretty broad white
circle. The breast, belly, and under part of the wings of this
noddy were white, and the back and upper part of its wings of a
faint black or smoke colour. Noddies are seen in most places
between the tropics, as well in the East Indies and on the coast of
Brazil, as in the West Indies. They rest ashore at night, and
therefore we never see them far at sea, not above twenty or thirty
leagues, unless driven off in a storm. When they come about a ship
they commonly perch in the night, and will sit still till they are
taken by the seamen. They build on cliffs against the sea, or

The 30th day, being in latitude 18 degrees 21 minutes, we made the
land again, and saw many great smokes near the shore; and having
fair weather and moderate breezes, I steered in towards it. At four
in the afternoon I anchored in eight fathom water, clear sand, about
three leagues and a half from the shore. I presently sent my boat
to sound nearer in, and they found ten fathom about a mile farther
in, and from thence still farther in the water decreased gradually
to nine, eight, seven, and at two miles distance to six fathom.
This evening we saw an eclipse of the moon, but it was abating
before the moon appeared to us; for the horizon was very hazy, so
that we could not see the moon till she had been half an hour above
the horizon; and at two hours twenty-two minutes after sunset, by
the reckoning of our glasses, the eclipse was quite gone, which was
not of many digits. The moon's centre was then 33 degrees 40
minutes high.

The 31st of August, betimes in the morning, I went ashore with ten
or eleven men to search for water. We went armed with muskets and
cutlasses for our defence, expecting to see people there, and
carried also shovels and pickaxes to dig wells. When we came near
the shore we saw three tall, black, naked men on the sandy bay ahead
of us; but as we rowed in, they went away. When we were landed, I
sent the boat with two men in her to lie a little from the shore at
an anchor, to prevent being seized; while the rest of us went after
the three black men, who were now got on the top of a small hill
about a quarter of a mile from us, with eight or nine men more in
their company. They, seeing us coming, ran away. When we came on
the top of the hill where they first stood, we saw a plain savannah,
about half a mile from us, farther in from the sea. There were
several things like hay-cocks standing in the savannah, which at a
distance we thought were houses, looking just like the Hottentots'
houses at the Cape of Good Hope: but we found them to be so many
rocks. We searched about these for water, but could find none, nor
any houses, nor people, for they were all gone. Then we turned
again to the place where we landed, and there we dug for water.

While we were at work there came nine or ten of the natives to a
small hill a little way from us, and stood there menacing and
threatening us, and making a great noise. At last one of them came
towards us, and the rest followed at a distance. I went out to meet
him, and came within fifty yards of him, making to him all the signs
of peace and friendship I could, but then he ran away, neither would
they any of them stay for us to come nigh them, for we tried two or
three times. At last I took two men with me, and went in the
afternoon along by the sea-side, purposely to catch one of them, if
I could, of whom I might learn where they got their fresh water.
There were ten or twelve of the natives a little way off, who,
seeing us three going away from the rest of our men, followed us at
a distance. I thought they would follow us, but there being for
awhile a sand-bank between us and them, that they could not then see
us, we made a halt, and hid ourselves in a bending of the sand-bank.
They knew we must be thereabouts, and being three or four times our
numbers, thought to seize us. So they dispersed themselves, some
going to the sea-shore, and others beating about the sand-hills. We
knew by what rencounter we had had with them in the morning that we
could easily out-run them, so a nimble young man that was with me,
seeing some of them near, ran towards them; and they for some time
ran away before him, but he soon overtaking them, they faced about
and fought him. He had a cutlass and they had wooden lances, with
which, being many of them, they were too hard for him. When he
first ran towards them I chased two more that were by the shore; but
fearing how it might be with my young man, I turned back quickly and
went to the top of a sand-hill, whence I saw him near me, closely
engaged with them. Upon their seeing me, one of them threw a lance
at me, that narrowly missed me. I discharged my gun to scare them,
but avoided shooting any of them, till finding the young man in
great danger from them, and myself in some; and that though the gun
had a little frightened them at first, yet they had soon learnt to
despise it, tossing up their hands and crying, "pooh, pooh, pooh,"
and coming on afresh with a great noise, I thought it high time to
charge again, and shoot one of them, which I did. The rest, seeing
him fall, made a stand again, and my young man took the opportunity
to disengage himself and come off to me; my other man also was with
me, who had done nothing all this while, having come out unarmed,
and I returned back with my men, designing to attempt the natives no
farther, being very sorry for what had happened already. They took
up their wounded companion; and my young man, who had been struck
through the cheek by one of their lances, was afraid it had been
poisoned, but I did not think that likely. His wound was very
painful to him, being made with a blunt weapon; but he soon
recovered of it.

Among the New Hollanders, whom we were thus engaged with, there was
one who by his appearance and carriage, as well in the morning as
this afternoon, seemed to be the chief of them, and a kind of prince
or captain among them. He was a young brisk man, not very tall, nor
so personable as some of the rest, though more active and
courageous: he was painted (which none of the rest were at all)
with a circle of white paste or pigment (a sort of lime, as we
thought) about his eyes, and a white streak down his nose, from his
forehead to the tip of it: and his breast and some part of his arms
were also made white with the same paint; not for beauty or
ornament, one would think, but as some wild Indian warriors are said
to do, he seemed thereby to design the looking more terrible; this
his painting adding very much to his natural deformity; for they all
of them have the most unpleasant looks and the worst features of any
people that ever I saw, though I have seen great variety of savages.
These New Hollanders were probably the same sort of people as those
I met with on this coast in my voyage round the world, for the place
I then touched at was not above forty or fifty leagues to the north-
east of this, and these were much the same blinking creatures (here
being also abundance of the same kind of flesh-flies teazing them,)
and with the same black skins, and hair frizzled, tall and thin, &c.
as those were: but we had not the opportunity to see whether these,
as the former, wanted two of their fore-teeth.

We saw a great many places where they had made fires, and where
there were commonly three or four boughs stuck up to windward of
them; for the wind, (which is the sea-breeze), in the day-time blows
always one way with them, and the land-breeze is but small. By
their fire-places we should always find great heaps of fish-shells
of several sorts; and it is probable that these poor creatures here
lived chiefly on the shell-fish, as those I before described did on
small fish, which they caught in wires or holes in the sand at low
water. These gathered their shell-fish on the rocks at low water
but had no wires (that we saw), whereby to get any other sorts of
fish; as among the former I saw not any heaps of shells as here,
though I know they also gathered some shell-fish. The lances also
of those were such as these had; however, they being upon an island,
with their women and children, and all in our power, they did not
there use them against us, as here on the continent, where we saw
none but some of the men under head, who come out purposely to
observe us. We saw no houses at either place, and I believe they
have none, since the former people on the island had none, though
they had all their families with them.

Upon returning to my men I saw that though they had dug eight or
nine feet deep, yet found no water. So I returned aboard that
evening, and the next day, being September 1st, I sent my boatswain
ashore to dig deeper, and sent the seine within him to catch fish.
While I stayed aboard I observed the flowing of the tide, which runs
very swift here, so that our nun-buoy would not bear above the water
to be seen. It flows here (as on that part of New Holland I
described formerly) about five fathom; and here the flood runs
south-east by south till the last quarter; then it sets right in
towards the shore (which lies here south-south-west and north north-
east) and the ebb runs north-west by north. When the tides
slackened we fished with hook and line, as we had already done in
several places on this coast; on which in this voyage hitherto we
had found but little tides; but by the height, and strength, and
course of them hereabouts, it should seem that if there be such a
passage or strait going through eastward to the great South Sea, as
I said one might suspect, one would expect to find the mouth of it
somewhere between this place and Rosemary Island, which was the part
of New Holland I came last from.

Next morning my men came aboard and brought a runlet of brackish
water which they had got out of another well that they dug in a
place a mile off, and about half as far from the shore; but this
water was not fit to drink. However, we all concluded that it would
serve to boil our oatmeal, for burgoo, whereby we might save the
remains of our other water for drinking, till we should get more:
and accordingly the next day we brought aboard four hogsheads of it:
but while we were at work about the well we were sadly pestered with
the flies, which were more troublesome to us than the sun, though it
shone clear and strong upon us all the while very hot. All this
while we saw no more of the natives, but saw some of the smoke of
some of their fires at two or three miles distance.

The land hereabouts was much like the port of New Holland that I
formerly described; it is low, but seemingly barricaded with a long
chain of sand-hills to the sea, that lets nothing be seen of what is
farther within land. At high water the tides rising so high as they
do, the coast shows very low: but when it is low water it seems to
be of an indifferent height. At low water-mark the shore is all
rocky, so that then there is no landing with a boat; but at high
water a boat may come in over those rocks to the sandy bay, which
runs all along on this coast. The land by the sea for about five or
six hundred yards is a dry sandy soil, bearing only shrubs and
bushes of divers sorts. Some of these had them at this time of the
year, yellow flowers or blossoms, some blue, and some white; most of
them of a very fragrant smell. Some had fruit like peascods, in
each of which there were just ten small peas; I opened many of them,
and found no more nor less. There are also here some of that sort
of bean which I saw at Rosemary Island: and another sort of small
red hard pulse, growing in cods also, with little black eyes like
beans. I know not their names, but have seen them used often in the
East Indies for weighing gold; and they make the same use of them at
Guinea, as I have heard, where the women also make bracelets with
them to wear about their arms. These grow on bushes; but here are
also a fruit like beans growing on a creeping sort of shrub-like
vine. There was great plenty of all these sorts of cod-fruit
growing on the sand-hills by the sea side, some of them green, some
ripe, and some fallen on the ground: but I could not perceive that
any of them had been gathered by the natives; and might not probably
be wholesome food.

The land farther in, that is, lower than what borders on the sea,
was so much as we saw of it, very plain and even; partly savannahs
and partly woodland. The savannahs bear a sort of thin coarse
grass. The mould is also a coarser sand than that by the sea-side,
and in some places it is clay. Here are a great many rocks in the
large savannah we were in, which are five or six feet high, and
round at top like a hay-cock, very remarkable; some red and some
white. The woodland lies farther in still, where there were divers
sorts of small trees, scarce any three feet in circumference, their
bodies twelve or fourteen feet high, with a head of small knibs or
boughs. By the sides of the creeks, especially nigh the sea, there
grow a few small black mangrove-trees.

There are but few land animals. I saw some lizards; and my men saw
two or three beasts like hungry wolves, lean like so many skeletons,
being nothing but skin and bones; it is probable that it was the
foot of one of those beasts that I mentioned as seen by us in New
Holland. We saw a raccoon or two, and one small speckled snake.

The land fowls that we saw here were crows, just such as ours in
England, small hawks and kites, a few of each sort: but here are
plenty of small turtle doves, that are plump, fat, and very good
meat. Here are two or three sorts of smaller birds, some as big as
larks, some less; but not many of either sort. The sea-fowl are
pelicans, boobies, noddies, curlews, seapies, &c., and but few of
these neither.

The sea is plentifully stocked with the largest whales that I ever
saw; but not to compare with the vast ones of the Northern Seas. We
saw also a great many green turtle, but caught none, here being no
place to set a turtle net in; there being no channel for them, and
the tides running so strong. We saw some sharks and parracoots; and
with hooks and lines we caught some rock-fish and old-wives. Of
shell-fish, here were oysters both of the common kind for eating,
and of the pearl kind; and also whelks, conchs, muscles, limpits,
periwinkles, &c., and I gathered a few strange shells, chiefly a
sort not large, and thickset all about with rays or spikes growing
in rows.

And thus having ranged about a considerable time upon this coast,
without finding any good fresh water or any convenient place to
clean the ship, as I had hoped for; and it being moreover the height
of the dry season, and my men growing scorbutic for want of
refreshments, so that I had little encouragement to search further,
I resolved to leave this coast, and accordingly in the beginning of
September set sail towards Timor.

On the 12th of December, 1699, we sailed from Babao, coasting along
the island Timor to the eastward, towards New Guinea. It was the
20th before we got as far as Laphao, which is but forty leagues. We
saw black clouds in the north-west, and expected the wind from that
quarter above a month sooner.

That afternoon we saw the opening between the islands Omba and
Fetter, but feared to pass through in the night. At two o'clock in
the morning it fell calm, and continued so till noon, in which time
we drove with the current back again south-west six or seven

On the 22nd, steering to the eastward to get through between Omba
and Fetter, we met a very strong tide against us, so that although
we had a very fresh gale, we yet made way very slowly; but before
night got through. By a good observation we found that the south-
east point of Omba lies in latitude 8 degrees 25 minutes. In my
drafts it is laid down in 8 degrees 10 minutes. My true course from
Babao, is east 25 degrees north, distance one hundred eighty-three
miles. We sounded several times when near Omba, but had no ground.
On the north-east point of Omba we saw four or five men, and a
little further three pretty houses on a low point, but did not go

At five this afternoon we had a tornado, which yielded much rain,
thunder, and lightning; yet we had but little wind. The 24th in the
morning we caught a large shark, which gave all the ship's company a
plentiful meal.

The 27th we saw the Burning Island; it lies in latitude 6 degrees 36
minutes south; it is high, and but small; it runs from the sea a
little sloping towards the top, which is divided in the middle into
two peaks, between which issued out much smoke: I have not seen
more from any volcano. I saw no trees; but the north side appeared
green, and the rest looked very barren.

Having passed the Burning Island, I shaped my course for two
islands, called Turtle Isles, which lie north-east by east a little
easterly, and distant about fifty leagues from the Burning Isle. I
fearing the wind might veer to the eastward of the north, steered
twenty leagues north-east, then north-east by east. On the 28th we
saw two small low islands, called Lucca-Parros, to the north of us.
At noon I accounted myself twenty leagues short of the Turtle Isles.

The next morning, being in the latitude of the Turtle Islands, we
looked out sharp for them, but saw no appearance of any island till
eleven o'clock, when we saw an island at a great distance. At first
we supposed it might be one of the Turtle Isles, but it was not laid
down true, neither in latitude nor longitude from the Burning Isle,
nor from the Lucca-Parros, which last I took to be a great help to
guide me, they being laid down very well from the Burning Isle, and
that likewise in true latitude and distance from Omba, so that I
could not tell what to think of the island now in sight, we having
had fair weather, so that we could not pass by the Turtle Isles
without seeing them, and this in sight was much too far off for
them. We found variation 1 degrees 2 minutes east. In the
afternoon I steered north-east by east for the islands that we saw.
At two o'clock I went and looked over the fore-yard, and saw two
islands at much greater distance than the Turtle Islands are laid
down in my drafts, one of them was a very high peaked mountain,
cleft at top, and much like the Burning Island that we passed by,
but bigger and higher; the other was a pretty long high flat island.
Now I was certain that these were not the Turtle Islands, and that
they could be no other than the Bande Isles, yet we steered in to
make them plainer. At three o'clock we discovered another small
flat island to the north-west of the others, and saw a great deal of
smoke rise from the top of the high island. At four we saw other
small islands, by which I was now assured that these were the Bande
Isles there. At five I altered my course and steered east, and at
eight east-south-east, because I would not be seen by the
inhabitants of those islands in the morning. We had little wind all
night, and in the morning, as soon as it was light we saw another
high peaked island; at eight it bore south-south-east half-east,
distance eight leagues: and this I knew to be Bird Isle. It is
laid down in our drafts in latitude 5 degrees 9 minutes south, which
is too far southerly by twenty-seven miles, according to our
observation, and the like error in laying down the Turtle Islands
might be the occasion of our missing them.

At night I shortened sail, for fear of coming too nigh some islands,
that stretch away bending like a half moon from Ceram towards Timor,
and which in my course I must of necessity pass through. The next
morning betimes I saw them, and found them to be at a farther
distance from Bird Island than I expected. In the afternoon it fell
quite calm, and when we had a little wind, it was so unconstant,
flying from one point to another, that I could not without
difficulty get through the islands where I designed; besides, I
found a current setting to the southward, so that it was betwixt
five and six in the evening before I passed through the islands, and
then just weathered little Watela, whereas I thought to have been
two or three leagues more northerly. We saw the day before, betwixt
two and three, a spout but a small distance from us, it fell down
out of a black cloud, that yielded great store of rain, thunder and
lightning; this cloud hovered to the southward of us for the space
of three hours, and then drew to the westward a great pace, at which
time it was that we saw the spout, which hung fast to the cloud till
it broke, and then the cloud whirled about to the south-east, then
to east-north-east, where meeting with an island, it spent itself
and so dispersed, and immediately we had a little of the tail of it,
having had none before. Afterwards we saw a smoke on the island
Kosiway, which continued till night.

On New Year's Day we first descried the land of New Guinea, which
appeared to be high land, and the next day we saw several high
islands on the coast of New Guinea, and ran in with the main land.
The shore here lies along east-south-east and west-north-west. It
is high even land, very well clothed with tall flourishing trees,
which appeared very green, and gave us a very pleasant prospect. We
ran to the westward of four mountainous islands, and in the night
had a small tornado, which brought with it some rain and a fair
wind. We had fair weather for a long time, only when near any land
we had some tornadoes; but off, at sea, commonly clear weather,
though, if in sight of land, we usually saw many black clouds
hovering about it.

On the 5th and 6th of January we plied to get in with the land,
designing to anchor, fill water, and spend a little time in
searching the country, till after the change of the moon, for I
found a strong current setting against us. We anchored in thirty-
eight fathom water, good oozy ground. We had an island of a league
long without us, about three miles distant, and we rode from the
main about a mile. The easternmost point of land seen bore east-by-
south half-south, distance three leagues, and the westernmost west-
south-west half-south, distance two leagues. So soon as we
anchored, we sent the pinnace to look for water and try if they
could catch any fish. Afterwards we sent the yawl another way to
see for water. Before night the pinnace brought on board several
sorts of fruits that they found in the woods, such as I never saw
before. One of my men killed a stately land-fowl, as big as the
largest dunghill cock; it was of a sky-colour, only in the middle of
the wings was a white spot, about which were some reddish spots; on
the crown it had a large bunch of long feathers, which appeared very
pretty; his bill was like pigeon's; he had strong legs and feet,
like dunghill fowls, only the claws were reddish; his crop was full
of small berries. It lays an egg as big as a large hen's egg, for
our men climbed the tree where it nested, and brought off one egg.
They found water, and reported that the trees were large, tall, and
very thick, and that they saw no sign of people. At night the yawl
came aboard and brought a wooden fish-spear, very ingeniously made,
the matter of it was a small cane; they found it by a small
barbecue, where they also saw a shattered canoe.

The next morning I sent the boatswain ashore fishing, and at one
haul he caught three hundred and fifty-two mackerel, and about
twenty other fishes, which I caused to be equally divided among all
my company. I sent also the gunner and chief mate to search about
if they could find convenient anchoring near a watering-place; by
night they brought word that they had found a fine stream of good
water, where the boat could come close to, and it was very easy to
be filled, and that the ship might anchor as near to it as I
pleased, so I went thither. The next morning, therefore, we
anchored in twenty-five fathom water, soft oozy ground, about a mile
from the river; we got on board three tuns of water that night, and
caught two or three pike-fish, in shape much like a parracota, but
with a longer snout, something resembling a garr, yet not so long.
The next day I sent the boat again for water, and before night all
my casks were full.

Having filled here about fifteen tuns of water, seeing we could
catch but little fish, and had no other refreshments, I intended to
sail next day, but finding that we wanted wood, I sent to cut some,
and going ashore to hasten it, at some distance from the place where
our men were, I found a small cove, where I saw two barbecues, which
appeared not to be above two months' standing; the spars were cut
with some sharp instrument, so that, if done by the natives, it
seems that they have iron. On the 10th, a little after twelve
o'clock, we weighed and stood over to the north side of the bay, and
at one o'clock stood out with the wind at north and north-north-
west. At four we passed out by a White Island, which I so named
from its many white cliffs, having no name in our drafts. It is
about a league long, pretty high, and very woody; it is about five
miles from the main, only at the west end it reaches within three
miles of it. At some distance off at sea the west point appears
like a cape-land, the north side trends away north-north-west, and
the east side east-south-east. This island lies in latitude 3
degrees 4 minutes south, and the meridian distance from Babao five
hundred and twelve miles east. After we were out to sea, we plied
to get to the northward, but met with such a strong current against
us, that we got but little, for if the wind favoured us in the
night, that we got three or four leagues, we lost it again, and were
driven as far astern next morning, so that we plied here several

The 14th, being past a point of land that we had been three days
getting about, we found little or no current, so that, having the
wind at north-west-by-west and west-north-west, we stood to the
northward, and had several soundings: at three o'clock thirty-eight
fathom, the nearest part of New Guinea being about three leagues'
distance; at four, thirty-seven; at five, thirty-six; at six,
thirty-six; at eight, thirty-three fathom; then the Cape was about
four leagues' distant, so that as we ran off we found our water
shallower; we had then some islands to the westward of us, at about
four leagues' distance.

A little after noon we saw smoke on the islands to the west of us,
and having a fine gale of wind, I steered away for them. At seven
o'clock in the evening we anchored in thirty-five fathom, about two
leagues from an island, good soft oozy ground. We lay still all
night, and saw fires ashore. In the morning we weighed again, and
ran farther in, thinking to have shallower water; but we ran within
a mile of the shore, and came to in thirty-eight fathom good soft
holding ground. While we were under sail two canoes came off within
call of us. They spoke to us, but we did not understand their
language nor signs. We waved to them to come aboard, and I called
to them in the Malayan language to do the same, but they would not.
Yet they came so nigh us that we could show them such things as we
had to truck with them; yet neither would this entice them to come
on board, but they made signs for us to come ashore, and away they
went. Then I went after them in my pinnace, carrying with me
knives, beads, glasses, hatchets, &c. When we came near the shore,
I called to them in the Malayan language. I saw but two men at
first, the rest lying in ambush behind the bushes; but as soon as I
threw ashore some knives and other toys, they came out, flung down
their weapons, and came into the water by the boat's side, making
signs of friendship by pouring water on their heads with one hand,
which they dipped into the sea. The next day, in the afternoon,
several other canoes came aboard, and brought many roots and fruits,
which we purchased.

The island has no name in our drafts, but the natives call it Pub
Sabuda; it is about three leagues long, and two miles wide, more or
less; it is of a good height, so as to be seen eleven or twelve
leagues; it is very rocky, yet above the rocks there is good yellow
and black mould, not deep, yet producing plenty of good tall trees,
and bearing any fruits or roots which the inhabitants plant. I do
not know all its produce, but what we saw were plantains, cocoa-
nuts, pine-apples, oranges, papaes, potatoes, and other large roots.
Here are also another sort of wild jacas, about the bigness of a
man's two fists, full of stones or kernels, which eat pleasant
enough when roasted. The libby tree grows here in the swampy
valleys, of which they make sago cakes. I did not see them make
any, but was told by the inhabitants that it was made of the pith of
the tree, in the same manner I have described in my "Voyage Round
the World." They showed me the tree whereof it was made, and I
bought about forty of the cakes. I bought also three or four
nutmegs in their shell, which did not seem to have been long
gathered; but whether they be the growth of this island or not, the
natives would not tell whence they had them, and seem to prize them
very much. What beasts the island affords I know not, but here are
both sea and land fowl. Of the first, boobies and men-of-war birds
are the chief, some goldens, and small milk-white crab-catchers; the
land-fowl are pigeons, about the bigness of mountain-pigeons in
Jamaica, and crows about the bigness of those in England, and much
like them, but the inner part of their feathers are white, and the
outside black, so that they appear all black, unless you extend the
feathers. Here are large sky-coloured birds, such as we lately
killed on New Guinea, and many other small birds, unknown to us.
Here are likewise abundance of bats, as big as young coneys, their
necks, head, ears, and noses like foxes, their hair rough, that
about their necks is of a whitish yellow, that on their heads and
shoulders black, their wings are four feet over from tip to tip;
they smell like foxes. The fish are bass, rock-fish, and a sort of
fish like mullets, old-wives, whip-rays, and some other sorts that I
knew not; but no great plenty of any, for it is deep water till
within less than a mile of the shore, then there is a bank of coral
rocks, within which you have shoal-water, white clean sand, so there
is no good fishing with the seine.

This island lies in latitude 2 degrees 43 minutes south, and
meridian distance from port Babo, on the island Timor, four hundred
and eighty-six miles: besides this island, here are nine or ten
other small islands.

The inhabitants of this island are a sort of very tawny Indians,
with long black hair, who in their manners differ but little from
the Mindanayans, and others of these eastern islands. These seem to
be the chief; for besides them we saw also shock curl pated New
Guinea negroes, many of which are slaves to the others, but I think
not all. They are very poor, wear no clothes but have a clout about
their middle, made of the rinds of the tops of palmetto trees; but
the women had a sort of calico cloth. Their chief ornaments are
blue and yellow beads, worn about their wrists. The men arm
themselves with bows and arrows, lances, broad swords, like those of
Mindanao; their lances are pointed with bone: they strike fish very
ingeniously with wooden fish-spears, and have a very ingenious way
of making the fish rise; for they have a piece of wood curiously
carved, and painted much like a dolphin (and perhaps other figures);
these they let down into the water by a line with a small weight to
sink it; when they think it low enough, they haul the line into
their boats very fast, and the fish rise up after this figure, and
they stand ready to strike them when they are near the surface of
the water. But their chief livelihood is from their plantations;
yet they have large boats, and go over to New Guinea, where they get
slaves, fine parrots, &c, which they carry to Goram and exchange for
calicoes. One boat came from thence a little before I arrived here,
of whom I bought some parrots, and would have bought a slave but
they would not barter for anything but calicoes, which I had not.
Their houses on this side were very small, and seemed only to be for
necessity; but on the other side of the island we saw good large
houses. Their prows are narrow, with outriggers on each side, like
other Malayans. I cannot tell of what religion these are; but I
think they are not Mahometans, by their drinking brandy out of the
same cup with us without any scruple. At this island we continued
till the 20th instant, having laid in store of such roots and fruits
as the island afforded.

On the 20th, at half an hour after six in the morning, I weighed,
and standing out we saw a large boat full of men lying at the north
point of the island. As we passed by, they rowed towards their
habitations, where we supposed they had withdrawn themselves for
fear of us, though we gave them no cause of terror, or for some
differences among themselves.

We stood to the northward till seven in the evening, then saw a
rippling; and, the water being discoloured, we sounded, and had but
twenty-two fathom. I went about and stood to the westward till two
next morning then tacked again, and had these several soundings: at
eight in the evening, twenty-two; at ten, twenty-five; at eleven,
twenty-seven; at twelve, twenty-eight fathom; at two in the morning,
twenty-six; at four, twenty-four; at six, twenty-three; at eight,
twenty-eight; at twelve, twenty-two.

We passed by many small islands, and among many dangerous shoals
without any remarkable occurrence till the 4th of February, when we
got within three leagues of the north-west cape of New Guinea,
called by the Dutch Cape Mabo. Off this cape there lies a small
woody island, and many islands of different sizes to the north and
north-east of it. This part of New Guinea is high land, adorned
with tall trees, that appeared very green and flourishing. The cape
itself is not very high, but ends in a low sharp point, and on
either side there appears another such point at equal distances,
which makes it resemble a diamond. This only appears when you are
abreast of the middle point, and then you have no ground within
three leagues of the shore.

In the afternoon we passed by the cape and stood over for the
islands. Before it was dark we were got within a league of the
westernmost, but had no ground with fifty fathom of line: however,
fearing to stand nearer in the dark, we tacked and stood to the east
and plied all night. The next morning we were got five or six
leagues to the eastward of that island, and, having the wind
easterly, we stood in to the northward among the islands, sounded,
and had no ground; then I sent in my boat to sound, and they had
ground with fifty fathom near a mile from the shore. We tacked
before the boat came aboard again, for fear of a shoal that was
about a mile to the east of that island the boat went to, from
whence also a shoal-point stretched out itself till it met the
other: they brought with them such a cockle as I have mentioned in
my "Voyage Round the World" found near Celebes, and they saw many
more, some bigger than that which they brought aboard, as they said,
and for this reason I named it Cockle Island. I sent them to sound
again, ordering them to fire a musket if they found good anchoring;
we were then standing to the southward, with a fine breeze. As soon
as they fired, I tacked and stood in; they told me they had fifty
fathom when they fired. I tacked again, and made all the sail I
could to get out, being near some rocky islands and shoals to
leeward of us. The breeze increased, and I thought we were out of
danger, but having a shoal just by us, and the wind failing again, I
ordered the boat to tow us, and by their help we got clear from it.
We had a strong tide setting to the westward.

At one o'clock, being past the shoal, and finding the tide setting
to the westward, I anchored in thirty-five fathom coarse sand, with
small coral and shells. Being nearest to Cockle Island, I
immediately sent both the boats thither, one to cut wood, and the
other to fish. At four in the afternoon, having a small breeze at
south-south-west, I made a sign for my boats to come on board. They
brought some wood, and a few small cockles, none of them exceeding
ten pounds' weight, whereas the shell of the great one weighed
seventy-eight pounds; but it was now high water, and therefore they
could get no bigger. They also brought on board some pigeons, of
which we found plenty on all the islands where we touched in these
seas: also in many places we saw many large bats, but killed none,
except those I mentioned at Pub Sabuda. As our boats came aboard,
we weighed and made sail, steering east-south-east as long as the
wind held. In the morning we found we had got four or five leagues
to the east of the place where we weighed. We stood to and fro till
eleven; and finding that we lost ground, anchored in forty-two
fathom coarse gravelly sand, with some coral. This morning we
thought we saw a sail.

In the afternoon I went ashore on a small woody island, about two
leagues from us. Here I found the greatest number of pigeons that
ever I saw either in the East or West Indies, and small cockles in
the sea round the island in such quantities that we might have laden
the boat in an hour's time. These were not above ten or twelve
pounds' weight. We cut some wood, and brought off cockles enough
for all the ship's company; but having no small shot, we could kill
no pigeons. I returned about four o'clock, and then my gunner and
both mates went thither, and in less than three-quarters of an hour
they killed and brought off ten pigeons. Here is a tide: the flood
sets west and the ebb east, but the latter is very faint and but of
small continuance, and so we found it ever since we came from Timer:
the winds we found easterly, between north-east and east-south-east,
so that if these continue, it is impossible to beat farther to the
eastward on this coast against wind and current. These easterly
winds increased from the time we were in the latitude of about 2
degrees south, and as we drew nigher the line they hung more
easterly: and now being to the north of the continent of New
Guinea, where the coast lies east and west, I find the trade-wind
here at east, which yet in higher latitudes is usually at north-
north-west and north-west; and so I did expect them here, it being
to the south of the line.

The 7th, in the morning, I sent my boat ashore on Pigeon Island, and
stayed till noon. In the afternoon my men returned, brought twenty-
two pigeons, and many cockles, some very large, some small: they
also brought one empty shell, that weighed two hundred and fifty-
eight pounds.

At four o'clock we weighed, having a small westerly wind and a tide
with us; at seven in the evening we anchored in forty-two fathom,
near King William's Island, where I went ashore the next morning,
drank His Majesty's health, and honoured it with his name. It is
about two leagues and a half in length, very high and
extraordinarily well clothed with woods; the trees are of divers
sorts, most unknown to us, but all very green and flourishing; many
of them had flowers, some white, some purple, others yellow: all
which smelt very fragrantly: the trees are generally tall and
straight bodied, and may be fit for any use. I saw one of a clean
body, without knot or limb, sixty or seventy feet high by
estimation; it was three of my fathoms about, and kept its bigness,
without any sensible decrease, even to the top. The mould of the
island is black, but not deep, it being very rocky. On the sides
and top of the island are many palmetto trees, whose heads we could
discern over all the other trees, but their bodies we could not see.

About one in the afternoon we weighed and stood to the eastward,
between the main and King William's Island, leaving the island on
our larboard side, and sounding till we were past the island, and
then we had no ground. Here we found the flood setting east-by-
north, and the ebb west-by-south; there were shoals and small
islands between us and the main, which caused the tide to set very
inconstantly, and make many whirlings in the water; yet we did not
find the tide to set strong any way, nor the water to rise much.

On the 9th, being to the eastward of King William's Island, we plied
all day between the main and other islands, having easterly winds
and fair weather till seven the next morning; then we had very hard
rain till eight, and saw many shoals of fish. We lay becalmed off a
pretty deep bay on New Guinea, about twelve or fourteen leagues
wide, and seven or eight leagues deep, having low land near its
bottom, but high land without. The easternmost part of New Guinea
seen bore east-by-south, distant twelve leagues; Cape Mabo west-
south-west half-south, distant seven leagues.

At one in the afternoon it began to rain, and continued till six in
the evening, so that, having but little wind and most calms, we lay
still off the forementioned bay, having King William's Island still
in sight, though distant by judgment fifteen or sixteen leagues
west. We saw many shoals of small fish, some sharks, and seven or
eight dolphins, but caught none. In the afternoon, being about four
leagues from the shore, we saw an opening in the land, which seemed
to afford good harbour. In the evening we saw a large fire there,
and I intended to go in (if winds and weather would permit) to get
some acquaintance with the natives.

Since the 4th instant that we passed Cape Mabo, to the 12th, we had
small easterly winds and calms, so that we anchored several times,
where I made my men cut wood, that we might have a good stock when a
westerly wind should present, and so we plied to the eastward, as
winds and currents would permit, having not got in all above thirty
leagues to the eastward of Cape Mabo; but on the 12th, at four in
the afternoon, a small gale sprang up at north-east-by-north, with
rain; at five it shuffled about to north-west, from thence to the
south-west, and continued between those two points a pretty brisk
gale, so that we made sail and steered away north-east, till the
13th, in the morning, to get about the Cape of Good Hope. When it
was day we steered north-east half east, then north-east-by-east
till seven o'clock, and, being then seven or eight leagues off
shore, we steered away east, the shore trending east-by-south. We
had very much rain all night, so that we could not carry much sail,
yet we had a very steady gale. At eight this morning the weather
cleared up, and the wind decreased to a fine top-gallant gale, and
settled at west-by-south. We had more rain these three days past,
than all the voyage, in so short a time. We were now about six
leagues from the land of New Guinea, which appeared very high; and
we saw two headlands about twenty leagues asunder, the one to the
east and the other to the west, which last is called the Cape of
Good Hope. We found variation east 4 degrees.

The 15th, in the morning, between twelve and two o'clock, it blew a
very brisk gale at north-west, and looked very black in the south-
west. At two it flew about at once to the south-south-west, and
rained very hard. The wind settled some time at west-south-west,
and we steered east-north-east till three in the morning; then the
wind and rain abating, we steered east-half-north for fear of coming
near the land. Presently after, it being a little clear, the man at
the bowsprit end called out, "Land on our starboard bow." We looked
out and saw it plain: I presently sounded, and had but ten fathom,
soft ground. The master, being somewhat scared, came running in
haste with this news, and said it was best to anchor. I told him
no, but sound again; then we had twelve fathom; the next cast,
thirteen and a half; the fourth, seventeen fathom; and then no
ground with fifty fathom line. However, we kept off the island, and
did not go so fast but that we could see any other danger before we
came nigh it; for here might have been more islands not laid down in
my drafts besides this, for I searched all the drafts I had, if
perchance I might find any island in the one which was not in the
others, but I could find none near us. When it was day we were
about five leagues off the land we saw; but, I believe, not above
five miles, or at most two leagues, off it when we first saw it in
the night.

This is a small island, but pretty high; I named it Providence.
About five leagues to the southward of this there is another island,
which is called William Scouten's Island, and laid down in our
drafts: it is a high island, and about twenty leagues big.

It was by mere providence that we missed the small island; for, had
not the wind come to west-south-west, and blown hard, so that we
steered east-north-east, we had been upon it by our course that we
steered before, if we could not have seen it. This morning we saw
many great trees and logs swim by us, which, it is probable, came
out of some great rivers on the main.

On the 16th we crossed the line, and found variation 6 degrees 26
minutes east. The 18th, by my observation at noon, we found that we
had had a current setting to the southward, and probably that drew
us in so nigh Scouten's Island. For this twenty-four hours we
steered east-by-north with a large wind, yet made but an east-by-
south half south course, though the variation was not above 7
degrees east.

The 21st we had a current setting to the northward, which is against
the true trade monsoon, it being now near the full moon. I did
expect it here, as in all other places. We had variation 8 degrees
45 minutes east. The 22nd we found but little current, if any; it
set to the southward.

On the 23rd, in the afternoon, we saw two snakes, and the next
morning another passing by us, which was furiously assaulted by two
fishes, that had kept us company five or six days; they were shaped
like mackerel, and were about that bigness and length, and of a
yellow-greenish colour. The snake swam away from them very fast,
keeping his head above water; the fish snapped at his tail, but when
he turned himself, that fish would withdraw, and another would snap,
so that by turns they kept him employed, yet he still defended
himself, and swam away a great pace, till they were out of sight.

The 25th, betimes in the morning, we saw an island to the southward
of us, at about fifteen leagues' distance. We steered away for it,
supposing it to be that which the Dutch call Wishart's Island; but,
finding it otherwise, I called it Matthias, it being that saint's
day. This island is about nine or ten leagues long, mountainous and
woody, with many savannahs, and some spots of land which seemed to
be cleared.

At eight in the evening we lay by, intending, if I could, to anchor
under Matthias Isle; but the next morning, seeing another island
about seven or eight leagues to the eastward of it, we steered away
for it. At noon we came up fair with its south-west end, intending
to run along by it and anchor on the south-east side, but the
tornadoes came in so thick and hard that I could not venture in.
This island is pretty low and plain, and clothed with wood; the
trees were very green, and appeared to be large and tall, as thick
as they could stand one by another. It is about two or three
leagues long, and at the south-west point there is another small,
low, woody island, about a mile round, and about a mile from the
other. Between them there runs a reef of rocks which joins them.
(The biggest I named Squally Island.)

Seeing we could not anchor here, I stood away to the southward, to
make the main; but having many hard squalls and tornadoes, we were
often forced to hand all our sails and steer more easterly to go
before it. On the 26th at four o'clock it cleared up to a hard sky
and a brisk settled gale; then we made as much sail as we could. At
five it cleared up over the land, and we saw, as we thought, Cape
Solomaswer bearing south-south-east, distance ten leagues. We had
many great logs and trees swimming by us all this afternoon, and
much grass; we steered in south-south-east till six, then the wind
slackened, and we stood off till seven, having little wind; then we
lay by till ten, at which time we made sail, and steered away east
all night. The next morning, as soon as it was light, we made all
the sail we could, and steered away east-south-east, as the land
lay, being fair in sight of it, and not above seven leagues'
distance. We passed by many small low woody islands which lay
between us and the main, not laid down in our drafts. We found
variation 9 degrees 50 minutes east.

The 28th we had many violent tornadoes, wind, rain, and some spouts,
and in the tornadoes the wind shifted. In the night we had fair
weather, but more lightning than we had seen at any time this
voyage. This morning we left a large high island on our larboard
side, called in the Dutch drafts Wishart's Isle, about six leagues
from the main; and, seeing many smokes upon the main, I therefore
steered towards it.

The mainland at this place is high and mountainous, adorned with
tall, flourishing trees; the sides of the hills had many large
plantations and patches of clear land, which, together with the
smoke we saw, were certain signs of its being well inhabited; and I
was desirous to have some commerce with the inhabitants. Being nigh
shore, we saw first one proa; a little after, two or three more, and
at last a great many boats came from all the adjacent bays. When
they were forty-six in number they approached so near us that we
could see each other's signs and hear each other speak, though we
could not understand them, nor they us. They made signs for us to
go in towards the shore, pointing that way. It was squally weather,
which at first made me cautious of going too near; but the weather
beginning to look pretty well, I endeavoured to get into a bay ahead
of us, which we could have got into well enough at first; but while
we lay by, we were driven so far to leeward that now it was more
difficult to get in. The natives lay in their proas round us; to
whom I showed beads, knives, glasses, to allure them to come nearer.
But they would not come so nigh as to receive anything from us;
therefore I threw out some things to them, viz., a knife fastened to
a piece of board, and a glass bottle corked up with some beads in
it, which they took up, and seemed well pleased. They often struck
their left breast with their right hand, and as often held up a
black truncheon over their heads, which we thought was a token of
friendship, wherefore we did the like. And when we stood in towards
their shore, they seemed to rejoice; but when we stood off, they
frowned, yet kept us company in their proas, still pointing to the
shore. About five o'clock we got within the mouth of the bay, and
sounded several times, but had no ground, though within a mile of
the shore. The basin of this bay was about two miles within us,
into which we might have gone; but as I was not assured of anchorage
there, so I thought it not prudent to run in at this time, it being
near night, and seeing a black tornado rising in the west, which I
most feared. Besides, we had near two hundred men in proas close by
us; and the bays on the shore were lined with men from one end to
the other, where there could not be less than three or four hundred
more. What weapons they had, we knew not, nor yet their design;
therefore I had, at their first coming near us, got up all our small
arms, and made several put on cartouch boxes, to prevent treachery.
At last I resolved to go out again; which, when the natives in their
proas perceived, they began to fling stones at us as fast as they
could, being provided with engines for that purpose, wherefore I
named this place Slinger's Bay; but at the firing of one gun they
were all amazed, drew off, and flung no more stones. They got
together, as if consulting what to do; for they did not make in
towards the shore, but lay still, though some of them were killed or
wounded; and many more of them had paid for their boldness, but that
I was unwilling to cut off any of them, which, if I had done, I
could not hope afterwards to bring them to treat with me.

The next day we sailed close by an island, where we saw many smokes,
and men in the bays, out of which came two or three canoes, taking
much pains to overtake us, but they could not, though we went with
an easy sail, and I could not now stay for them. As I passed by the
south-east point I sounded several times within a mile of the Sandy
Bays, but had no ground. About three leagues to the northward of
the south-east point we opened a large, deep bay, secured from west-
north-west and south-west winds. There were two other islands that
lay to the north-east of it, which secured the bay from north-east
winds; one was but small, yet woody; the other was a league long,
inhabited, and full of cocoa-nut trees. I endeavoured to get into
this bay, but there came such flaws off from the high land over it
that I could not. Besides, we had many hard squalls, which deterred
me from it; and, night coming on, I would not run any hazard, but
bore away to the small inhabited island, to see if we could get
anchorage on the east side of it. When we came there we found the
island so narrow, that there could be no shelter; therefore I tacked
and stood towards the greater island again; and being more than
midway between both, I lay by, designing to endeavour for anchorage
next morning. Between seven and eight at night we spied a canoe
close by us, and seeing no more, suffered her to come aboard. She
had three men in her, who brought off five cocoa-nuts, for which I
gave each of them a knife and a string of beads, to encourage them
to come off again in the morning: but before these went away we saw
two more canoes coming; therefore we stood away to the northward
from them, and then lay by again till day. We saw no more boats
this night, neither designed to suffer any to come aboard in the

By nine o'clock the next morning we were got within a league of the
great island, but were kept off by violent gusts of wind. These
squalls gave us warning of their approach by the clouds which hung
over the mountains, and afterwards descended to the foot of them;
and then it is we expect them speedily.

On the 3rd of March, being about five leagues to leeward of the
great island, we saw the mainland ahead, and another great high
island to leeward of us, distant about seven leagues, which we bore
away for. It is called in the Dutch drafts Garret Dennis Isle. It
is about fourteen or fifteen leagues round, high and mountainous,
and very woody. Some trees appeared very large and tall, and the
bays by the seaside are well stared with cocoa-nut trees, where we
also saw some small houses. The sides of the mountains are thick-
set with plantations, and the mould in the new-cleared land seemed
to be of a brown-reddish colour. This island is of no regular
figure, but is full of points shooting forth into the sea, between
which are many sandy bays, full of cocoa-nut trees. The middle of
the isle lies in 3 degrees 10 minutes south latitude. It is very
populous. The natives are very black, strong, and well-limbed
people, having great round heads, their hair naturally curled and
short, which they shave into several forms, and dye it also of
divers colours--viz., red, white, and yellow. They have broad round
faces, with great bottle-noses, yet agreeable enough till they
disfigure them by painting, and by wearing great things through
their noses as big as a man's thumb, and about four inches long.
These are run clear through both nostrils, one end coming out by one
cheek-bone, and the other end against the other; and their noses so
stretched that only a small slip of them appears about the ornament.
They have also great holes in their ears, wherein they wear such
stuff as in their noses. They are very dexterous, active fellows in
their proas, which are very ingeniously built. They are narrow and
long, with outriggers on one side, the head and stern higher than
the rest, and carved into many devices--viz., some fowl, fish, or a
man's head painted or carved; and though it is but rudely done, yet
the resemblance appears plainly, and shows an ingenious fancy. But
with what instruments they make their proas or carved work I know
not, for they seem to be utterly ignorant of iron. They have very
neat paddles, with which they manage their proas dexterously, and
make great way through the water. Their weapons are chiefly lances,
swords and slings, and some bows and arrows. They have also wooden
fish-spears for striking fish. Those that came to assault us in
Slinger's Bay on the main are in all respects like these, and I
believe these are alike treacherous. Their speech is clear and
distinct. The words they used most when near us were vacousee
allamais, and then they pointed to the shore. Their signs of
friendship are either a great truncheon, or bough of a tree full of
leaves, put on their heads, often striking their heads with their

The next day, having a fresh gale of wind, we got under a high
island, about four or five leagues round, very woody, and full of
plantations upon the sides of the hills; and in the bays, by the
waterside, are abundance of cocoa-nut trees. It lies in the
latitude of 3 degrees 25 minutes south, and meridian distance from
Cape Mabo 1,316 miles. On the south-east part of it are three or
four other small woody islands, one high and peaked, the others low
and flat, all bedecked with cocoa-nut trees and other wood. On the
north there is another island of an indifferent height and of a
somewhat larger circumference than the great high island last
mentioned. We passed between this and the high island. The high
island is called in the Dutch drafts Anthony Cave's Island. As for
the flat, low island, and the other small one, it is probable they
were never seen by the Dutch, nor the islands to the north of Garret
Dennis's Island. As soon as we came near Cave's Island some canoes
came about us, and made signs for us to come ashore, as all the rest
had done before, probably thinking we could run the ship aground
anywhere, as they did their proas, for we saw neither sail nor
anchor among any of them, though most Eastern Indians have both.

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