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ESSAYS, Political, Economical and Philosophical. Volume 1. by Benjamin Rumford

Part 6 out of 7

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forward, great care must be taken to place it at the very top of
the breast, where the canal of the Chimney BEGINS TO RISE
PERPENDICULARLY; otherwise, when the plumb-line is placed too
low, or against the slope of the breast, when the new back comes
to be raised to its proper height, the throat of the Chimney will
found to be too narrow.

Sometimes, and indeed very often the top of the breast of a
Chimney lies very high, or far above the fire (see the figures 13
and 14, where d shows the top of the breast of the Chimney);
when this is the case it must be brought lower, otherwise the
Chimney will be very apt to smoke.--So much has been said in the
First Chapter of this Essay of the advantages to be derived from
bringing the throat of a Chimney near to the burning fuel, that I
do not think it necessary to enlarge on them in this place,--
taking it for granted that the utility and necessity of that
arrangement have already been made sufficiently evident;--
but a few directions for workmen, to show them how the breast
(and consequently the throat) of a Chimney can most readily be
lowered, may not be superfluous.

Where the too great height of the breast of a Chimney is owing to
the great height of the mantle, (see fig. 13,) or, which is the
same thing, of the opening of the Fire-place in front, which will
commonly be found to be the case; the only remedy for the evil
will be to bring down the mantle lower;--or rather, to make the
opening of the Fire-place in front lower, by throwing across the
top of this opening, from one jamb to the other, and immediately
under the mantle, a very flat arch;--a wall of bricks and mortar,
supported on straight bars of iron;--or a piece of stone
(h, fig. 13).--When this is done, the slope of the old throat of
the Chimney, or of the back side of the mantle, is to be filled
up with plaster, so as to form one continued flat, vertical,
or upright plane surface with the lower part of the wall of the
canal of the Chimney, and a new breast is to be formed lower
down, care being taken to round it off properly, and make it
finish at the lower surface of the new wall built under the
mantle;--which wall forms in fact a new mantle.

The annexed drawing fig. 13, which represents the section of a
Chimney in which the breast has been lowered according to the
method here described, will show these various alterations in a
clear and satisfactory manner. In this figure, as well as in
most of the others in this Essay, the old walls are distinguished
from the new ones by the manner in which they are shaded;--
the old walls being shaded by diagonal lines, and the new ones by
vertical lines. The additions, which are formed of plaster,
are shaded by dots instead of lines.

Where the too great height of the breast of a Chimney is
occasioned, not by the height of the mantle, but by the too great
width of the breast, in that case, (which however will seldom be
found to occur,) this defect may be remedied by covering the
lower part of the breast with a thick coating of plaster,
supported, if necessary, by nails or studs, driven into the wall
which forms the breast, and properly rounded off at the lower
part of the mantle.--See fig. 14.


Of the cause of the ascent of smoke.
Illustration of the subject by familiar comparisons and
Of chimnies which affect and cause each other to smoke.
Of chimnies which smoke from want of air.
Of the eddies of wind which sometimes blow down chimnies,
and cause them to smoke.
Explanation of the figures.

Though it was my wish to avoid all abstruse philosophical
investigations in this Essay, yet I feel that it is necessary to
say a few words upon a subject generally considered as difficult
to be explained, which is too intimately connected with the
matter under consideration to be passed over in silence.--
A knowledge of the cause of the ascent of Smoke being indispensably
necessary to those who engage in the improvement of Fire-places,
or who are desirous of forming just ideas relative to the
operations of fire, and the management of heat, I shall devote a
few pages to the investigation of that curious and interesting
subject.--And as many of those who may derive advantage from
these inquiries are not much accustomed to philosophical
disquisitions, and would not readily comprehend either the
language or the diagrams commonly used by scientific writers to
explain the phaenomena in question, I shall take pains to express
myself in the most familiar manner, and to use such comparisons
for illustration as may easily be understood.

If small leaden bullets, or large goose shot, be mixed with peas,
and the whole well shaken in a bushel, the shot will separate
from the peas, and will take its place at the bottom of the
bushel; forcing by its greater weight the peas which are lighter,
to move upwards, contrary to their natural tendency, and take
their places above.

If water and linseed oil, which is lighter than water, be mixed
in a vessel by shaking them together, upon suffering this mixture
to remain quite, the water will descend and occupy the bottom of
the vessel, and the oil, being forced out of its place by the
greater pressure downwards of the heavier liquid, will be obliged
to rise and swim on the surface of the water.

If a bottle containing linseed oil be plunged in water with its
mouth upwards, and open, the oil will ascent out of the bottle,
and passing upwards through the mass of water, in a continued
stream, will spread itself over its surface.

In like manner when two fluids of any kind, of different densities,
come into contact, or are mixed with each other, that which is
the lightest will be forced upwards by that which is the

And as heat rarefies all bodies, fluids as well as solids, air as
well as water, or mercury,--it follows that two portions of the
same fluid, at different temperatures, being brought into contact
with each other, that portion which is the hottest being more
rarefied or specifically LIGHTER than that which is colder, must
be forced upwards by this last.--And this is what always happens
in fact.

When hot water and cold water are mixed, the hottest part of the
mixture will be found to be at the surface above;--and when cold
air is admitted into a warmed room, it will always be found to
take its place at the bottom of the room, the warmer air being in
part expelled, and in part forced upwards to the top of the room.

Both air and water being transparent and colourless fluids,
their internal motions are not easily discovered by the sight,
and when these motions are very slow, they make no impression
whatever on any of our senses, consequently they cannot be
detected by us without the aid of some mechanical contrivance:--
But where we have reason to think that those motions exist,
means should be sought, and may often be found, for rendering
them perceptible.

If a bottle containing hot water tinged with log-wood, or any
other colouring drug, be immersed, with its mouth open,
and upwards, into a deep glass jar filled with cold water,
the ascent of the hot water from the bottle through the mass of
cold water will be perfectly visible through the glass.--
Now nothing can be more evident than that both of these fluids are
forced, or PUSHED, and not DRAWN upwards.--Smoke is frequently
said to be drawn up the Chimney;--and that a Chimney draws well,
or ill;--but these are careless expressions, and lead to very
erroneous ideas respecting the cause of the ascent of Smoke;
and consequently tend to prevent the progress of improvements in
the management of fires.--The experiment just mentioned with the
coloured water is very striking and beautiful, and it is well
calculated to give a just idea of the cause of the ascent of
Smoke. The cold water in the jar, which, in consequence of its
superior weight or density, forces the heated and rarefied water
in the bottle to give place to it, and to move upwards out of
its way, may represent the cold air of the atmosphere, while the
rising column of coloured water will represent the column of
Smoke which ascends from a fire.

If Smoke required a Chimney to DRAW it upwards, how happens it
that Smoke rises from a fire which is made in the open air,
where there is no Chimney?

If a tube, open at both ends, and of such a length that its upper
end be below the surface of the cold water in the jar, be held
vertically over the mouth of the bottle which contains the hot
coloured water, the hot water will rise up through it, just a
smoke rises in a Chimney.

If the tube be previously heated before it is plunged into the
cold water, the ascent of the hot coloured water will be
facilitated and accelerated, in like manner as Smoke is known to
rise with greater facility in a Chimney which is hot, than in one
in which no fire has been made for a long time.--But in neither
of these cases can it, with any propriety, be said, that the hot
water is DRAWN up the tube.--The hotter the water in the bottle
is, and the colder that in the jar, the greater will be the
velocity with which the hot water will be forced up through the
tube; and the same holds of the ascent of hot Smoke in a
Chimney.--When the fire is intense, and the weather very cold,
the ascent of the Smoke is very rapid; and under such
circumstances Chimneys seldom smoke.

As the cold water of the jar immediately surrounding the bottle
which contains the hot water, will be heated by the bottle while
the other parts of the water in the jar will remain cold, this
water so heated, becoming specifically lighter than that which
surrounds it, will be forced upwards; and if it finds its way
into the tube will rise up through it with the coloured hot
water.--The warmed air of a room heated by an open Chimney
Fire-place has always a tendency to rise, (if I may use that
inaccurate expression,) and finding its way into the Chimney
frequently goes off with the Smoke.

What has been said, will, I flatter myself, be sufficient to
explain and illustrate, in a clear and satisfactory manner,
the cause of the ascent of Smoke; and just ideas upon that subject
are absolutely necessary in order to judge, with certainty,
of the merit of any scheme proposed for the improvement of
Fire-places; or to take effectual measures, in all cases,
for curing smoking Chimnies.--For though the perpetual changes
and alterations which are produced by accident, whim, and caprice,
do sometimes lead to useful discoveries, yet the progress of
improvement under such guidance must be exceedingly slow,
fluctuating, and uncertain.

As to the causes of the smoking of Chimnies, they are very
numerous, and various; but as a general idea of them may be
acquired from what has already been said upon that subject in
various parts of this Essay, and as they may, in all cases,
(a very few only excepted,) be completely remedied by making the
alterations in Fire-places here pointed out; I do not think it
necessary to enumerate them all in this place, or to enter into
those long details and investigations which would be required to
show the precise manner in which each of them operates, either
alone, or in conjunction with others.

There is however one cause of smoking Chimnies which I think it
is necessary to mention more particularly.--In modern built
houses, where the doors and windows are generally made to close
with such accuracy that no crevice is left for the passage of the
air from without, the Chimnies in rooms adjoining to each other,
or connected by close passages, are frequently found to affect
each other, and this is easy to be accounted for.--When there is
a fire burning in one of the Chimnies, as the air necessary to
supply the current up the Chimney where the fire burns cannot be
had in sufficient quantities from without, through the very small
crevices of the doors and windows, the air in the room becomes
rarefied, not by heat, but by subtraction of that portion of air
which is employed in keeping up the fire, or supporting the
combustion of the fuel, and in consequence of this rarefaction,
its elasticity is diminished, and being at last overcome by the
pressure of the external air of the atmosphere, this external air
rushes into the room by the only passage left for it, namely, by
the open Chimney of the neighbouring room:--And the flow of air
into the Fire-place, and up the Chimney where the fire is burning
being constant, this expence of air is supplied by a continued
current down the other Chimney.

If an attempt be made to light fires in both Chimnies at the same
time, it will be found to be very difficult to get the fires to
burn, and the rooms will both be filled with Smoke.

One of the fires,--that which is made in the Chimney where the
construction of the Fire-place is best adapted to facilitate the
ascent of the Smoke,--or if both Fire-places are on the same
construction,--that which has the wind most favourable, or in
which the fire happens to be soonest kindled,--will overcome the
other, and cause its Smoke to be beat back into the room by the
cold air which descends through the Chimney.--The most obvious
remedy in this case is to provide for the supply of fresh air
necessary for keeping up the fires by opening a passage for the
external air into the room by a shorter road than down one of the
Chimnies; and when this is done, both Chimnies will be found to
be effectually cured.

But Chimnies so circumstanced may very frequently be prevented
from smoking even without opening any new passage for the
external air, merely by diminishing the draught, (as it is
called,) up the Chimnies; which can best be done by altering
both Fire-places upon the principles recommended and fully
explained in the foregoing Chapters of this Essay.

Should the doors and windows of a room be closed with so much
nicety as to leave no crevices by which a supply of air can enter
sufficient for maintaining the fire, AFTER THE CURRENT OF AIR UP
would be no other way of preventing the Chimney from smoking but
by opening a passage for the admission of fresh air from
without;--but this, I believe, will very seldom be found to be
the case.

A case more frequently to be met with is where currents of air
set down Chimnies in consequence of a diminution and rarefaction
of the air in a room, occasioned by the doors of the room opening
into passages or courts where the air is rarefied by the action
of some particular winds. In such cases the evil may be
remedied, either by causing the doors in question to close more
accurately,--or, (which will be still more effectual,) by giving
a supply of air to the passage or court which wants it, by some
other way.

Where the top of a Chimney is commanded by high buildings, by
clifts, or by high grounds, it will frequently happen, in windy
weather, that the eddies formed in the atmosphere by these
obstacles will blow down the Chimney, and beat down the smoke
into the room.--This it is true will be much less likely to
happen when the throat of the Chimney is contracted and properly
formed than when it is left quite open, and the Fire-place badly
constructed; but as it is POSSIBLE that a Chimney may be so
much exposed to these eddies in very high winds as to be made to
smoke sometimes when the wind blows with violence from a certain
quarter, it is necessary to show how the effects of those eddies
may be prevented.

Various mechanical contrivances have been imagined for
preventing the wind from blowing down Chimnies, and many of them
have been found to be useful;--there are, however, many of these
inventions, which, though they prevent the wind from blowing down
the Chimney, are so ill-contrived on other accounts as to
obstruct the ascent of the Smoke, and do more harm than good.

Of this description are all those Chimney-pots with flat
horizontal plates or roofs placed upon supporters just above the
opening of the pot;--and most of the caps which turn with the
wind are not much better.--One of the most simple contrivances
that can be made use of, and which in most cases will be found to
answer the purpose intended as well or better than more
complicated machinery, is to cover the top of the Chimney with a
hollow truncated pyramid or cone, the diameter of which above, or
opening for the passage of the Smoke, is about 10 or 11 inches.
--This pyramid, or cone, (for either will answer,)--should be of
earthen ware, or of cast iron;--its perpendicular height may be
equal to the diameter of its opening above, and the diameter of
its opening below equal to three times its height.--It should be
placed upon the top of the Chimney, and it may be contrived so as
to make a handsome finish to the brick-work.--Where several
flews come out near each other, or in the same stack of Chimnies,
the form of a pyramid will be better than that of a cone for
these covers.

The intention of this contrivance is, that the winds and eddies
which strike against the oblique surface of these covers may be
reflected upwards instead of blowing down the Chimney.--
The invention is by no means new, but it has not hitherto been
often put in practice.--As often as I have seen it tried it has
been found to be of use; I cannot say, however, that I was ever
obliged to have recourse to it, or to any similar contrivance;
and if I forbear to enlarge upon the subject of these inventions,
it is because I am persuaded that when Chimnies are properly
will be necessary to be done at the top of the Chimney than to
leave it open.

I cannot conclude this Essay without again recommending, in the
strongest manner, a careful attention to the management of fires
in open Chimnies; for not only the quantity of heat produced on
the combustion of fuel depends much on the manner in which the
fire is managed, but even of the heat actually generated a very
small part only will be saved, or usefully employed, when the
fire is made in a careless and slovenly manner.

In lighting a coal fire more wood should be employed than is
commonly used, and fewer coals; and as soon as the fire burns
bright, and the coals are well lighted, and NOT BEFORE, more
coals should be added to increase the fire to its proper

The enormous waste of fuel in London may be estimated by the vast
dark cloud which continually hangs over this great metropolis,
and frequently overshadows the whole country, far and wide;
for this dense cloud is certainly composed almost entirely of
UNCONSUMED COAL, which having stolen wings from the innumerable
fires of this great city has escaped by the Chimnies, and
continues to sail about in the air, till having lost the heat
which gave it volatility, it falls in a dry shower of extremely
fine black dust to the ground, obscuring the atmosphere in its
descent, and frequently changing the brightest day into more than
Egyptian darkness.

I never view from a distance, as I come into town, this black
cloud which hangs over London, without wishing to be able to
compute the immense number of chaldrons of coals of which it is
composed; for could this be ascertained, I am persuaded so
striking a fact would awaken the curiosity, and excite the
astonishment of all ranks of the inhabitants; and PERHAPS turn
their minds to an object of economy to which they have hitherto
paid little attention.


Though the saving of fuel which will result from the improvements
in the forms of CHIMNEY FIRE-PLACES here recommended will be very
considerable, yet I hope to be able to show in a future Essay,
that still greater savings may be made, and more important
advantages derived from the introduction of improvements I shall

I hope likewise to be able to show in an Essay on COTTAGE FIRE-PLACES,
which I am now preparing for publication, that THREE QUARTERS,
at least, of the fuel which cottagers now consume in cooking their
victuals, and in warming their dwellings, may with great ease,
and without any expensive apparatus, be saved.




Fig. 1.
The plan of a Fire-place on the common construction.
A B, the opening of the Fire-place in front.
C D, the back of the Fire-place.
A C and B D, the covings.
See page 341.


Fig. 2.
This figure shows the elevation, or front view of a Fire-place on
the common construction. See page 341.


Fig. 3.
This Figure shows how the Fire-place represented by the Fig. 1,
is to be altered in order to its being improved.

A B is the opening in front,--C D, the back, and A C and B D,
the covings of the Fire-place in its original state.

a b, its opening in front,--i k, its back,--and a i and b k, its
covings after it has been altered, e is a point upon the hearth
upon which a plum suspended from the middle of the upper part of
the breast of the Chimney falls. The situation for the new back
is ascertained by taking the line e f equal to four inches.
The new back and covings are represented as being built of
bricks;--and the space between these and the old back and covings
as being filled up with rubbish. See page 342.


Fig. 4.
This Figure represents the elevation or front view of the
Fire-place Fig. 3. after it has been altered. The lower part of
the door-way left for the Chimney-sweeper is shown in this Figure
by white dotted lines. See page 344.


Fig. 5.
This Figure shows the section of a Chimney Fire-place and of a
part of the canal of the Chimney, on the common construction.

a b is the opening in front; b c, the depth of the Fire-place at
the hearth; d, the breast of the Chimney.

d e, the throat of the Chimney, and d f, g e, a part of the open
canal of the Chimney.


Fig. 6.
Shows a section of the same Chimney after it has been altered.

k l is the new back of the Fire-place; l i, the tile or stone
which closes the door-way for the Chimney-sweeper; d i,
the throat of the Chimney, narrow to four inches; a, the mantle,
and h, the new wall made under the mantle to diminish the height
of the opening of the Fire-place in front.

N.B. These two Figures are sections of the same Chimney which is
represented in each of the four preceding Figures.


Fig. 7.

This Figure represents the ground plan of a Chimney Fire-place in
which the grate is placed in a niche, and in which the original
width A B of the Fire-place is considerably diminished.

a b is the opening of the Fire-place in front after it has been
altered, and d is the back of the niche in which the grate is
placed. See page 347.


Fig. 8.
Shows a front view of the same Fire-place after it has been
altered; where may be seen the grate, and the door-way for the
Chimney-sweeper. See page 347.


Fig. 9.
Shows a section of the same Fire-place, c d e being a section of
the niche, g the door-way for the Chimney-sweeper, closed by a
piece of the fire-stone, and f the new wall under the mantle by
which the height of the opening of the Fire-place in front is
diminished. See page 347.


Fig. 10.
This Figure shows how the covings are to be placed when the front
of the covings (a and b) do not come so far forward as the front
of the opening of the Fire-place, or the jambs (A and B).
See page 348.


Fig. 11.
This Figure shows how the width and obliquity of the covings are
to be accommodated to the width of the back of a Fire-place, in
cases where it is necessary to make the back very wide.
See page 349.


Fig. 12.
This Figure shows how an instrument called a bevel (m n), useful
in laying out the work, in altering Chimney Fire-places, may be
constructed. See page 349.


Fig. 13.
This shows how, when the breast of a Chimney (d) is too high,
it may be brought down by means of a wall (h) placed under the
mantle, and a coating of plaster, which in this Figure is
represented by the part marked by dots. See page 351.


Fig. 14.
This shows how the breast of a Chimney may be brought down merely
by a coating of plaster. See page 351.

Footnotes for essay IV.

Eves and Sutton, bricklayers, Broad Sanctuary, Westminster, have
alone altered above 90 Chimnies.--The experiment was first made
in London at Lord Palmerston's house in Hanover-square;--then two
Chimnies were altered in the house of Sir John Sinclair, Baronet,
President of the Board of Agriculture; one in the room in which
the Board meets, and the other in the Secretary's room; which
last being much frequented by persons from all parts of Great
Britain, it was hoped that circumstances would tend much to
expedite the introduction of these improvements in various parts
of the kingdom. Several Chimnies were altered in the house of
Sir Joseph Banks, Baronet, K. B. President of the Royal Society.
Afterwards a number were altered in Devonshire-house;--in the
house of Earl Besborough, in Cavendish-square, and at his seat at
Roehampton;--at Holywell-house, near St. Alban's, the seat of the
Countess Dowager Spencer:--at Melbourne-house;--at Lady Templeton's
in Portland-place; --at Mrs Montagu's in Portman-square;--
at Lord Sudley's, in Dover-street:--at the Marquis of Salisbury's
seat at Hatfield, and at his house in town;--at Lord Palmerston's
seat at Broadlands, near Southampton, and at several gentlemen's
houses in that neighbourhood;--and a great many others; but it
would be tiresome to enumerate them all; and even these are
mentioned merely for the satisfaction of those who may wish to
make inquiries respecting the success of the experiments.

Having been obliged to carry backward the Fire-place in the
manner here described, in order to accommodate it to a Chimney
whose walls in front were remarkably thin,--I was surprised to
find upon lighting the fire that it appeared to give out more
heat into the room than any Fire-place I had ever constructed.--
This effect was quite unexpected; but the cause of it was too
obvious not to be immediately discovered.--The flame rising from
the fire broke against the part of the back which sloped forward
over the fire, and this part of the back being soon very much
heated, and in consequence of its being very hot, (and when the
fire burnt bright it was frequently quite red hot,) it threw off
into the room a great deal of radiant heat.--It is not possible
that this oblique surface (the slope of the back of the Fire-place)
could have been heated red-hot MERELY by the radiant heat
projected by the burning fuel, for other parts of the Fire-place
nearer the fire, and better situated for receiving radiant heat,
were never found to be so much heated;--and hence it appears that
the combined heat in the current of smoke and hot vapour which
rises from an open fire MAY BE, at least IN PART, stopped in its
passage up the Chimney, changing into radiant heat, and
afterwards thrown into the room.--This opens up a new and very
interesting field for experiment, and bids fair to lead to
important improvements in the construction of Fire-places.--I
have of late been much engaged in these investigations, and am
now actually employed daily in making a variety of experiments
with grates and Fire-places, upon different constructions, in the
room I inhabit in the Royal Hotel in Pall Mall;--and Mr. Hopkins
of Greek-street Soho, Ironmonger to his Majesty, and Mrs. Hempel,
at her Pottery at Chelsea, are both at work in their different
lines of business, under my direction, in the construction of
Fire-places upon a principle entirely new, and which, I flatter
myself, will be found to be not only elegant and convenient,
but very economical.--But as I mean soon to publish a particular
account of these Fire-places,--with drawings and ample directions
for constructing them, I shall not enlarge farther on the subject
in this place.--It may however not be amiss just to mention here,
that these new-invented Fire-places not being fixed to the walls
of the Chimney, but merely set down upon the hearth, may be used
in any open Chimney: and that Chimnies altered or constructed on
the principles here recommended are particularly well adapted for
receiving them.

The Public in general, and more particularly those Tradesmen and
Manufacturers whom it may concern, are requested to observe, that
as the Author does not intent to take out himself, or to suffer
others to take out, any patent for any invention of his which may
be of public utility, all persons are at full liberty to imitate
them, and vend them, for their own emolument, when and where,
and in any way they may think proper; and those who may wish for
any further information respecting any of those inventions or
improvements will receive (gratis) all the information they can
require by applying to the Author, who will take pleasure in
giving them every assistance in his power.

Kindling balls composed of equal parts of coal,--charcoal,
--and clay, the two former reduced to a fine powder, well mixed
and kneaded together with the clay moistened with water, and then
formed into balls of the size of hens eggs, and thoroughly dried,
might be used with great advantage instead of wood for kindling
fires. These kindling balls may be made so inflammable as to
take fire in an instant and with the smallest spark, by dipping
them in a strong solution of nitre and then drying them again,
and they would neither be expensive nor liable to be spoiled by
long keeping. Perhaps a quantity of pure charcoal reduced to a
very fine powder and mixed with the solution of nitre in which
they are dipped would render them still more inflammable.

I have often wondered that no attempts should have been made to
improve the fires which are made in the open Chimnies of elegant
apartments, by preparing the fuel; for nothing surely was ever
more dirty, inelegant, and disgusting than a common coal fire.

Fire balls of the size of goose eggs, composed of coal and
charcoal in powder, mixed up with a due proportion of wet clay,
and well dried, would make a much more cleanly, and in all
respects a pleasanter fire than can be made with crude coals;
and I believe would not be more expensive fuel. In Flanders and
in several parts of Germany, and particular in the Dutchies of
Juliers and Bergen, where coals are used as fuel, the coals are
always prepared before they are used, by pounding them to a
powder, and mixing them up with an equal weight of clay,
and sufficient quantity of water to form the whole into a mass
which is kneaded together and formed into cakes; which cakes are
afterwards well dried and kept in a dry place for use.
And it has been found by long experience that the expense
attending this preparation is amply repaid by the improvement of
the fuel. The coals, thus mixed with the clay, not only burn
longer, but give much more heat than when they are burnt in their
crude state.

It will doubtless appear extraordinary to those who have not
considered the subject with some attention, that the quantity of
heat produced in the combustion of any quantity of coals should
be increased by mixing the coals with clay, which is certainly an
incombustible body;--but the phenomenon may, I think, be explained
in a satisfactory manner.

The heat generated in the combustion of any small particle of
coal existing under two distinct forms, namely, in that which is
COMBINED with the flame and smoke which rise from the fire, and
which if means are not found to stop it, goes off immediately by
the Chimney and is lost,--and the RADIANT HEAT which is sent off
from the fire, in all directions in right lines:--I think it
reasonable to conclude, that the particles of clay which are
surrounded on all sides by the flame arrest a part at least of
the combined heat, and prevent its escape; and this combined
heat, so arrested, heating the clay red hot, is retained in it,
and being changed by this operation to radiant heat, is
afterwards emitted, and may be directed, and employed to useful

In composing fire balls, I think it probable that a certain
proportion of chaff--of straw cut very fine, or even saw dust,
might be employed with great advantage. I wish those who have
leisure would turn their thoughts to this subject, for I am
persuaded that very important improvements would result from a
thorough investigation of it.


Lately formed in Bavaria.
together with the

Account I
A Short Account of the military academy at munich

Account II
An account of the means used to improve the bread of horses,
and horned cattle, in Bavaria and the Palatinate.

Account III
An account of the measures adopted for putting an end to usury at

Account IV
An account of a scheme for employing the soldiery in Bavaria in
repairing the highways and public roads.


No. I
Address and petition to all inhabitants and citizens of Munich,
in the name of the real poor and distressed.

No. II
Subscription lists distributed among the inhabitants of Munich,
in the month of January 1790, when the establishment for the
relief of the poor in that city was formed.

An account of the receipts and expenditures of the institution
for the poor at Munich during five years.

No. IV
Certificate relative to the expence of fuel in the public kitchen
of the military workhouse at Munich.

No. V
Printed form for the descriptions of the poor.

No. VI
Printed form for spin-tickets, such as are used at the military
workhouse at Munich.

An Account of experiments made at the bakehouse of the military
workhouse at Munich, November the 4th and 5th, 1794.

Account of the persons in the house of industry in Dublin the
30th of April 1796, and of the details of the manner and expence
of feeding them.

No. IX
An account of an experiment made (under the direction of the
author,) in the kitchen of the house of industry at Dublin,
in cooking for the poor.


A short Account of the MILITARY ACADEMY at MUNICH.

Though it is certain that too much learning is rather
disadvantageous than otherwise to the lower classes of the
people;--that the introduction of a spirit of philosophical
investigation,--literary amusement,--and metaphysical speculation
among those who are destined by fortune to gain their livelihood
by the sweat of their brow, rather tends to make them
discontented and unhappy, than to contribute any thing to their
real comfort and enjoyments; yet there appears, now and then,
a native genius in the most humble stations, which it would be
a pity not to be able to call forth into activity. It was
principally with a view to bring forward such extraordinary
talents, and to employ them usefully in the public service,
that the Military Academy at Munich was instituted. This Academy,
which consists of 180 eleves or pupils, is divided into three
classes. The first class, which is designed for the education of
orphans and other children of the poorer class of Military
Officers, and those employed in the Civil Departments of the
State, consists of thirty pupils, who are received gratis,
from the age of eleven to thirteen years, and who remain in the
Academy for years. The second class, which is designed to assist
the poorer nobility, and less opulent among the merchants,
citizens, and servants of government, in giving their sons a good
general education, consists of sixty pupils, who are received
from the age of eleven to fifteen years, and who pay to the
Academy twelve florins a month; for which sum they are fed,
clothed, and instructed. The third class, consisting of ninety
pupils, from the age of fifteen to twenty years, who are all
admitted gratis, is designed to bring forward such youths among
the lower classes of the people as show evident signs of UNCOMMON
TALENTS and genius, joined to a sound constitution of body, and a
good moral character.

All Commanding Officers of regiments, and Public Officers in
Civil departments, and all Civil Magistrates, are authorised and
INVITED to recommend subjects for this class of the Academy,
and they are not confined in their choice to any particular ranks
of society, but they are allowed to recommend persons of the lowest
extraction, and most obscure origin. Private soldiers, and the
children of soldiers, and even the children of the meanest
mechanics and day-labourers, are admissible, provided they
possess the necessary requisites; namely, VERY EXTRAORDINARY
NATURAL GENIUS, a healthy constitution, and a good character;
but if the subject recommended should be found wanting in any of
these requisite qualifications, he would not only be refused
admittance into the Academy, but the person who recommended him
would be very severely reprimanded.

The greatest severity is necessary upon these occasions, otherwise
it would be impossible to prevent abuses. An establishment,
designed for the encouragement of genius, and for calling forth
into public utility talents which would otherwise remain buried
and lost in obscurity, would soon become a job for providing for
relations and dependants.

One circumstance, relative to the internal arrangement of this
Academy, may, perhaps, be though not unworthy of being
particularly mentioned, and that is the very moderate expence at
which the institution is maintained. By a calculation, founded
upon the experience of four years, I find that the whole Academy,
consisting of 180 pupils, with professors and masters of every
kind, servants, clothing, board, lodging, fire-wood, light,
repairs, and every other article, house-rent alone excepted,
amounts to no more than 28,000 florins a-year, which is no more
than 155 florins, or about fourteen pounds sterling a-year for
each pupil; a small sum indeed, considering the manner in which
they are kept, and the education they receive.

Though this Academy is called a Military Academy, it is by no
means confined to the education of those who are destined for the
army; but it is rather an establishment of general education,
where the youth are instructed in every science, and taught every
bodily exercise, and personal accomplishment, which constitute a
liberal education; and which fits them equally for the station of
a private gentleman,--for the study of any of the learned
professions,--or for any employment, civil or military, under the

As this institution is principally designed as a nursery for
genius,--as a gymnasium for the formation of men,--for the
formation of REAL MEN, possessed of strength and character, as
well as talents and accomplishments, and capable of rendering
essential service to the state; at all public examinations of the
pupils, the heads of all the pupil departments are invited to be
present, in order to witness the progress of the pupils, and to
mark those who discover talents peculiarly useful in any
particular departments or public employment.

How far the influence of this establishment may extend, time must
discover. It has existed only six years; but even in that short
period, we have had several instances of very uncommon talents
having been called forth into public view, from the most obscure
situations. I only wish that the institution may be allowed to

An Account of the Means used to improve the BREED of HORSE,

Through many parts of the Elector's dominions are well adapted
for the breeding of fine horses, and great numbers of horses are
actually bred[1]; yet no great attention had for many years been
paid to the improvement of the breed; and most of the horses of
distinction, such as were used by the nobility as saddle-horses
and coach-horses, were imported from Holstein and Mecklenburg.

Being engaged in the arrangement of a new military system for the
country, it occurred to me that, in providing horses for the use
of the army, and particularly for the train of artillery, such
measures might be adopted as would tend much to improve the breed
of horses throughout the country; and my proposals meeting with
the approbation of his Most Serene Electoral Highness, the plan
was carried into execution in the following manner:

A number of fine mares were purchased with money take from the
military chest, and being marked with an M (the initial of

Militaria), in a circle, upon the left hip, with a hot iron,
they were given to such of the peasants, owning or leasing farms
proper for breeding good horses, as applied for them.
The conditions upon which these brood mares were given away were
as follows:

They were, in the first place, given away gratis, and the person
who received one of these mares is allowed to consider her as his
own property, and use her in any kind of work he thinks proper;
he is, however, obliged not only to keep her, and not to sell her,
or give her away, but he is also under obligations to keep her as
a brood mare, and to have her regularly covered every season,
by a stallion pointed out to him by the commissioners, who are put
at the head of this establishment. If she dies, he must replace
her with another brood mare, which must be approved by the
commissioners, and then marked.--If one of these mares should be
found not to bring good colts, or to have any blemish, or
essential fault or imperfection, she may be changed for another.

The stallions which are provided for these mares, and which are
under the care of the commissioners, are provided gratis;
and the foals are the sole property of those who keep the mares,
and they may sell them, or dispose of them, when and where,
and in any way they may think proper, in the same manner as they
dispose of any other foal, brought by any other mare.

In case the army should be obliged to take the field, AND IN NO
OTHER CASE WHATEVER, those who are in possession of these mares
are obliged either to return them, or to furnish, for the use of
the army, another horse fit for the service of the artillery.

The advantages of this arrangement to the army are obvious.
In the case of an emergency, horses are always at hand, and these
horses being bought in time of peace cost much less than it would
be necessary to pay for them, were they to be purchased in a
hurry upon the breaking out of a war, upon which occasions they
are always dear, and sometimes not to be had for money.

It may perhaps be objected, that the money being laid out so long
before the horses are wanted, the loss of the interest of the
purchase-money ought to be taken into account; but as large sums
of money must always be kept in readiness in the military chest,
to enable the army to take the field suddenly, in case it should
be necessary; and as a part of this money must be employed in the
purchase of horses; it may as well be laid out beforehand, as to
lie dead in the military chest till the horses are actually
wanted; consequently the objection is not founded.

I wish I could say, that this measure had been completely
successful; but I am obliged to own, that it has not answered my
expectations. Six hundred mares only were at first ordered to be
purchased and distributed; but I had hopes of seeing that number
augmented soon to as many thousands; and I had even flattered
myself with an idea of the possibility of placing in this manner
among the peasants, and consequently having constantly in
readiness, without any expence, a sufficient number of horses
for the whole army; for the cavalry as well as for the artillery
and baggage; and I had formed a plan for collecting together and
exercising, every year, such of these horses as were destined for
the service of the cavalry, and for permitting their riders to go
on furlough with their horses: in short, my views went to the
forming of an arrangement, very economical, and in many respects
similar to that of the ancient feudal military system; but the
obstinacy of the peasantry prevented these measures being carried
into execution. Very few of them could be prevailed upon to
accept of these horses; and in proportion as the terms upon which
they were offered to them were apparently advantageous, their
suspicions were increased, and they never would be persuaded that
there was not some trick at the bottom of the scheme to
over-reach them.

It is possible that their suspicions were not a little increased
by the malicious insinuations of persons, who, from motives too
obvious to require any explanation, took great pains at that
time to render abortive every public undertaking in which I was
engaged. But be that as it may, the fact is, I could never find
means to remove these suspicions entirely, and I met with so much
difficulty in carrying the measure into execution, that I was
induced at last to abandon it, or rather to postpone its
execution to a more favourable moment. Some few mares (two or
three hundred) were placed in different parts of the country;
and some very fine colts have been produced from them, during the
six years that have elapsed since this institution was formed;
but these slow advances do not satisfy the ardour of my zeal for
improvement; and if means are not found to accelerate them,
Bavaria, with all her natural advantages for breeding fine
horses, must be obliged, for many years to come, to continue to
import horses from foreign countries.

My attempts to improve the breed of horned cattle, though
infinitely more confined, have been proportionally much more
successful. Upon forming the public garden at Munich, as the
extent of the grounds is very considerable, the garden being
above six English miles in circumference, and the soil being
remarkably good, I had an opportunity of making, within the
garden, a very fine and a very valuable farm; and this farm being
stocked with about thirty of the finest cows that could be
procured from Switzerland, Flanders, Tyrol, and other places upon
the Continent famous for a good breed of horned cattle; and this
flock being refreshed annually with new importations of cows as
well as bulls, all the cows which are produced, are distributed
in the country, being sold to any person of the country who
applies for them, AND WITH PROMISE TO REAR THEM, at the same low
prices at which the most ordinary calves of the common breed of
the country are sold to the butchers.

Though this establishment has existed only about six years, it is
quite surprising what a change it has produced in the country.
As there is a great resort to Munich from all parts of the country,
it being the capital, and the residence of the Sovereign, the new
English garden (as it is called), which begins upon the ramparts
of the town, and extends near two English miles in length, and
is always kept open, is much frequented, and there are few who go
into the garden without paying a visit to the cows, which are
always at home. Their stables, which are concealed in a thick
wood behind a public coffee-house or tavern in the middle of the
garden, are elegantly fitted up and kept with great care; and the
cows, which are not only large, and remarkably beautiful, but are
always kept perfectly clean, and in the highest condition, are an
object of public curiosity. Those who are not particularly
interested in the improvement of cattle, go to see them as
beautiful and extraordinary animals; but farmers and connoisseurs
go to EXAMINE them,--to compare them with each other,--and with
the common breed of the country, and to get information with
respect to the manner of feeding them, and the profits derived
from them; and so rapidly has the flame of improvement spread
throughout every part of Bavaria from this small spark, that I
have no doubt but in a very few years the breed of horned cattle
will be quite changed.

Not satisfied with the scanty supply furnished from the farm in
the English garden, several of the nobility, and some of the most
wealthy and enterprising of the farmers, are sending to Switzerland,
and other distant countries famous for fine cattle, for cows and
bulls; and the good effects of these exertions are already
visible in many parts of the country.

How very easy would it be by similar means to introduce a spirit
of improvement in any country! and where sovereigns do not make
public gardens to bring together a concourse of people,
individuals might do it by private subscription, or at least they
might unite together and rent a large farm in the neighbourhood
of the capital, for the purpose of making useful experiments.
If such a farm were well managed, the produce of it would be more
than sufficient to pay all the expenses attending it; and if the
grounds and fields were laid out with taste--if good roads for
carriages and for those who ride on horseback were made round it,
and between all the fields--if the stables were elegantly fitted
up--filled with beautiful cattle, kept perfectly clean and neat;
and if a handsome inn were erected near the buildings of the
farm, where those who visited it might be furnished with
refreshment, it would soon become a place of public resort and
improvements in agriculture would become A FASHIONABLE AMUSEMENT;
the ladies even would take pleasure in viewing from their
carriages the busy and most interesting scenes of rural industry,
and it would no longer be thought vulgar to understand the
mysteries of Ceres.

Why should not Parliament purchase, or rent such a farm in the
neighbourhood of London, and put it under the direction of the
Board of Agriculture? The expence would be but a mere trifle,
if any thing, and the institution would not only be useful,
but extremely interesting; and it would be an inexhaustible
source of rational and innocent amusement, as well as of
improvement to vast numbers of the most respectable inhabitants
of this great metropolis.

In former times, statesmen considered the amusement of the public
as an object of considerable importance, and pains were taken to
render the public amusements useful in forming the national

An Account of the Measures adopted for putting an End to USURY

Another measure, more limited in its operations than those before
mentioned, but which notwithstanding was productive of much good,
was adopted, in which a part of the treasure which was lying dead
in the military chest was usefully employed for the relief of a
considerable number of individuals, employed in subordinate
stations under the government, who stood in great need of

A practice productive of much harm to the public service, as well
as to individuals, had prevailed for many years in Bavaria in
almost all the public departments of the state, that of
appointing a great number of supernumerary clerks, secretaries,
counsellors, etc. who, serving without pay, or with only small
allowances, were obliged, in order to subsist till such time as
they should come into the receipt of the regulated salaries
annexed to their offices, to contract debts to a considerable
amount; and as many of them had no other security to give for the
sums borrowed, than their promise to repay them when it should be
in their power, no money-lender who contented himself with legal
interest for his money would trust them; and of course they were
obliged to have recourse to Jews and other usurers, who did not
afford them the temporary assistance they required, but upon the
most exorbitant and ruinous conditions; so that these unfortunate
people, instead of finding themselves at their ease upon coming
into possession of the emoluments of their offices, were
frequently so embarrassed in their circumstances as to be obliged
to mortgage their salaries for many months to come, to raise
money to satisfy their clamorous creditors; and from this
circumstance, and from the general prevalence of luxury and
dissipation among all ranks of society, the anticipation of
salaries had become so prevalent, and the conditions upon which
money was advanced upon such security was so exorbitant, that
this alarming evil called for the most serious attention of the

The interest commonly paid for money, advanced upon receipts for
salaries, was 5 PER CENT. PER MONTH, or three creutzers, for the
florin; and there were instances of even much larger interest
being given.

The severest laws had been made to prevent these abuses,
but means were constantly found to evade them; and, instead of
putting an end to the evil, they frequently served rather to
increase it.

It occurred to me, that as any tradesman may be ruined by another
who can afford to undersell him, so it might be possible to ruin
the usurers, by setting up the business in opposition to them,
and furnishing money to borrowers upon more reasonable terms.
In order to make this experiment, a caise of advance (Vorschuss
Cassa), containing 30,000 florins, was established at the
military pay-office, where any person in the actual receipt of a
salary or pension under government, in any department of the
state, civil or military, might receive in advance, upon his
personal application, his salary or pension for one or for two
months upon a deduction of interest at the rate of 5 PER CENT.
PER ANNUM, or one twelfth part of the interest commonly extorted
by the Jews and other usurers upon those occasions.

The great number of persons who have availed themselves of the
advantages held out to them by this establishment, and who still
continue to avail themselves of them, shows how effectually the
establishment has been to remedy the evil it was designed to

The number of persons who apply to this chest for assistance each
month, is at a medium from 300 to 400, and the sums actually in
advance, amount in general to above 20,000 florins.

As no money is advanced from this chest but upon government
securities that is to say, upon receipts for salaries,
and pensions, there is no risque attending the operation;
and as the interest arising from the money advanced, is more
than sufficient to defray the expence of carrying on the
business, there is no loss whatever attending it.

An Account of a SCHEME for employing the SOLDIERY in BAVARIA
in repairing the Highways and Public Roads.

I had formed a plan, which, if it had been executed, would have
rendered the military posts or patroles of cavalry established in
all parts of the Elector's dominions much more interesting,
and more useful[2]. I wished to have employed the soldiery
exclusively in the repairs of all the highways in the country,
and to have united this undertaking with the establishment of
permanent military stations, on all the high roads, for the
preservation of order and public tranquillity.

It is a great hardship upon the inhabitants in any country to be
obliged to leave their own domestic affairs, and turn out with
their cattle and servants, when called upon, to work upon the
public roads; but this was peculiarly grievous in Bavaria, where
labourers are so scarce that the farmers are frequently obliged
to leave a great part of their grounds uncultivated for want of

My plan was to measure all the public roads from the capital cities
in the Elector's dominions to the frontiers, and all cross country
roads; placing mile-stones regularly numbered upon each road,
at regular distances of one hour, or half a German mile from each
other;--to divide each road into as many stations as it
contained mile-stones; each station extending from one mile-stone
to another; and to erect in the middle of each station, by the
road-side, a small house, with stabling for three or four horses,
and with a small garden adjoining to it;--to place in each of
these houses, a small detachment of cavalry of three or four men,
--a soldier on furlough, employed to take care of the road and
keep it in repair within the limits of the station;--an invalid
soldier to take care of the house, and to receive orders and
messages in the absence of the others,--to take care of the
garden, to provide provisions, and cook for the family.

If any of the soldiers should happen to be married, his wife
might have been allowed to lodge in the house, upon condition of
her assisting the invalid soldier in this service; or a pensioned
soldier's widow might have been employed for the same purpose.

To preserve order and discipline in these establishments, it was
proposed to employ active and intelligent non-commissioned
officers as overseers of the highways, and to place these under
the orders of superior officers appointed to preside over more
extensive districts.

It was proposed likewise to plant rows of useful trees by the
road-side from one station to another throughout the whole
country, and it was calculated that after a certain number of
years the produce of those trees would have been nearly
sufficient to defray all the expences of repairing the roads.

Such an arrangement, with the striking appearance of order and
regularity that would accompany it, could not have failed to
interest every person of feeling who saw it; and I am persuaded
that such a scheme might be carried into execution with great
advantage in most countries where standing armies are kept up in
time of peace. The reasons why this plan was not executed in
Bavaria at the time it was proposed are too long, and too foreign
to my present purpose to be here related. Perhaps a time may
come when they will cease to exist.


ADDRESS and PETITION to all the Inhabitants and Citizens of
MUNICH, in the Name of the real Poor and Distressed.

(Translated from the German).

Too long have the public honour and safety, morality and religion,
called aloud for the extirpation of an evil, which, though habit
has rendered it familiar to us, always appears in all its horrid
and disgusting shapes; and whose dangerous effects show
themselves every where, and are increasing every day.

Too long already have the virtuous citizens of this metropolis
seen with concern the growing numbers of the Beggars, their
impudence, and their open and shameless debaucheries; yet
idleness and mendicity (those pests of society) have been so
feebly counteracted, that, instead of being checked and
suppressed, they have triumphed over those weak attempts to
restrain them and acquiring fresh vigour and activity from
success, have spread their baleful influence far and wide.

What well-affected citizen can be indifferent to the shame that
devolves upon himself and upon his country, when whole swarms of
dissolute rabble, covered with filthy rags, parade the streets,
and by tales of real or of fictitious distress--by clamorous
importunity, insolence, and rudeness, extort involuntary
contributions from every traveller? When no retreat is to be found,
no retirement where poverty, misery, and impudent hypocrisy, in
all their disgusting and hideous forms, do not continually
intrude; when no one is permitted to enjoy a peaceful moment,
free from their importunity, either in the churches or in public
places, at the tombs of the dead, or at the places of amusement?
What avail the marks of affluence and prosperity which appear in
the dress and equipage of individuals, in the elegance of their
dwellings, and in the magnificence and splendid ornaments of our
churches, while the voice of woe is heard in every corner,
proceeding from the lips of hoary age worn out with labour; from
strong and healthy men capable of labour; from young infants and
their shameless and abandoned parents? What reputable citizen
would not blush, if among the inmates of his house should be
found a miserable wretch, who by tales of real or fictitious
distress should attempt to extort charitable donations from his
friends and visitors? What opinion would he expect would be
formed of his understanding--of his heart--of his circumstances?
What then must the foreigner and traveller think, who, after
having seen no vestige of Beggary in the neighbouring countries,
should, upon his arrival at Munich, find himself suddenly
surrounded by a swarm of groaning winching wretches, besieging
and following his carriage?

THE PUBLIC HONOUR calls aloud to have a stop put to this
disgraceful evil.

THE PUBLIC SAFETY also demands it. The dreadful consequences
are obvious, which must ensue when great numbers of healthy
individuals, and whole families, live in idleness, without any
settled abode, concluding every day with schemes for defrauding
the public of their subsistence for the next: where the children
belonging to this numerous society are made use of to impose on
the credulity of the benevolent, and where they are regularly
trained, from their earliest infancy, in all those infamous
practices, which are carried on systematically, and to such an
alarming extent among us.

Great numbers of these children grow up to die under the hands of
the executioner. The only instruction they receive from their
parents is how to cheat and deceive; and daily practice in lying
and stealing from their very infancy, renders them uncommonly
expert in their infamous trade. The records of the courts of
justice show in innumerable instances, that early habits of
Idleness and Beggary are a preparation for the gallows; and among
the numerous thefts that are daily committed in this capital,
there are very few that are not committed by persons who get into
the houses under the pretext of asking for charity.

What person is ignorant of these facts? and who can demand
further proofs of the necessity of a solid and durable
institution, for the relief and support of the Poor?

The reader would be seized with horror, were we to unveil all the
secret abominations of these abandoned wretches. They laugh
alike at the laws of God and of man. No crime is too horrible
and shocking for them, nothing in heaven or on the earth too holy
not to be profaned by them without scruple, and employed with
consummate hyprocrisy to their wicked purposes[3].

Whence is it that this evil proceeds? not from the inability of
this great capital to provide for its Poor; for no city in the
world, of equal extent and population, has so many hospitals for
the sick and infirm, and other institutions of public charity.
Neither is it owing to the hard-heartedness of the inhabitants;
for a more feeling and charitable people cannot be found.
Even the uncommonly great and increasing numbers of the Beggars
show the kindness and liberality of the inhabitants; for these
vagabonds naturally collect together in the greatest numbers,
where their trade can be carried on to the greatest advantage.

THE INJUDICIOUS DISPENSATION OF ALMS is the real and only source
of this evil.

In every community there are certainly to be found a greater or
less number of poor and distressed persons, who have just claims
on the public charity. This is also the case at Munich;
and nature dictates to us the duty of administering relief to
suffering humanity, and more especially to our poor and distressed
fellow-citizens; and our Holy Religion promises eternal rewards
to him who supports and relieves the poor and needy, and
threatens everlasting damnation to him who sends them away
without relief.

The Holy Fathers teach, that when there are no other means left
for the relief and support of the Poor, the superfluous ornaments
of the churches may be disposed of, and even the sacred vessels
melted down and sold for that purpose.

But what shall we think, when we see those very persons,
who profess to live after the rules and precepts laid down in
the word of God, act diametrically contrary to them?

Such, doubtless, is the fatal conduct of those who are induced by
mistaken compassion to lavish their alms upon Beggars, and
obstruct the relief of the really indigent.--Alms that frustrate
a good and useful institution cannot be meritorious, or
acceptable to God: and no maxim is less founded in truth, than
that the merit of the giver is undiminished by the unworthiness
of the object.-- The truly distressed are too bashful to mix with
the herd of common Beggars; necessity, it is true, will sometimes
conquer their timidity, and compel them publicity to solicit
charity; but their modest appeal is unheard or unnoticed, whilst
a dissolute vagabond, who exhibits an hypocritical picture of
distress,--a drunken wretch, who pretends to have a numerous
family and to be persecuted by misfortune,--or an impudent
unfeeling women, who excites pity by the tears and cries of a
poor child whom she has hired perhaps for the purpose, and
tortured into suffering, steps daringly forward to intercept the
alms of the charitable; and the well-intentioned gift which
should relieve the indigent is the prize of impudence and
imposition, and the support of vice and idleness.--What then
is left for the modest object of real distress, but to retire
dispirited and hide himself in the obscurity of his cottage,
there to languish in misery, whilst the bolder Beggar consumes
the ill-bestowed gift in mirth and riot? And, yet, the charitable
donor flatters himself that he has performed an exemplary duty!

We earnestly entreat every citizen and inhabitant of this
capital, each in his respective station, no longer to countenance
mendicity by such a misapplication of their well-meant charity;
contributing thus to augment the fatal consequences of the evil
itself, as well as to impede the relief of the real necessitous.

We are firmly persuaded, that by pointing out to our
fellow-citizens a method by which they may exercise their
benevolence towards the indigent and distressed in a meritorious
manner, we shall gratify their pious zeal and humanity, and at
the same time essentially promote the honour and safety of the
state, and the interests of sound morality and religion.

And this is the sole object of the Military Workhouse, which has
been instituted by the command of his Electoral Highness, where,
from this time forward, all who are able to work may find
employment and wages, and will be cloathed and fed.--THERE will
be the really indigent find a secure asylum, and those
unfortunate persons who are a prey to sickness and infirmity,
or are worn out with age, will be effectually relieved.--

We beg you not to listen to the false representations which may,
perhaps, be made to calumniate this institution, by putting it on
a level with former imperfect establishments.--Why should not an
institution prosper at Munich, which has already been successful
in other places, particularly at Manheim, where above 800 persons
are daily employed in the Military Workhouse, and heap
benedictions on its benevolent founder?--Have the inhabitants of
this town less good sense, less humanity, or less zeal for the
good of mankind? No--it would be an insult on the patriotism of
our fellow-citizens, were we to doubt of their readiness to
concur in our undertaking.

The only efficacious way of promoting an institution so
intimately connected with the safety, honor, and welfare of the
state, and with the interests of religion and morality, is a
general resolution of the inhabitants to establish a voluntary
monthly contribution, and strictly prohibit the abominable and
degrading practice of street-begging; the unlimited exercise of
which, notwithstanding its fatal and disgraceful consequences,
is perhaps more glaringly indulged in Munich than in any other
city in Germany.

In vain will the institution be opposed by the prejudices,
or the meanness and malice of persons who are themselves used to
mendicity, or to exercise an insolent dominion over Beggars.

It will subsist in spite of all their efforts; and we have the
fullest confidence that the generous and well-disposed
inhabitants of this city will be sensible how injurious the
habits of encouraging public mendicity are, when an opportunity
is offered them of contributing to an institution where the
really indigent are sure to find assistance, and where the
benevolent Christian is certain that his neighbours and
fellow-citizens are benefited by his charitable donations.

The simplest and most effectual way of ascertaining the extent of
such contribution is to form a list of all the citizens and
inhabitants of the town, with the name of the street, and number
of the house they inhabit. This register may be called an Alms
Book. It will be presented to each inhabitant, that he may put
down the sum which he means voluntarily to subscribe every month
towards the support of the Poor. The smallest donation will be
gratefully received, and the objects who are relieved by them
will pray for them to the Almighty Rewarder of all good actions.

As this charitable contribution is to be absolutely voluntary,
every one, whatever be his rank or property, will subscribe as
he pleases, a greater or a less sum, or none at all. The names
of the benefactors and their donations will be printed and
published quarterly, that every one may know and acknowledge the
zealous friends of humanity, by whose assistance an evil of such
magnitude, so long and so universally complained of, will be
finally rooted out.

We request that the public will not oppose so sure and effectual
a mode of granting relief to the Poor, but rather give their
generous support to an undertaking, which cannot but be
productive of much good, and acceptable in the sight of Heaven.

To convince every one of the faithful application of these
contributions, an exact detail both of the receipt and
expenditure of the institution will be printed and laid before
the public every three months; and every subscriber will be
allowed to inspect and examine the original accounts whenever he
shall think proper.

It must be obvious to every one, even to persons of the most
suspicious dispositions, that this institution is perfectly
disinterested, and owes its origin entirely to pure benevolence,
and an active zeal for the public good, when it is known that a
Committee appointed by his Electoral Highness, under the
direction of the Presidents of the Council of War, the Supreme
Regency, and the Ecclesiastical Council, will have the sole
administration and direction of the affairs of the institution,
and that the monthly collections of alms will be made by
creditable persons properly authorised; and that no salary,
or emoluments of any kind, will be levied on the funds of the
institution, either for salaries for the collectors, or any
other persons employed in the service of the institution,
as will clearly appear by the printed quarterly accounts. By such
precautions, we trust, we shall obviate all possible suspicions,
and inspire every unprejudiced person with a firm confidence in
this useful institution.

Henceforward, then, the infamous practice of begging in the
streets will no longer tolerated in Munich, and the public are
from this moment exonerated from a burden which is not less
troublesome to individuals than it is disgraceful to the country.
Who can doubt the co-operation of every individual for the
accomplishment of so laudable an undertaking? We trust that no
one will encourage idleness, by an injudicious and pernicious
profusion of alms given to Beggars; and by promoting the most
unbridled licentiousness, make himself a participator in the
dangerous consequences of mendicity, and share the guilt of all
those crimes and offences which endanger the welfare of the
state, injure the cause of religion, and insult the distress of
the really indigent.

No longer will these vagabonds impose on good-nature and
benevolence, by false pretences, by ill-founded complaints of the
inefficacy of the provision for the Poor, or by any other
artifices; nor can they escape the strict and constant vigilance
with which they will in future be watched; when every person they
meet will direct them to the House of Industry, instead of giving
them money.

It is this regulation alone which can effectuate our purpose,
a regulation enforced in the days of primitive Christianity,
and sanctioned by Religion itself; the charitable gifts of the
wealthier Christians being in those days all deposited in a
common treasury, for the benefit of their poorer and distressed
Brethren, and not squandered away in the encouragement of
dissolute idleness.

We therefore entreat and beseech the public in general, in the
name of suffering humanity, and of that Almighty Being who cannot
but regard so laudable an enterprise with an eye of favour,
to give every possible support to our design. And we trust that
the clergy of every denomination, but especially the public
preachers, will exert their splendid abilities to animate their
congregations to co-operate with us in this great and important


SUBSCRIPTION LISTS distributed among the Inhabitants of MUNICH,
in the Month of JANUARY 1790, when the Establishment for the
Relief of the Poor in that City was formed.

Translated from the Original German.

The Relief and Support of
The Industrious, Sick, and Helpless POOR,
For the total Extirpation of VAGRANTS
In the City of MUNICH.


These voluntary subscriptions will be collected monthly, namely,
on the last Sunday morning of every month, under the direction of
the Committee of Governors of the Institution for the Poor;
consisting of the President of the Council of War,--the President
of the Council of the Regency,--and the President of the
Ecclesiastical Council[4]; and the amount of these collections
will always be regularly noted down in books kept for that
purpose; and at the end of every three months a particular
detailed account of the application of these sums will be
printed, and given gratis to the subscribers and to the public.

No part of these voluntary contributions will ever be taken, or
appropriated to the payment of salaries, gratuities, or rewards
to any of those persons who may be employed in carrying on the
business of the institution; but the whole amount of the sums
collected will be faithfully applied to the relief and support of
the Poor, and to that charitable purpose alone, as the accounts
of the expenditures of the institution, which will be published
from time to time, will clearly show and demonstrate.--All the
persons necessary to be employed in the affairs of this
establishment, will either be selected from among such as already
are in the receipt of salaries, sufficient for their comfortable
maintenance from other funds; or they will be such persons, in
easy circumstances, as may offer themselves voluntarily for
these services, from motives of humanity, and a disinterested
wish to be instrumental in doing good.

As the preparations which have been made, and are making for the
support of the Poor, leave no doubt, but that adequate relief
will be afforded to them in future, they will no longer have any
pretext for begging; and all persons are most earnestly requested
to abstain henceforward from giving alms to Beggars. Instead of
giving money to such persons as they may find begging in the
street, they are requested to direct them to the House of
Industry, where they will, without fail, receive such assistance
and support as they may stand in need of and deserve.

Those persons whose names are already inserted in other lists,
as subscribers to this institution, are, nevertheless, requested
to enter their names upon these family-sheets; for though their
names may stand on several lists, their contributions will be
called for upon one of them only, and that one will be the

Those persons of either sex, who have no families, but occupy
houses or lodging of their own, are, notwithstanding their being
without families, requested to put down the amount of the monthly
contributions they are willing to give to this institution upon
a family-sheet, and to insert their names in the list as
"head of the family."

Under the column destined for the names of "relations and
friends, living in the house," may be included strangers,
lodgers, boarders, etc.

The column for "domestics" may, in like manner, serve,
particularly in the houses of the nobility, and other
distinguished persons, for stewards, tutors, governesses, etc.

Each head of a family will receive two of these family-sheets,
namely, one with these Remarks, which he will keep for his
information,--the other, printed on a half-sheet of paper,
and without remarks, which he will please to return to the public
office of the institution.

In case of a change in the family, or if one or other of the
members of it should think proper to increase or to lessen their
contribution, this alteration is to be marked upon the half-sheet,
which is kept by the head of the family; and this sheet so
altered is to be sent to the public office of the institution,
to the end that these alterations may be made in the general
lists of the subscribers; or new printed forms being procured
from the public office, and filled up, these new lists may be
exchanged against the old ones.

For the accommodation of those who may at any time wish to
contribute privately to the support of the institution any sums
in addition to their ordinary monthly donations, the banker of
the institution, Mr. Dallarmi, will receive such sums destined
for that purpose, as may be sent to him privately under any
feigned name, motto, or device; and for the security of the
donors, accounts of all the sums so received, with an account of
the feigned name, motto, or device, under which each of them was
sent to the banker, will be regularly published in the Munich

The first collection will be made on the last Sunday of the
present month, and the following collections on the last Monday
of every succeeding month; and each head of a family is
respectfully requested to cause the contributions of his family,
and of the inhabitants of his house, to be collected at the end
of every month, by a domestic or a servant, and to keep the same
in readiness against the time of the collection.

All persons of both sexes, and of every age and condition,
(Paupers only excepted,) are earnestly requested to have their
names inserted in these lists or family-sheets; and they may rest
assured, that any sum, even the most trifling, will be received
with thankfulness, and applied with care to the great object of
the institution--the relief and encouragement of the Poor and
the Distressed.

And finally, as it cannot fail to contribute very much to improve
the human heart, if young persons at an early period of life are
accustomed to acts of benevolence,--it is recommended to parents,
to cause all their children to put down their names as
subscribers to this undertaking, and this, even though the
donations they may be able to spare may be the most trifling,
or even if the parents should be obliged to lessen their own
contributions in order to enable their children to become

The foregoing Remarks were printed on the two first pages of a
sheet, 13 inches by 18 inches, of strong writing-paper.
The following Subscription List was printed on the third page of
the same sheet,--and also on a separate half-sheet of the same
kind of paper.

Voluntary Contributions for the Support of the Poor at Munich.

F A M I L Y--S H E E T.

Number of the House District Street Floor.
Head of the Family } Monthly Contributions.
His Character, or } Florins. Creutzers.

Other Persons belonging to the Family.
: Wife, Children, Re- :Monthly :Domestics, Journey- :Monthly :
: lations and Friends :Contribu-:man, Menial Servants, :Contribu-:
: of both Sexes living: tions. :etc of both Sexes, the: tions. :
: with the Family. The: :Christian and Sirname : :
: Christian Name and : :of each Individual. : :
: Sirname of each Per-:----:----: :----:----:
: son. : Fl.: Kr.: : Fl.: Kr.:
: : : : : : :
: : : : : : :
: : : : : : :
: : : : : : :
: : : : : : :
: : : : : : :
: : : : : : :
: : : : : : :
: : : : : : :
: : : : : : :
: : : : : : :
: : : : : : :
: : : : : : :
: : : : : : :
: : : : : : :
: : : : : : :
: : : : (At the lower corner : : :
: : : : of this half-sheet : : :
: : : : was printed in small : : :
: : : : type): "This half- : : :
: : : : "sheet is to be sent : : :
: : : : "into the Public : : :
: : : : "Office of the : : :
: : : : "Institution." : : :


[ Etext editor's note...the following table has had to be split
into two parts, with the additional references A) B) etc
through to UK) to link them together. Originally the entire
table was printed in landscape format, with totals carried
forward, brought over, which have been removed. ]

for the POOR at MUNICH during Five Years.

R E C E I P T S.
: : : Total in :
: 1790. : 1791. : 1792. : 1793. : 1794. : 5 Years. :
: Florins. : Florins. : Florins. : Florins. : Florins. : Florins. :
: : : : : : :
A) : 36,640 : 38,024 : 35,847 : 34,424 : 33,880 : 178.815 :
: : : : : : :
B) : 15,400 : 15,400 : 16,800 : 16,800 : 16,800 : 81,200 :
: : : : : : :
C) : 970 : 1,043 : 800 : 800 : 802 : 4,415 :
: : : : : : :
D) : 179 : 388 : 388 : 411 : 390 : 1,756 :
: : : : : : :
E) : ------ : 168 : 392 : 229 : 234 : 1,023 :
: : : : : : :
F) : ------ : ------ : ------ : 3,216 : 2,773 : 5,989 :
: : : : : : :
G) : 318 : 177 : 187 : 610 : 229 : 1,521 :
: : : : : : :
H) : 99 : 153 : 69 : 168 : 176 : 665 :
: : : : : : :
I) : 3,642 : 691 : 825 : 723 : 423 : 6,304 :
: : : : : : :
J) : 2,674 : 1,472 : 3,528 : 1,820 : 12,179 : 21,673 :
: : : : : : :
K) : 48 : 128 : 48 : 48 : ------ : 272 :
: : : : : : :
L) : 3,300 : 4,600 : 1,500 : ------ : ------ : 9,400 :
: : : : : : :
M) : 824 : 3,433 : 910 : 1,752 : 346 : 7,265 :
: 64,094 : 65,677 : 61,294 : 61,001 : 70,232 : 320,298 :

E X P E N D I T U R E S.
: : : Total in :
: 1790. : 1791. : 1792. : 1793. : 1794. : 5 Years. :
: Florins. : Florins. : Florins. : Florins. : Florins. : Florins. :
: : : : : : :
N) : 42,080 : 46,410 : 43,055 : 41,933 : 43,189 : 216,667 :
: : : : : : :
O) : 11,800 : 9,900 : 10,300 : 9,600 : 9,400 : 51,000 :
: : : : : : :
P) : 1,011 : 1,040 : 800 : 861 : 805 : 4,517 :
: : : : : : :
Q) : 450 : 403 : 350 : 1,150 : 1,500 : 3,853 :
: : : : : : :
R) : 217 : 254 : 272 : 336 : 290 : 1,396 :
: : : : : : :
S) : 256 : 183 : 219 : 210 : 226 : 1,094 :
: : : : : : :
TA): 890 : 564 : 418 : 425 : 594 : 2,891 :
: : : : : : :
TB): 160 : 187 : 34 : 35 : 94 : 510 :
: : : : : : :
TC): 960 : 960 : 960 : 960 : 960 : 4,800 :
: : : : : : :
TD): 84 : 72 : 72 : 72 : 72 : 372 :
: : : : : : :
TE): 100 : 360 : 288 : 540 : 300 : 1,588 :
: : : : : : :
TF): 220 : 240 : 240 : 240 : 240 : 1,180 :
: : : : : : :
TG): 480 : 480 : 480 : 480 : 480 : 2,400 :
: : : : : : :
TH): 440 : 480 : 480 : 480 : 480 : 2,360 :
: : : : : : :
UA): 318 : 318 : 159 : ------ : ------ : 795 :
: : : : : : :
UB): ------ : ------ : ------ : 183 : 200 : 383 :
: : : : : : :
UC): 1,672 : 1,824 : 912 : ------ : ------ : 4,408 :
: : : : : : :
UD): 369 : 199 : 189 : 250 : 361 : 1,368 :
: : : : : : :
UE): 506 : 333 : 150 : 227 : 301 : 1,517 :
: : : : : : :
UF): 22 : 6 : ------ : ------ : ------ : 28 :
: : : : : : :
UG): 55 : 60 : 60 : 50 : 75 : 300 :
: : : : : : :
UH): 831 : 300 : ------ : ------ : ------ : 1,131 :
: : : : : : :
UI): ------ : ------ : 40 : 40 : 40 : 120 :
: : : : : : :
UJ): ------ : ------ : ------ : ------ : 1,200 : 1,200 :
: : : : : : :
UK): 172 : 234 : 261 : 645 : 433 : 1,745 :
: 63,093 : 64,807 : 59,739 : 58,717 : 61,240 : 307,596 :

R E C E I P T S.

A) From monthly voluntary donations of the inhabitants
including 100 Florins given monthly by his Most Serene
Highness the Elector out of his private purse; 50 florins
monthly by the Electress Dowager of Bavaria, and 50 florins
monthly by the States of Bavaria,

B) From the Public Treasury a stated monthly allowance, intended
principally to defray the expense of the police of the city,

C) From voluntary donations, particularly destined by the donors
to assist the Poor in paying their house-rent,

D) From voluntary and unsolicited donations from the foreign
merchants and traders assembled at Munich at the two annual fairs,

E) From the courts of justice, being fines for certain petty offences,

F) From the magistrates of the city; being the amount of sums received
from musicians for licence to play in the public houses,

G) From the poor's boxes in the different churches,

H) From the poor's boxes at inns and taverns,

I) From private contributions sent to the banker of the Institution,
under feigned names, devices, etc.

J) From legacies,

K) From interest of money due to the Institution,

L) From cash received in advance,

M) From sundries,

E X P E N D I T U R E S.

N) Given to the Poor in alms, in ready money,

O) Expended in feeding the Poor at the Public Kitchen of the Military
Workhouse, and in premiums for the encouragement of industry,

P) Given to the Poor to assist them in paying their house-rent,

Q) Paid for medicines administered to the Poor at their own lodgings,

R) Expended in burials,

S) Given with poor children when bound apprentices,

Given as an indemnification for the loss of the right formerly
enjoyed of making collections of alms among the inhabitants:

------- TA) To persons who have suffered by fires,
------- TB) To travelling journeymen tradesmen,
------- TC) To the sisters of the religious order of charity,
------- TD) To the nuns of the English convent,
------- TE) To the hospital for lepers on the Gasteig,
------- TF) To the hospital at Schwabing,
------- TG) To the poor scholars of the German school,
------- TH) To the poor scholars of the Latin school,

UA) Paid to the clerks of office of police

UB) Paid to the accountant of the Institution,

UC) Paid to the guards of the police[5],

UD) Paid to writers employed occasionally as clerks,

UE) Paid to printers and bookbinders,

UF) Paid to the soldiers of the garrison for arresting Beggars,

UG) Gratuities to the schoolmaster at Charles's Gate,

UH) Paid various sums due from the Institution,

UI) Paid interest of monies due,

UJ) Money advanced for purchasing grain,

UK) Sundries,


Certificate relative to the EXPENCE of FUEL in the Public
Kitchen of the Military Workhouse at MUNICH

We whose Names are underwritten certify, that we have been
present frequently when experiments have been made to
determine the expence of Fuel in cooking for the Poor in the
Public Kitchen of the Military Workhouse at Munich; and that
when the ordinary dinner has been prepared for ONE THOUSAND
persons, the expense for Fuel has not amounted to quite twelve
creutzers (less than 4 1/2d. sterling).

Baron de Thibout, Heerdan,
Colonel. Councillor of War.

1st September 1795.


Printed Form for the DESCRIPTIONS of the POOR.

Description of the poor Person, No


Described Munich, the th of 179


Age Years. Stature Feet Inches

Bodily Structure Hair

Eye Complexion

Bodily Defects

Other particular Marks

State of Health

Place of Nativity

Lives here since

Came here from In what Manner

Profession Religion

Quality Family

Supports himself, at present, by

Lives at present Quarter, District, Street,

House, No Floor,

Can be considered as a Pauper belonging to
this City, and ought therefore to be

Is capable of doing the following Work:

Could be trained to the following Occupations:

Could gain by this Work per Week---- : : :
Wants for his weekly Support-------- : : :
Receives at present per Week from his own } : : :
Means, get by way of Pension, Alms, } : : :
and .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. } : : :
Wants, therefore, a weekly Allowance of Alms of : : :
: : :

{ Income of his own -- -- : : :
{ Earned by working -- -- : : :
{ Salary -- -- -- -- : : :
Enjoyed heretofore { Pension -- -- -- -- : : :
per Week { { From the Court : : :
{ Alms, { From the City -- : : :
{ { From private Persons : : :
{ Got by begging -- -- : : :
: : :
Total : : :
: : :

: : :
Pays House-rent -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- : : :
: : :
Has Bed of his own, the Value of which : : :
is about-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- : : :
: : :
Possesses other Utensils necessary for House- : : :
keeping, worth about-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- : : :
: : :
Is provided with the following Working Tools: -- : : :
: : :

Can work at Home

Could be employed in the Military Workhouse

Is provided with Raiment, and wants

Articles of Apparel

Life and Conduct, according to the Information received

Is given to and

Is known to have committed Crimes
and has appeared before the Magistrates

How long he lives in his present Habitation
Year Month Weeks

Name and Residence of his present Landlord

Where he lived before, and how long

Other Remarks.

Has been settled here

Received a Licence to marry, from

Possessed or received, when married
Value about fl. kr.

Was reduced to Poverty by

Is poor and in want, since

Could not extricate himself from his Difficulties, because

N.B. This Form is printed on a Half-sheet of strong
Writing Paper, folded together so as to make two Leaves in
Quarto; each Leaf being 8 Inches high, and 6 1/2 Inches wide.


Printed Form for SPIN-TICKETS, such as are used at the Military
Workhouse at Munich.

Munich Military Workhouse,
179 the No
lb. of
Delivered back skains knots
of weighing lb. oz.
Is entitled to receive per xrs.
Attest. this 179

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