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"There is no part of history so generally useful as that which relates to
the progress of the human mind, the gradual improvement of reason, the
successive advances of science, the vicissitudes of learning and
ignorance, which are the light and darkness of thinking beings, the
extinction and resuscitation of arts, and the revolutions of the
intellectual world."
--SAMUEL JOHNSON, _Rasselas_.


This book aims to furnish a concise and connected account of human
progress during ancient, medieval, and early modern times. It should meet
the requirements of those high schools and preparatory schools where
ancient history, as a separate discipline, is being supplanted by a more
extended course introductory to the study of recent times and contemporary
problems. Such a course was first outlined by the Regents of the
University of the State of New York in their _Syllabus for Secondary
Schools_, issued in 1910.

Since the appearance of the Regents' _Syllabus_ the Committee of Five of
the American Historical Association has made its _Report_ (1911),
suggesting a rearrangement of the curriculum which would permit a year's
work in English and Continental history. Still more recently the Committee
on Social Studies of the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary
Education, in its _Report_ (1916) to the National Education Association
has definitely recommended the division of European history into two
parts, of which the first should include ancient and Oriental
civilization, English and Continental history to approximately the end of
the seventeenth century, and the period of American exploration.

The first twelve chapters of the present work are based upon the author's
_Ancient History_, published four years ago. In spite of many omissions,
it has been possible to follow without essential modification the plan of
the earlier volume. A number of new maps and illustrations have been added
to these chapters.

The selection of collateral reading, always a difficult problem in the
secondary school, is doubly difficult when so much ground must be covered
in a single course. The author ventures, therefore, to call attention to
his _Readings in Ancient History_. Its purpose, in the words of the
preface, is "to provide immature pupils with a variety of extended,
unified, and interesting extracts on matters which a textbook treats with
necessary, though none the less deplorable, condensation." A companion
volume, entitled _Readings in Medieval and Modern History_, will be
published shortly. References to both books are inserted in footnotes.

At the end of what has been a long and engrossing task, it becomes a
pleasant duty to acknowledge the help which has been received from
teachers in school and college. Various chapters, either in manuscript or
in the proofs, have been read by Professor James M. Leake of Bryn Mawr
College; Professor J. C. Hildt of Smith College; Very Rev. Patrick J.
Healy, Professor of Church History in the Catholic University of America;
Professor E. F. Humphrey of Trinity College; Dr. James Sullivan, Director
of the Division of Archives and History, State Dept. of Education of New
York; Constantine E. McGuire, Assistant Secretary General, International
High Commission, Washington; Miss Margaret E. McGill, of the Newton
(Mass.) High School; and Miss Mabel Chesley, of the Erasmus Hall High
School, Brooklyn. The author would also express appreciation of the labors
of the cartographers, artists, and printers, to whose accuracy and skill
every page of the book bears witness.


LINCOLN, NEBRASKA, February, 1917

1 Steatite from Crete, two lions with forefeet on a pedestal, above
a sun
2 Sardonyx from Elis, a goddess holding up a goat by the horns
3 Rock crystal a bearded Triton
4 Carnelian, a youth playing a trigonon
5 Chalcedony from Athens, a Bacchante
6 Sard, a woman reading a manuscript roll, before her a lyre
7 Carnelian, Theseus
8 Chalcedony, portrait head, Hellenistic Age
9 Aquamarine, portrait of Julia daughter of the emperor Titus
10 Chalcedony, portrait head, Hellenistic Age
11 Carnelian, bust portrait of the Roman emperor Decius
12 Beryl, portrait of Julia Domna wife of the emperor Septimius
13 Sapphire, head of the Madonna
14 Carnelian, the judgment of Paris, Renaissance work
15 Rock crystal, Madonna with Jesus and St. Joseph, probably Norman
Sicilian work]








1. The Study of History
2. Prehistoric Peoples
3. Domestication of Animals and Plants
4. Writing and the Alphabet
5. Primitive Science and Art
6. Historic Peoples


7. Physical Asia
8. Babylonia and Egypt
9. The Babylonians and the Egyptians
10. The Phoenicians and the Hebrews
11. The Assyrians
12. The World Empire of Persia


13. Social Classes
14. Economic Conditions
15. Commerce and Trade Routes
16. Law and Morality
17. Religion
18. Literature and Art
19. Science and Education


20. Physical Europe
21. Greece and the Aegean
22. The Aegean Age (to about 1100 B.C.)
23. The Homeric Age (about 1100-750 B.C.)
24. Early Greek Religion
25. Religious Institutions--Oracles and Games
26. The Greek City-State
27. The Growth of Sparta (to 500 B.C.)
28. The Growth of Athens (to 500 B.C.)
29. Colonial Expansion of Greece (about 750-500 B.C.)
30. Bonds of Union among the Greeks


31. The Perils of Hellas
32. Expeditions of Darius against Greece
33. Xerxes and the Great Persian War
34. Athens under Themistocles, Aristides, and Cimon
35. Athens under Pericles
36. The Peloponnesian War, 431-404 B.C.
37. The Spartan and Theban Supremacies, 404-362 B.C.
38. Decline of the City-State


39. Philip and the Rise of Macedonia
40. Demosthenes and the End of Greek Freedom
41. Alexander the Great
42. Conquest of Persia and the Far East, 334-323 B.C.
43. The Work of Alexander
44. Hellenistic Kingdoms and Cities
45. The Hellenistic Age
46. The Graeco-Oriental World


47. Italy and Sicily
48. The Peoples of Italy
49. The Romans
50. Early Roman Society
51. Roman Religion
52. The Roman City State
53. Expansion of Rome over Italy, 509 (?)-264 B.C.
54. Italy under Roman Rule
55. The Roman Army


56. The Rivals Rome and Carthage, 264-218 B.C.
57. Hannibal and the Great Punic War, 218-201 B.C.
58. Roman Supremacy in the West and in the East, 201-133 B.C.
59. The Mediterranean World under Roman Rule
60. The Gracchi
61. Marius and Sulla
62. Pompey and Caesar
63. The Work of Caesar
64. Antony and Octavian
65. The End of an Epoch


66. Augustus, 31 B.C.-l4 A.D.
67. The Successors of Augustus, 14-96 A.D.
68. The "Good Emperors," 96-180 A.D.
69. The Provinces of the Roman Empire
70. The Roman Law and the Latin Language
71. The Municipalities of the Roman Empire
72. Economic and Social Conditions in the First and Second Centuries
73. The Graeco-Roman World


74. The "Soldier Emperors," 180-284 A.D.
75. The "Absolute Emperors," 284-395 A.D.
76. Economic and Social Conditions in the Third and Fourth Centuries
77. The Preparation for Christianity
78. Rise and Spread of Christianity
79. The Persecutions
80. Triumph of Christianity
81. Christian Influence on Society


82. Germany and the Germans
83. Breaking of the Danube Barrier
84. Breaking of the Rhine Barrier
85. Inroads of the Huns
86. End of the Roman Empire in the West, 476 A.D.
87. Germanic Influence on Society


88. The Classical City
89. Education and the Condition of Children
90. Marriage and the Position of Women
91. The Home and Private Life
92. Amusements
93. Slavery
94. Greek Literature
95. Greek Philosophy
96. Roman Literature
97. Greek Architecture
98. Greek Sculpture
99. Roman Architecture and Sculpture
100. Artistic Athens
101. Artistic Rome


102. The Ostrogoths in Italy, 488-553 A.D.
103. The Lombards in Italy, 568-774 A.D.
104. The Franks under Clovis and His Successors
105. The Franks under Charles Martel and Pepin the Short
106. The Reign of Charlemagne, 768-814 A.D.
107. Charlemagne and the Revival of the Roman Empire, 800 A.D.
108. Disruption of Charlemagne's Empire, 814-870 A.D.
109. Germany under Saxon Kings, 919-973 A.D.
110. Otto the Great and the Restoration of the Roman Empire, 962 A.D.
111. The Anglo-Saxons in Britain, 449-839 A.D.
112. Christianity in the British Isles
113. The Fusion of Germans and Romans


114. The Roman Empire in the East
115. The Reign of Justinian, 527-565 A.D.
116. The Empire and its Asiatic Foes
117. The Empire and its Foes in Europe
118. Byzantine Civilization
119. Constantinople


120. Development of the Christian Church
121. Eastern Christianity
122. Western Christianity: Rise of the Papacy
123. Growth of the Papacy
124. Monasticism
125. Life and Work of the Monks
126. Spread of Christianity over Europe
127. Separation of Eastern and Western Christianity
128. The Greek Church
129. The Roman Church

622-1058 A.D.

130. Arabia and the Arabs
131. Mohammed: Prophet and Statesman, 622-632 A.D.
132. Islam and the Koran
133. Expansion of Islam in Asia and Egypt
134. Expansion of Islam in North Africa and Spain
135. The Caliphate and its Disruption, 632-1058 A.D.
136. Arabian Civilization
137. The Influence of Islam


138. Scandinavia and the Northmen
139. The Viking Age
140. Scandinavian Heathenism
141. The Northmen in the West
142. The Northmen in the East
143. Normandy and the Normans
144. Conquest of England by the Danes; Alfred the Great
145. Norman Conquest of England; William the Conqueror
146. Results of the Norman Conquest
147. Norman Conquest of Southern Italy and Sicily
148. The Normans in European History


149. Rise of Feudalism
150. Feudalism as a System of Local Government
151. Feudal Justice
152. Feudal Warfare
153. The Castle and Life of the Nobles
154. Knighthood and Chivalry
155. Feudalism as a System of Local Industry
156. The Village and Life of the Peasants
157. Serfdom
158. Decline of Feudalism


159. Characteristics of the Medieval Church
160. Church Doctrine and Worship
161. Church Jurisdiction
162. The Secular Clergy
163. The Regular Clergy
164. The Friars
165. Power of the Papacy
166. Popes and Emperors, 962-1122 A.D.
167. Popes and Emperors, 1122-1273 A.D.
168. Significance of the Medieval Church


169. Causes of the Crusades
170. First Crusade, 1095-1099 A.D.
171. Crusaders' States in Syria
172. Second Crusade, 1147-1149 A.D., and Third Crusade, 1189-1192 A.D.
173. Fourth Crusade and the Latin Empire of Constantinople,
1202-1261 A.D.
174. Results of the Crusades


175. The Mongols
176. Conquests of the Mongols, 1206-1405 A.D.
177. The Mongols in China and India
178. The Mongols in Eastern Europe
179. The Ottoman Turks and their Conquests, 1227-1453 A.D.
180. The Ottoman Turks in Southeastern Europe


181. Growth of the Nations
182. England under William the Conqueror, 1066-1087 A.D., the Norman
183. England under Henry II, 1154-1189 A.D., Royal Justice and the
Common Law
184. The Great Charter, 1215 A.D.
185. Parliament during the Thirteenth Century
186. Expansion of England under Edward I, 1272-1307 A.D.
187. Unification of France, 987-1328 A.D.
188. The Hundred Years' War between England and France, 1337-1453 A.D.
189. The Unification of Spain (to 1492 A.D.)
190. Austria and the Swiss Confederation, 1273-1499 A.D.
191. Expansion of Germany


192. Growth of the Cities
193. City Life
194. Civic Industry--the Guilds
195. Trade and Commerce
196. Money and Banking
197. Italian Cities
198. German Cities, the Hanseatic League
199. The Cities of Flanders


200. Formation of National Languages
201. Development of National Literatures
202. Romanesque and Gothic Architecture, the Cathedrals
203. Education, the Universities
204. Scholasticism
205. Science and Magic
206. Popular Superstitions
207. Popular Amusements and Festivals
208. Manners and Customs


209. Meaning of the Renaissance
210. Revival of Learning in Italy
211. Paper and Printing
212. Revival of Art in Italy
213. Revival of Learning and Art beyond Italy
214. The Renaissance in Literature
215. The Renaissance in Education
216. The Scientific Renaissance
217. The Economic Renaissance


218. Medieval Geography
219. Aids to Exploration
220. To the Indies Eastward--Prince Henry and Da Gama
221. The Portuguese Colonial Empire
222. To the Indies Westward: Columbus and Magellan
223. The Indians
224. Spanish Explorations and Conquests in America
225. The Spanish Colonial Empire
226. French and English Explorations in America
227. The Old World and the New


228. Decline of the Papacy
229. Heresies and Heretics
230. Martin Luther and the Beginning of the Reformation in Germany,
1517-1522 A.D.
231. Charles V and the Spread of the German Reformation, 1519-1556 A.D.
232. The Reformation in Switzerland: Zwingli and Calvin
233. The English Reformation, 1533-1558 A.D.
234. The Protestant Sects
235. The Catholic Counter Reformation
236. Spain under Philip II, 1556-1598 A.D.
237. Revolt of the Netherlands
238. England under Elizabeth, 1558-1603 A.D.
239. The Huguenot Wars in France
240. The Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648 A.D.


241. The Divine Right of Kings
242. The Absolutism of Louis XIV, 1661-1715 A.D.
243. France under Louis XIV
244. The Wars of Louis XIV
245. The Absolutism of the Stuarts, 1603-1642 A.D.
246. Oliver Cromwell and the Civil War, 1642-1649 A.D.
247. The Commonwealth and the Protectorate, 1649-1660 A.D.
248. The Restoration and the "Glorious Revolution," 1660-1689 A.D.
249. England in the Seventeenth Century

APPENDIX--Table of Events and Dates



Disk of Phaestus.
A Papyrus Manuscript.
A Prehistoric Egyptian Grave.
A Hatchet of the Early Stone Age.
Arrowheads of the Later Stone Age.
Early Roman Bar Money.
Various Signs of Symbolic Picture Writing.
Mexican Rebus.
Chinese Picture Writing and Later Conventional Characters.
Cretan Writing.
Egyptian and Babylonian Writing.
The Moabite Stone (Louvre, Paris).
Head of a Girl (Musee S. Germain, Paris).
Sketch of Mammoth on a Tusk found in a Cave in France.
Bison painted on the Wall of a Cave.
Cave Bear drawn on a Pebble.
Wild Horse on the Wall of a Cave in Spain.
A Dolmen.
Carved Menhir.
Race Portraiture of the Egyptians.
The Great Wall of China.
Top of Monument containing the Code of Hammurabi (British Museum,
Khufu (Cheops), Builder of the Great Pyramid.
Menephtah, the supposed Pharaoh of the Exodus.
Head of Mummy of Rameses II (Museum of Gizeh).
The Great Pyramid.
The Great Sphinx.
A Phoenician War Galley.
An Assyrian.
An Assyrian Relief (British Museum, London).
The Ishtar Gate, Babylon.
The Tomb of Cyrus the Great.
Darius with his Attendants.
Rock Sepulchers of the Persian Kings.
A Royal Name in Hieroglyphics (Rosetta Stone).
An Egyptian Court Scene.
Plowing and Sowing in Ancient Egypt.
Transport of an Assyrian Colossus.
Egyptian weighing Cow Gold.
Babylonian Contract Tablet.
An Egyptian Scarab.
Amenhotep IV.
Mummy and Cover of Coffin (U.S. National Museum, Washington).
The Judgment of the Dead.
The Deluge Tablet (British Museum, London).
An Egyptian Temple (Restored).
An Egyptian Wooden Statue (Museum of Gizeh).
An Assyrian Palace (Restored).
An Assyrian Winged Human headed Bull.
An Assyrian Hunting Scene (British Museum, London).
A Babylonian Map of the World.
An Egyptian Scribe (Louvre, Paris).
Excavations at Nippur.
Excavations at Troy.
Lions' Gate, Mycenae.
Silver Fragment from Mycenae (National Museum, Athens).
A Cretan Girl (Museum of Candia, Crete).
Aegean Snake Goddess (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston).
A Cretan Cupbearer (Museum of Candia, Crete).
The Francois Vase (Archaeological Museum, Florence).
Consulting the Oracle at Delphi.
The Discus Thrower (Lancelotti Palace, Rome).
Athlete using the Strigil (Vatican Gallery, Rome).
"Temple of Neptune," Paestum.
Croesus on the Pyre.
Persian Archers (Louvre, Paris).
Gravestone of Aristion (National Museum, Athens).
Greek Soldiers in Arms.
The Mound at Marathon.
A Themistocles Ostrakon (British Museum, London).
An Athenian Trireme (Reconstruction).
Pericles (British Museum, London).
An Athenian Inscription.
The "Mourning Athena" (Acropolis Museum, Athens).
A Silver Coin of Syracuse.
Philip II.
Demosthenes (Vatican Museum, Rome).
Alexander (Glyptothek, Munich).
The Alexander Mosaic (Naples Museum).
A Greek Cameo (Museum, Vienna).
The Dying Gaul (Capitoline Museum, Rome).
A Graeco-Etruscan Chariot (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York).
An Etruscan Arch.
Characters of the Etruscan Alphabet.
An Early Roman Coin.
A Roman Farmer's Calendar.
Cinerary Urns in Terra Cotta (Vatican Museum, Rome).
A Vestal Virgin.
Suovetaurilia (Louvre, Paris).
An Etruscan Augur.
Coop with Sacred Chickens.
Curule Chair and Fasces.
The Appian Way.
A Roman Legionary.
A Roman Standard Bearer (Bonn Museum).
Column of Duilius (Restored).
A Carthaginian or Roman Helmet (British Museum, London).
A Testudo.
Storming a City (Reconstruction).
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Spada Palace, Rome).
Marcus Tullius Cicero (Vatican Museum, Rome).
Gaius Julius Caesar (British Museum, London).
A Roman Coin with the Head of Julius Caesar.
Augustus (Vatican Museum, Rome).
Monumentum Ancyranum.
Nerva (Vatican Museum, Rome).
Column of Trajan.
The Pantheon.
The Tomb of Hadrian.
Marcus Aurelius in his Triumphal Car (Palace of the Conservatori, Rome).
Wall of Hadrian in Britain.
Roman Baths, at Bath, England.
A Roman Freight Ship.
A Roman Villa.
A Roman Temple.
The Amphitheater at Arles.
A Megalith at Baalbec
The Wall of Rome
A Mithraic Monument
Modern Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives
Madonna and Child
Christ the Good Shepherd (Imperial Museum, Constantinople)
Interior of the Catacombs
The Labarum
Arch of Constantine
Runic Alphabet
A Page of the Gothic Gospels (Reduced)
An Athenian School (Royal Museum, Berlin)
A Roman School Scene
Youth reading a Papyrus Roll
House of the Vettii at Pompeii (Restored)
Atrium of a Pompeian House
Pompeian Floor Mosaic
Peristyle of a Pompeian House
A Greek Banquet
A Roman Litter
Theater of Dionysus, Athens
A Dancing Girl
The Circus Maximus (Restoration)
A Slave's Collar
Sophocles (Lateran Museum, Rome)
Socrates (Vatican Museum, Rome)
Corner of a Doric Facade
Corner of an Ionic Facade
Corinthian Capital
Composite Capital
Tuscan Capital
Interior View of the Ulpian Basilica (Restoration)
A Roman Aqueduct
The Colosseum (Exterior)
The Colosseum (Interior)
A Roman Cameo
Tomb of Theodoric at Ravenna
Charlemagne (Lateran Museum Rome)
The Iron Crown of Lombardy
Cathedral at Aix la Chapelle
Ring Seal of Otto the Great
Anglo Saxon Drinking Horn
St. Martin's Church, Canterbury
Canterbury Cathedral
A Mosaic of Justinian
The Three Existing Monuments of the Hippodrome, Constantinople
Religious Music
The Nestorian Monument
Papal Arms
St. Daniel the Stylite on his Column
Abbey of Saint Germain des Pres, Paris
A Monk Copyist
A Letter of Mohammed
A Passage from the Koran
Naval Battle showing Use of "Greek Fire"
Interior of the Mosque of Cordova
Capitals and Arabesques from the Alhambra
Swedish Rock Carving
A Runic Stone
A Viking Ship
Norse Metal Work (Museum, Copenhagen)
Alfred the Great
Alfred's Jewel (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford)
A Scene from the Bayeux Tapestry (Museum of Bayeux, Normandy)
Trial by Combat
Mounted Knight
Chateau Gaillard (Restored)
King and Jester
Farm Work in the Fourteenth Century
Pilgrims to Canterbury
A Bishop ordaining a Priest
St. Francis blessing the Birds
The Spiritual and the Temporal Power
Henry IV, Countess Matilda, and Gregory VII
Contest between Crusaders and Moslems
"Mosque of Omar," Jerusalem
Effigy of a Knight Templar
Richard I in Prison
Hut-Wagon of the Mongols (Reconstruction)
Tomb of Timur at Samarkand
Mohammed II
The "White Tower"
A Passage from Domesday Book
Windsor Castle
Extract from the Great Charter
Coronation Chair, Westminster Abbey
A Queen Eleanor Cross
Royal Arms of Edward III
English Archer
Walls of Carcassonne
A Scene in Rothenburg
House of the Butchers' Guild, Hildesheim, Germany
Baptistery, Cathedral, and "Leaning Tower" of Pisa
Venice and the Grand Canal
Belfry of Bruges
Town Hall of Louvain, Belgium
Geoffrey Chaucer
Roland at Roncesvalles
Cross Section of Amiens Cathedral
Gargoyles on the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris
View of New College, Oxford
Tower of Magdalen College, Oxford
Roger Bacon
Magician rescued from the Devil
The Witches' Sabbath
Chess Pieces of Charlemagne
Bear Baiting
A Miracle Play at Coventry, England
Manor House in Shropshire, England
Interior of an English Manor House
Costumes of Ladies during the Later Middle Ages
Dante Alighieri
An Early Printing Press
Facsimile of Part of Caxton's "Aeneid" (Reduced)
Desiderius Erasmus (Louvre, Paris)
William Shakespeare
Shakespeare's Birthplace, Stratford-on-Avon
Richard II
Geographical Monsters
An Astrolabe
Vasco da Gama
Christopher Columbus (Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid)
Ship of 1492 A.D.
The Name "America"
Ferdinand Magellan
Aztec Sacrificial Knife
Aztec Sacrificial Stone
Cabot Memorial Tower
John Wycliffe
Martin Luther
Charles V
John Calvin
Henry VIII
Ruins of Melrose Abbey
Chained Bible
St. Ignatius Loyola
Philip II
The Escorial
William the Silent
Crown of Elizabeth's Reign
London Bridge in the Time of Elizabeth
The Spanish Armada in the English Channel
Cardinal Richelieu (Louvre, Paris.)
Gustavus Adolphus
Cardinal Mazarin
Louis XIV
Medal of Louis XIV
Gold Coin of James I
A Puritan Family
Charles I
Execution of the Earl of Strafford
Oliver Cromwell
Interior of Westminster Hall
Great Seal of England under the Commonwealth (Reduced)
Boys' Sports
Silver Crown of Charles II
A London Bellman
Coach and Sedan Chair
Death Mask of Sir Isaac Newton


Distribution of Semitic and Indo-European Peoples.
Physical Map of Asia.
Egyptian Empire (about 1450 B.C.)
Canaan as divided among the Tribes.
Solomon's Kingdom.
Assyrian Empire (about 660 B.C.)
Lydia, Media, Babylonia, and Egypt (about 550 B.C.)
Persian Empire at its Greatest Extent (about 500 B.C.)
Ancient Trade Routes
Phoenician and Greek Colonies.
Physical Map of Europe.
Ancient Greece and the Aegean.
Aegean Civilization.
Greek Conquests and Migrations.
The World according to Homer, 900 B.C.
Greece at the Opening of the Persian Wars, 490 B.C.
Vicinity of Athens.
Greece at the Opening of the Peloponnesian War.
Route of the Ten Thousand.
Empire of Alexander the Great (about 323 B.C.)
Kingdoms of Alexander's Successors (about 200 B.C.)
The World according to Eratosthenes, 200 B.C.
The World according to Ptolemy, 150 A.D.
Ancient Italy and Sicily.
Vicinity of Rome.
Expansion of Roman Dominions in Italy, 509-264 B.C.
Colonies and Military Roads in Italy.
Expansion of Roman Dominions, 264-133 B.C.
Expansion of Roman Dominions, 133-31 B.C.
Expansion of Roman Dominions, 31 B.C.-180 A.D.
Plan of Jerusalem and its Environs.
Roman Britain.
Roman Empire (about 395 A.D.)
Growth of Christianity to the End of the Fourth Century.
Germanic Migrations to 476 A.D.
Europe at the Deposition of Romulus Augustulus, 476 A.D.
Plan of the Ulpian Basilica
Plan of Ancient Athens
Plan of the Parthenon
Plan of Ancient Rome
Europe at the Death of Theodoric, 526 A.D.
Europe at the Death of Justinian, 565 A.D.
Growth of the Frankish Dominions, 481-768 A.D.
Europe in the Age of Charlemagne, 800 A.D.
The Frankish Dominions as divided by the Treaties of Verdun
(843 A.D.) and Mersen (870 A.D.)
Europe in the Age of Otto the Great, 972 A.D.
Anglo-Saxon Britain
Peoples of Europe at the Beginning of the Tenth Century
The Roman Empire in the East during the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries
Vicinity of Constantinople
Plan of Constantinople
Plan of Kirkstall Abbey, Yorkshire
Growth of Christianity from the Fifth to the Fifteenth Century
Expansion of Islam
Discoveries of the Northmen in the West
England under Alfred the Great
Dominions of William the Conqueror
Plan of Chateau Gaillard
Plan of Hitchin Manor, Hertfordshire
Germany and Italy during the Interregnum, 1254-1273 A.D.
Mediterranean Lands after the Fourth Crusade, 1202-1204 A.D.
The Mongol Empire
Russia at the End of the Middle Ages
Empire of the Ottoman Turks at the Fall of Constantinople, 1453 A.D.
Dominions of the Plantagenets in England and France
Scotland in the Thirteenth Century
Unification of France during the Middle Ages
Unification of Spain during the Middle Ages
Growth of the Hapsburg Possessions
The Swiss Confederation, 1291-1513 A.D.
German Expansion Eastward during the Middle Ages
Trade Routes between Northern and Southern Europe in the
Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries
Medieval Trade Routes
Plan of Salisbury Cathedral, England
The World according to Cosmas Indicopleustes, 535 A.D.
The Hereford Map, 1280 A.D.
Behaim's Globe
Portuguese and Spanish Colonial Empires in the Sixteenth Century
The West Indies
An Early Map of the New World (1540 A.D.)
The Great Schism, 1378-1417 A.D.
Europe at the Beginning of the Reformation, 1519 A.D.
Extent of the Reformation, 1524-1572 A.D.
The Netherlands in the Sixteenth Century
Western Europe in the Time of Elizabeth
Europe at the End of the Thirty Years' War, 1648 A.D.
Acquisitions of Louis XIV and Louis XV
Europe after the Peace of Utrecht, 1713 A.D.
England and Wales--The Civil Wars of the Seventeenth Century
Ireland in the Sixteenth Century


Ancient and Medieval Gems
The Rosetta Stone (British Museum, London)
The Vaphio Gold Cups (National Museum, Athens)
Greek Gods and Goddesses: Zeus, Hera, Apollo, Aphrodite
Aphrodite of Melos (Louvre, Paris)
Hermes and Dionysus (Museum of Olympia)
Sarcophagus from Sidon (Imperial Ottoman Museum, Constantinople)
Laocooen and his Children (Vatican Museum, Rome)
Victory of Samothrace (Louvre, Paris)
Oriental, Greek, and Roman Coins
A Scene in Sicily
Bay of Naples and Vesuvius
Relief on the Arch of Titus
The Parthenon
Views of Pediment and Frieze of Parthenon
Acropolis of Athens (Restoration)
Acropolis of Athens from the Southwest
Roman Forum and Surrounding Buildings (Restored)
Roman Forum at the Present Time
Sancta Sophia, Constantinople
Fountain of Lions in the Alhambra
The Taj Mahal, Agra
Campanile and Doge's Palace, Venice
Illuminated Manuscript
Reims Cathedral
Cologne Cathedral
Interior of King's College Chapel, Cambridge
Ghiberti's Bronze Doors at Florence
St. Peter's, Rome
Italian Paintings of the Renaissance
Flemish, Spanish, and Dutch Paintings of the Renaissance



All serious students of history should have access to the _American
Historical Review_ (N. Y., 1895 to date, quarterly, $4.00 a year). This
journal, the organ of the American Historical Association, contains
articles by scholars, critical reviews of all important works, and notes
and news. The _History Teacher's Magazine_ is edited under the supervision
of a committee of the American Historical Association (Philadelphia, 1909
to date, monthly, $2.00 a year). Every well-equipped school library should
contain the files of the _National Geographic Magazine_ (Washington, 1890
to date, monthly, $2.00 a year) and of _Art and Archeology_ (Washington,
1914 to date, monthly, $3.00 a year). These two periodicals make a special
feature of illustrations.


Useful books for the teacher's library include H. E. Bourne, _The Teaching
of History and Civics in the Elementary and the Secondary School_ (N. Y.,
1902, Longmans, Green, and Co., $1.50), Henry Johnson, _The Teaching of
History_ (N. Y., 1915, Macmillan, $1.40), H. B. George, _Historical
Evidence_ (N.Y., 1909, Oxford University Press, American Branch, 75
cents), Frederic Harrison, _The Meaning of History and Other Historical
Pieces_ (New ed., N.Y., 1900, Macmillan, $1.75), J. H. Robinson, _The New
History_ (N. Y., 1912, Macmillan, $1.50), and H. B. George, _The Relations
of History and Geography_ (4th ed., N. Y., 1910, Oxford University Press,
American Branch, $1.10). The following reports are indispensable:

_The Study of History in Schools_. Report to the American Historical
Association by the Committee of Seven (N. Y., 1899, Macmillan, 50 cents).

_The Study of History in Secondary Schools_. Report to the American
Historical Association by a Committee of Five (N. Y., 1911, Macmillan, 25

_Historical Sources in Schools._ Report to the New England History
Teachers' Association by a Select Committee (N. Y., 1902, Macmillan, out
of print).

_A History Syllabus for Secondary Schools_. Report by a Special Committee
of the New England History Teachers' Association (N. Y., 1904, Heath,

_A Bibliography of History for Schools and Libraries._ Published under the
auspices of the Association of History Teachers of the Middle States and
Maryland (2d ed., N. Y., 1915, Longmans, Green, and Co., 60 cents).


The most useful dictionaries of classical antiquities are H. B. Walters,
_A Classical Dictionary_ (N. Y., 1916, Putnam, $6.50) and H. T. Peck,
_Harper's Dictionary of Classical Literature and Antiquities_ (N. Y.,
1897, American Book Co., $6.00). Cambridge University, England, has
published _A Companion to Greek Studies_, edited by L. Whibley (2d ed., N.
Y., 1906, Putnam, $6.00), and _A Companion to Latin Studies_, edited by J.
E. Sandys (N. Y., 1911, Putnam, $6.00). These two volumes treat every
phase of ancient life in separate essays by distinguished scholars. For
chronology, genealogies, lists of sovereigns, and other data the most
valuable works are Arthur Hassall, _European History, 476-1910_ (new ed.,
N. Y., 1910, Macmillan, $2.25), G. P. Putnam, _Tabular Views of Universal
History_ (new ed., N. Y., 1915, Putnam, $2.50), and Karl J. Ploetz, _A
Handbook of Universal History_, translated by W. H. Tillinghast (Boston,
1915, Houghton Mifflin Co., $3.00).


The _Illustrated Topics for Ancient History_, arranged by D. C. Knowlton
(Philadelphia, McKinley Publishing Co., 65 cents), contain much valuable
material in the shape of a syllabus, source quotations, outline maps,
pictures, and other aids. The following syllabi have been prepared for
collegiate instruction:

Botsford, G. W. _A Syllabus of Roman History_ (N. Y., 1915, Macmillan, 50

Munro, D. C., and SELLERY, G. C. _A Syllabus of Medieval History, 395-
1500_ (N. Y., 1913, Longmans, Green, and Co., $1.00).

Richardson, O. H. _Syllabus of Continental European History from the Fall
of Rome to 1870_ (Boston, 1904, Ginn, boards, 75 cents).

Stephenson, Andrew. _Syllabus of Lectures on European History_ (Terre
Haute, Ind., 1897, Inland Publishing Co., $1.50).

Thompson, J. W. _Reference Studies in Medieval History_ (2d ed., Chicago,
1914, University of Chicago Press, $1.25). A rich collection of classified


An admirable collection of maps for school use is W. R. Shepherd,
_Historical Atlas_ (N. Y., 1911, Holt, $2.50), with about two hundred and
fifty maps covering the historical field. The latest and one of the best
of the classical atlases is _Murray's Small Classical Atlas_, edited by G.
B. Grundy (N. Y., 1904, Oxford University Press, American Branch, $1.35).
A special feature of this work is the adoption of the system of colored
contours to indicate configuration. The _Atlas of Ancient and Classical
Geography_ in "Everyman's Library" (N. Y., 1910, Dutton, 35 cents) might
well be purchased by every student. Other valuable works are E. W. Dow,
_Atlas of European History_ (N. Y., 1907, Holt, $1.50) and Ramsay Muir, _A
New School Atlas of Modern History_ (N. Y., 1911, Holt, $1.25). Much use
can be made of the inexpensive and handy _Literary and Historical Atlas of
Europe_ by J. G. Bartholomew in "Everyman's Library" (N. Y., 1910, Dutton,
35 cents).


Kiepert's _New Wall Maps of Ancient History_ (Chicago, Rand, McNally, and
Co.) and Johnston's _Classical Series_ (Chicago, A. J. Nystrom and Co.)
may be obtained singly, mounted on common rollers, or by sets in a case
with spring rollers. The text is in Latin. The Spruner-Bretschneider
_Historical Maps_ are ten in number, size 62 x 52 inches, and cover the
period from A.D. 350 to 1815. The text is in German (Chicago, Nystrom,
each $6.00; Rand, McNally, and Co., each $6.50). Johnston's _Maps of
English and European History_ are sixteen in number, size 40 x 30 inches,
and include four maps of ancient history (Chicago, Nystrom, each $2.50). A
new series of _European History Maps_, thirty-nine in number, size 44 x 32
inches, has been prepared for the study of ancient history by Professors
J. H. Breasted and C. F. Huth, and for medieval and modern history by
Professor S. B. Harding (Chicago, Denoyer-Geppert Co., complete set with
tripod stand, $52.00; in two spring roller cases, $73.00). These maps may
also be had separately. The maps in this admirable series omit all
irrelevant detail, present place names in the modern English form, and in
choice of subject matter emphasize the American viewpoint. The school
should also possess good physical wall maps such as the Sydow-Habenicht or
the Kiepert series, both to be obtained from Rand, McNally, and Co. The
text is in German. Phillips's _Model Test Maps_ and Johnston's _New Series
of Physical Wall Maps_ are obtainable from A. J. Nystrom and Co. The only
large charts available are those prepared by MacCoun for his _Historical
Geography Charts of Europe_. The two sections, "Ancient and Classical" and
"Medieval and Modern," are sold separately (N. Y., Silver, Burdett, and
Co., $15.00). A helpful series of _Blackboard Outline Maps_ is issued by
J. L. Engle, Beaver, Penn. These are wall maps, printed with paint on
blackboard cloth, for use with an ordinary crayon. Such maps are also sold
by the Denoyer-Geppert Co., Chicago.


The "Studies" following each chapter of this book include various
exercises for which small outline maps are required. Such maps are sold by
D. C. Heath and Co., Boston, New York, Chicago. Useful atlases of outline
maps are also to be had of the McKinley Publishing Co., Philadelphia,
Atkinson, Mentzer and Grover, Chicago, W. B. Harison, New York City, and
of other publishers.


The best photographs of ancient works of art must usually be obtained from
the foreign publishers in Naples, Florence, Rome, Munich, Paris, Athens,
and London, or from their American agents. Such photographs, in the usual
size, 8 x 10 inches, sell, unmounted, at from 6 to 8 francs a dozen. All
dealers in lantern slides issue descriptive catalogues of a great variety
of archaeological subjects. In addition to photographs and lantern slides,
a collection of stereoscopic views is very helpful in giving vividness and
interest to instruction in ancient history. An admirable series of
photographs for the stereoscope, including Egypt, Palestine, Greece, and
Italy, is issued by Underwood and Underwood, New York City. The same firm
supplies convenient maps and handbooks for use in this connection. The
Keystone stereographs, prepared by the Keystone View Company, Meadville,
Penn., may also be cordially recommended. The architecture, costumes,
amusements, and occupations of the Middle Ages in England are shown in
_Longmans' Historical Illustrations_ (six portfolios, each containing
twelve plates in black-and-white, Longmans, Green, and Co., 90 cents, each
portfolio). The same firm issues _Longmans' Historical Wall Pictures_,
consisting of twelve colored pictures from original paintings illustrating
English history (each picture, separately, 80 cents; in a portfolio,
$10.50). Other notable collections are Lehmann's _Geographical Pictures,
Historical Pictures_, and _Types of Nations_, and Cybulski's _Historical
Pictures_ (Chicago, Denoyer-Geppert Co.; each picture separately mounted
on rollers, $1.35 to $2.25). The New England History Teachers' Association
publishes a series of _Authentic Pictures for Class Room Use_, size 5 x 8
inches, price 3 cents each. The _Catalogue of the Collection of Historical
Material at Simmons College_, prepared by the New England History
Teachers' Association (2d ed., Boston, 1912, Houghton Mifflin Co., 25
cents), contains an extensive list of pictures, slides, models, and other
aids to history teaching. Among the more useful collections in book form
of photographic reproductions and drawings are the following:

Fechneimer, Hedwig. _Die Plastik der Aegypter_ (2d. ed., Berlin, 1914, B.
Cassirer, 12 marks). 156 plates of Egyptian sculpture.

Fougeres, Gustvae. _La vie publique et privee des Grecs et des Romains_
(2d ed., Paris, 1900, Hachette, 15 francs). An album of 85 pictures.

Furtwaengler, Adolf. _Masterpieces of Greek Sculpture_ (N. Y., Scribner,

Hekler, Anton. _Greek and Roman Portraits_ (N. Y., 1913, Putnam, $7.50).
311 plates, with comment and bibliography.

Hill, G. F. _Illustrations of School Classics_ (N. Y., 1903, Macmillan,

Muzik, H., and Perschinka, F. _Kunst und Leben im Altertum_ (Vienna, 1909,
F. Tempsky; Leipzig, G. Freytag, 4.40 marks).

Osborne, Duffield. _Engraved Gems_ (N. Y., 1913, Holt, $6.00).

Parmentier, A. _Album historique_ (Paris, 1894-1905, Colin, 4 vols., each
15 francs). Illustrations covering the medieval and modern periods, with
descriptive text in French.

Rheinhard, Hermann. _Album des klassischen Altertums_ (Stuttgart, 1882,
Hoffman, 18 marks). 72 pictures in colors.

Rouse, W. H. D. _Atlas of Classical Portraits._ Greek Section, Roman
Section (London, 1898, Dent, 2 vols., each 1_s_. 6_d_.). Small, half-tone
engravings, accompanied by brief biographies.

Schreiber, Theodor. _Atlas of Classical Antiquities_ (N. Y., 1895,
Macmillan, $6.50).


To vitalize the study of geography and history there is nothing better
than the reading of modern books of travel. Among these may be mentioned:

Allinson, F. G. and Allinson, Anne C. E. _Greek Lands and Letters_
(Boston, 1909, Houghton Mifflin Co., $2.50). An entertaining work of
mingled history and geography.

Barrows, S. J. _The Isles and Shrines of Greece_ (Boston, 1898, Little,
Brown, and Co., $2.00).

Clark, F. E. _The Holy Land of Asia Minor_ (N. Y., 1914, Scribner, $1.00).
Popular sketches.

Dunning, H. W. _To-day on the Nile_ (N. Y., 1905, Pott, $2.50).

------ _To-day in Palestine_ (N. Y., 1907, Pott, $2.50).

Dwight, H. G. _Constantinople, Old and New_ (N. Y., 1915, Scribner,

Edwards, Amelia B. _A Thousand Miles up the Nile_ (2d ed., N. Y., 1888,
Dutton, $2.50).

Forman, H. J. _The Ideal Italian Tour_ (Boston, 1911, Houghton Mifflin
Co., $1.50). A brief and attractive volume covering all Italy.

Hay, John. _Castilian Days_ (Boston, 1871, Houghton Mifflin Co., $1.25).

Hutton, Edward, _Rome_ (N. Y., 1909, Macmillan, $2.00).

Jackson, A. V. W. _Persia, Past and Present_ (N. Y., 1906, Macmillan,

Lucas, E. V. _A Wanderer in Florence_ (N. Y., 1912, Macmillan, $1.75).

Manatt, J. I. _Aegean Days_ (Boston, 1913, Houghton Mifflin Co., $3.00).
Describes the most important islands of the Aegean.

Marden, P. S. _Greece and the Aegean Islands_ (Boston, 1907, Houghton
Mifflin Co., $3.00).

Paton, W. A. _Picturesque Sicily_ (2d ed., N. Y., 1902, Harper, $2.50).

Richardson, R. B. _Vacation Days in Greece_ (N. Y., 1903, Scribner,

Warner, C. D. _In the Levant_ (N. Y., 1876, Harper, $2.00).


The following works of historical fiction comprise only a selection from a
very large number of books suitable for supplementary reading. For
extended bibliographies see E. A. Baker, _A Guide to Historical Fiction_
(new ed., N. Y., 1914, Macmillan, $6.00) and Jonathan Nield, _A Guide to
the Best Historical Novels and Tales_ (3d ed., N. Y., 1904, Putnam,
$1.75). An excellent list of historical stories, especially designed for
children, will be found in the _Bibliography of History for Schools and
Libraries_, parts viii-ix.

Bulwer-Lytton, Edward. _The Last Days of Pompeii_ (Boston, 1834, Little,
Brown, and Co., $1.25).

Champney, Elizabeth W. _The Romance of Imperial Rome_ (N. Y., 1910,
Putnam, $3.50).

Church, A. J. _Roman Life in the Days of Cicero_ (N. Y., 1883, Macmillan,
50 cents).

------ _Stories of Charlemagne and the Twelve Peers of France_ (N. Y.,
1902, Macmillan, $1.75).

Cox, G. W. _Tales of Ancient Greece_ (Chicago, 1868, McClurg, $1.00).

Dahn, Felix, _Felicitas_ (Chicago, 1883, McClurg, 75 cents). Rome, 476

Doyle, A. C. _The White Company_ (Boston, 1890, Caldwell, 75 cents). The
English in France and Castile, 1366-1367 A.D.

Ebers, Georg, _Uarda_ (N. Y., 1877, Appleton, 2 vols., $1.50). Egypt,
fourteenth century B.C.

Eliot, George. _Romola_ (N. Y., 1863, Dutton, 35 cents). Florence and
Savonarola in the latter part of the fifteenth century.

Fenelon, Francois. _Adventures of Telemachus_, translated by Dr.
Hawkesworth (Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., $2.25).

Hale, E. E. _In His Name_ (Boston, 1873, Little, Brown, and Co., $1.00).
The Waldenses about 1179 A.D.

Hardy, A. S. _Passe Rose_ (Boston, 1889, Houghton Mifflin Co., $1.25).
Franks and Saxons of Charlemagne's time.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. _The Scarlet Letter_ (N. Y., 1850, Dutton, 35
cents). Massachusetts in the seventeenth century.

Henty, G. A. _The Young Carthaginian_ (N. Y., 1886, Scribner, $1.50).
Second Punic War.

Hugo, Victor. _Notre Dame_ (N. Y. 1831, Dutton, 35 cents). Paris, late
fifteenth century.

Irving, Washington. _The Alhambra_ (N. Y., 1832, Putnam, $1.00). Sketches
of the Moors and Spaniards.

Jacobs, Joseph (editor). _The Most Delectable History of Reynard the Fox_
(N. Y., 1895, Macmillan, $1.50).

Kingsley, Charles S. _Hypatia_ (N. Y., 1853, Macmillan, $1.25).
Alexandria, 391 A.D.

------ _Westward Ho!_ (N. Y., 1855, Button, 35 Cents). Voyages of
Elizabethan seamen and the struggle with Spain.

Kipling, Rudyard. _Puck of Pooks Hill_ (N. Y., 1906, Doubleday, Page, and
Co., $1.50). Roman occupation of Britain.

Lang, Andrew. _The Monk of Fife_ (N. Y., 1895, Longmans, Green, and Co.,
$1.25). The Maid of Orleans and the Hundred Years' War.

Lane, E. W. (translator). _The Arabian Nights' Entertainments_ (2d ed., N.
Y., 1859, Macmillan, 35 cents).

London, Jack. _Before Adam_ (N. Y., 1907, Macmillan, $1.50). Prehistoric

Manzoni, Alessandro. _The Betrothed_ (N. Y., 1825, Macmillan, 2 vols., 70
cents). Milan under Spanish rule, 1628-1630 A.D.

Mason, Eugene (translator). _Aucassin and Nicolette and other Medieval
Romances, and Legends_ (N. Y., 1910, Dutton, 35 cents).

Newman, J. H. _Callista_ (N. Y., 1856, Longmans, Green, and Co., $1.25).
Persecution of Christians in North Africa, 250 A.D.

Reade, Charles. _The Cloister and the Hearth_ (N. Y., 1861, Dutton, 35
cents). Eve of the Reformation.

Scheffel, J. Von. _Ekkehard_, translated by Helena Easson (N. Y., 1857,
Dutton, 35 cents). Germany in the tenth century.

Scott, (Sir) Walter. _The Talisman_ (N. Y., 1825, Dutton, 35 cents). Reign
of Richard I, 1193 A.D.

------ Ivanhoe (N. Y., Heath, 50 cents). Richard I, 1194 A.D.

Sienkiewicz, Henryk. _Quo Vadis?_ (Boston, 1896, Little, Brown, and Co.,
$2.00). Reign of Nero.

Stevenson, R. L. _The Black Arrow_ (N. Y., 1888, Scribner, $1.00). War of
the Roses.

"Twain, Mark." _A Connecticut Yankee at the Court of King Arthur_ (N. Y.,
1889, Harper, $1.75).

Wallace, Lew. _Ben-Hur; a Tale of the Christ_ (N. Y., 1880, Harper,

Waterloo, Stanley. _The Story of Ab_ (2d ed., N. Y., 1905, Doubleday,
Page, and Co., $1.50). Prehistoric life.


It is unnecessary to emphasize the value, as collateral reading, of
historical poems and plays. To the brief list which follows should be
added the material in Katharine Lee Bates and Katharine Coman, _English
History told by English Poets_ (N. Y., 1902, Macmillan, 60 cents).

Browning, Robert. _Echetlos and Pheidippides._

Burns, Robert. _The Battle of Bannockburn._

Byron (Lord). _Song of Saul before His Last Battle, The Destruction of
Sennacherib, Belshazzar's Feast, Prometheus,_ "Greece" (_The Corsair_,
canto iii, lines 1-54), "Modern Greece" (_Childe Harold_, canto ii,
stanzas 85-91), "The Death of Greece" (_The Giaour_, lines 68-141), "The
Isles of Greece" (_Don Juan_, canto in), and "The Colosseum" (_Childe
Harold_, canto iv, stanzas 140-145).

Clough, A. H. _Columbus_.

Coleridge, S. T. _Kubla Khan_.

Domett, Alfred. _A Christmas Hymn_

Drayton, Michael. _The Battle of Agincourt._

Dryden, John. _Alexander's Feast._

Jonson, Ben. _Hymn to Diana._

Keats, John. _Ode on a Grecian Urn._

Kingsley, Charles. _Andromeda and The Red King._

Landor, W. S. _Orpheus and Eurydice._

Longfellow, H. W. "The Saga of King Olaf" (_Tales of a Wayside Inn_) and
_The Skeleton in Armor._

Lowell, J. R. _Rhoecus_ and _The Shepherd of King Admetus._

Macaulay, T. B. _Lays of Ancient Rome_ ("Horatius," "Virginia," "The
Battle of Lake Regillus," and "The Prophecy of Capys"), _The Armada_, and
_The Battle of Ivry._

Miller, Joaquin. _Columbus._

Milton, John. _Ode on the Morning of Christ's Nativity._

Praed, W. M. _Arminius._

Rossetti, D. G. _The White Ship._

Schiller, Friedrich. _The Maid of Orleans, William Tell, Maria Stuart_,
and _Wallenstein._

Scott, (Sir) Walter. "Flodden Field" (_Marmion_, canto vi, stanzas 19-27,

Shakespeare, William. _Coriolanus, Julius Caesar, Antony and Cleopatra,
King John, Richard the Second, Henry the Fourth,_ parts i and ii, _Henry
the Fifth, Henry the Sixth_, parts i, ii, and iii, _Richard the Third,
Henry the Eighth_, and _The Merchant of Venice._

Shelley, P. B. _To the Nile, Ozymandias, Hymn of Apollo, Arethusa_, and
_Song of Proserpine._

Tennyson, Alfred. _Ulysses, Oenone, The Death of Oenone, Demeter and
Persephone, The Lotus-Eaters, Boadicea, St. Telemachus, St. Simeon
Stylites, Sir Galahad_, and _The Revenge: a Ballad of the Fleet._

Thackeray, W. M. _King Canute._

Wordsworth, William. _Laodamia._


Full information regarding the best translations of the sources of
ancient, medieval, and modern history is to be found in one of the Reports
previously cited--_Historical Sources in Schools_, parts ii-iv. The use of
the following collections of extracts from the sources will go far toward
remedying the lack of library facilities.

Botsford, G. W., and Botsford, Lillie S. _Source Book of Ancient History_
(N. Y., 1912, Macmillan, $1.30).

Davis, W. S. _Readings in Ancient History_ (Boston, 1912, Allyn and Bacon,
2 vols., $2.00).

Duncalf, Frederic, and Krey, A. C. _Parallel Source Problems in Medieval
History_ (N. Y., 1912, Harper, $1.10).

Fling, F. M. _A Source Book of Greek History_ (N. Y., 1907, Heath, $1.12).

Munro, D. C. _A Source Book of Roman History_ (N. Y., 1904, Heath, $1.12).

Ogg, F. A. _A Source Book of Medieval History_ (N. Y., 1907, American Book
Co., $1.50).

Robinson, J. H. _Readings in European History_ (Abridged ed., Boston,
1906, Ginn, $1.50).

Thallon, Ida C. _Readings in Greek History_ (Boston, 1914, Ginn, $2.00).

Thatcher, O. J., and McNeal, E. H. _A Source Book for Medieval History_
(N. Y., 1905, Scribner, $1.85).

Webster, Hutton. _Readings in Ancient History_ (N. Y., 1913, Heath,

------ _Readings in Medieval and Modern History_ (N. Y., 1917, Heath,

_Translations and Reprints from the Original Sources of European History_
(N. Y., 1894-1899, Longmans, Green, and Co., 6 vols., each $1.50).


Most of the books in the following list are inexpensive, easily procured,
and well adapted in style and choice of topics to the needs of immature
pupils. A few more elaborate and costly volumes, especially valuable for
their illustrations, are indicated by an asterisk (*). For detailed
bibliographies, often accompanied by critical estimates, see C. K. Adams,
_A Manual of Historical Literature_ (3d ed., N. Y., 1889, Harper, $2.50),
and the _Bibliography of History for Schools and Libraries_, parts iii-v.


Carlyle, Thomas. _On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in History_ (N.
Y., 1840, Dutton, 35 cents).

Creasy, E. S. _The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World from Marathon to
Waterloo_ (N. Y., 1854, Dutton, 35 cents).

Gibbins, H. De B. _The History of Commerce in Europe_ (26. ed., N. Y.,
1897, Macmillan, 90 cents).

Herbertson, A. J., and Herbertson, F. D. _Man and His Work_ (3d ed., N.
Y., 1914, Macmillan, 60 cents). An introduction to the study of human

Jacobs, Joseph. _The Story of Geographical Discovery_ (N. Y., 1898,
Appleton, 35 cents).

Jenks, Edward. _A History of Politics_ (N. Y., 1900, Dutton, 35 cents). A
very illuminating essay.

Keane, John. _The Evolution of Geography_ (London, 1899, Stanford, 6s.).
Helpfully illustrated.

Myres, J. L. _The Dawn of History_ (N. Y., 1912, Holt, 50 cents).

Pattison, R. P. B. _Leading Figures in European History_ (N. Y., 1912,
Macmillan, $1.60). Biographical sketches of European statesmen from
Charlemagne to Bismarck.

Reinach, Salomon. _Apollo; an Illustrated Manual of the History of Art
throughout the Ages_, translated by Florence Simmonds (last ed., N. Y.,
1914, Scribner, $1.50). The best brief work on the subject.

Seignobos, Charles. _History of Ancient Civilization_, edited by J. A.
James (N. Y., 1906, Scribner, $1.25).

------ _History of Medieval and of Modern Civilization_, edited by J. A.
James (N. Y., 1907, Scribner, $1.25).


Clodd, Edward. _The Story of Primitive Man_ (N Y., 1895, Appleton, 35
cents). Generally accurate and always interesting.

------ _The Childhood of the World_ (2d ed., N. Y., 1914, Macmillan,

Elliott, G. F. S. _Prehistoric Man and His Story_ (Philadelphia, 1915,
Lippincott, $2.00).

Holbrook, Florence. _Cave, Mound, and Lake Dwellers_ (N. Y., 1911, Heath,
44 cents).

Mason, O. T, _Woman's Share in Primitive Culture_ (N. Y., 1900, D.
Appleton, $1.75). The only work on the subject; by a competent

* Osborn, H. F. _Men of the Old Stone Age_ (N. Y., 1915 Scribners, $5.00).
An authoritative, interesting, and amply illustrated work.

* Spearing, H. G. _The Childhood of Art_ (N. Y., 1913, Putnam, $6.00).
Deals with primitive and Greek art; richly illustrated.

Starr, Frederick. _Some First Steps in Human Progress_ (Chautauqua, N. Y.,
1895, Chautauqua Press, $1.00). A popular introduction to anthropology.

Tylor, (Sir) E. B. _Anthropology_ (N. Y., 1881, Appleton, $2.00).
Incorporates the results of the author's extensive studies and still
remains the best introduction to the entire field.


Baikie, James. _The Story of the Pharaohs_ (N. Y., 1908, Macmillan,
$2.00). A popular work; well illustrated.

* Ball, C. J. _Light from the East_ (London, 1899, Eyre and Spottiswoode,
15s.). An account of Oriental archaeology, with special reference to the
Old Testament.

Banks, E. G. _The Bible and the Spade_ (N. Y., 1913, Association Press,
$1.00). A popular presentation of Oriental archaeology.

* Breasted, J. H. _A History of Egypt from the Earliest Times to the
Persian Conquest_ (2d ed., N. Y., 1909, Scribner, $5.00). The standard
work on Egyptian history.

Clay, A. T. _Light on the East from Babel_ (4th ed., Philadelphia, 1915,
Sunday School Times Co., $2.00).

* Erman, Asolf. _Life in Ancient Egypt_ (N. Y., 1894, Macmillan, $6.00).

* Handcock, P. S. P. _Mesopotamian Archaeology_ (N. Y. 1912, Putnam,

Hogarth, D. G. _The Ancient East_ (N. Y., 1915, Holt, 50 cents). "Home
University Library."

* Jastrow, Morris, Jr. _The Civilization of Babylonia and Assyria_
(Philadelphia, 1915, Lippincott, $6.00). A finely illustrated work by a
great scholar.

Macalister, R. A. S. _A History of Civilization in Palestine_ (N. Y.,
1912, Putnam, 35 cents). "Cambridge Manuals."

Maspero, (Sir) Gaston. _Life in Ancient Egypt and Assyria_ (N.Y., 1892,
Appleton, $1.50). Fascinating and authoritative.

Ragozin, Zenaide A. _Earliest Peoples_ (N. Y., 1899, Harison, 60 cents). A
well-written, fully-illustrated account of prehistoric man and the
beginnings of history in Babylonia.

------ _Early Egypt_ (N. Y., 1900, Harison, 60 cents).


Abbott, Evelyn. _Pericles and the Golden Age of Athens_ (N. Y., 1891,
Putnam, $1.50). "Heroes of the Nations."

Baikie, James. _The Sea-Kings of Crete_ (2d ed., N. Y., 1912, Macmillan,
$1.75). A clear and vivid summary of Cretan archaeology.

Bluemner, Hugo. _The Home Life of the Ancient Greeks_, translated by Alice
Zimmern (3d ed., N. Y., 1910, Funk and Wagnalls Co., $2.00).

Bulley, Margaret H. _Ancient and Medieval Art_ (N. Y., 1914, Macmillan,
$1.75). An elementary treatment, particularly designed for schools.

Church, A. J., and Gilman, Arthur. _The Story of Carthage_ (N. Y., 1886,
Putnam, $1.50). "Story of the Nations"

Davis, W. S. _The Influence of Wealth in Imperial Rome_ (N. Y., 1910,
Macmillan, $2.00). An interesting treatment of an important theme.

------ _A Day in Old Athens_ (Boston, 1914, Allyn and Bacon, $1.00).

------ _An Outline History of the Roman Empire_ (N. Y., 1909, Macmillan,
65 cents). Covers the period 44 B.C.-378 A.D.

* Dennie, John. _Rome of To-day and Yesterday; the Pagan City_ (5th ed.,
N. Y., 1909, Putnam, $3.50).

Fowler, W. W. _Rome_ (N. Y., 1912, Holt, 50 cents).

------ _The City-State of the Greeks and Romans_ (N. Y., 1893, Macmillan,
$1.00). The only constitutional history of the classical peoples
intelligible to elementary students.

------ _Social Life at Rome in the Age of Cicero_ (N. Y., 1909, Macmillan,
50 cents). In every way admirable.

------ _Julius Caesar and the Foundation of the Roman Imperial System_ (2d
ed., N. Y., 1897, Putnam, $1.50). "Heroes of the Nations."

* Gardner, E. A. _Ancient Athens_ (N. Y., 1902, Macmillan, $3.50).

Gayley, C. M. _The Classic Myths in English Literature and in Art_ (2d
ed., Boston, 1911, Ginn, $1.60). Of special importance for the

Goodyear, W. H. _Roman and Medieval Art_ (2d ed., N. Y., 1897, Macmillan,

Grant, A. J. _Greece in the Age of Pericles_ (N. Y., 1893, Scribner,

Gulick, C. B. _The Life of the Ancient Greeks_ (N. Y., 1902, Appleton,

* Hall, H. R. _Aegean Archeology_ (N. Y., 1915, Putnam, $3.75). A well-
written and well-illustrated volume.

Hawes, C. H., and Hawes, HARRIET B. _Crete, the Forerunner of Greece_ (N.
Y., 1909, Harper, 75 cents).

How, W. W. _Hannibal and the Great War between Rome and Carthage_ (London,
1899, Seeley, 2_s_.).

Jones, H. S. _The Roman Empire, B.C. 29-A.D. 476_ (N. Y., 1908, Putnam,
$1.50). "Story of the Nations."

* Lanciani, Rudolfo. _The Ruins and Excavations of Ancient Rome_ (Boston,
1898, Houghton Mifflin Co., $4.00).

Mahaffy, J. P. _Old Greek Life_ (N. Y., 1876, American Book Co., 35

------ _What have the Greeks done for Modern Civilization?_ (N. Y., 1909,
Putnam, $1.50).

Mahaffy, J. P., and Gilman, Arthur. _The Story of Alexander's Empire_ (N.
Y., 1887, Putnam, $1.50). The only concise narrative of the Hellenistic

* Mau, August. _Pompeii: its Life and Art_, translated by F. W. Kelsey (N.
Y., 1899, Macmillan, $2.50).

Morris, W. O'C. _Hannibal and the Crisis of the Struggle between Carthage
and Rome_ (N. Y., 1897, Putnam, $1.50). "Heroes of the Nations."

Oman, Charles. _Seven Roman Statesmen of the Later Republic_ (N. Y., 1902,
Longmans, Green, and Co., $1.60). A biographical presentation of Roman

Pellison, Maurice. _Roman Life in Pliny's Time_, translated by Maud
Wilkinson (Philadelphia, 1897, Jacobs, $1.00).

Pickard-Cambridge, A. W. _Demosthenes and the Last Days of Greek Freedom_
(N. Y., 1914, Putnam, $1.50). "Heroes of the Nations."

Powers, H. H. _The Message of Greek Art_ (N. Y., 1913, Macmillan, 50

Preston, Harriet W., and Dodge, Louise. _The Private Life of the Romans_
(N. Y., 1893, Sanborn, $1.05).

Robinson, C. E. _The Days of Alcibiades_ (N. Y., 1916, Longmans, Green,
and Co., $1.50), A picture of Greek life and culture in the Age of

* Seymour, T. D. _Life in the Homeric Age_ (N. Y., 1907, Macmillan,

* Stobart, J. C. _The Glory that was Greece: a Survey of Hellenic Culture
and Civilization_ (Philadelphia, 1911, Lippincott, $7.50).

------ _The Grandeur that was Rome: a Survey of Roman Culture and
Civilization_ (Philadelphia, 1912, Lippincott, $7.50).

Strachan-Davidson, J. S. _Cicero and the Fall of the Roman Republic_ (N.
Y., 1894, Putnam, $1.50). "Heroes of the Nations."

Tarbell, F. B. _A History of Greek Art_ (2d ed., N. Y., 1905, Macmillan,

Tozer, H. F. _Classical Geography_ (N. Y., 1883, American Book Co., 35
cents). A standard manual.

Tucker, T. G. _Life in Ancient Athens_ (N. Y., 1906, Macmillan, $1.25).
The most attractive treatment of the subject.

------ _Life in the Roman World of Nero and St. Paul_ (N. Y., 1910,
Macmillan, $2.50).

* Walters, H. B. _The Art of the Greeks_ (N. Y., 1900, Macmillan, $6.00).

* ------ _The Art of the Romans_ (N. Y., 1911, Macmillan, $5.00).

* Weller, C. H. _Athens and its Monuments_ (N. Y., 1913, Macmillan,

Wheeler, B.I. _Alexander the Great and the Merging of East and West into
Universal History_ (N. Y., 1900, Putnam, $1.50). "Heroes of the Nations."

Wilkins, A. S. _Roman Antiquities_ (N. Y., 1884, American Book Co., 35


Adams, G. B. _The Growth of the French Nation_ (N. Y., 1896, Macmillan,
$1.25). The best short history of France.

Archer, T. A., and Kingsford, C. L. _The Crusades_ (N. Y., 1894, Putnam,

Baring-Gould, Sabine. _Curious Myths of the Middle Ages_ (N. Y., 1869,
Longmans, Green, and Co., $1.25).

Bateson, Mary. _Medieval England_ (N. Y., 1903, Putnam, $1.50). Deals with
social and economic life. "Story of the Nations."

Cheyney, E. P. _An Introduction to the Industrial and Social History of
England_ (N. Y., 1901, Macmillan, $1.40). The best brief work on the

Church, R. W. _The Beginning of the Middle Ages_ (N. Y., 1877, Scribner,

Cutts, E. L. _Scenes and Characters of the Middle Ages_ (London, 1872, De
La More Press, 7s. 6d.). An almost indispensable book; illustrated.

Davis, H. W. C. Medieval Europe (N. Y., 1911, Holt, 50 cents).

------ _Charlemagne, the Hero of Two Nations_ (N. Y., 1899, Putnam,
$1.50). "Heroes of the Nations."

Emerton, Ephraim. _An Introduction to the Study of the Middle Ages_
(Boston, 1888, Ginn, $1.10). The most satisfactory short account, and of
special value to beginners.

Foord, Edward. _The Byzantine Empire_ (N. Y., 1911, Macmillan, $2.00). The
most convenient short treatment; lavishly illustrated.

* Gibbon, Edward. _The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman
Empire_, edited by J. B. Bury (N. Y., 1914, Macmillan, 7 vols., $25.00).
The best edition, illustrated and provided with maps, of this standard

* Green, J. R. _Short History of the English People_, edited by Mrs. J. R.
Green and Miss Kate Norgate (N. Y., 1893-1895, Harper, 4 vols., $20.00). A
beautifully illustrated edition of this standard work.

Guerber, H. A. _Legends of the Middle Ages_ (N. Y., 1896, American Book
Co., $1.50).

Haskins, C. H. _The Normans in European History_ (Boston, 1915, Houghton
Mifflin Co., $2.00).

Hodgkin, Thomas. _The Dynasty of Theodosius_ (N. Y., 1899, Oxford
University Press, American Branch, $1.50). Popular lectures summarizing
the author's extensive studies.

Jessopp, Augustus. _The Coming of the Friars, and Other Historic Essays_
(N. Y., 1888, Putnam, $1.25). A book of great interest.

* Lacroix, Paul. _Science and Literature in the Middle Ages and at the
Period of the Renaissance_ (London, 1880, Bickers and Son, out of print).

Lawrence, W. W. _Medieval Story_ (N. Y., 1911, Columbia University Press,
$i.50). Discusses the great literary productions of the Middle Ages.

Mawer, Allen. _The Vikings_ (N. Y, 1913, Putnam, 35 cents).

Munro, D. C., and Sellery, G. C _Medieval Civilization_ (2d ed., N. Y.,
1907, Century Co., $2.00). Translated selections from standard works by
French and German scholars.

Rait, R. S. _Life in the Medieval University_ (N. Y., 1912, Putnam, 35
cents). "Cambridge Manuals."

Synge, M. B. _A Short History of Social Life in England_ (N. Y., 1906,
Barnes, $1.50).

Tappan, Eva M. _When Knights were Bold_ (Boston, 1912, Houghton Mifflin
Co., $2.00). An economic and social study of the Feudal Age; charmingly

Tickner, F. W. _A Social and Industrial History of England_ (N. Y., 1915,
Longmans, Green, and Co., $1.00). Very simply written and well

* Wright, Thomas. _The Homes of Other Days_ (London, 1871, Truebner, out of
print). Valuable for both text and illustrations.


Cheyney, E. P. _European Background of American History, 1300-1600_ (N.
Y., 1904, Harper, $2.00).

Creighton, Mandell. _The Age of Elizabeth_ (13th ed., N. Y., 1897,
Scribner, $ 1.00). "Epochs of Modern History."

Fiske, John. _The Discovery and Colonization of North America_ (Boston,
1905, Ginn, 90 cents).

Gardiner, S. R. _The Thirty Years' War_ (N. Y., 1874, Scribner, $1.00).

Goodyear, W. H. _Renaissance and Modern Art_ (N. Y., 1894, Macmillan,

Hudson, W. H. _The Story of the Renaissance_ (N. Y., 1912, Cassell,
$1.50). A well-written volume.

Hulme, E. M. _The Renaissance, the Protestant Revolution, and the Catholic
Reformation in Continental Europe_ (rev. ed., N. Y., 1915, Century Co.,
$2.50). The best work on the subject by an American scholar.

* Joyce, T. A. _Mexican Archaeology_ (N. Y., 1914, Putnam, $4.00).

------ _South American Archaeology_ (N. Y., 1912, Putnam, $3.50).

Kerr, P. H., and Kerr, A. C. _The Growth of the British Empire_ (N. Y.,
1911, Longmans, Green, and Co., 50 cents).

Oldham, J. B. _The Renaissance_ (N. Y., 1912, Dutton, 35 cents).

Seebohm, Frederic. _The Era of the Protestant Revolution_ (N. Y., 1875,
Scribner, $1.00). "Epochs of Modern History."





History is the narrative of what civilized man has done. It deals with
those social groups called states and nations. Just as biography describes
the life of individuals, so history relates the rise, progress, and
decline of human societies.


History cannot go back of written records. These alone will preserve a
full and accurate account of man's achievements. Manuscripts and books
form one class of written records. The old Babylonians used tablets of
soft clay, on which signs were impressed with a metal instrument. The
tablets were then baked hard in an oven. The Egyptians made a kind of
paper out of the papyrus, a plant native to the Nile valley. The Greeks
and Romans at first used papyrus, but later they employed the more lasting
parchment prepared from sheepskin. Paper seems to have been a Chinese
invention. It was introduced into Europe by the Arabs during the twelfth
century of our era.

Found in 1908 A.D. in the palace at Phaestus, Crete. The disk is of
refined clay on which the figures were stamped in relief with punches.
Both sides of the disk are covered with characters. The side seen in the
illustration contains 31 sign groups (123 signs) separated from one
another by incised lines. The other side contains 30 sign groups (118
signs). The inscription dates from about 1800 B.C.]

The pith of the papyrus, a plant native to the Nile valley, was cut into
slices, which were then pressed together and dried in the sun. Several of
the paper sheets thus formed were glued together at their edges to form a
roll. From _papyros_ and _byblos_, the two Greek names of this plant, have
come our own words, "paper" and "Bible." The illustration shows a
manuscript discovered in Egypt in 1890 A.D. It is supposed to be a
treatise, hitherto lost, on the Athenian constitution by the Greek
philosopher Aristotle.]


A second class of written records consists of inscriptions. These are
usually cut in stone, but sometimes we find them painted over the surface
of a wall, stamped on coins, or impressed upon metal tablets. The
historian also makes use of remains, such as statues, ornaments, weapons,
tools, and utensils. Monuments of various sorts, including palaces, tombs,
fortresses, bridges, temples, and churches, form a very important class of


History, based on written records, begins in different countries at
varying dates. A few manuscripts and inscriptions found in Egypt date back
three or four thousand years before Christ. The annals of Babylonia are
scarcely less ancient. Trustworthy records in China and India do not
extend beyond 1000 B.C. For the Greeks and Romans the commencement of the
historic period must be placed about 750 B.C. The inhabitants of northern
Europe did not come into the light of history until about the opening of
the Christian era.



In studying the historic period our chief concern is with those peoples
whose ideas or whose deeds have aided human progress and the spread of
civilization. Six-sevenths of the earth's inhabitants now belong to
civilized countries, and these countries include the best and largest
regions of the globe. At the beginning of historic times, however,
civilization was confined within a narrow area--the river valleys of
western Asia and Egypt. The uncounted centuries before the dawn of history
make up the prehistoric period, when savagery and barbarism prevailed
throughout the world. Our knowledge of it is derived from the examination
of the objects found in caves, refuse mounds, graves, and other sites.
Various European countries, including England, France, Denmark,
Switzerland, and Italy, are particularly rich in prehistoric remains.

The skeleton lay on the left side, with knees drawn up and hands raised to
the head. About it were various articles of food and vessels of pottery.]


The prehistoric period is commonly divided, according to the character of
the materials used for tools and weapons, into the Age of Stone and the
Age of Metals. The one is the age of savagery; the other is the age of
barbarism or semicivilization.


Man's earliest implements were those that lay ready to his hand. A branch
from a tree served as a spear; a thick stick in his strong arms became a
powerful club. Later, perhaps, came the use of a hard stone such as flint,
which could be chipped into the forms of arrowheads, axes, and spear tips.
The first stone implements were so rude in shape that it is difficult to
believe them of human workmanship. They may have been made several hundred
thousand years ago. After countless centuries of slow advance, savages
learned to fasten wooden handles to their stone tools and weapons and also
to use such materials as jade and granite, which could be ground and
polished into a variety of forms. Stone implements continued to be made
during the greater part of the prehistoric period. Every region of the
world has had a Stone Age. [1] Its length is reckoned, not by centuries,
but by milleniums.

A hatchet of flint, probably used without a helve and intended to fit the
hand. Similar implements have been found all over the world, except in

Different forms from Europe, Africa, and North America.]


The Age of Metals, compared with its predecessor, covers a brief expanse
of time. The use of metals came in not much before the dawn of history.
The earliest civilized peoples, the Babylonians and Egyptians, when we
first become acquainted with them, appear to be passing from the use of
stone implements to those of metal.


Copper was the first metal in common use. The credit for the invention of
copper tools seems to belong to the Egyptians. At a very early date they
were working the copper mines on the peninsula of Sinai. The Babylonians
probably obtained their copper from the same region. Another source of
this metal was the island of Cyprus in the eastern Mediterranean. The
Greek name of the island means "copper."


But copper tools were soft and would not keep an edge. Some ancient smith,
more ingenious than his fellows, discovered that the addition of a small
part of tin to the copper produced a new metal--bronze--harder than the
old, yet capable of being molded into a variety of forms. At least as
early as 3000 B.C. we find bronze taking the place of copper in both Egypt
and Babylonia. Somewhat later bronze was introduced into the island of
Crete, then along the eastern coast of Greece, and afterwards into other
European countries.


The introduction of iron occurred in comparatively recent times. At first
it was a scarce, and therefore a very precious, metal. The Egyptians seem
to have made little use of iron before 1500 B.C. They called it "the metal
of heaven," as if they obtained it from meteorites. In the Greek Homeric
poems, composed about 900 B.C. or later, we find iron considered so
valuable that a lump of it is one of the chief prizes at athletic games.
In the first five books of the Bible iron is mentioned only thirteen
times, though copper and bronze are referred to forty-four times. Iron is
more difficult to work than either copper or bronze, but it is vastly
superior to those metals in hardness and durability. Hence it gradually
displaced them throughout the greater part of the Old World. [2]


During the prehistoric period early man came to be widely scattered
throughout the world. Here and there, slowly, and with utmost difficulty,
he began to take the first steps toward civilization. The tools and
weapons which he left behind him afford some evidence of his advance. We
may now single out some of his other great achievements and follow their
development to the dawn of history.



Prehistoric man lived at first chiefly on wild berries, nuts, roots, and
herbs. As his implements improved and his skill increased, he became
hunter, trapper, and fisher. A tribe of hunters, however, requires an
extensive territory and a constant supply of game. When the wild animals
are all killed or seriously reduced in number, privation and hardship
result. It was a forward step, therefore, when man began to tame animals
as well as to kill them.


The dog was man's first conquest over the animal kingdom. As early as the
Age of Metals various breeds appear, such as deerhounds, sheep dogs, and
mastiffs. The dog soon showed how useful he could be. He tracked game,
guarded the camp, and later, in the pastoral stage, protected flocks and
herds against their enemies.


The cow also was domesticated at a remote period. No other animal has been
more useful to mankind. The cow's flesh and milk supply food: the skin
provides clothing; the sinews, bones, and horns yield materials for
implements. The ox was early trained to bear the yoke and draw the plow,

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