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Dogs and All About Them by Robert Leighton

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length and strength to a well-balanced frame. Must be fine in bone and
free in action. The hind-legs and thighs must be well feathered,
neither contracted nor wide behind; the feet small and compact in
shape. Shoulders should be clean, and well laid back. TAIL--The tail
is one of the characteristics of the breed, and should be turned over
the back and carried flat and straight, being profusely covered with
long, harsh, spreading hair. COAT--There should be two coats, an
undercoat and an overcoat; the one a soft fluffy undercoat, the other
a long, perfectly straight coat, harsh in texture, covering the whole
of the body, being very abundant round the neck and fore part of the
shoulders and chest where it should form a frill of profuse standing
off straight hair, extending over the shoulders. The hind-quarters
should be clad with long hair or feathering, from the top of the rump
to the hock. COLOUR--All whole colours are admissible, but they should
be free from white or shadings, and the whites must be quite free from
lemon or any other colour. A few white hairs in any of the self
colours shall not necessarily disqualify. At present the whole
coloured dogs are:--White, black, brown (light or dark), blue (as pale
as possible), orange (which should be as deep and even in colour as
possible), beaver, or cream. Dogs, other than white, with white foot
or feet, leg or legs, are decidedly objectionable and should be
discouraged, and cannot compete as whole coloured specimens. In
parti-coloured dogs the colours should be evenly distributed on the
body in patches; a dog with white or tan feet or chest would not be a
parti-colour. Shaded sables should be shaded throughout with three or
more colours, the hairs to be as "uniformly shaded" as possible, with
no patches of self colour. In mixed classes where whole coloured and
parti-coloured Pomeranians compete together, the preference should, if
in other points they are equal, be given to the whole coloured
specimens. Where classification is not by colours the following is
recommended for adoption by show committees:--1. Not exceeding 7 lb.
(Pomeranian Miniatures). 2. Exceeding 7 lb. (Pomeranians). 3.
Pomeranians and Pomeranian Miniatures mixed.

* * * * *

The early type of a Pomeranian was that of a dog varying from 10 lb.
or 12 lb. weight up to 20 lb. weight, or even more, and some few of
about 12 lb. and over are still to be met with; but the tendency among
present-day breeders is to get them as small as possible, so that
diminutive specimens weighing less than 5 lb. are now quite common,
and always fetch higher prices than the heavier ones. The dividing
weight, as arranged some ten years ago by the Pomeranian Club, is 8
lb., and the Kennel Club has recently divided the breed into two
classes of Pomeranians and Pomeranians Miniature.

As a rule the white specimens adhere more nearly to the primitive
type, and are generally over 8 lb. in weight, but through the
exertions of many breeders, several are now to be seen under this

The principal breeders of this colour in England to-day are Miss
Hamilton of Rozelle, Miss Chell, Miss Lee-Roberts, Mrs. Pope, and Mrs.
Goodall-Copestake. The first two whites to become full champions under
Kennel Club rules were Rob of Rozelle and Konig of Rozelle, both
belonging to Miss Hamilton of Rozelle.

More black Pomeranians have been bred in England than of any other
colour, and during the last fifteen years the number of good specimens
that have appeared at our great exhibitions has been legion. There do
not seem to be so many really good ones to-day as heretofore; this is
explained, perhaps, by the fact that other colours are now receiving
more and more attention from breeders. A typical small black of to-day
is Billie Tee, the property of Mr. and Mrs. Stanley Mappin. He scales
only 5-1/2 lb., and is therefore, as to size and weight as well as
shape, style, and smartness of action, a good type of a toy Pomeranian.
He was bred by Mrs. Cates, and is the winner of over fifty prizes and
many specials. To enumerate all the first-class blacks during the last
thirty years would be impossible, but those which stand out first and
foremost have been Black Boy, King Pippin, Kaffir Boy, Bayswater
Swell, Kensington King, Marland King, Black Prince, Hatcham Nip,
Walkley Queenie, Viva, Gateacre Zulu, Glympton King Edward, and Billie

The brown variety has for a long time been an especial favourite with
the public, and many good ones have been bred during the last ten
years. There are many different shades of browns, varying from a dark
chocolate to a light beaver, but in all cases they should be

An admirable example of the brown Pomeranians is the incomparable Ch.
Tina. This beautiful little lady was bred by Mrs. Addis from Bayswater
Swell ex Kitsey, and scaled a little under 5 lb. She won over every
Pomeranian that competed against her, besides having been many times
placed over all other dogs of any breed in open competition.

The shaded sables are among the prettiest of all the various colours
which Pomeranians may assume. They must be shaded throughout with
three or more colours, as uniformly as possible, with no patches of
self-colour. They are becoming very popular, and good specimens are
much sought after at high prices. Mrs. Hall-Walker has been constant
in her devotion to this variety for several years, and she possesses a
very fine team in Champions Dainty Boy, Dainty Belle, Bibury Belle,
and in Gateacre Sable Sue. Mrs. Vale Nicolas also has recently been
most successful with shaded sables. Ch. Nanky Po, over 8 lb., and
Champions Sable Mite and Atom bear witness to this statement. Her
lovely Mite is a typical example of a small Pomeranian of this colour.
He was bred by Mr. Hirst, by Little Nipper ex Laurel Fluffie, and
scales only 4-1/4 lb. Mention should also be made of Miss Ives' Dragon
Fly, Mrs. Boutcher's Lady Wolfino, Miss Bland's Marland Topaz, Mr.
Walter Winans' Morning Light, and Mr. Fowler's May Duchess.

The blues, or smoke-coloured Pomeranians, have likewise their
admirers, and among those who have taken up these as a speciality may
be mentioned Miss Ives, Mrs. Parker, Mrs. Loy, and Miss Ruby Cooke.

Another colour which has attained of late years increasing popularity
in England is orange. These should be self-coloured throughout, and
light shadings, though not disqualifying, should be discouraged. The
principal breeder of the orange Pomeranian to-day is Mr. W. Brown, of
Raleigh, Essex, who has probably more specimens in his kennels than
any other breeder of this colour. Tiny Boy, The Boy, and Orange Boy
are his best, and all three are approved sires. Mrs. Hall-Walker is an
admirer of this colour, and her Gateacre Philander, Lupino, and Orange
Girl are great prize-winners. Miss Hamilton of Rozelle has for many
years bred "oranges," and has given to the Pomeranian Club, of which
she is President, two challenge cups for Pomeranians of this colour.
Mrs. Birch also is a lover of this hue, and possesses such good dogs
as Rufus Rusticus and Cheriwinkle.

There is still another variety which bears the name of parti-coloured.
As the name implies, these dogs must be of more than one colour, and
the colours should be evenly distributed on the body in patches; for
example, a black dog with a white foot or leg or chest would not be a
parti-colour. As a matter of fact, there have been bred in England
very few parti-coloured Pomeranians; they seem to be freaks which are
rarely produced. It does not follow that by mating a black dog to a
white bitch, or _vice versa_, a parti-coloured will be necessarily
obtained; on the contrary, it is more likely that the litter will
consist of some whole-coloured blacks, and some whole-coloured whites.
Miss Hamilton's Mafeking of Rozelle, and Mrs. Vale Nicolas's Shelton
Novelty, are the two most prominent specimens at the present time,
although Mrs. Harcourt-Clare's Magpie and Mr. Temple's Leyswood Tom
Tit were perhaps better known some time ago.

Among toy dogs this particular breed has enjoyed an unprecedented
popularity; the growth in the public favour among all classes has been
gradual and permanent during the last fifteen years, and there are no
signs that it is losing its hold on the love and affection of a large
section of the English people. His handsome appearance, his activity,
and hardihood, his devotedness to his owner, his usefulness as a
housedog, and his many other admirable qualities will always make the
Pomeranian a favourite both in the cottage and in the palace.



In the fourth chapter of Macaulay's _History of England_ we read of
King Charles II. that "he might be seen before the dew was off the
grass in St. James's Park, striding among the trees playing with his
Spaniels and flinging corn to his ducks, and these exhibitions
endeared him to the common people, who always like to see the great

Queen Elizabeth's physician, Dr. Caius, described these little
Spaniels as "delicate, neate, and pretty kind of dogges, called the
Spaniel gentle or the comforter," and further said: "These dogges are
little, pretty, proper, and fyne, and sought for to satisfie the
delicatenesse of daintie dames and wanton women's wills, instruments
of folly for them to play and dally withall, to tryfle away the
treasure of time, to withdraw their mindes from their commendable
exercises. These puppies the smaller they be, the more pleasure they
provoke as more meete playfellowes for minsing mistrisses to beare in
their bosoms, to keepe company withall in their chambers, to succour
with sleepe in bed, and nourishe with meate at board, to lie in their
lappes, and licke their lippes as they ryde in their waggons, and good
reason it should be so, for coursenesse with fynenesse hath no
fellowship, but featnesse with neatnesse hath neighbourhood enough."

There would appear to be much divergence of opinion as to the origin
of this breed, and the date of its first appearance in England, but it
was certainly acclimatised here as early as the reign of Henry VIII.,
and it is generally thought that it is of Japanese origin, taken from
Japan to Spain by the early voyagers to the East, and thence imported
into England. The English Toy Spaniels of to-day, especially the
Blenheim variety, are also said by some to be related to some sporting
Spaniels which belonged to Queen Mary about the year 1555, and might
have been brought over from Germany. Mary kept a pack of Spaniels for
hunting purposes.

There is another theory advanced, and with some reason that the
English Toy Spaniel of the present day derived its origin from the
Cocker Spaniel, as these larger dogs have the same colours and
markings, black and tan, tricolour, and red and white. The Cocker also
occasionally has the spot on the forehead which is a characteristic of
the Blenheim.

Be the origin of the King Charles Spaniel, and its advent in this
country, what it may, King Charles II. so much indulged and loved
these little friends that they followed him hither and thither as they
pleased, and seem to have been seldom separated from him. By him they
were loved and cherished, and brought into great popularity; in his
company they adorn canvas and ancient tapestries, and are reputed to
have been allowed free access at all times to Whitehall, Hampton
Court, and other royal palaces.

There are now four recognised varieties of the English Toy Spaniel,
or, more properly speaking, five, as the Marlborough Blenheims are
considered a distinct type. The latter are said by some to be the
oldest of the Toy Spaniels; by others to have been first brought over
from Spain during the reign of Charles II. by John Churchill, first
Duke of Marlborough, from whose home, Blenheim Palace, the name was
derived, and has ever since been retained.

If we may take the evidence of Vandyck, Watteau, Francois Boucher, and
Greuze, in whose pictures they are so frequently introduced, all the
toy Spaniels of bygone days had much longer noses and smaller, flatter
heads than those of the present time, and they had much longer ears,
these in many instances dragging on the ground.

The Marlborough Blenheim has retained several of the ancestral points.
Although this variety is of the same family, and has the same name, as
the short-nosed Blenheim of the present day, there is a great deal of
difference between the two types. The Marlborough is higher on the
legs, which need not be so fully feathered. He has a much longer
muzzle and a flatter and more contracted skull. The Marlborough
possesses many of the attributes of a sporting Spaniel; but so also
does the modern Blenheim, although perhaps in a lesser degree. He has
a very good scent. Mr. Rawdon B. Lee states that "the Blenheims of
Marlborough were excellent dogs to work the coverts for cock and
pheasant, and that excepting in colour there is in reality not much
difference in appearance between the older orange and white dogs (not
as they are to-day, with their abnormally short noses, round skulls,
and enormous eyes), and the liver and white Cockers which H. B. Chalon
drew for Daniel's _Rural Sports_ in 1801."

This will bear out the statement that the smaller type of Spaniel may
be descended from the Cockers.

The ground colour of this dog is white, with chestnut encircling the
ears to the muzzle, the sides of the neck are chestnut, as are also
the ears. There is a white blaze on the forehead, in the centre of
which should be a clear lozenge-shaped chestnut spot, called the
beauty spot, which by inbreeding with other varieties is fast being
lost. Chestnut markings are on the body and on the sides of the
hind-legs. The coat should incline to be curly; the head must be flat,
not broad, and the muzzle should be straight. The chestnut should be
of a rich colour.

The four varieties--the King Charles, Tricolour or (as he has been
called) Charles I. Spaniel, the modern Blenheim, and the Ruby--have
all the same points, differing from one another in colour only, and
the following description of the points as determined by the Toy
Spaniel Club serves for all:--

* * * * *

HEAD--Should be well domed, and in good specimens is absolutely
semi-globular, sometimes even extending beyond the half-circle, and
projecting over the eyes, so as nearly to meet the upturned nose.
EYES--The eyes are set wide apart, with the eyelids square to the line
of the face, not oblique or fox-like. The eyes themselves are large,
and dark as possible, so as to be generally considered black, their
enormous pupils, which are absolutely of that colour, increasing the
description. There is always a certain amount of weeping shown at the
inner angles. This is owing to a defect in the lachrymal duct.
STOP--The "stop" or hollow between the eyes is well marked, as in the
Bulldog, or even more so; some good specimens exhibit a hollow deep
enough to bury a small marble. NOSE--The nose must be short and well
turned up between the eyes, and without any indication of artificial
displacement afforded by a deviation to either side. The colour of the
end should be black, and it should be both deep and wide with open
nostrils. JAW--The muzzle must be square and deep, and the lower jaw
wide between the branches, leaving plenty of space for the tongue, and
for the attachment of the lower lips, which should completely conceal
the teeth. It should also be turned up or "finished," so as to allow
of its meeting the end of the upper jaw turned up in a similar way, as
above described. EARS--The ears must be long, so as to approach the
ground. In an average-sized dog they measure twenty inches from tip to
tip, and some reach twenty-two inches, or even a trifle more. They
should be set low on the head, hang flat to the sides of the cheeks,
and be heavily feathered. In this last respect the King Charles is
expected to exceed the Blenheim, and his ears occasionally extend to
twenty-four inches. SIZE--The most desirable size is indicated by the
accepted weight of from 7 lb. to 10 lb. SHAPE--In compactness of shape
these Spaniels almost rival the Pug, but the length of coat adds
greatly to the apparent bulk, as the body, when the coat is wetted,
looks small in comparison with that dog. Still, it ought to be
decidedly "cobby," with strong, stout legs, short broad back and wide
chest. The symmetry of the King Charles is of importance, but it is
seldom that there is any defect in this respect. COAT--The coat should
be long, silky, soft and wavy, but not curly. In the Blenheim there
should be a profuse mane, extending well down in the front of the
chest. The feather should be well displayed on the ears and feet, and
in the latter case so thickly as to give the appearance of their being
webbed. It is also carried well up the backs of the legs. In the Black
and Tan the feather on the ears is very long and profuse, exceeding
that of the Blenheim by an inch or more. The feather on the tail
(which is cut to the length of three and a half to four inches) should
be silky, and from five to six inches in length, constituting a marked
"flag" of a square shape, and not carried above the level of the back.
COLOUR--The colour differs with the variety. The Black and Tan is a
rich glossy black and deep mahogany tan; tan spots over the eyes, and
the usual markings on the muzzle, chest, and legs are also required.
The Ruby is a rich chestnut red, and is whole-coloured. The presence
of a _few_ white hairs _intermixed with the black_ on the chest of a
Black and Tan, or _intermixed with the red_ on the chest of a Ruby
Spaniel, shall carry _weight against_ a dog, but shall not in itself
absolutely disqualify; but a white patch on the chest or white on
any other part of a Black and Tan or Ruby Spaniel shall be a
disqualification. The Blenheim must on no account be whole-coloured,
but should have a ground of pure pearly white, with bright rich
chestnut or ruby red markings evenly distributed in large patches. The
ears and cheeks should be red, with a blaze of white extending from
the nose up the forehead, and ending between the ears in a crescentic
curve. In the centre of this blaze at the top of the forehead there
should be a clear "spot" of red, of the size of a sixpence. Tan ticks
on the fore-legs and on the white muzzle are desirable. The Tricolour
should in part have the tan of the Black and Tan, with markings like
the Blenheim in black instead of red on a pearly-white ground. The
ears and under the tail should also be lined with tan. The Tricolour
has no "spot," that beauty being peculiarly the property of the
Blenheim. The All Red King Charles is known by the name of "Ruby
Spaniel"; the colour of the nose is black. The points of the "Ruby"
are the same as those of the "Black and Tan," differing only in

* * * * *

The King Charles variety used to consist of black and tan and black
and white Spaniels, and it is thought that by the inter-breeding of
the two specimens the Tricolour was produced. The colour of the King
Charles now is a glossy black with rich mahogany tan spots over the
eyes and on the cheeks. There should also be some tan on the legs and
under the tail.

The Prince Charles, or Tricolour, should have a pearly-white ground
with glossy black markings evenly distributed over the body in
patches. The ears should be lined with tan; tan must also be seen over
the eyes, and some on the cheeks. Under the tail also tan must appear.

The Blenheim must also have a pearly-white ground with bright rich
chestnut or ruby red markings evenly distributed in patches over the
body. The ears and cheeks must be red, and a white blaze should
stretch from the nose to the forehead and thence in a curve between
the ears. In the middle of the forehead there should be, on the white
blaze, a clear red spot about the size of a sixpence. This is called
the "Blenheim spot," which, as well as the profuse mane, adds greatly
to the beauty of this particular Toy Spaniel. Unfortunately, in a
litter of Blenheims the spot is often wanting.

The Ruby Spaniel is of one colour, a rich, unbroken red. The nose is
black. There are now some very beautiful specimens of Ruby Spaniels,
but it is only within the last quarter of a century that this variety
has existed. It seems to have originally appeared in a litter of King
Charles puppies, when it was looked upon as a freak of nature, taking
for its entire colour only the tan markings and losing the black

The different varieties of Toy Spaniels have been so much interbred
that a litter has been reputed to contain the four kinds, but this
would be of very rare occurrence. The Blenheim is now often crossed
with the Tricolour, when the litter consist of puppies quite true to
the two types. The crossing of the King Charles with the Ruby is also
attended with very good results, the tan markings on the King Charles
becoming very bright and the colour of the Ruby also being improved.
Neither of these specimens should be crossed with either the Blenheim
or the Tricolour, as white must not appear in either the King Charles
or the Ruby Spaniel.

It is regretted by some of the admirers of these dogs that custom has
ordained that their tails should be docked. As portrayed in early
pictures of the King Charles and the Blenheim varieties, the tails are
long, well flagged, and inclined to curve gracefully over the back,
and in none of the pictures of the supposed ancestors of our present
Toy Spaniels--even so recent as those painted by Sir Edwin Landseer--do
we find an absence of the long tail.

If left intact, the tail would take two or three years to attain
perfection, but the same may be said of the dog generally, which
improves very much with age, and is not at its best until it is three
years old, and even then continues to improve.

Although the Toy Spaniels are unquestionably true aristocrats by
nature, birth, and breeding, and are most at home in a drawing-room or
on a well-kept lawn, they are by no means deficient in sporting
proclivities, and, in spite of their short noses, their scent is very
keen. They thoroughly enjoy a good scamper, and are all the better for
not being too much pampered. They are very good house-dogs, intelligent
and affectionate, and have sympathetic, coaxing little ways. One point
in their favour is the fact that they are not noisy, and do not yap
continually when strangers go into a room where they are, or at other
times, as is the habit with some breeds of toy dogs.

Those who have once had King Charles Spaniels as pets seldom care to
replace them by any other variety of dog, fearing lest they might not
find in another breed such engaging little friends and companions,
"gentle" as of yore and also "comforters."

Although these dogs need care, they possess great powers of endurance.
They appreciate warmth and comfort, but do not thrive so well in
either extreme heat or intense cold. One thing to be avoided is the
wetting of their feathered feet, or, should this happen, allowing them
to remain so; and, as in the case of all dogs with long ears, the
interior of the ears should be carefully kept dry to avoid the risk of

In going back to a period long before the last century was half-way
through, we find that a great number of these ornamental pets were in
the hands of working men living in the East End of London, and the
competition among them to own the best was very keen. They held
miniature dog shows at small taverns, and paraded their dogs on the
sanded floor of tap-rooms, their owners sitting around smoking long
church-warden pipes. The value of good specimens in those early days
appears to have been from P5 to P250, which latter sum is said to have
been refused by a comparatively poor man for a small black and tan
with very long ears, and a nose much too long for our present-day
fancy. Among the names of some old prominent breeders and exhibitors
may be mentioned those of C. Aistrop, J. Garwood, J. A. Buggs, and
Mrs. Forder.

It is interesting to note, on looking over a catalogue of the Kennel
Club Show, that in 1884 the classes for Toy Spaniels numbered five,
with two championship prizes, one each for Blenheims and Black and
Tans, and the total entries were 19. At this date neither Tricolours
nor Rubies were recognised as a separate variety by the Kennel Club,
and they had no place in the register of breeds until the year 1902.
At the Kennel Club show in 1904 thirty-one classes were provided and
eight challenge certificate prizes were given, the entries numbering

The formation of the Toy Spaniel Club in 1885, and the impetus
given to breeders and exhibitors by the numerous shows with good
classification, have caused this beautiful breed to become more
popular year by year. Fifty years ago the owners might be almost
counted on the fingers of one's hands; now probably the days of the
year would hardly cover them.

Among the most successful exhibitors of late years have been the Hon.
Mrs. McLaren Morrison, the Hon. Mrs. Lytton, Mrs. Graves, Mrs. L. H.
Thompson, Miss Young, Mrs. H. B. Looker, Mrs. Privette, Miss Hall, the
Misses Clarkson and Grantham, Mrs. Dean, Mr. H. Taylor, Mrs. Bright,
Mrs. Adamson, Miss Spofforth, Mrs. Hope Paterson, Mrs. Lydia Jenkins,
and Miss E. Taylor.

The novice fancier, desirous of breeding for profit, exhibition, or
pleasure, when price is an object for consideration, is often better
advised to purchase a healthy puppy from a breeder of repute rather
than to be deluded with the notion that a good adult can be purchased
for a few pounds, or to be carried away with the idea that a cheap,
indifferently bred specimen will produce first-class stock. It takes
years to breed out bad points, but good blood will tell.

When you are purchasing a bitch with the intention of breeding, many
inquiries should be made as to the stock from which she comes. This
will influence the selection of the sire to whom she is to be mated,
and he should excel in the points in which she is deficient. It is
absolutely necessary to have perfectly healthy animals, and if the
female be young, and small stock is desired, her mate should be
several years her senior. A plain specimen of the right blood is quite
likely to produce good results to the breeder; for example, should
there be two female puppies in a well-bred litter, one remarkable as
promising to have all the requirements for a coming champion, the
other large and plain, this latter should be selected for breeding
purposes as, being stronger, she will make a better and more useful
mother than her handsome sister, who should be kept for exhibition, or
for sale at a remunerative price.

The modern craze for small specimens makes them quite unsuitable for
procreation. A brood bitch should not be less than 9 lb. in weight,
and even heavier is preferable. A sire the same size will produce
small and far more typical stock than one of 5 lb. or 6 lb., as the
tendency is to degenerate, especially in head points; but small size
can be obtained by suitably selecting the parents.

The early spring is the best season for breeding, as it gives the
puppies a start of at least six months in which to grow and get strong
before the cold weather sets in, although, of course, they can be bred
at any time, but autumn and winter puppies are more troublesome to
rear. It is always wise to administer occasionally, both to puppies
and adults, a dose of worm medicine, so as to give no chance to
internal parasites--the most troublesome ill with which the dog owner
has to wrestle, causing even more mortality than the dreaded scourge
of distemper.

The rules of hygiene cannot be overlooked, as upon them hangs the
success of the breeder; plenty of fresh air, light, and sunshine are
as necessary as food. Puppies of this breed are essentially delicate,
and must be kept free from cold and draughts, but they require liberty
and freedom to develop and strengthen their limbs, otherwise they are
liable to develop rickets. Their food should be of the best quality,
and after the age of six months, nothing seems more suitable than
stale brown bred, cut up dice size, and moistened with good stock
gravy, together with minced, lean, underdone roast beef, with the
addition, two or three times a week, of a little well-cooked green
vegetable, varied with rice or suet pudding and plain biscuits. Fish
may also be given occasionally.

When only two or three dogs are kept, table scraps will generally be
sufficient, but the pernicious habit of feeding at all times, and
giving sweets, pastry, and rich dainties, is most harmful, and must
produce disastrous results to the unfortunate animal. Two meals a day
at regular intervals are quite sufficient to keep these little pets in
the best condition, although puppies should be fed four times daily in
small quantities. After leaving the mother they will thrive better if
put on dry food, and a small portion of scraped or finely minced lean
meat given them every other day, alternately with a chopped hard-boiled
egg and stale bread-crumbs.



Few of the many breeds of foreign dogs now established in England have
attained such a measure of popularity in so short a time as the
Pekinese. Of their early history little is known, beyond the fact that
at the looting of the Summer Palace of Pekin, in 1860, bronze effigies
of these dogs, known to be more than two thousand years old, were
found within the sacred precincts. The dogs were, and are to this day,
jealously guarded under the supervision of the Chief Eunuch of the
Court, and few have ever found their way into the outer world.

So far as the writer is aware, the history of the breed in England
dates from the importation in 1860 of five dogs taken from the Summer
Palace, where they had, no doubt, been forgotten on the flight of the
Court to the interior. Admiral Lord John Hay, who was present on
active service, gives a graphic account of the finding of these little
dogs in a part of the garden frequented by an aunt of the Emperor, who
had committed suicide on the approach of the Allied Forces. Lord John
and another naval officer, a cousin of the late Duchess of Richmond's,
each secured two dogs; the fifth was taken by General Dunne, who
presented it to Queen Victoria. Lord John took pains to ascertain that
none had found their way into the French camp, and he heard then that
the others had all been removed to Jehal with the Court. It is
therefore reasonable to suppose that these five were the only Palace
dogs, or Sacred Temple dogs of Pekin, which reached England, and it is
from the pair which lived to a respectable old age at Goodwood that so
many of the breed now in England trace their descent.

by T. Fall_; 4. LADY HULTON'S BLENHEIM CH. JOY _Photograph by

Many years ago Mr. Alfred de Rothschild tried, through his agents in
China, to secure a specimen of the Palace dog for the writer, in order
to carry on the Goodwood strain, but without success, even after a
correspondence with Pekin which lasted more than two years; but we
succeeded in obtaining confirmation of what we had always understood:
namely, that the Palace dogs are rigidly guarded, and that their theft
is punishable by death. At the time of the Boxer Rebellion only
Spaniels, Pugs, and Poodles were found in the Imperial Palace when it
was occupied by the Allied Forces, the little dogs having once more
preceded the court in the flight to Si-gnanfu.

The Duchess of Richmond occasionally gave away a dog to intimate
friends, such as the Dowager Lady Wharncliffe, Lady Dorothy Nevill,
and others, but in those days the Pekinese was practically an unknown
quantity, and it can therefore be more readily understood what
interest was aroused about eleven years ago by the appearance of a
small dog, similar in size, colour, and general type to those so
carefully cherished at Goodwood. This proved to be none other than the
since well-known sire Ah Cum, owned by Mrs. Douglas Murray, whose
husband, having extensive interests in China, had managed after many
years to secure a true Palace dog, smuggled in a box of hay, placed
inside a crate which contained Japanese deer!

Ah Cum was mated without delay to two Goodwood bitches, the result
being, in the first litters, Ch. Goodwood Lo and Goodwood Put-Sing.
To these three sires, some of the bluest Pekinese blood is traceable,
_vide_ Ch. Goodwood Chum, Ch. Chu-Erh of Alderbourne, Ch. Gia-Gia,
Manchu Tao-Tai, Goodwood Ming, Marland Myth, and others.

It must, however, be clearly admitted that since the popularity of the
breed has become established we unluckily see scores of Pekinese in
the show-ring who have lost all resemblance to the original type, and
for this the Pekinese Club is in some measure to blame. The original
points for the guidance of breeders and judges were drawn up by Lady
Samuelson, Mrs. Douglas Murray, and Lady Algernon Gordon-Lennox, who
fixed the maximum size at 10 lb.--a very generous margin. Since then
the club has amended the scale of points, no doubt in order to secure
a larger membership, and the maximum now stands at 18 lb.

Is it therefore to be wondered at that confusion exists as to what is
the true type? At shows there should be two distinct classes; the
Palace dog and the Pekin Spaniel, or any other name which would enable
the breeds to be kept distinct.

The following is the scale of points as issued by the Pekinese Club:--

* * * * *

HEAD--Massive, broad skull, wide and flat between the ears (not dome
shaped); wide between the eyes. NOSE--Black, broad, very short and
flat. EYES--Large, dark, prominent, round, lustrous. STOP--Deep.
EARS--Heart-shaped; not set too high; leather never long enough to
come below the muzzle; not carried erect, but rather drooping, long
feather. MUZZLE--Very short and broad; not underhung nor pointed;
wrinkled. MANE--Profuse, extending beyond shoulder blades, forming
ruff or frill round front of neck. SHAPE OF BODY--Heavy in front;
broad chest falling away lighter behind; lion-like; not too long in
the body. COAT AND FEATHER AND CONDITION--Long, with thick undercoat;
straight and flat, not curly nor wavy; rather coarse but soft; feather
on thighs, legs, tail and toes, long and profuse. COLOUR--All colours
allowable, red, fawn, black, black and tan, sable, brindle, white and
parti-coloured. Black masks, and spectacles round the eyes, with lines
to the ears, are desirable. LEGS--Short; fore-legs heavy, bowed out at
elbows; hind-legs lighter, but firm and well shaped. FEET--Flat, not
round; should stand well up on toes, not on ankles. TAIL--Curled and
carried well up on loins; long, profuse straight feather. SIZE--Being
a toy dog the smaller the better, provided type and points are not
sacrificed. Anything over 18 lb. should disqualify. When divided by
weight, classes should be over 10 lb., and under 10 lb. ACTION--Free,
strong and high; crossing feet or throwing them out in running should
not take off marks; weakness of joints should be penalised.

* * * * *

Lady Algernon Gordon-Lennox has occasionally been criticised for her
advocacy of _whole-coloured_ specimens, but in support of this
preference it can be proved that the original pair brought to
Goodwood, as well as Mrs. Murray's Ah Cum, were all of the golden
chestnut shade; and, as no brindled, parti-coloured, or black dog has
ever been born at Goodwood or Broughton, we have some authority for
looking upon whole-colour as an important point. This view was in the
first place confirmed by the late Chinese Ambassador in London, and
further by Baron Speck von Sternberg, who was for many years Minister
at Pekin and had very special facilities for noting the points of the
Palace dogs.

In every case a black muzzle is indispensable, also black points to
the ears, with trousers, tail and feathering a somewhat lighter shade
than the body. There is considerable divergence of opinion as to the
penalisation of what, in other breeds, is known as a "Dudley" nose,
but on this point there must be some difficulty at shows; in the
Pekinese the colour of the nose varies in a remarkable way, especially
in the case of the bitches. For instance, a pinkish tinge was always
visible on the nose of Goodwood Meh before the birth of her puppies;
but it resumed its normal colour when the puppies were a few weeks
old. As a representative type, Chu-Erh of Alderbourne resembles most
nearly the old Goodwood dogs. He has the same square, cobby
appearance, broad chest, bowed legs, profuse feather, and large,
lustrous eyes--points which are frequently looked for in vain
nowadays--and his breeder and owner may well be proud of him.

The Pekinese differs from the Japanese dog in that it appears to be
far stronger in constitution, and withstands the changes of the
English climate with much greater ease; in fact, they are as hardy,
_under healthy conditions_, as any English breed, and the only serious
trouble seems to be the weakness which is developing in the eyes.
Small abscesses frequently appear when the puppies are a few months
old, and, although they may not affect the sight, they almost
inevitably leave a bluish mark, while in some cases the eye itself
becomes contracted. Whether this is one of the results of in-breeding
it is difficult to say, and it would be of interest to know whether
the same trouble is met with in China.

The Pekinese bitches are excellent mothers, provided they are not
interfered with for the first few days. This was discovered at
Goodwood years ago by the fact that, on two or three occasions, one
Celestial lady, who had been given greater attention than she
considered necessary, revenged herself by devouring her own family of
puppies! One thing seems from experience to be especially advisable--as
far as can be arranged, to breed in the spring rather than autumn. The
puppies need all the open air and exercise that is possible, and where
rickety specimens are so frequently met with it is only natural that a
puppy who starts life with the summer months ahead is more likely to
develop well than one born in the autumn. Great attention should be
paid with reference to the frequent--almost certain--presence of
worms, which trouble seems more prevalent with Pekinese than with any
other breed. Wherever possible, fish should be given as part of the
dietary; some Pekinese devour it with relish; others will not touch
it, but there is no doubt it is a useful item in the bill of fare.
Bread well soaked in very strong stock, sheep's head, and liver are
always better as regular diet than meat, but in cases of debility a
little raw meat given once a day is most beneficial.

It would not be fitting to close an article on Pekinese without
bearing testimony to their extraordinarily attractive characteristics.
They are intensely affectionate and faithful, and have something
almost cat-like in their domesticity. They display far more character
than the so-called "toy dog" usually does, and for this reason it is
all-important that pains should be taken to preserve the true type, in
a recognition of the fact that quality is more essential than quantity.

* * * * *

As their breed-name implies, these tiny black and white, long-haired
lap dogs are reputed to be natives of the land of the chrysanthemum.
The Japanese, who have treasured them for centuries, have the belief
that they are not less ancient than the dogs of Malta. There seems to
be a probability, however, that the breed may claim to be Chinese just
as surely as Japanese. The Hon. Mrs. McLaren Morrison, an authority on
exotic dogs whose opinion must always be taken with respect, is
inclined to the belief that they are related to the short-nosed
Spaniels of Thibet; while other experts are equally of opinion that
the variety is an offshoot from the Spaniels of Pekin. It is fairly
certain that they are indigenous to the Far East, whence we have
derived so many of our small snub-nosed, large-eyed, and long-haired
pets. The Oriental peoples have always bred their lap dogs to small
size, convenient for carrying in the sleeve. The "sleeve dog" and the
"chin dog" are common and appropriate appellations in the East.

The Japanese Spaniel was certainly known in England half a century
ago, and probably much earlier. Our seamen often brought them home as
presents for their sweethearts. These early imported specimens were
generally of the larger kind, and if they were bred from--which is
doubtful--it was by crossing with the already long-established King
Charles or Blenheim Spaniels. Their colours were not invariably white
and black. Many were white and red, or white with lemon-yellow
patches. The colouring other than white was usually about the
long-fringed ears and the crown of the head, with a line of white
running from the point of the snub black nose between the eyes as far
as the occiput. This blaze up the face was commonly said to resemble
the body of a butterfly, whose closed wings were represented by the
dog's expansive ears.

The white and black colouring is now the most frequent. The points
desired are a broad and rounded skull, large in proportion to the
dog's body; a wide, strong muzzle and a turned-up lower jaw. Great
length of body is not good; the back should be short and level. The
legs are by preference slender and much feathered, the feet large and
well separated. An important point is the coat. It should be abundant,
particularly about the neck, where it forms a ruffle, and it ought
to be quite straight and very silky. The Japanese Spaniel is
constitutionally delicate, requiring considerable care in feeding. A
frequent--almost a daily--change of diet is to be recommended, and
manufactured foods are to be avoided. Rice usually agrees well; fresh
fish, sheep's head, tongue, chicken livers, milk or batter puddings
are also suitable; and occasionally give oatmeal porridge, alternated
with a little scraped raw meat as an especial favour. For puppies
newly weaned it is well to limit the supply of milk foods and to avoid
red meat. Finely minced rabbit, or fish are better.

Of the Japanese Spaniels which have recently been prominent in
competition, may be mentioned Miss Serena's Champion Fuji of Kobe, a
remarkably beautiful bitch, who was under 5 lb. in weight, and who in
her brief life gained six full championships. Mrs. Gregson's Ch. Tora
of Braywick, a fine red and white dog, somewhat over 7 lb., is also to
be remembered as a typical example of the breed, together with Kara,
the smallest Jap ever exhibited or bred in this country, weighing only
2-1/2 lb. when 2-1/2 years old; Lady Samuelson's Togo and O'Toyo of
Braywick, and Mrs. Hull's Ch. Daddy Jap.

There has lately been a tendency to lay too much stress upon
diminutive size in this variety of the dog, to the neglect of
well-formed limbs and free movement; but on the whole it may be
stated with confidence that the Japanese is prospering in England,
thanks largely to the energetic work of the Japanese Chin Club, which
was formed some three years ago to promote the best interests of the

The following is the official standard issued by the Club:--

* * * * *

HEAD--Should be large for size of animal, very broad and with slightly
rounded skull. MUZZLE--Strong and wide; very short from eyes to nose;
upper jaw should look slightly turned up between the eyes; lower jaw
should be also turned up or finished so as to meet it, but should the
lower jaw be slightly underhung it is not a blemish provided the teeth
are not shown in consequence. NOSE--Very short in the muzzle part. The
end or nose proper should be wide, with open nostrils, and must be the
colour of the dog's marking, _i.e._, black in black-marked dogs, and
red or deep flesh colour in red or lemon marked dogs. EYES--Large,
dark, lustrous, rather prominent, and set wide apart. EARS--Small and
V-shaped, nicely feathered, set wide apart and high on the head and
carried slightly forward. NECK--Should be short and moderately thick.
BODY--Very compact and squarely built, with a short back, rather wide
chest, and of generally "cobby" shape. The body and legs should really
go into a square, _i.e._, the length of the dog should be about its
height. LEGS--The bones of the legs should be small, giving them a
slender appearance, and they should be well feathered. FEET--Small and
shaped, somewhat long; the dog stands up on its toes somewhat. If
feathered, the tufts should never increase the width of the foot, but
only its length a trifle. TAIL--Carried in a tight curl over the back.
It should be profusely feathered so as to give the appearance of a
beautiful "plume" on the animal's back. COAT--Profuse, long, straight,
rather silky. It should be absolutely free from wave or curl, and not
lie too flat, but have a tendency to stand out, especially at the neck,
so as to give a thick mane or ruff, which with profuse feathering on
thighs and tail gives a very showy appearance. COLOUR--Either black
and white or red and white, _i.e._, parti-coloured. The term red
includes all shades, sable, brindle, lemon or orange, but the brighter
and clearer the red the better. The white should be clear white, and
the colour, whether black or red, should be evenly distributed in
patches over the body, cheeks, and ears. HEIGHT AT SHOULDER--About ten
inches. WEIGHT--The size desirable is from 4 lb. to 9 lb. The smaller
size is preferable if good shape.



No doubt has been cast upon the belief that the small, white, silky
_Canis Melitaeus_ is the most ancient of all the lap dogs of the
Western world. It was a favourite in the time of Phidias; it was an
especial pet of the great ladies of Imperial Rome. It appears to have
come originally from the Adriatic island of Melita rather than from
the Mediterranean Malta, although this supposition cannot be verified.
There is, however, no question that it is of European origin, and that
the breed, as we know it to-day, has altered exceedingly little in
type and size since it was alluded to by Aristotle more than three
hundred years before the Christian era. One may gather from various
references in literature, and from the evidence of art, that it was
highly valued in ancient times. "When his favourite dog dies," wrote
Theophrastus in illustration of the vain man, "he deposits the remains
in a tomb, and erects a monument over the grave, with the inscription,
'Offspring of the stock of Malta.'"

The "offspring of the stock of Malta" were probably first imported
into England during the reign of Henry VIII. It is certain that they
were regarded as "meet playfellows for mincing mistresses" in the
reign of Elizabeth, whose physician, Dr. Caius, alluded to them as
being distinct from the Spaniel, "gentle or comforter."

Early writers aver that it was customary when Maltese puppies were
born to press or twist the nasal bone with the fingers "in order that
they may seem more elegant in the sight of men"--a circumstance which
goes to show that our forefathers were not averse to improving
artificially the points of their dogs.

The snowy whiteness and soft, silky texture of its coat must always
cause the Maltese dog to be admired; but the variety has never been
commonly kept in England--a fact which is, no doubt, due to the
difficulty of breeding it and to the trouble in keeping the dog's long
jacket clean and free from tangle. Thirty or forty years ago it was
more popular as a lap dog than it has ever been since, and in the
early days of dog shows many beautiful specimens were exhibited. This
popularity was largely due to the efforts of Mr. R. Mandeville, of
Southwark, who has been referred to as virtually the founder of the
modern Maltese. His Fido and Lily were certainly the most perfect
representatives of the breed during the decade between 1860 and 1870,
and at the shows held at Birmingham, Islington, the Crystal Palace,
and Cremorne Gardens, this beautiful brace was unapproachable.

It is a breed which to be kept in perfection requires more than
ordinary attention, not only on account of its silky jacket, which is
peculiarly liable to become matted, and is difficult to keep
absolutely clean without frequent washing, but also on account of a
somewhat delicate constitution, the Maltese being susceptible to colds
and chills. If affected by such causes, the eyes are often attacked,
and the water running from them induces a brown stain to mar the
beauty of the face. Skin eruptions due to unwise feeding, or parasites
due to uncleanliness, are quickly destructive to the silky coat, and
constant watchfulness is necessary to protect the dog from all
occasion for scratching. The diet is an important consideration
always, and a nice discernment is imperative in balancing the
proportions of meat and vegetable. Too much meat is prone to heat the
blood, while too little induces eczema. Scraps of bread and green
vegetables well mixed with gravy and finely-minced lean meat form the
best dietary for the principal meal of the day, and plenty of exercise
is imperative.

The following is the standard description and points of the Maltese
Club of London:--

* * * * *

HEAD--Should not be too narrow, but should be of a Terrier shape, not
too long, but not apple-headed. EARS--Should be long and well
feathered, and hang close to the side of the head, the hair to be well
mingled with the coat at the shoulders. EYES--Should be a dark brown,
with black eye rims and not too far apart. NOSE--Should be pure black.
LEGS AND FEET--Legs should be short and straight, feet round, and the
pads of the feet should be black. BODY AND SHAPE--Should be short and
cobby, low to the ground, and the back should be straight from the top
of the shoulders to the tail. TAIL AND CARRIAGE--Should be well arched
over the back and well feathered. COAT, LENGTH AND TEXTURE--Should be
a good length, the longer the better, of a silky texture, not in any
way woolly, and should be straight. COLOUR--It is desirable that they
should be pure white, but slight lemon marks should not count against
them. CONDITION AND APPEARANCE--Should be of a sharp Terrier
appearance, with a lively action, the coat should not be stained, but
should be well groomed in every way. SIZE--The most approved weights
should be from 4 lb. to 9 lb., the smaller the better, but it is
desirable that they should not exceed 10 lb.

* * * * *

There seems to be no doubt that the fawn-coloured Pug enjoys the
antiquity of descent that is attached to the Greyhound, the Maltese
dog, and some few other venerable breeds.

Although much has been written on the origin of these dogs, nothing
authentic has been discovered in connection with it. Statements have
appeared from time to time to the effect that the Pug was brought into
this country from Holland. In the early years of the last century it
was commonly styled the Dutch Pug. But this theory does not trace the
history far enough back, and it should be remembered that at that
period the Dutch East India Company was in constant communication with
the Far East. Others declare that Muscovy was the original home of the
breed, a supposition for which there is no discernible foundation. The
study of canine history receives frequent enlightenment from the study
of the growth of commercial intercourse between nations, and the trend
of events would lead one to the belief that the Pug had its origin in
China, particularly in view of the fact that it is with that country
that most of the blunt-nosed toy dogs, with tails curled over their
backs, are associated.

The Pug was brought into prominence in Great Britain about sixty years
ago by Lady Willoughby de Eresby, of Grimthorpe, near Lincoln, and Mr.
Morrison, of Walham Green, who each independently established a kennel
of these dogs, with such success that eventually the fawn Pugs were
spoken of as either the Willoughby or the Morrison Pugs. At that
period the black variety was not known. The Willoughby Pug was duller
in colour than the Morrison, which was of a brighter, ruddier hue, but
the two varieties have since been so much interbred that they are now
undistinguishable, and the fact that they were ever familiarly
recognised as either Willoughbys or Morrisons is almost entirely
forgotten. A "fawn" Pug may now be either silver grey or apricot, and
equally valuable.

Whatever may have been the history of the Pug as regards its nativity,
it had not been long introduced into England before it became a
popular favourite as a pet, and it shared with the King Charles
Spaniel the affection of the great ladies of the land. The late Queen
Victoria possessed one, of which she was very proud. The Pug has,
however, now fallen from his high estate as a ladies' pet, and his
place has been usurped by the Toy Pomeranian, the Pekinese, and
Japanese, all of which are now more highly thought of in the
drawing-room or boudoir. But the Pug has an advantage over all these
dogs as, from the fact that he has a shorter coat, he is cleaner and
does not require so much attention.

It was not until the establishment of the Pug Dog Club in 1883 that a
fixed standard of points was drawn up for the guidance of judges when
awarding the prizes to Pugs. Later on the London and Provincial Pug
Club was formed, and standards of points were drawn up by that
society. These, however, have never been adhered to. The weight of a
dog or bitch, according to the standard, should be from 13 lb. to 17
lb., but there are very few dogs indeed that are winning prizes who
can draw the scale at the maximum weight. One of the most distinctive
features of a fawn Pug is the trace, which is a line of black running
along the top of the back from the occiput to the tail. It is the
exception to find a fawn Pug with any trace at all now. The muzzle
should be short, blunt, but not upfaced. Most of the winning Pugs of
the present day are undershot at least half an inch, and consequently
must be upfaced. Only one champion of the present day possesses a
level mouth. The toe-nails should be black according to the standard,
but this point is ignored altogether. In fact, the standard, as drawn
up by the Club, should be completely revised, for it is no true guide.
The colour, which should be either silver or apricot fawn; the
markings on the head, which should show a thumb-mark or diamond on the
forehead, together with the orthodox size, are not now taken into
consideration, and the prizes are given to over-sized dogs with big
skulls that are patchy in colour, and the charming little Pugs which
were once so highly prized are now the exception rather than the rule,
while the large, lustrous eyes, so sympathetic in their expression,
are seldom seen.

The black Pug is a recent production. He was brought into notice in
1886, when Lady Brassey exhibited some at the Maidstone Show. By whom
he was manufactured is not a matter of much importance, as with the
fawn Pug in existence there was not much difficulty in crossing it
with the shortest-faced black dog of small size that could be found,
and then back again to the fawn, and the thing was done. Fawn and
black Pugs are continually being bred together, and, as a rule, if
judgment is used in the selection of suitable crosses, the puppies are
sound in colour, whether fawn or black. In every respect except
markings the black Pug should be built on the same lines as the fawn,
and be a cobby little dog with short back and well-developed
hind-quarters, wide in skull, with square and blunt muzzle and
tightly-curled tail.



Away back in the 'seventies numbers of miners in Yorkshire and the
Midlands are said to have possessed little wiry-coated and
wiry-dispositioned red dogs, which accompanied their owners to work,
being stowed away in pockets of overcoats until the dinner hour, when
they were brought out to share their masters' meals, perchance chasing
a casual rat in between times. Old men of to-day who remember these
little "red tarriers" tell us that they were the originals of the
present-day Brussels Griffons, and to the sporting propensities of the
aforesaid miners is attributed the gameness which is such a
characteristic of their latter-day representatives.

No one who is well acquainted with the Brussels Griffon would claim
that the breed dates back, like the Greyhound, to hoary antiquity, or,
indeed, that it has any pretensions to have "come over with the
Conqueror." The dog is not less worthy of admiration on that account.
It is futile to inquire too closely into his ancestry; like Topsy, "he
growed" and we must love him for himself alone.

Even in the last fifteen years we can trace a certain advance in the
evolution of the Brussels Griffon. When the breed was first introduced
under this name into this country, underjaw was accounted of little or
no importance, whereas now a prominent chin is rightly recognised as
being one of the most important physical characteristics of the race.
Then, again, quite a few years ago a Griffon with a red pin-wire coat
was rarely met with, but now this point has been generally rectified,
and every show specimen of any account whatever possesses the
much-desired covering.

The first authentic importations of Brussels Griffons into this
country were made by Mrs. Kingscote, Miss Adela Gordon, Mrs. Frank
Pearce, and Fletcher, who at that time (_circa_ 1894) kept a dog-shop
in Regent Street. Mrs. Handley Spicer soon followed, and it was at her
house that, in 1896, the Griffon Bruxellois Club was first suggested
and then formed. The Brussels Griffon Club of London was a later
offshoot of this club, and, like many children, would appear to be
more vigorous than its parent. Griffons soon made their appearance at
shows and won many admirers, though it must be admitted that their
progress up the ladder of popularity was not so rapid as might have
been expected. The breed is especially attractive in the following
points: It is hardy, compact, portable, very intelligent, equally
smart and alert in appearance, affectionate, very companionable, and,
above all, it possesses the special characteristic of wonderful eyes,
ever changing in expression, and compared with which the eyes of many
other toy breeds appear as a glass bead to a fathomless lake.

Griffons are hardy little dogs, though, like most others, they are
more susceptible to damp than to cold. While not greedy, like the
Terrier tribe, they are usually good feeders and good doers, and not
tiresomely dainty with regard to food, as is so often the case with
Toy Spaniels. It must be admitted that Griffons are not the easiest of
dogs to rear, particularly at weaning time. From five to eight weeks
is always a critical period in the puppyhood of a Griffon, and it is
necessary to supersede their maternal nourishment with extreme
caution. Farinaceous foods do not answer, and usually cause trouble
sooner or later. A small quantity of scraped raw beef--an eggspoonful
at four weeks, increasing to a teaspoonful at six--may be given once a
day, and from four to five weeks two additional meals of warm
milk--goat's for preference--and not more than a tablespoonful at a
time should be given. From five to six weeks the mother will remain
with the puppies at night only, and three milk meals may be given
during the day, with one of scraped meat, at intervals of about four
hours, care being taken to give too little milk rather than too much.
At six weeks the puppies may usually be taken entirely from the
mother, and at this time it is generally advisable to give a gentle
vermifuge, such as Ruby. A very little German rusk may also be added
to the milk meals, which may be increased to one and a-half
tablespoonfuls at a time, but it must always be remembered that, in
nine cases out of ten, trouble is caused by overfeeding rather than
underfeeding, and until the rubicon of eight weeks has been passed,
care and oversight should be unremitting. At eight weeks' old, Force
or brown breadcrumbs may be added to the morning milk, chopped meat
may be given instead of scraped at midday, the usual milk at tea-time,
and a dry biscuit, such as Plasmon, for supper. At ten weeks old the
milk at tea-time may be discontinued and the other meals increased
accordingly, and very little further trouble need be feared, for
Griffons very rarely suffer from teething troubles.

Brussels Griffons are divided into three groups, according to their
appearance, and representatives of each group may be, and sometimes
are, found in one and the same litter. First and foremost, both in
importance and in beauty, comes the Griffon Bruxellois, a cobby,
compact little dog, with wiry red coat, large eyes, short nose, well
turned up, and sloping back, very prominent chin, and small ears.
Secondly come the Griffons of any other colour, or, as they are termed
in Brussels, Griffons Belges. These are very often Griffons of the
usual colour, with a mismark of white or black, or occasionally they
may be grey or fawn. But the most approved colour, and certainly the
most attractive, is black and tan. The third group of Brussels
Griffons is that termed "smooth," or, in Brussels, Griffons
Brabancons. The smooth Griffon is identical with the rough in all
points except for being short-haired. As is well known, smooth
Griffons are most useful for breeding rough ones with the desired hard
red coat, and many well-known show dogs with rough coats have been
bred from smooth ones: for example, Sparklets, Ch. Copthorne Lobster,
Ch. Copthorne Treasure, Ch. Copthorne Talk-o'-the-Town, and Copthorne
Blunderbuss. This and many other facts in connection with breeding
Griffons will be learnt from experience, always the best teacher.

The descriptive particulars of the Brussels Griffon are:--

* * * * *

GENERAL APPEARANCE--A lady's little dog--intelligent, sprightly,
robust, of compact appearance--reminding one of a cob, and captivating
the attention by a quasi-human expression. HEAD--Rounded, furnished
with somewhat hard, irregular hairs, longer round the eyes, on the
nose and cheeks. EARS--Erect when cropped as in Belgium, semi-erect
when uncropped. EYES--Very large, black, or nearly black; eyelids
edged with black, eyelashes long and black, eyebrows covered with
hairs, leaving the eye they encircle perfectly uncovered. NOSE--Always
black, short, surrounded with hair converging upward to meet those
which surround the eyes. Very pronounced stop. LIPS--Edged with black,
furnished with a moustache. A little black in the moustache is not a
fault. CHIN--Prominent without showing the teeth, and edged with a
small beard. CHEST--Rather wide and deep. LEGS--As straight as
possible, of medium length. TAIL--Erect, and docked to two-thirds.
COLOUR--In the Griffons Bruxellois, red; in the Griffons Belges,
preferably black and tan, but also grey or fawn; in the Petit
Brabancon, red or black and tan. TEXTURE OF COAT--Harsh and wiry,
irregular, rather long and thick. In the Brabancon it is smooth and
short. WEIGHT--Light weight, 5 lb. maximum; and heavy weight, 9 lb.
maximum. FAULTS--The faults to be avoided are light eyes, silky hair
on the head, brown nails, teeth showing, a hanging tongue or a brown

CHU-ERH OF ALDERBOURNE _Photograph by Russell_]



Except in the matter of size, the general appearance and qualifications
of the Miniature Black and Tan Terrier should be as nearly like the
larger breed as possible, for the standard of points applies to both
varieties, excepting that erect, or what are commonly known as tulip
ears, of semi-erect carriage, are permissible in the miniatures. The
officially recognised weight for the toy variety is given as "under
seven pounds," but none of the most prominent present-day winners
reach anything like that weight; some in fact are little more than
half of it, and the great majority are between 4 lb. and 5 lb.

Probably the most popular specimens of the miniature Black and Tan at
the present time are Mr. Whaley's Glenartney Sport and Mr. Richmond's
Merry Atom. Merry Atom is only 4-1/2 lb. in weight, and he is
beautifully proportioned, with a fine, long head, a small, dark eye,
small ears, and the true type of body. His markings of deep black and
rich tan are good, and his coat is entirely free from the bare patches
which so often mar the appearance of these toys, giving the suggestion
of delicacy.

The Miniature Black and Tan is certainly not a robust dog, and he has
lost much of the terrier boisterousness of character by reason of
being pampered and coddled; but it is a fallacy to suppose that he is
necessarily delicate. He requires to be kept warm, but exercise is
better for him than eiderdown quilts and silken cushions, and
judicious feeding will protect him from the skin diseases to which he
is believed to be liable. Under proper treatment he is no more
delicate than any other toy dog, and his engaging manners and
cleanliness of habit ought to place him among the most favoured of
lady's pets and lapdogs. It is to be hoped that the efforts now being
made by the Black and Tan Terrier Club will be beneficial to the
increased popularity of this diminutive breed.

For the technical description and scale of points the reader is
referred to the chapter on the larger variety of Black and Tan Terrier.

* * * * *

Of late years Toy Bull-terriers have fallen in popularity. This is a
pity, as their lilliputian self-assertion is most amusing. As pets
they are most affectionate, excellent as watch-dogs, clever at
acquiring tricks, and always cheerful and companionable. They have
good noses and will hunt diligently; but wet weather or thick
undergrowth will deter them, and they are too small to do serious harm
to the best stocked game preserve.

The most valuable Toy Bull-terriers are small and very light in
weight, and these small dogs usually have "apple-heads." Pony Queen,
the former property of Sir Raymond Tyrwhitt Wilson, weighed under
3 lb., but the breed remains "toy" up to 15 lb. When you get a dog
with a long wedge-shaped head, the latter in competition with small
"apple-headed" dogs always takes the prize, and a slightly
contradictory state of affairs arises from the fact that the small dog
with an imperfectly shaped head will sell for more money than a dog
with a perfectly shaped head which is larger.

In drawing up a show schedule of classes for this breed it is perhaps
better to limit the weight of competitors to 12 lb. The Bull-terrier
Club put 15 lb. as the lowest weight allowed for the large breed, and
it seems a pity to have an interregnum between the large and miniature
variety; still, in the interests of the small valuable specimens, this
seems inevitable, and opportunist principles must be applied to doggy
matters as to other business in this world. At present there is a
diversity of opinion as to their points, but roughly they are a long
flat head, wide between the eyes and tapering to the nose, which
should be black. Ears erect and bat-like, straight legs and rather
distinctive feet; some people say these are cat-like.

Toy Bull-terriers ought to have an alert, gay appearance, coupled with
refinement, which requires a nice whip tail. The best colour is pure
white. A brindle spot is not amiss, and even a brindle dog is
admissible, but black marks are wrong. The coat ought to be close and
stiff to the touch. Toy Bull-terriers are not delicate as a rule. They
require warmth and plenty of exercise in all weathers.

* * * * *

The most elegant, graceful, and refined of all dogs are the tiny
Italian Greyhounds. Their exquisitely delicate lines, their supple
movements and beautiful attitudes, their soft large eyes, their
charming colouring, their gentle and loving nature, and their
scrupulous cleanliness of habit--all these qualities justify the
admiration bestowed upon them as drawing-room pets. They are fragile,
it is true--fragile as eggshell china--not to be handled roughly. But
their constitution is not necessarily delicate, and many have been
known to live to extreme old age. Miss Mackenzie's Jack, one of the
most beautiful of the breed ever known, lived to see his seventeenth
birthday, and even then was strong and healthy. Their fragility is
more apparent than real, and if they are not exposed to cold or damp,
they require less pampering than they usually receive. This cause has
been a frequent source of constitutional weakness, and it was
deplorably a fault in the Italian Greyhounds of half a century ago.

One cannot be quite certain as to the derivation of the Italian
Greyhound. Its physical appearance naturally suggests a descent from
the Gazehound of the ancients, with the added conjecture that it was
purposely dwarfed for the convenience of being nursed in the lap.
Greek art presents many examples of a very small dog of Greyhound
type, and there is a probability that the diminutive breed was a
familiar ornament in the atrium of most Roman villas. In Pompeii a
dwarfed Greyhound was certainly kept as a domestic pet, and there is
therefore some justification for the belief that the Italian prefix is
not misplaced.

In very early times the Italian Greyhound was appreciated. Vandyck,
Kneller, and Watteau frequently introduced the graceful figures of
these dogs as accessories in their portraits of the Court beauties of
their times, and many such portraits may be noticed in the galleries
of Windsor Castle and Hampton Court. Mary, Queen of Scots is supposed
to have been fond of the breed, as more surely were Charles I. and
Queen Anne. Some of the best of their kind were in the possession of
Queen Victoria at Windsor and Balmoral, where Sir Edwin Landseer
transferred their graceful forms to canvas.

Among the more prominent owners of the present time are the Baroness
Campbell von Laurentz, whose Rosemead Laura and Una are of superlative
merit alike in outline, colour, style, length of head, and grace of
action; Mrs. Florence Scarlett, whose Svelta, Saltarello, and Sola are
almost equally perfect; Mrs. Matthews, the owner of Ch. Signor, our
smallest and most elegant show dog; and Mr. Charlwood, who has
exhibited many admirable specimens, among them Sussex Queen and Sussex

The Italian Greyhound Club of England has drawn up the following
standard and scale of points:--

* * * * *

GENERAL APPEARANCE--A miniature English Greyhound, more slender in all
proportions, and of ideal elegance and grace in shape, symmetry, and
action. HEAD--Skull long, flat and narrow. Muzzle very fine. Nose dark
in colour. Ears rose shaped, placed well back, soft and delicate, and
should touch or nearly touch behind the head. Eyes large, bright, and
full of expression. BODY--Neck long and gracefully arched. Shoulders
long and sloping. Back curved and drooping at the quarters. LEGS AND
FEET--Fore-legs straight, well set under the shoulder; fine pasterns;
small delicate bone. Hind-legs, hocks well let down; thighs muscular.
Feet long--hare foot. TAIL, COAT AND COLOUR--Tail rather long and with
low carriage. Skin fine and supple. Hair thin and glossy like satin.
Preferably self-coloured. The colour most prized is golden fawn, but
all shades of fawn--red, mouse, cream and white--are recognised.
Blacks, brindles and pied are considered less desirable. ACTION--High
stepping and free. WEIGHT--Two classes, one of 8 lb. and under, the
other over 8 lb.

* * * * *

The diminutive Shetland Sheepdog has many recommendations as a pet.
Like the sturdy little Shetland pony, this dog has not been made small
by artificial selection. It is a Collie in miniature, no larger than a
Pomeranian, and it is perfectly hardy, wonderfully sagacious, and
decidedly beautiful. At first glance the dog might easily be mistaken
for a Belgian Butterfly dog, for its ears are somewhat large and
upstanding, with a good amount of feather about them; but upon closer
acquaintance the Collie shape and nature become more pronounced.

The body is long and set low, on stout, short legs, which end in
long-shaped, feathered feet. The tail is a substantial brush,
beautifully carried, and the coat is long and inclined to silkiness,
with a considerable neck-frill. The usual weight is from six to ten
pounds, the dog being of smaller size than the bitch. The prettiest
are all white, or white with rich sable markings, but many are black
and tan or all black. The head is short and the face not so aquiline
as that of the large Collie. The eyes are well proportioned to the
size of the head, and have a singularly soft round brightness,
reminding one of the eye of a woodcock or a snipe.

The Shetlanders use them with the sheep, and they are excellent little
workers, intelligent and very active, and as hardy as terriers. Dog
lovers in search of novelty might do worse than take up this
attractive and certainly genuine breed.



Many people are deterred from keeping dogs by the belief that the
hobby is expensive and that it entails a profitless amount of trouble
and anxiety; but to the true dog-lover the anxiety and trouble are far
outbalanced by the pleasures of possession, and as to the expense,
that is a matter which can be regulated at will. A luxuriously
appointed kennel of valuable dogs, who are pampered into sickness,
may, indeed, become a serious drain upon the owner's banking account,
but if managed on business principles the occupation is capable of
yielding a very respectable income. One does not wish to see
dog-keeping turned into a profession, and there seems to be something
mean in making money by our pets; but the process of drafting is
necessary when the kennel is overstocked, and buying and selling are
among the interesting accessories of the game, second only to the
pleasurable excitement of submitting one's favourites to the judgment
of the show-ring. The delights of breeding and rearing should be their
own reward, as they usually are, yet something more than mere
pin-money can be made by the alert amateur who possesses a kennel of
acknowledged merit, and who knows how to turn it to account. A
champion ought easily to earn his own living: some are a source of
handsome revenue.

Occasionally one hears of very high prices being paid for dogs
acknowledged to be perfect specimens of their breed. For the St.
Bernard Sir Belvidere sixteen hundred pounds were offered. Plinlimmon
was sold for a thousand, the same sum that was paid for the Bulldog
Rodney Stone. For the Collies Southport Perfection and Ormskirk
Emerald Mr. Megson paid a thousand sovereigns each. Size is no
criterion of a dog's market value; Mrs. Ashton Cross is said to have
refused two thousand pounds for her celebrated Pekinese Chu-Erh, and
there are many lap-dogs now living that could not be purchased for
that high price. These are sums which only a competent judge with a
long purse would dream of paying for an animal whose tenure of active
life can hardly be more than eight or ten years, and already the dog's
value must have been attested by his success in competition. It
requires an expert eye to perceive the potentialities of a puppy, and
there is always an element of speculative risk for both buyer and
seller. Many a dog that has been sold for a song has grown to be a
famous champion. At Cruft's show in 1905 the Bulldog Mahomet was
offered for ten pounds. No one was bold enough to buy him, yet
eighteen months afterwards he was sold and considered cheap at a
thousand. Uncertainty adds zest to a hobby that is in itself engaging.

Thanks to the influence of the Kennel Club and the institution of dog
shows, which have encouraged the improvement of distinct breeds, there
are fewer nondescript mongrels in our midst than there were a
generation or so ago. A fuller knowledge has done much to increase the
pride which the British people take in their canine companions, and
our present population of dogs has never been equalled for good
quality in any other age or any other land.

The beginner cannot easily go wrong or be seriously cheated, but it is
well when making a first purchase to take the advice of an expert and
to be very certain of the dog's pedigree, age, temper, and condition.
The approved method of buying a dog is to select one advertised for
sale in the weekly journals devoted to the dog. A better way still, if
a dog of distinguished pedigree is desired, is to apply direct to a
well-known owner of the required breed, or to visit one of the great
annual shows, such as Cruft's, Manchester, The Ladies' Kennel
Association, The Kennel Club (Crystal Palace, in October), The
Scottish Kennel Club, or Birmingham, and there choose the dog from the
benches, buying him at his catalogue price.

In determining the choice of a breed it is to be remembered that some
are better watchdogs than others, some more docile, some safer with
children. The size of the breed should be relative to the accommodation
available. To have a St. Bernard or a Great Dane galumphing about a
small house is an inconvenience, and sporting dogs which require
constant exercise and freedom are not suited to the confined life of a
Bloomsbury flat. Nor are the long-haired breeds at their best
draggling round in the wet, muddy streets of a city. For town life the
clean-legged Terrier, the Bulldog, the Pug, and the Schipperke are to
be preferred. Bitches are cleaner in the house and more tractable than
dogs. The idea that they are more trouble than dogs is a fallacy. The
difficulty arises only twice in a twelvemonth for a few days, and if
you are watchful there need be no misadventure.

If only one dog, or two or three of the smaller kinds, be kept, there
is no imperative need for an outdoor kennel, although all dogs are the
better for life in the open air. The house-dog may be fed with
meat-scraps from the kitchen served as an evening meal, with rodnim or
a dry biscuit for breakfast. The duty of feeding him should be in the
hands of one person only. When it is everybody's and nobody's duty he
is apt to be neglected at one time and overfed at another. Regularity
of feeding is one of the secrets of successful dog-keeping. It ought
also to be one person's duty to see that he has frequent access to the
yard or garden, that he gets plenty of clean drinking water, plenty of
outdoor exercise, and a comfortable bed.

For the toy and delicate breeds it is a good plan to have a dog-room
set apart, with a suitable cage or basket-kennel for each dog.

Even delicate Toy dogs, however, ought not to be permanently lodged
within doors, and the dog-room is only complete when it has as an
annexe a grass plot for playground and free exercise. Next to
wholesome and regular food, fresh air and sunshine are the prime
necessaries of healthy condition. Weakness and disease come more
frequently from injudicious feeding and housing than from any other
cause. Among the free and ownerless pariah dogs of the East disease
is almost unknown.

For the kennels of our British-bred dogs, perhaps a southern or a
south-western aspect is the best, but wherever it is placed the kennel
must be sufficiently sheltered from rain and wind, and it ought to be
provided with a covered run in which the inmates may have full
liberty. An awning of some kind is necessary. Trees afford good
shelter from the sun-rays, but they harbour moisture, and damp must be
avoided at all costs. When only one outdoor dog is kept, a kennel can
be improvised out of a packing-case, supported on bricks above the
ground, with the entrance properly shielded from the weather. No dog
should be allowed to live in a kennel in which he cannot turn round at
full length. Properly constructed, portable, and well-ventilated
kennels for single dogs are not expensive and are greatly to be
preferred to any amateurish makeshift. A good one for a terrier need
not cost more than a pound. It is usually the single dog that suffers
most from imperfect accommodation. His kennel is generally too small
to admit of a good bed of straw, and if there is no railed-in run
attached he must needs be chained up. The dog that is kept on the
chain becomes dirty in his habits, unhappy, and savage. His chain is
often too short and is not provided with swivels to avert kinks. On a
sudden alarm, or on the appearance of a trespassing tabby, he will
often bound forward at the risk of dislocating his neck. The
yard-dog's chain ought always to be fitted with a stop link spring to
counteract the effect of the sudden jerk. The method may be employed
with advantage in the garden for several dogs, a separate rope being
used for each. Unfriendly dogs can thus be kept safely apart and still
be to some extent at liberty.

There is no obvious advantage in keeping a watch-dog on the chain
rather than in an enclosed compound, unless he is expected to go for a
possible burglar and attack him. A wire-netting enclosure can easily
be constructed at very little expense. For the more powerful dogs the
use of wrought-iron railings is advisable, and these can be procured
cheaply from Spratt's or Boulton and Paul's, fitted with gates and
with revolving troughs for feeding from the outside.

Opinions differ as to the best material for the flooring of kennels
and the paving of runs. Asphalte is suitable for either in mild
weather, but in summer it becomes uncomfortably hot for the feet,
unless it is partly composed of cork. Concrete has its advantages if
the surface can be kept dry. Flagstones are cold for winter, as also
are tiles and bricks. For terriers, who enjoy burrowing, earth is the
best ground for the run, and it can be kept free from dirt and buried
bones by a rake over in the morning, while tufts of grass left round
the margins supply the dogs' natural medicine. The movable sleeping
bench must, of course, be of wood, raised a few inches above the
floor, with a ledge to keep in the straw or other bedding. Wooden
floors are open to the objection that they absorb the urine; but dogs
should be taught not to foul their nest, and in any case a frequent
disinfecting with a solution of Pearson's or Jeyes' fluid should
obviate impurity, while fleas, which take refuge in the dust between
the planks, may be dismissed or kept away with a sprinkling of
paraffin. Whatever the flooring, scrupulous cleanliness in the kennel
is a prime necessity, and the inner walls should be frequently
limewashed. It is important, too, that no scraps of rejected food or
bones should be left lying about to become putrid or to tempt the
visits of rats, which bring fleas. If the dogs do not finish their
food when it is served to them, it should be removed until hunger
gives appetite for the next meal.

Many breeders of the large and thick-coated varieties, such as St.
Bernards, Newfoundlands, Old English Sheepdogs, and rough-haired
Collies, give their dogs nothing to lie upon but clean bare boards.
The coat is itself a sufficient cushion, but in winter weather straw
gives added warmth, and for short-haired dogs something soft, if it is
only a piece of carpet or a sack, is needed as a bed to protect the
hocks from abrasion.

With regard to feeding, this requires to be studied in relation to the
particular breed. One good meal a day, served by preference in the
evening, is sufficient for the adult if a dry dog-cake or a handful of
rodnim be given for breakfast, and perhaps a large bone to gnaw at.
Clean cold water must always be at hand in all weathers, and a drink
of milk coloured with tea is nourishing. Goat's milk is particularly
suitable for the dog: many owners keep goats on their premises to give
a constant supply. It is a mistake to suppose, as many persons do,
that meat diet provokes eczema and other skin troubles; the contrary
is the case. The dog is by nature a carnivorous animal, and wholesome
flesh, either cooked or raw, should be his staple food. Horseflesh,
which is frequently used in large establishments, is not so fully to
be relied upon as ordinary butcher meat. There is no serious objection
to bullocks' heads, sheeps' heads, bullocks' tripes and paunches and a
little liver given occasionally is an aperient food which most dogs
enjoy. But when it can be afforded, wholesome butcher's meat is
without question the proper food. Oatmeal porridge, rice, barley,
linseed meal, and bone meal ought only to be regarded as occasional
additions to the usual meat diet, and are not necessary when dog cakes
are regularly supplied. Well-boiled green vegetables, such as cabbage,
turnip-tops, and nettle-tops, are good mixed with the meat; potatoes
are questionable. Of the various advertised dog foods, many of which
are excellent, the choice may be left to those who are fond of
experiment, or who seek for convenient substitutes for the
old-fashioned and wholesome diet of the household. Sickly dogs require
invalid's treatment; but the best course is usually the simplest, and,
given a sound constitution to begin with, any dog ought to thrive if
he is only properly housed, carefully fed, and gets abundant exercise.



The modern practice of dog-breeding in Great Britain has reached a
condition which may be esteemed as an art. At no other time, and in no
other country, have the various canine types been kept more rigidly
distinct or brought to a higher level of perfection. Formerly
dog-owners--apart from the keepers of packs of hounds--paid scant
attention to the differentiation of breeds and the conservation of
type, and they considered it no serious breach of duty to ignore the
principles of scientific selection, and thus contribute to the
multiplication of mongrels. Discriminate breeding was rare, and if a
Bulldog should mate himself with a Greyhound, or a Spaniel with a
Terrier, the alliance was regarded merely as an inconvenience. So
careless were owners in preventing the promiscuous mingling of alien
breeds that it is little short of surprising so many of our canine
types have been preserved in their integrity.

The elimination of the nondescript cur is no doubt largely due to the
work of the homes for lost dogs that are instituted in most of our
great towns. Every year some 26,000 homeless and ownerless canines are
picked up by the police in the streets of London, and during the
forty-seven years which have elapsed since the Dogs' Home at Battersea
was established, upwards of 800,000 dogs have passed through the
books, a few to be reclaimed or bought, the great majority to be put
to death. A very large proportion of these have been veritable
mongrels, not worth the value of their licences--diseased and maimed
curs, or bitches in whelp, turned ruthlessly adrift to be consigned to
the oblivion of the lethal chamber, where the thoroughbred seldom
finds its way. And if as many as 500 undesirables are destroyed every
week at one such institution, 'tis clear that the ill-bred mongrel
must soon altogether disappear. But the chief factor in the general
improvement of our canine population is due to the steadily growing
care and pride which are bestowed upon the dog, and to the scientific
skill with which he is being bred.

Admitting that the dogs seen at our best contemporary shows are
superlative examples of scientific selection, one has yet to
acknowledge that the process of breeding for show points has its
disadvantages, and that, in the sporting and pastoral varieties more
especially, utility is apt to be sacrificed to ornament and type, and
stamina to fancy qualities not always relative to the animal's
capacities as a worker. The standards of perfection and scales of
points laid down by the specialist clubs are usually admirable guides
to the uninitiated, but they are often unreasonably arbitrary in their
insistence upon certain details of form--generally in the neighbourhood
of the head--while they leave the qualities of type and character to
look after themselves or to be totally ignored.

It is necessary to assure the beginner in breeding that points are
essentially of far less moment than type and a good constitution. The
one thing necessary in the cultivation of the dog is to bear in mind
the purpose for which he is supposed to be employed, and to aim at
adapting or conserving his physique to the best fulfilment of that
purpose, remembering that the Greyhound has tucked-up loins to give
elasticity and bend to the body in running, that a Terrier is kept
small to enable him the better to enter an earth, that a Bulldog is
massive and undershot for encounters in the bullring, that the
Collie's ears are erected to assist him in hearing sounds from afar,
as those of the Bloodhound are pendant, the more readily to detect
sounds coming to him along the ground while his head is bent to the
trail. Nature has been discriminate in her adaptations of animal
forms; and the most perfect dog yet bred is the one which approaches
nearest to Nature's wise intention.

The foregoing chapters have given abundant examples of how the various
breeds of the dog have been acquired, manufactured, improved,
resuscitated, and retained. Broadly speaking, two methods have been
adopted: The method of introducing an outcross to impart new blood,
new strength, new character; and the method of inbreeding to retain an
approved type. An outcross is introduced when the breed operated upon
is declining in stamina or is in danger of extinction, or when some
new physical or mental quality is desired. New types and eccentricities
are hardly wanted, however, and the extreme requirements of an
outcross may nowadays be achieved by the simple process of selecting
individuals from differing strains of the same breed, mating a bitch
which lacks the required points with a dog in whose family they are
prominently and consistently present.

Inbreeding is the reverse of outcrossing. It is the practice of mating
animals closely related to each other, and it is, within limits, an
entirely justifiable means of preserving and intensifying family
characteristics. It is a law in zoology that an animal cannot transmit
a quality which it does not itself innately possess, or which none of
its progenitors has ever possessed. By mating a dog and a bitch of the
same family, therefore, you concentrate and enhance the uniform
inheritable qualities into one line instead of two, and you reduce the
number of possibly heterogeneous ancestors by exactly a half right
back to the very beginning. There is no surer way of maintaining
uniformity of type, and an examination of the extended pedigree of
almost any famous dog will show how commonly inbreeding is practised.
Inbreeding is certainly advantageous when managed with judgment and
discreet selection, but it has its disadvantages also, for it is to be
remembered that faults and blemishes are inherited as well as merits,
and that the faults have a way of asserting themselves with annoying
persistency. Furthermore, breeding between animals closely allied in
parentage is prone to lead to degeneracy, physical weakness, and
mental stupidity, while impotence and sterility are frequent
concomitants, and none but experienced breeders should attempt so
hazardous an experiment. Observation has proved that the union of
father with daughter and mother with son is preferable to an alliance
between brother and sister. Perhaps the best union is that between
cousins. For the preservation of general type, however, it ought to be
sufficient to keep to one strain and to select from that strain
members who, while exhibiting similar characteristics, are not
actually too closely allied in consanguinity. To move perpetually from
one strain to another is only to court an undesirable confusion of

In founding a kennel it is advisable to begin with the possession of a
bitch. As a companion the female is to be preferred to the male; she
is not less affectionate and faithful, and she is usually much cleaner
in her habits in the house. If it is intended to breed by her, she
should be very carefully chosen and proved to be free from any serious
fault or predisposition to disease. Not only should her written
pedigree be scrupulously scrutinised, but her own constitution and
that of her parents on both sides should be minutely inquired into.

A bitch comes into season for breeding twice in a year; the first time
when she is reaching maturity, usually at the age of from seven to ten
months. Her condition will readily be discerned by the fact of an
increased attentiveness of the opposite sex and the appearance of a
mucous discharge from the vagina. She should then be carefully
protected from the gallantry of suitors. Dogs kept in the near
neighbourhood of a bitch on heat, who is not accessible to them, go
off their feed and suffer in condition. With most breeds it is unwise
to put a bitch to stud before she is eighteen months old, but Mr.
Stubbs recommends that a Bull bitch should be allowed to breed at her
first heat, while her body retains the flexibility of youth; and there
is no doubt that with regard to the Bulldog great mortality occurs in
attempting to breed from maiden bitches exceeding three years old. In
almost all breeds it is the case that the first three litters are the
best. It is accordingly important that a proper mating should be
considered at the outset, and a prospective sire selected either
through the medium of stud advertisements or by private arrangement
with the owner of the desired dog. For the payment of the requisite
stud fee, varying from a guinea to ten or fifteen pounds, the services
of the best dogs of the particular breed can usually be secured. It is
customary for the bitch to be the visitor, and it is well that her
visit should extend to two or three days at the least. When possible a
responsible person should accompany her.

If the stud dog is a frequenter of shows he can usually be depended
upon to be in sound physical condition. No dog who is not so can be
expected to win prizes. But it ought to be ascertained before hand
that he is what is known as a good stock-getter. The fee is for his
services, not for the result of them. Some owners of stud dogs will
grant two services, and this is often desirable, especially in the
case of a maiden bitch or of a stud dog that is over-wrought, as so
many are. It is most important that both the mated animals should be
free from worms and skin disorders. Fifty per cent. of the casualties
among young puppies are due to one or other of the parents having been
in an unhealthy condition when mated. A winter whelping is not
advisable. It is best for puppies to be born in the spring or early
summer, thus escaping the rigours of inclement weather.

During the period of gestation the breeding bitch should have ample
but not violent exercise, with varied and wholesome food, including
some preparation of bone meal; and at about the third week, whether
she seems to require it or not, she should be treated for worms. At
about the sixtieth day she will begin to be uneasy and restless. A
mild purgative should be given; usually salad oil is enough, but if
constipation is apparent castor oil may be necessary. On the
sixty-second day the whelps may be expected, and everything ought to
be in readiness for the event.

A coarsely constituted bitch may be trusted to look after herself on
these occasions; no help is necessary, and one may come down in the
morning to find her with her litter comfortably nestling at her side.
But with the Toy breeds, and the breeds that have been reared in
artificial conditions, difficult or protracted parturition is
frequent, and human assistance ought to be at hand in case of need.
The owner of a valuable Bull bitch, for example, would never think of
leaving her to her own unaided devices. All undue interference,
however, should be avoided, and it is absolutely necessary that the
person attending her should be one with whom she is fondly familiar.

In anticipation of a possibly numerous litter, a foster-mother should
be arranged for beforehand. Comfortable quarters should be prepared in
a quiet part of the house or kennels, warm, and free from draughts.
Clean bedding of wheaten straw should be provided, but the bitch
should be allowed to make her nest in her own instinctive fashion. Let
her have easy access to drinking water. She will probable refuse food
for a few hours before her time, but a little concentrated nourishment,
such as Brand's Essence or a drink of warm milk, should be offered to
her. In further preparation for the confinement a basin of water
containing antiseptic for washing in, towels, warm milk, a flask of
brandy, a bottle of ergotine, and a pair of scissors are commodities
which may all be required in emergency. The ergot, which must be used
with extreme caution and only when the labour pains have commenced, is
invaluable when parturition is protracted, and there is difficult
straining without result. Its effect is to contract the womb and expel
the contents. But when the puppies are expelled with ease it is
superfluous. For a bitch of 10 lb. in weight ten drops of the extract
of ergot in a teaspoonful of water should be ample, given by the
mouth. The scissors are for severing the umbilical cord if the mother
should fail to do it in her own natural way. Sometimes a puppy may be
enclosed within a membrane which the dam cannot readily open with
tongue and teeth. If help is necessary it should be given tenderly and
with clean fingers. Occasionally a puppy may seem to be inert and
lifeless, and after repeatedly licking it the bitch may relinquish all
effort at restoration and turn her attention to another that is being
born. In such a circumstance the rejected little one may be discreetly
removed, and a drop of brandy on the point of the finger smeared upon
its tongue may revive animation, or it may be plunged up to the neck
in warm water. The object should be to keep it warm and to make it
breathe. When the puppies are all born, their dam may be given a drink
of warm milk and then left alone to their toilet and to suckle them.
If any should be dead, these ought to be disposed of. Curiosity in
regard to the others should be temporarily repressed, and inspection
of them delayed until a more fitting opportunity. If any are then seen
to be malformed or to have cleft palates, these had better be removed
and mercifully destroyed.

It is the experience of many observers that the first whelps born in a
litter are the strongest, largest, and healthiest. If the litter is a
large one, the last born may be noticeably puny, and this disparity in
size may continue to maturity. The wise breeder will decide for
himself how many whelps should be left to the care of their dam. The
number should be relative to her health and constitution, and in any
case it is well not to give her so many that they will be a drain upon
her. Those breeds of dogs that have been most highly developed by man
and that appear to have the greatest amount of brain and intelligence
are generally the most prolific as to the number of puppies they
produce. St. Bernards, Pointers, Setters are notable for the usual
strength of their families. St. Bernards have been known to produce as
many as eighteen whelps at a birth, and it is no uncommon thing for
them to produce from nine to twelve. A Pointer of Mr. Barclay Field's
produced fifteen, and it is well known that Mr. Statter's Setter
Phoebe produced twenty-one at a birth. Phoebe reared ten of these
herself, and almost every one of the family became celebrated. It
would be straining the natural possibilities of any bitch to expect
her to bring up eighteen puppies healthily. Half that number would tax
her natural resources to the extreme. But Nature is extraordinarily
adaptive in tempering the wind to the shorn lamb, and a dam who gives
birth to a numerous litter ought not to have her family unduly
reduced. It was good policy to allow Phoebe to have the rearing of as
many as ten out of her twenty-one. A bitch having twelve will bring up
nine very well, one having nine will rear seven without help, and a
bitch having seven will bring up five better than four.

Breeders of Toy-dogs often rear the overplus offspring by hand, with
the help of a Maw and Thompson feeding-bottle, peptonised milk, and
one or more of the various advertised infants' foods or orphan puppy
foods. Others prefer to engage or prepare in advance a foster-mother.
The foster-mother need not be of the same breed, but she should be
approximately of similar size, and her own family ought to be of the
same age as the one of which she is to take additional charge. One can
usually be secured through advertisement in the canine press. Some
owners do not object to taking one from a dogs' home, which is an easy
method, in consideration of the circumstance that by far the larger
number of "lost" dogs are bitches sent adrift because they are in
whelp. The chief risk in this course is that the unknown foster-mother
may be diseased or verminous or have contracted the seeds of
distemper, or her milk may be populated with embryo worms. These are
dangers to guard against. A cat makes an excellent foster-mother for
Toy-dog puppies.

Worms ought not to be a necessary accompaniment of puppyhood, and if
the sire and dam are properly attended to in advance they need not be.
The writer has attended at the birth of puppies, not one of whom has
shown the remotest sign of having a worm, and the puppies have almost
galloped into healthy, happy maturity, protected from all the usual
canine ailments by constitutions impervious to disease. He has seen
others almost eaten away by worms. Great writhing knots of them have
been ejected; they have been vomited; they have wriggled out of the
nostrils; they have perforated the stomach and wrought such damage
that most of the puppies succumbed, and those that survived were
permanently deficient in stamina and liable to go wrong on the least
provocating. The puppy that is free from worms starts life with a
great advantage.



The experienced dog-owner has long ago realised that cleanliness,
wholesome food, judicious exercise and a dry, comfortable and
well-ventilated kennel are the surest safeguards of health, and that
attention to these necessaries saves him an infinitude of trouble and
anxiety by protecting his dogs from disease. On the first appearance
of illness in his kennels the wise dog-owner at once calls in the
skill of a good veterinary surgeon, but there are some of the minor
ailments which he can deal with himself whilst he ought at least to be
able to recognise the first symptoms of the dreaded Distemper and give
first aid until the vet. arrives to apply his remedies and give
professional advice.


Although more than one hundred years have elapsed since this was
first imported to this country from France, a great amount of
misunderstanding still prevails among a large section of dog-breeders
regarding its true nature and origin. The fact is, the disease came to
us with a bad name, for the French themselves deemed it incurable. In
this country the old-fashioned plan of treatment was wont to be the
usual rough remedies--emetics, purgatives, the seton, and the lancet.
Failing in this, specifics of all sorts were eagerly sought for and
tried, and are unfortunately still believed in to a very great extent.

Distemper has a certain course to run, and in this disease Nature
seems to attempt the elimination of the poison through the secretions
thrown out by the naso-pharyngeal mucous membrane.

Our chief difficulty in the treatment of distemper lies in the
complications thereof. We may, and often do, have the organs of
respiration attacked; we have sometimes congestion of the liver, or
mucous inflammation of the bile ducts, or some lesion of the brain or
nervous structures, combined with epilepsy, convulsions, or chorea.
Distemper is also often complicated with severe disease of the bowels,
and at times with an affection of the eyes.

_Causes_--Whether it be that the distemper virus, the poison seedling
of the disease, really originates in the kennel, or is the result of
contact of one dog with another, or whether the poison floats to the
kennel on the wings of the wind, or is carried there on a shoe or the
point of a walking-stick, the following facts ought to be borne in
mind: (1) Anything that debilitates the body or weakens the nervous
system paves the way for the distemper poison; (2) the healthier the
dog the more power does he possess to resist contagion; (3) when the
disease is epizootic, it can often be kept at bay by proper attention
to diet and exercise, frequent change of kennel straw, and perfect
cleanliness; (4) the predisposing causes which have come more
immediately under my notice are debility, cold, damp, starvation,
filthy kennels, unwholesome food, impure air, and grief.

_The Age at which Dogs take Distemper_--They may take distemper at any
age; the most common time of life is from the fifth till the eleventh
or twelfth month.

_Symptoms_--There is, first and foremost, a period of latency or of
incubation, in which there is more or less of dullness and loss of
appetite, and this glides gradually into a state of feverishness. The
fever may be ushered in with chills and shivering. The nose now
becomes hot and dry, the dog is restless and thirsty, and the
conjunctivae of the eyes will be found to be considerably injected.
Sometimes the bowels are at first constipated, but they are more
usually irregular. Sneezing will also be frequent, and in some cases
cough, dry and husky at first. The temperature should be taken, and if
there is a rise of two or three degrees the case should be treated as
distemper, and not as a common cold.

At the commencement there is but little exudation from the eyes and
nose, but as the disease advances this symptom will become more
marked, being clear at first. So, too, will another symptom which is
partially diagnostic of the malady, namely, increased heat of body
combined with a rapid falling off in flesh, sometimes, indeed,
proceeding quickly on to positive emaciation.

As the disease creeps downwards and inwards along the air-passages,
the chest gets more and more affected, the discharge of mucus and pus
from the nostrils more abundant, and the cough loses its dry
character, becoming moist. The discharge from the eyes is simply mucus
and pus, but if not constantly dried away will gum the inflamed lids
together, that from the nostrils is not only purulent, but often mixed
with dark blood. The appetite is now clean gone, and there is often
vomiting and occasional attacks of diarrhoea.

Now in mild cases we may look for some abatement of the symptoms about
the fourteenth day. The fever gets less, inflammation decreases in the
mucous passages, and appetite is restored as one of the first signs of
returning health. More often, however, the disease becomes complicated.

_Diagnosis_--The diagnostic symptoms are the severe catarrh, combined
not only with fever, but speedy emaciation.

_Pneumonia_, as we might easily imagine, is a very likely complication,
and a very dangerous one. There is great distress in breathing, the
animal panting rapidly. The countenance is anxious, the pulse small
and frequent, and the extremities cold. The animal would fain sit up
on his haunches, or even seek to get out into the fresh air, but
sickness, weakness, and prostration often forbid his movements. If the
ear or stethoscope be applied to the chest, the characteristic signs
of pneumonia will be heard; these are sounds of moist crepitations,

_Bronchitis_ is probably the most common complication; in fact, it is
always present, except in very mild cases. The cough becomes more
severe, and often comes on in tearing paroxysms, causing sickness and
vomiting. The breathing is short and frequent, the mouth hot and
filled with viscid saliva, while very often the bowels are constipated.
If the liver becomes involved, we shall very soon have the jaundiced
eye and the yellow skin. _Diarrhoea_ is another very common
complication. We have frequent purging and, maybe, sickness and
vomiting. _Fits_ of a convulsive character are frequent concomitants
of distemper. _Epilepsy_ is sometimes seen, owing, no doubt, to
degeneration of the nerve centres caused by blood-poisoning. There are
many other complications, and skin complaints are common after it.

_Treatment_--This consists firstly in doing all in our power to guide
the specific catarrhal fever to a safe termination; and, secondly, in
watching for and combating complications. Whenever we see a young dog
ailing, losing appetite, exhibiting catarrhal symptoms, and getting
thin, with a rise in temperature, we should not lose an hour. If he be
an indoor dog, find him a good bed in a clean, well-ventilated
apartment, free from lumber and free from dirt. If it be summer, have
all the windows out or opened; if winter, a little fire will be
necessary, but have half the window opened at the same time; only take
precautions against his lying in a draught. Fresh air in cases of
distemper, and, indeed, in fevers of all kinds, cannot be too highly

The more rest the dog has the better; he must be kept free from
excitement, and care must be taken to guard him against cold and wet
when he goes out of doors to obey the calls of Nature. The most
perfect cleanliness must be enjoined, and disinfectants used, such as
permanganate of potash, carbolic acid, Pearson's, or Izal. If the sick
dog, on the other hand, be one of a kennel of dogs, then quarantine
must be adopted. The hospital should be quite removed from the
vicinity of all other dogs, and as soon as the animal is taken from
the kennel the latter should be thoroughly cleansed and disinfected,
and the other dogs kept warm and dry, well fed, and moderately

_Food and Drink_--For the first three or four days let the food be
light and easily digested. In order to induce the animal to take it,
it should be as palatable as possible. For small dogs you cannot have
anything better than milk porridge. [1] At all events, the dog must,
if possible, be induced to eat; he must not be "horned" unless there
be great emaciation; he must not over-eat, but what he gets must be
good. As to drink, dogs usually prefer clean cold water, and we cannot
do harm by mixing therewith a little plain nitre.

[1] Oatmeal porridge made with milk instead of water.

_Medicine_--Begin by giving a simple dose of castor oil, just enough
and no more than will clear out the bowels by one or two motions.
Drastic purgatives, and medicines such as mercury, jalap, aloes, and
podophyllyn, cannot be too highly condemned. For very small Toy dogs,
such as Italian Greyhounds, Yorkshire Terriers, etc., I should not
recommend even oil itself, but _manna_--one drachm to two drachms
dissolved in milk. By simply getting the bowels to act once or twice,
we shall have done enough for the first day, and have only to make
the dog comfortable for the night.

On the next day begin with a mixture such as the following: Solution
of acetate of ammonia, 30 drops to 120; sweet spirits of nitre, 15
drops to 60; salicylate of soda, 2 grains to 10. Thrice daily in a
little camphor water.

If the cough be very troublesome and the fever does not run very high,
the following may be substituted for this on the second or third day:
Syrup of squills, 10 drops to 60; tincture of henbane, 10 drops to 60;
sweet spirits of nitre, 10 drops to 60, in camphor water.

A few drops of dilute hydrochloric acid should be added to the dog's
drink, and two teaspoonfuls (to a quart of water) of the chlorate of
potash. This makes an excellent fever drink, especially if the dog can
be got to take decoction of barley--barley-water--instead of plain
cold water, best made of Keen and Robinson's patent barley.

If there be persistent sickness and vomiting, the medicine must be
stopped for a time. Small boluses of ice frequently administered will
do much good, and doses of dilute prussic acid, from one to four drops
in a little water, will generally arrest the vomiting.

If constipation be present, we must use no rough remedies to get rid
of it. A little raw meat cut into small pieces--minced, in fact--or a
small portion of raw liver, may be given if there be little fever; if
there be fever, we are to trust for a time to injections of plain
soap-and-water. Diarrhoea, although often a troublesome symptom, is,
it must be remembered, a salutary one. Unless, therefore, it becomes
excessive, do not interfere; if it does, give the simple chalk mixture
three times a day, but no longer than is needful.

The discharge from the mouth and nose is to be wiped away with a soft
rag--or, better still, some tow, which is afterwards to be
burned--wetted with a weak solution of carbolic. The forehead, eyes,
and nose may be fomented two or three times a day with moderately hot
water with great advantage.

It is not judicious to wet a long-haired dog much, but a short-haired
one may have the chest and throat well fomented several times a day,
and well rubbed dry afterwards. Heat applied to the chests of
long-haired dogs by means of a flat iron will also effect good.

The following is an excellent tonic: Sulphate of quinine, 1/8 to 3
grains; powdered rhubarb, 2 to 10 grains; extract of taraxacum, 3 to
20 grains; make a bolus. Thrice daily.

During convalescence good food, Virol, Spratts' invalid food and
invalid biscuit, moderate exercise, fresh air, and protection from
cold. These, with an occasional mild dose of castor oil or rhubarb,
are to be our sheet-anchors. I find no better tonic than the tablets
of Phosferine. One quarter of a tablet thrice daily, rolled in tissue
paper, for a Toy dog, up to two tablets for a dog of Mastiff size.


Dogs that have been exposed to wet, or that have been put to lie in a
damp or draughty kennel with insufficient food, are not less liable
than their masters to catch a severe cold, which, if not promptly
attended to, may extend downward to the lining membranes of bronchi or
lungs. In such cases there is always symptoms more or less of fever,
with fits of shivering and thirst, accompanied with dullness, a tired
appearance and loss of appetite. The breath is short, inspirations
painful, and there is a rattling of mucus in chest or throat. The most
prominent symptom, perhaps, is the frequent cough. It is at first dry,
ringing, and evidently painful; in a few days, however, or sooner, it
softens, and there is a discharge of frothy mucus with it, and, in the
latter stages, of pus and ropy mucus.

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