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Dogs and All About Them by Robert Leighton

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of the variety, and while his terriers were a good-looking lot, though
not up to the show form of to-day, they were invariably hard-bitten,
game dogs, kept chiefly for work.

On the question of size nearly all the principal judges of the
Fox-terrier are agreed. Their maxim is "a good little one can always
beat a good big one." The difficulty arises when the little ones are
no good, and the big ones are excellent; it is a somewhat common
occurrence, and to anyone who loves a truly formed dog, and who knows
what a truly formed dog can do, it is an extremely difficult thing
to put the little above the larger. All big dogs with properly placed
shoulders and sound formation are better terriers for work of any
sort than dogs half their size, short on the leg, but bad in these
points. It is in reality impossible to make an inexorable rule about
this question of size; each class must be judged on its own merits.



There is perhaps no breed of dog that in so short a time has been
improved so much as the Airedale. He is now a very beautiful animal,
whereas but a few years back, although maybe there were a few fairly
nice specimens, by far the greater number were certainly the reverse
of this.

In place of the shaggy, soft-coated, ugly-coloured brute with large
hound ears and big full eyes, we have now a very handsome creature,
possessing all the points that go to make a really first-class terrier
of taking colour, symmetrical build, full of character and "go," amply
justifying--in looks, at any rate--its existence as a terrier.

Whether it is common sense to call a dog weighing 40 lb. to 50 lb.
a terrier is a question that one often hears discussed. The fact
remains the dog is a terrier--a sort of glorified edition of what
we understand by the word, it is true, but in points, looks, and
character, a terrier nevertheless, and it is impossible otherwise
to classify him.

People will ask: "How can he be a terrier? Why he is an outrage on
the very word, which can only mean a dog to go to ground; and to what
animal in the country of his birth can an Airedale go to ground?"
Above ground and in water, however, an Airedale can, and does, perform
in a very excellent manner everything that any other terrier can do.
As a water dog he is, of course, in his element; for work on land
requiring a hard, strong, fast and resolute terrier he is, needless
to say, of great value; and he is said to be also, when trained--as
can easily be imagined when one considers his power of scent, his
strength, sagacity, and speed--a most excellent gun-dog. He is, in
fact, a general utility dog, for add to the above-mentioned qualities
those of probably an incomparable guard and a most excellent
companion, faithful and true, and ask yourself what do you want more,
and what breed of dog, taken all round, can beat him?

The Airedale is not of ancient origin. He was probably first heard
of about the year 1850. He is undoubtedly the product of the
Otterhound and the old Black and Tan wire-haired terrier referred
to in the chapters on the wire-hair Fox and the Welsh Terriers. When
one considers the magnificent nobleness, the great sagacity, courage,
and stateliness of the Otterhound, the great gameness, cheek, and
pertinacity of the old Black and Tan wire-hair, such a cross must
surely produce an animal of excellent type and character.

Yorkshire, more especially that part of it round and about the town
of Otley, is responsible for the birth of the Airedale. The
inhabitants of the country of broad acres are, and always have been,
exceedingly fond of any kind of sport--as, indeed, may also be said
of their brothers of the Red Rose--but if in connection with that
sport a dog has to be introduced, then indeed are they doubly blessed,
for they have no compeers at the game.

Otter-hunting was formerly much indulged in by the people living in
the dales of the Aire and the Wharfe, and not only were packs of
Otterhounds kept, but many sportsmen maintained on their own account
a few hounds for their personal delectation. These hounds were no
doubt in some instances a nondescript lot, as, indeed, are several
of the packs hunting the otter to-day, but there was unquestionably
a good deal of Otterhound blood in them, and some pure bred hounds
were also to be found. Yorkshire also has always been the great home
of the terrier. Fox-terriers, as we now know them, had at this time
hardly been seen. The terrier in existence then was the Black and
Tan wire-hair, a hardy game terrier, a great workman on land or in

Whether by design or accident is not known, but the fact remains that
in or about the year mentioned a cross took place between these same
hounds and terriers. It was found that a handier dog was produced
for the business for which he was required, and it did not take many
years to populate the district with these terrier-hounds, which soon
came to be recognised as a distinct breed. The Waterside Terrier was
the name first vouchsafed to the new variety. After this they went
by the name of Bingley Terriers, and eventually they came to be known
under their present appellation.

The specimens of the Airedale which were first produced were not of
very handsome appearance, being what would now be called bad in
colour, very shaggy coated, and naturally big and ugly in ear. It,
of course, took some time to breed the hound out at all satisfactorily;
some authorities tell us that for this purpose the common fighting
pit Bull-terrier and also the Irish Terrier were used, the latter
to a considerable extent; and whether this is correct or not there
is no doubt that there would also be many crosses back again into
the small Black and Tan Terrier, primarily responsible for his

In about twenty years' time, the breed seems to have settled down
and become thoroughly recognised as a variety of the terrier. It was
not, however, for some ten years after this that classes were given
for the breed at any representative show. In 1883 the committee of
the National Show at Birmingham included three classes for Airedales
in their schedule, which were fairly well supported; and three years
after this recognition was given to the breed in the stud-book of
the ruling authority.

From this time on the breed prospered pretty well; several very good
terriers were bred, the hound gradually almost disappeared, as also
did to a great extent the bad-coloured ones. The best example amongst
the early shown dogs was undoubtedly Newbold Test, who had a long
and very successful career. This dog excelled in terrier character,
and he was sound all over; his advent was opportune--he was just the
dog that was wanted, and there is no doubt he did the breed a great
amount of good.

A dog called Colne Crack, who was a beautiful little terrier was
another of the early shown ones by whom the breed has lost nothing,
and two other terriers whose names are much revered by lovers of the
breed are Cholmondeley Briar and Briar Test.

Some years ago, when the breed was in the stage referred to above,
a club was formed to look after its interests, and there is no doubt
that though perhaps phenomenal success did not attend its efforts,
it did its best, and forms a valuable link in the chain of popularity
of the Airedale. It was at best apparently a sleepy sort of concern,
and never seems to have attracted new fanciers. Some dozen or so years
ago, however, a club, destined not only to make a great name for
itself, but also to do a thousandfold more good to the breed it
espouses than ever the old club did, was formed under the name of
the South of England Airedale Terrier Club, and a marvellously
successful and popular life it has so far lived. The younger club
was in no way an antagonist of the older one, and it has ever been
careful that it should not be looked upon in any way as such. The
old club has, however, been quite overshadowed by the younger, which,
whether it wishes it or not, is now looked upon as the leading society
in connection with the breed.

At a meeting of the first club--which went by the name of the Airedale
Terrier Club--held in Manchester some eighteen or twenty years ago,
the following standard of perfection and scale of points was drawn
up and adopted:--

* * * * *

HEAD--Long, with flat skull, but not too broad between the ears,
narrowing slightly to the eyes, free from wrinkle; stop hardly
visible, and cheeks free from fullness; jaw deep and powerful, well
filled up before the eyes; lips light; ears V-shaped with a side
carriage, small but not out of proportion to the size of the dog;
the nose black; the eyes small and dark in colour, not prominent,
and full of terrier expression; the teeth strong and level. The neck
should be of moderate length and thickness, gradually widening towards
the shoulders and free from throatiness. SHOULDERS AND CHEST--Shoulders
long and sloping well into the back, shoulder-blades flat, chest deep,
but not broad. BODY--Back short, strong and straight; ribs well
sprung. HIND-QUARTERS--Strong and muscular, with no drop; hocks well
let down; the tail set on high and carried gaily, but not curled over
the back. LEGS AND FEET--Legs perfectly straight, with plenty of bone;
feet small and round with good depth of pad. COAT--Hard and wiry,
and not so long as to appear ragged; it should also be straight and
close, covering the dog well over the body and legs. COLOUR--The head
and ears, with the exception of dark markings on each side of the
skull, should be tan, the ears being a darker shade than the rest,
the legs up to the thigh and elbows being also tan, the body black
or dark grizzle. WEIGHT--Dogs 40 lb. to 45 lb., bitches slightly less.

* * * * *

At the time of the formation of the Southern club the state of the
Airedale was critical; possessed of perhaps unequalled natural
advantages, lovely dog as he is, he had not made that progress that
he should have done. He had not been boomed in any way, and had been
crawling when he should have galloped. From the moment the new club
was formed, however, the Airedale had a new lease of life. Mr. Holland
Buckley and other keen enthusiasts seem to have recognised to a nicety
exactly what was required to give a necessary fillip to the breed;
they appear also to have founded their club at the right moment, and
to have offered such an attractive bill of fare, that not only did
everyone in the south who had anything to do with Airedales join at
once, but very shortly a host of new fanciers was enrolled, and crowds
of people began to take the breed up who had had nothing to do with
it, or, indeed, any other sort of dog previously.

Some few years after the foundation of this club, a junior branch
of it was started, and this, ably looked after by Mr. R. Lauder
McLaren, is almost as big a success in its way as is the parent
institution. Other clubs have been started in the north and elsewhere,
and altogether the Airedale is very well catered for in this respect,
and, if things go on as they are now going, is bound to prosper and
become even more extensively owned than he is at present. To Mr.
Holland Buckley, Mr. G. H. Elder, Mr. Royston Mills, and Mr. Marshall
Lee, the Airedale of the present day owes much.

The Airedales that have struck the writer as the best he has come
across are Master Briar, Clonmel Monarch, Clonmel Marvel, Dumbarton
Lass, Tone Masterpiece, Mistress Royal, Master Royal, Tone Chief,
Huckleberry Lass, Fielden Fashion, York Sceptre and Clonmel Floriform.
Nearly everyone of these is now, either in the flesh or spirit, in
the United States or Canada.

In all probability, the person who knows more about this terrier than
anyone living is Mr. Holland Buckley. He has written a most
entertaining book on the Airedale; he has founded the principal club
in connection with the breed; he has produced several very excellent
specimens, and it goes without saying that he is--when he can be
induced to "take the ring"--a first-rate judge. Mr. Buckley has
frequently told the writer that in his opinion one of the best
terriers he has seen was the aforesaid Clonmel Floriform, but, as
this dog was sold for a big price very early in his career, the writer
never saw him.

Most of the articles that have been written on the Airedale have come
from the pen of Mr. Buckley, and therefore but modest reference is
made to the man who has worked so whole-heartedly, so well, and so
successfully in the interests of the breed he loves. It would be
ungenerous and unfair in any article on the Airedale, written by
anyone but Mr. Buckley, if conspicuous reference were not made to
the great power this gentleman has been, and to the great good that
he has done.

The Airedale is such a beautiful specimen of the canine race, and
is, in reality, in such healthy state, that every one of his
admirers--and they are legion--is naturally jealous for his welfare,
and is wishful that all shall go well with him. It is gratifying to
state that he has never been the tool of faction, though at one time
he was doubtless near the brink; but this was some time ago, and it
would be a grievous pity if he ever again became in jeopardy of
feeling the baneful influence of any such curse.

There is one serious matter in connection with him, however, and that
is the laxity displayed by some judges of the breed in giving prizes
to dogs shown in a condition, with regard to their coats, which ought
to disentitle them to take a prize in any company. Shockingly
badly-trimmed shoulders are becoming quite a common thing to see in
Airedales. There is no necessity for this sort of thing; it is very
foolish, and it is impossible to imagine anything more likely to do
harm to a breed than that the idea should get abroad that this is
the general practice in connection with it.



This gamest of all the terriers has been known as a distinct and
thoroughly British breed for over a century, which is, I think, a
fairly ancient lineage. There are various theories as to its original
parentage, but the one which holds that he was the result of a cross
between the Otterhound and the Dandie Dinmont suggests itself to me
as the most probable one. His characteristics strongly resemble in
many points both these breeds, and there can be but little doubt of
his near relationship at some time or other to the Dandie.

The earliest authentic record we have of the Bedlington was a dog
named Old Flint, who belonged to Squire Trevelyan, and was whelped
in 1782. The pedigree of Mr. William Clark's Scamp, a dog well known
about 1792, is traced back to Old Flint, and the descendants of Scamp
were traced in direct line from 1792 to 1873.

A mason named Joseph Aynsley has the credit for giving the name of
"Bedlington" to this terrier in 1825. It was previously known as the
Rothbury Terrier, or the Northern Counties Fox-terrier. Mr. Thomas
J. Pickett, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, was perhaps the earliest supporter
of the breed on a large scale, and his Tynedale and Tyneside in
especial have left their names in the history of the Bedlington.

The present day Bedlington, like a good many other terriers, has
become taller and heavier than the old day specimens. This no doubt
is due to breeding for show points. He is a lathy dog, but not shelly,
inclined to be flatsided, somewhat light in bone for his size, very
lively in character, and has plenty of courage. If anything, indeed,
his pluck is too insistent.

The standard of points as adopted by the National Bedlington Terrier
and The Yorkshire Bedlington Terrier Clubs is as follows:--

* * * * *

SKULL--Narrow, but deep and rounded; high at the occiput, and covered
with a nice silky tuft or topknot. MUZZLE--Long, tapering, sharp and
muscular, as little stop as possible between the eyes, so as to form
nearly a line from the nose-end along the joint of skull to the
occiput. The lips close fitting and without flew. EYES--Should be
small and well sunk in the head. The blues should have a dark eye,
the blues and tans ditto, with amber shades; livers and sandies, a
light brown eye. NOSE--Large, well angled; blues and blues and tans
should have black noses, livers and sandies flesh-coloured.
TEETH--Level or pincher-jawed. EARS--Moderately large, well formed,
flat to the cheek, thinly covered and tipped with fine silky hair.
They should be filbert shaped. LEGS--Of moderate length, not wide
apart, straight and square set, and with good-sized feet, which are
rather long. TAIL--Thick at the root, tapering to a point, slightly
feathered on lower side, 9 inches to 11 inches long and scimitar
shaped. NECK AND SHOULDERS--Neck long, deep at base, rising well from
the shoulders, which should be flat. BODY--Long and well-proportioned,
flat ribbed, and deep, not wide in chest, slightly arched back, well
ribbed up, with light quarters. COAT--Hard, with close bottom, and
not lying flat to sides. COLOUR--Dark blue, blue and tan, liver, liver
and tan, sandy, or sandy and tan. HEIGHT--About 15 inches to 16
inches. WEIGHT--Dogs about 24 pounds; bitches about 22 pounds. GENERAL
APPEARANCE--He is a light-made, lathy dog, but not shelly.

* * * * *

There is a tendency nowadays towards excess of size in the Bedlington.
It is inclined to be too long in the body and too leggy, which, if
not checked, will spoil the type of the breed. It is, therefore, very
important that size should be more studied by judges than is at
present the case. The faults referred to are doubtless the result
of breeding for exceptionally long heads, which seem to be the craze
just now, and, of course, one cannot get extra long heads without
proportionately long bodies and large size. If it were possible to
do so, then the dog would become a mere caricature.

As a sporting terrier the Bedlington holds a position in the first
rank. He is very fast and enduring, and exceedingly pertinacious,
and is equally at home on land and in water. He will work an otter,
draw a badger, or bolt a fox, and he has no superior at killing rats
and all kinds of vermin. He has an exceptionally fine nose, and makes
a very useful dog for rough shooting, being easily taught to retrieve.
If he has any fault at all, it is that he is of too jealous a
disposition, which renders it almost impossible to work him with other
dogs, as he wants all the fun to himself, and if he cannot get it
he will fight for it. But by himself he is perfect. As a companion
he is peculiarly affectionate and faithful, and remarkably
intelligent; he makes a capital house-dog, is a good guard and is
very safe with children.

Bedlingtons are not dainty feeders, as most writers have asserted,
nor are they tender dogs. If they are kept in good condition and get
plenty of exercise they feed as well as any others, and are as hard
as nails if not pampered. They are easy to breed and rear, and the
bitches make excellent mothers. If trained when young they are very
obedient, and their tendency to fight can in a great measure be cured
when they are puppies; but, if not checked then, it cannot be done
afterwards. Once they take to fighting nothing will keep them from
it, and instead of being pleasurable companions they become positive
nuisances. On the other hand, if properly broken they give very little
trouble, and will not quarrel unless set upon.



The dare-devil Irish Terrier has most certainly made his home in our
bosom. There is no breed of dog more genuinely loved by those who
have sufficient experience and knowledge to make the comparison. Other
dogs have a larger share of innate wisdom, others are most
aesthetically beautiful, others more peaceable; but our rufous friend
has a way of winning into his owner's heart and making there an
abiding place which is all the more secure because it is gained by
sincere and undemonstrative devotion. Perhaps one likes him equally
for his faults as for his merits. His very failings are due to his
soldierly faithfulness and loyalty, to his too ardent vigilance in
guarding the threshold, to his officious belligerence towards other
canines who offend his sense of proprietorship in his master. His
particular stature may have some influence in his success as a chum.
He is just tall enough to rest his chin upon one's knee and look up
with all his soul into one's eyes. Whatever be the secret of his
attraction 'tis certain that he has the Hibernian art of compelling
affection and forgiveness, and that he makes one value him, not for
the beauty of his ruddy raiment, the straightness of his fore-legs,
the set of his eye and ear, the levelness of his back, or his ability
to win prizes, but rather for his true and trusty heart, that exacts
no return and seeks no recompense. He may be but an indifferent
specimen of his kind, taken in as a stranger at the gates; but when
at length the inevitable time arrives, as it does all too soon in
canine nature, one then discovers how surely one has been harbouring
an angel unawares.

Statistics would probably show that in numbers the Fox-terrier
justifies the reputation of being a more popular breed, and the
Scottish Terrier is no doubt a formidable competitor for public
esteem. It is safe, however, to say that the Irish Terrier shares
with these the distinction of being one of the three most popular
terriers in the British Isles.

This fact taken into consideration, it is interesting to reflect that
thirty years ago the "Dare-Devil" was virtually unknown in England.
Idstone, in his book on dogs, published in 1872 did not give a word
of mention to the breed, and dog shows had been instituted sixteen
years before a class was opened for the Irish Terrier. The dog
existed, of course, in its native land. It may indeed be almost
truthfully said to have existed "as long as that country has been
an island."

About the year 1875, experts were in dispute over the Irish Terrier,
and many averred that his rough coat and length of hair on forehead
and muzzle were indubitable proof of Scotch blood. His very
expression, they said, was Scotch. But the argument was quelled by
more knowing disputants on the other side, who claimed that Ireland
had never been without her terrier, and that she owed no manner of
indebtedness to Scotland for a dog whose every hair was essentially

In the same year at a show held in Belfast a goodly number of the
breed were brought together, notable among them being Mr. D.
O'Connell's Slasher, a very good-looking wire-coated working terrier,
who is said to have excelled as a field and water dog. Slasher was
lint white in colour, and reputed to be descended from a pure white
strain. Two other terriers of the time were Mr. Morton's Fly (the
first Irish Terrier to gain a championship) and Mr. George Jamison's

The prominent Irish Terriers of the 'seventies varied considerably
in type. Stinger, who won the first prize at Lisburn in 1875, was
long-backed and short-legged, with a "dark blue grizzle coloured back,
tan legs, and white turned-out feet." The dam of Mr. Burke's Killeney
Boy was a rough black and tan, a combination of colours which was
believed to accompany the best class of coats. Brindles were not
uncommon. Some were tall on the leg, some short; some were lanky and
others cobby; many were very small. There were classes given at a
Dublin show in 1874 for Irish Terriers under 9 lb. weight.

Jamison's Sport is an important dog historically, for various reasons.
He was undoubtedly more akin to our present type than any other Irish
Terrier of his time of which there is record. His dark ears were
uncropped at a period when cropping was general; his weight
approximated to our modern average. He was an all coloured red, and
his legs were of a length that would not now be seriously objected
to. But in his day he was not accepted as typical, and he was not
particularly successful in the show ring. The distinguished terrier
of his era was Burke's Killeney Boy, to whom, and to Mr. W. Graham's
bitch Erin, with whom he was mated, nearly all the pedigrees of the
best Irish Terriers of to-day date back. Erin was said to be superior
in all respects to any of her breed previous to 1880. In her first
litter by Killeney Boy were Play Boy, Pretty Lass, Poppy, Gerald,
Pagan II., and Peggy, every one of whom became famous. More than one
of these showed the black markings of their granddam, and their
progeny for several generations were apt to throw back to the
black-and-tan, grey, or brindle colouring. Play Boy and Poppy were
the best of Erin's first litter. The dog's beautiful ears, which were
left as Nature made them, were transmitted to his son Bogie Rattler,
who was sire of Bachelor and Benedict, the latter the most successful
stud dog of his time. Poppy had a rich red coat, and this colour
recurred with fair regularity in her descendants. Red, which had not
at first been greatly appreciated, came gradually to be the accepted
colour of an Irish Terrier's jacket. Occasionally it tended towards
flaxen; occasionally to a deep rich auburn; but the black and brindle
were so rigidly bred out that by the year 1890, or thereabout, they
very seldom recurred. Nowadays it is not often that any other colour
than red is seen in a litter of Irish Terriers, although a white patch
on the breast is frequent, as it is in all self-coloured breeds.

In addition to the early celebrities already named, Extreme
Carelessness, Michael, Brickbat, Poppy II., Moya Doolan, Straight
Tip, and Gaelic have taken their places in the records of the breed,
while yet more recent Irish Terriers who have achieved fame have been
Mrs. Butcher's Bawn Boy and Bawn Beauty, Mr. Wallace's Treasurer,
Mr. S. Wilson's Bolton Woods Mixer, Dr. Smyth's Sarah Kidd, and Mr.
C. J. Barnett's Breda Muddler.

Naturally in the case of a breed which has departed from its original
type, discussions were frequent before a standard of perfection for
the Irish Terrier was fixed. His size and weight, the length or
shortness of his limbs, the carriage of his tail, the form of his
skull and muzzle, the colour and texture of his coat were the subjects
of controversy. It was considered at one juncture that he was being
bred too big, and at another that he was being brought too much to
resemble a red wire-hair Fox-terrier. When once the black marking
on his body had been eliminated no one seems to have desired that
it should be restored. Red was acknowledged to be the one and only
colour for an Irish Terrier. But some held that the correct red should
be deep auburn, and others that wheaten colour was the tone to be
aimed at. A medium shade between the two extremes is now generally
preferred. As to size, it should be about midway between that of the
Airedale and the Fox-terrier, represented by a weight of from 22 to
27 lb.

The two breeds just mentioned are, as a rule, superior to the Irish
Terrier in front legs, and feet, but in the direction of these points
great improvements have recently been observable. The heads of our
Irish Terriers have also been brought nearer to a level of perfection,
chiselled to the desired degree of leanness, with the determined
expression so characteristic of the breed, and with the length,
squareness, and strength of muzzle which formerly were so difficult
to find. This squareness of head and jaw is an important point to
be considered when choosing an Irish Terrier.

Opinions differ in regard to slight details of this terrier's
conformation, but the official description, issued by the Irish
Terrier Club, supplies a guide upon which the uncertain novice may
implicitly depend:--

* * * * *

HEAD--Long; skull flat, and rather narrow between ears, getting
slightly narrower towards the eye; free from wrinkles; stop hardly
visible except in profile. The jaw must be strong and muscular, but
not too full in the cheek, and of a good punishing length. There
should be a slight falling away below the eye, so as not to have a
Greyhound appearance. Hair on face of same description as on body,
but short (about a quarter of an inch long), in appearance almost
smooth and straight; a slight beard is the only longish hair (and
it is only long in comparison with the rest) that is permissible,
and this is characteristic. TEETH--Should be strong and level.
LIPS--Not so tight as a Bull-terrier's, but well-fitting, showing
through the hair their black lining. NOSE--Must be black. EYES--A
dark hazel colour, small, not prominent, and full of life, fire, and
intelligence. EARS--Small and V-shaped, of moderate thickness, set
well on the head, and dropping forward closely to the cheek. The ear
must be free of fringe, and the hair thereon shorter and darker in
colour than the body. NECK--Should be of a fair length, and gradually
widening towards the shoulders, well carried, and free of throatiness.
There is generally a slight sort of frill visible at each side of
the neck, running nearly to the corner of the ear. SHOULDERS AND
CHEST--Shoulders must be fine, long, and sloping well into the back;
the chest deep and muscular, but neither full nor wide. BACK AND
LOIN--Body moderately long; back should be strong and straight, with
no appearance of slackness behind the shoulders; the loin broad and
powerful, and slightly arched; ribs fairly sprung, rather deep than
round, and well ribbed back. HIND-QUARTERS--Should be strong and
muscular, thighs powerful, hocks near ground, stifles moderately bent.
STERN--Generally docked; should be free of fringe or feather, but
well covered with rough hair, set on pretty high, carried gaily, but
not over the back or curled. FEET AND LEGS--Feet should be strong,
tolerably round, and moderately small; toes arched, and neither turned
out nor in; black toe nails most desirable. Legs moderately long,
well set from the shoulders, perfectly straight, with plenty of bone
and muscle; the elbows working freely clear of the sides; pasterns
short and straight, hardly noticeable. Both fore and hind legs should
be moved straight forward when travelling, the stifles not turned
outwards, the legs free of feather, and covered, like the head, with
as hard a texture of coat as body, but not so long. COAT--Hard and
wiry, free of softness or silkiness, not so long as to hide the
outlines of the body, particularly in the hind-quarters, straight
and flat, no shagginess, and free of lock or curl. COLOUR--Should
be "whole-coloured," the most preferable being bright red, red,
wheaten, or yellow red. White sometimes appears on chest and feet;
it is more objectionable on the latter than on the chest, as a speck
of white on chest is frequently to be seen in all self-coloured
breeds. SIZE AND SYMMETRY--The most desirable weight in show condition
is, for a dog 24 lb., and for a bitch 22 lb. The dog must present
an active, lively, lithe, and wiry appearance; lots of substance,
at the same time free of clumsiness, as speed and endurance, as well
as power, are very essential. They must be neither cloddy or cobby,
but should be framed on the lines of speed, showing a graceful racing
outline. TEMPERAMENT--Dogs that are very game are usually surly or
snappish. The Irish Terrier as a breed is an exception, being
remarkably good-tempered, notably so with mankind, it being admitted,
however, that he is perhaps a little too ready to resent interference
on the part of other dogs. There is a heedless, reckless pluck about
the Irish Terrier which is characteristic, and, coupled with the
headlong dash, blind to all consequences, with which he rushes at
his adversary, has earned for the breed the proud epithet of "The
Dare-Devils." When "off-duty" they are characterised by a quiet,
caress-inviting appearance, and when one sees them endearingly,
timidly pushing their heads into their masters' hands, it is difficult
to realise that on occasions, at the "set on," they can prove they
have the courage of a lion, and will fight unto the last breath in
their bodies. They develop an extraordinary devotion to and have been
known to track their masters almost incredible distances.

* * * * *


It is difficult to refer to particular Irish Terriers of to-day
without making invidious distinctions. There are so many excellent
examples of the breed that a list even of those who have gained
championship honours would be formidable. But one would hardly
hesitate to head the list with the name of Paymaster, a dog of rare
and almost superlative quality and true Irish Terrier character.
Paymaster is the property of Miss Lilian Paull, of Weston-super-Mare,
who bred him from her beautiful bitch Erasmic, from Breda Muddler,
the sire of many of the best. Side by side with Paymaster, Mr. F.
Clifton's Mile End Barrister might be placed. It would need a council
of perfection, indeed, to decide which is the better dog of the two.
Very high in the list, also, would come Mr. Henry Ridley's Redeemer
and Mr. Breakell's Killarney Sport. And among bitches one would name
certainly Mr. Gregg's Belfast Erin, Mr. Clifton's Charwoman, Mr.
Everill's Erminie, and Mr. J. S. McComb's Beeston Betty. These are
but half a dozen, but they represent the highest level of excellence
that has yet been achieved by scientific breeding in Irish Terrier

Breeding up to the standard of excellence necessary in competition
in dog shows has doubtless been the agent which has brought the Irish
Terrier to its present condition of perfection, and it is the means
by which the general dog owning public is most surely educated to
a practical knowledge of what is a desirable and what an undesirable
dog to possess. But, after all, success in the show ring is not the
one and only thing to be aimed at, and the Irish Terrier is not to
be regarded merely as the possible winner of prizes. He is above all
things a dog for man's companionship, and in this capacity he takes
a favoured place. He has the great advantage of being equally suitable
for town and country life. In the home he requires no pampering; he
has a good, hardy constitution, and when once he has got over the
ills incidental to puppyhood--worms and distemper--he needs only to
be judiciously fed, kept reasonably clean, and to have his fill of
active exercise. If he is taught to be obedient and of gentlemanly
habit, there is no better house dog. He is naturally intelligent and
easily trained. Although he is always ready to take his own part,
he is not quarrelsome, but remarkably good-tempered and a safe
associate of children. Perhaps with his boisterous spirits he is prone
sometimes to be over-zealous in the pursuit of trespassing tabbies
and in assailing the ankles of intruding butcher boys and officious
postmen. These characteristics come from his sense of duty, which is
strongly developed, and careful training will make him discriminative
in his assaults.

Very justly is he classed among the sporting dogs. He is a born
sportsman, and of his pluck it were superfluous to speak. Fear is
unknown to him. In this characteristic as in all others, he is truly
a son of Erin.



This breed is near akin to the wire-hair Fox-terrier, the principal
differences being merely of colour and type. The Welsh Terrier is
a wire-haired black or grizzle and tan. The most taking colouring
is a jet black body and back with deep tan head, ears, legs, belly,
and tail. Several specimens have, however, black foreheads, skulls,
ears, and tail, and the black will frequently be seen also extending
for a short way down the legs. There must be no black, however, below
the hock, and there must be no substantial amount of white anywhere;
a dog possessing either of these faults is, according to the recognised
standard of the breed, disqualified. Many of the most successful bench
winners have, nevertheless, been possessed of a little white on the
chest and even a few hairs of that colour on their hind toes, and,
apparently, by the common consent of all the judges of the breed,
they have been in nowise handicapped for these blemishes.

There are not so many grizzle coloured Welsh Terriers now as there
used to be. A grizzle and tan never looks so smart as a black and
tan; but though this is so, if the grizzle is of a dark hard colour,
its owner should not be handicapped as against a black and tan; if,
on the contrary, it is a washed-out, bluish-looking grizzle, a judge
is entitled to handicap its possessor, apart altogether from the fact
that any such colour on the back is invariably accompanied by an
objectionable light tan on the legs, the whole being a certain sign
of a soft, silky, unterrierlike coat.

The coat of the Welsh Terrier slightly differs from that of the
wire-hair Fox-terrier in that it is, as a rule, not so abundant, and
is, in reality, a different class of coat. It is not so broken as
is that of the Fox-terrier, and is generally a smoother, shorter coat,
with the hairs very close together. When accompanied with this there
is a dense undercoat, one has, for a terrier used to work a good deal
in water, an ideal covering, as waterproof almost as the feathers
on a duck's back. The other difference between the Fox and Welsh
Terrier--viz., type--is very hard to define. To anyone who really
understands Welsh Terriers, the selection of those of proper type
from those of wrong type presents little if any difficulty.

As a show-bench exhibit the Welsh Terrier is not more than twenty-two
years old. He has, however, resided in Wales for centuries.

There is no doubt that he is in reality identical with the old black
and tan wire-haired dog which was England's first terrier, and which
has taken such a prominent part in the production and evolution of
all the other varieties of the sporting terrier.

There are several people living in or about Carnarvonshire who can
show that Welsh Terriers have been kept by their ancestors from, at
any rate, a hundred to two hundred years ago. Notable among these
is the present master of the Ynysfor Otterhounds, whose great
grandfather, John Jones, of Ynysfor, owned Welsh Terriers in or about
the year 1760. This pack of Otterhounds has always been kept by the
Jones of Ynysfor, who have always worked and still work Welsh Terriers
with them. From this strain some good terriers have sprung, and this
although neither the present master nor any of his ancestors have
concerned themselves greatly about the looks of their terriers, or
kept anything but a head record of their pedigrees. They are all,
however, pure bred, and are set much store on by their owner and his
family, just as they always have been by their predecessors.

Until about the year 1884 no one seems to have considered the question
of putting specimens of the breed on the show bench. About that year,
however, several gentlemen interested in the variety met together
to see what could be done in connection with the matter, the outcome
being that the Welsh Terrier Club was shortly afterwards founded,
the Kennel Club recognised the breed, and the terrier himself began
his career as a show dog.

The specimens which were first shown were, as may be imagined, not
a very high-class-looking lot. Although the breed had been kept pure,
no care had been taken in the culture of it, except that which was
necessary to produce a sporting game terrier, able to do its work.
One can readily understand, therefore, that such an entirely "fancy"
point as a long foreface and narrow, clean skull had never been
thought of for a moment, and it was in these particulars that the
Welsh Terrier at first failed, from a show point of view. Naturally
enough, good shoulders, sound hind-quarters, more than fair legs and
feet, and excellent jackets were to be found in abundance, but as
the body was almost invariably surmounted by a very short and
wedge-shaped head and jaw, often accompanied with a pair of heavy,
round ears, an undershot mouth, and a light, full eye, it will be
realised that the general appearance of the dog was not prepossessing.

The Welsh Terrier to-day is very much improved beyond what he was
when first put on the bench. This improvement has been brought about
by careful and judicious breeding from nothing but pure bred specimens.
No outside aid has been invoked--at any rate in the production of
any of the best terriers--and none has been required. It is a matter
for great congratulation that the breed has been kept pure despite
all temptation and exhortation.

The Welsh Terrier breeds as true as steel; you know what you are going
to get. Had popular clamour had its way years ago, goodness only know
what monstrosities would now be being bred.

The colour of the Welsh Terrier is, of course, against him for working
with a pack of hounds, especially in water. It is only fair, however,
to the breed to say that, barring this colour drawback, there is no
better terrier to hounds living. They are not quarrelsome, show very
little jealousy one of another in working, can therefore easily be
used, exercised, and kennelled together, being much better in this
respect than any of the other breeds of terriers. They also, as a
general rule, are dead game; they want a bit of rousing, and are not
so flashily, showily game as, say, the Fox-terrier; but, just as with
humans, when it comes to _real_ business, when the talking game is
played out and there is nothing left but the _doing_ part of the
business, then one's experience invariably is that the quiet man,
the quiet terrier, is the animal wanted.

On the formation of the Welsh Terrier Club a standard of perfection
was drawn up and circulated with the club rules. This standard has
remained unchanged up to the present day, and is as follows:--

* * * * *

HEAD--The skull should be flat and rather wider between the ears than
the wire-hair Fox-terrier. The jaw should be powerful, clean cut
rather deeper and more punishing--giving the head a more masculine
appearance--than that usually seen in a Fox-terrier. The stop not
too defined, fair length from stop to end of nose, the latter being
of a black colour. EARS--The ears should be V-shaped, small, not too
thin, set on fairly high, carried forward, and close to the cheek.
EYES--The eyes should be small, not being too deeply set in or
protruding out of skull, of a dark hazel colour, expressive and
indicating abundant pluck. NECK--The neck should be of moderate length
and thickness, slightly arched and sloping gracefully into the
shoulders. BODY--The back should be short and well ribbed up, the
loin strong, good depth, and moderate width of chest. The shoulders
should be long, sloping and well set back. The hind-quarters should
be strong, thighs muscular and of good length, with the hocks
moderately straight, well set down and fair amount of bone. The stern
should be set on moderately high, but not too gaily carried. LEGS
AND FEET--The legs should be straight and muscular, possessing fair
amount of bone with upright and powerful pasterns. The feet should
be small, round and catlike. COAT--The coat should be wiry, hard,
very close and abundant. COLOUR--The colour should be black and tan
or black grizzle and tan, free from black pencilling on toes.
SIZE--The height at shoulders should be 15 inches for dogs, bitches
proportionately less. Twenty pounds shall be considered a fair average
weight in working condition, but this may vary a pound or so either

DISQUALIFYING POINTS: NOSE white, cherry, or spotted to a considerable
extent with either of these colours. EARS prick, tulip, or rose.
Undershot jaw or pig jawed mouth. Black below hocks or white anywhere
to any appreciable extent, black pencilling on toes.



The Scottish Terrier as a show dog dates from about 1877 to 1879. He
seems almost at once to have attained popularity, and he has
progressed gradually since then, ever in an upward direction, until he
is to-day one of the most popular and extensively owned varieties of
the dog. Sir Paynton Pigott had, at the date mentioned, a very fine
kennel of the breed, for in _The Live Stock Journal_ of May 30th,
1879, we find his kennel fully reviewed in a most enthusiastic manner
by a correspondent who visited it in consequence of a controversy that
was going on at the time, as to whether or not there was such a dog at
all, and who, therefore, wished to see and judge for himself as to
this point. At the end of his report on the kennel the writer adds
these words: "It was certainly one of the happiest days of my life to
have the pleasure of looking over so many grand little dogs, but to
find them in England quite staggered me. Four dogs and eight bitches
are not a bad beginning, and with care and judicious selection in
mating, I have little doubt but Mr. Pigott's kennel will be as
renowned for Terriers as the late Mr. Laverack's was for Setters. I
know but few that take such a delight in the brave little 'die-hards'
as Mr. Pigott, and he may well feel proud of the lot he has got
together at great trouble and expense."

by T. Fall]



The fact that there was such a kennel already in existence proved, of
course, a strong point in favour of the _bona fides_ of the breed. The
best dog in it was Granite, whose portrait and description were given
in the _Journal_ in connection with the said review; and the other
animals of the kennel being of the same type, it was at once recognised
that there was, in fact, such a breed, and the mouths of the doubters
were stopped.

Granite was unquestionably a typical Scottish Terrier, even as we know
them at the present day. He was certainly longer in the back than we
care for nowadays, and his head also was shorter, and his jaw more
snipy than is now seen, but his portrait clearly shows he was a
genuine Scottish Terrier, and there is no doubt that he, with his
kennel mates, Tartan, Crofter, Syringa, Cavack, and Posey, conferred
benefit upon the breed.

To dive deeper into the antiquity of the Scottish Terrier is a thing
which means that he who tries it must be prepared to meet all sorts of
abuse, ridicule, and criticism. One man will tell you there never was
any such thing as the present-day Scottish Terrier, that the mere fact
of his having prick ears shows he is a mongrel; another, that he is
merely an offshoot of the Skye or the Dandie; another, that the only
Scottish Terrier that is a Scottish Terrier is a white one; another,
that he is merely a manufactured article from Aberdeen, and so on _ad

It is a most extraordinary fact that Scotland should have unto herself
so many different varieties of the terrier. There is strong presumption
that they one and all came originally from one variety, and it is
quite possible, nay probable, that different crosses into other
varieties have produced the assortment of to-day. The writer is
strongly of opinion that there still exist in Scotland at the present
time specimens of the breed which propagated the lot, which was what
is called even now the Highland Terrier, a little long-backed,
short-legged, snipy-faced, prick or drop-eared, mostly sandy and
black-coloured terrier, game as a pebble, lively as a cricket, and all
in all a most charming little companion; and further, that to produce
our present-day Scottish Terrier--or shall we say, to improve the
points of his progenitor?--the assistance of our old friend the Black
and Tan wire-haired terrier of England was sought by a few astute
people living probably not very far from Aberdeen.

Scottish Terriers frequently go by the name of Aberdeen Terriers--an
appellation, it is true, usually heard only from the lips of people
who do not know much about them. Mr. W. L. McCandlish, one of the
greatest living authorities on the breed, in an able treatise
published some time back, tells us, in reference to this matter, that
the terrier under notice went at different periods under the names of
Highland, Cairn, Aberdeen, and Scotch; that he is now known by the
proud title of Scottish Terrier; and that "the only surviving trace of
the differing nomenclature is the title Aberdeen, which many people
still regard as a different breed--a want of knowledge frequently
turned to account by the unscrupulous dealer who is able to sell under
the name of Aberdeen a dog too bad to dispose of as a Scottish
Terrier." But there can be no doubt that originally there must have
been _some_ reason for the name. In a letter to the writer, Sir
Paynton Pigott says, "Some people call them and advertise them as the
Aberdeen Terrier, which is altogether a mistake; but the reason of it
is that forty years ago a Dr. Van Bust, who lived in Aberdeen, bred
these terriers to a large extent and sold them, and those buying them
called them, in consequence, 'Aberdeen Terriers,' whereas they were in
reality merely a picked sort of Old Scotch or Highland Terrier." Sir
Paynton himself, as appears from the columns of _The Live Stock
Journal_ (March 2nd, 1877), bought some of the strain of Van Bust, and
therein gives a full description of the same.

Sir Paynton Pigott's kennel of the breed assumed quite large
proportions, and was most successful, several times winning all the
prizes offered in the variety at different shows. He may well be
called the Father of the breed in England, for when he gave up
exhibiting, a great deal of his best blood got into the kennels of
Mr. H. J. Ludlow, who, as everyone knows, has done such a tremendous
amount of good in popularising the breed and has also himself produced
such a galaxy of specimens of the very best class. Mr. Ludlow's first
terrier was a bitch called Splinter II. The name of Kildee is, in the
breed, almost world-famous, and it is interesting to note that in
every line does he go back to the said Splinter II. Rambler--called by
the great authorities the first pillar of the stud book--was a son of
a dog called Bon-Accord, and it is to this latter dog and Roger Rough,
and also the aforesaid Tartan and Splinter II. that nearly all of the
best present-day pedigrees go back. This being so, it is unnecessary
to give many more names of dogs who have in their generations of some
years back assisted in bringing the breed to its present state of
perfection. An exception, however, must be made in the case of two
sons of Rambler, by name Dundee and Alister, names very familiar in
the Scottish Terrier pedigrees of the present day. Alister especially
was quite an extraordinary stud dog. His progeny were legion, and some
very good terriers of to-day own him as progenitor in nearly every
line. The best descendants of Alister were Kildee, Tiree, Whinstone,
Prince Alexander, and Heather Prince. He was apparently too much
inbred to, and though he produced or was responsible for several
beautiful terriers, it is much to be doubted whether in a breed which
is suffering from the ill-effects of too much inbreeding, he was not
one of the greatest sinners.

The Scottish Terrier Club was formed in the year 1882. In the same
year a joint committee drew up a standard of perfection for the breed,
Messrs. J. B. Morison and Thomson Gray, two gentlemen who were looked
upon as great authorities, having a good deal to do with it.

* * * * *

long, slightly domed and covered with short hard hair about 3/4 inch
long or less. It should not be quite flat, as there should be a sort
of stop or drop between the eyes. MUZZLE--Very powerful, and gradually
tapering towards the nose, which should always be black and of a good
size. The jaws should be perfectly level, and the teeth square, though
the nose projects somewhat over the mouth which gives the impression
of the upper jaw being longer than the under one. EYES--A dark-brown
or hazel colour; small, piercing, very bright and rather sunken.
EARS--Very small, prick or half prick (the former is preferable), but
never drop. They should also be sharp pointed, and the hair on them
should not be long, but velvety, and they should not be cut. The ears
should be free from any fringe at the top. NECK--Short, thick and
muscular; strongly set on sloping shoulders. CHEST--Broad in comparison
to the size of the dog, and proportionately deep. BODY--Of moderate
length, but not so long as a Skye's, and rather flat-sided; well
ribbed up, and exceedingly strong in hind-quarters. LEGS AND FEET--Both
fore and hind legs should be short and very heavy in bone, the former
being straight and well set on under the body, as the Scottish Terrier
should not be out at elbows. The hocks should be bent, and the thighs
very muscular, and the feet strong, small and thickly covered with
short hair, the fore feet being larger than the hind ones. TAIL--Should
be about 7 inches long, never docked, carried with a slight bend and
often gaily. COAT--Should be rather short (about 2 inches), intensely
hard and wiry in texture, and very dense all over the body. SIZE--From
15 lb. to 20 lb.; the best weight being as near as possible 18 lb. for
dogs, and 16 lb. for bitches when in condition for work. COLOUR--Steel
or iron grey, black brindle, brown brindle, grey brindle, black, sandy
and wheaten. White markings are objectionable, and can only be allowed
on the chest and to a small extent. GENERAL APPEARANCE--The face
should wear a very sharp, bright and active expression, and the head
should be carried up. The dog (owing to the shortness of his coat)
should appear to be higher on the leg than he really is; but at the
same time he should look compact and possessed of great muscle in his
hind-quarters. In fact, a Scottish Terrier, though essentially a
terrier, cannot be too powerfully put together, and should be from
about 9 inches to 12 inches in height.

SPECIAL FAULTS: MUZZLE--Either under or over hung. EYES--Large or
light-coloured. EARS--Large, round at the points or drop. It is also a
fault if they are too heavily covered with hair. LEGS--Bent, or
slightly bent, and out at elbows. COAT--Any silkiness, wave or
tendency to curl is a serious blemish, as is also an open coat.
SIZE--Specimens of over 20 lb. should be discouraged.

* * * * *

There have, of recent years, been many very excellent specimens of the
Scottish Terrier bred and exhibited. Preeminent among them stands Mrs.
Hannay's Ch. Heworth Rascal, who was a most symmetrical terrier, and
probably the nearest approach to perfection in the breed yet seen.
Other very first-class terriers have been the same lady's Ch. Gair,
Mr. Powlett's Ch. Callum Dhu, Mr. McCandlish's Ems Cosmetic, Mr.
Chapman's Heather Bob and Heather Charm, Mr. Kinnear's Seafield Rascal,
Mr. Wood's Hyndman Chief, Messrs. Buckley and Mills's Clonmel Invader,
and Mr. Deane Willis's Ch. Huntley Daisy and Ch. Carter Laddie.

It is highly probable that of all the terrier tribe, the "Scottie,"
taken as a whole, is the best companion. He makes a most excellent
house-dog, is not too big, does not leave white hairs about all over
the place, loves only his master and his master's household, and is,
withal, a capable and reliable guard. He is, as a rule, a game,
attractive terrier, with heaps of brain power, and from a show point
of view there is always some recompense in keeping him, as it will be
found he breeds true to type and does not beget offspring of all sorts,
shapes, and makes.



Man, being a hunting animal, kills the otter for his skin, and the
badger also; the fox he kills because the animal likes lamb and game
to eat. Man, being unable to deal in the course of a morning with the
rocks under and between which his quarry harbours, makes use of the
small dog which will go underground, to which the French name terrier
has been attached.

Towards the end of the reign of James the First of England and Sixth
of Scotland, we find him writing to Edinburgh to have half a dozen
"earth dogges or terrieres" sent carefully to France as a present, and
he directs that they be got from Argyll, and sent over in two or more
ships lest they should get harm by the way. That was roughly three
hundred years ago, and the King most probably would not have so highly
valued a newly-invented strain as he evidently did value the
"terrieres" from Argyll. We may take it then that in 1600 the
Argyllshire terriers were considered to be the best in Scotland, and
likely enough too, seeing the almost boundless opportunities the
county gives for the work of the "earth dogges."

But men kept their dogs in the evil pre-show days for work and not for
points, and mighty indifferent were they whether an ear cocked up or
lay flat to the cheek, whether the tail was exactly of fancy length,
or how high to a hair's breadth it stood. These things are _sine qua
non_ on the modern show bench, but were not thought of in the cruel,
hard fighting days of old.

In those days two things--and two things only--were imperatively
necessary: pluck and capacity to get at the quarry. This entailed that
the body in which the pluck was enshrined must be small and most
active, to get at the innermost recesses of the lair, and that the
body must be protected by the best possible teeth and jaws for
fighting, on a strong and rather long neck and directed by a most
capable brain. It is held that feet turned out a little are better for
scrambling up rocks than perfectly straight Fox-terrier like feet. In
addition, it was useful to have your dog of a colour easy to see when
in motion, though no great weight was laid upon that point, as in the
days before newspapers and trains men's eyes were good, as a rule.
Still, the quantity of white in the existing terriers all through the
west coast of Scotland shows that it must have been rather a favoured

White West Highland Terriers were kept at Poltalloch sixty years ago,
and so they were first shown as Poltalloch Terriers. Yet although they
were kept in their purest strain in Argyllshire, they are still to be
found all along the west coast of Scotland, good specimens belonging
to Ross-shire, to Skye, and at Ballachulish on Loch Leven, so that it
is a breed with a long pedigree and not an invented breed of the
present day. Emphatically, they are not simply white coloured Scottish
Terriers, and it is an error to judge them on Scottish Terrier lines.
They are smaller than the average Scottie, more "foxy" in general
conformation--straight limbed, rather long, rather low, and active in
body, with a broad forehead, light muzzle and underjaw, and a bright,
small intelligent eye. Colonel Malcolm, of Poltalloch, who is
recognised as the great authority on the breed, lays stress upon the
quality of the coat. "The outer coat," he says, "should be very soft
on the forehead and get gradually harder towards the haunches, but the
harsh coat beloved of the show bench is all nonsense, and is the
easiest thing in the world to 'fake,' as anyone can try who will dip
his own hair into the now fashionable 'anturic' baths. The outer coat
should be distinctly _long_, but not long in the 'fancy' or show
sense. Still, it should be long enough to hang as a thatch over the
soft, woolly real coat of the animal and keep it dry so that a good
shake or two will throw off most of the water; while the under coat
should be so thick and naturally oily that the dog can swim through a
fair-sized river and not get wet, or be able to sit out through a
drenching rain guarding something of his master's and be none the
worse. This under coat I, at least, have never seen a judge look for,
but for the working terrier it is most important. The size of the dog
is perhaps best indicated by weight. The dog should not weigh more
than 18 lb., nor the bitch more than 16 lb.

"There is among judges, I find--with all respect I say it--an undue
regard for weight and what is called strength, also for grooming,
which means brushing or plucking out all the long hair to gratify the
judge. One might as well judge of Sandow's strength, not by his
performances, but by the kind of wax he puts on his moustache!

"The West Highland Terrier of the old sort--I do not, of course, speak
of bench dogs--earned their living following fox, badger, or otter
wherever these went underground, between, over, or under rocks that no
man could get at to move, and some of such size that a hundred men
could not move them. (And oh! the beauty of their note when they came
across the right scent!) I want my readers to understand this, and not
to think of a Highland fox-cairn as if it were an English fox-earth
dug in sand; nor of badger work as if it were a question of locating
the badger and then digging him out. No; the badger makes his home
amongst rocks, the small ones perhaps two or three tons in weight, and
probably he has his 'hinner end' against one of three or four hundred
tons--no digging him out--and, moreover, the passages between the
rocks must be taken as they are; no scratching them a little wider. So
if your dog's ribs are a trifle too big he may crush one or two
through the narrow slit and then stick. He will never be able to pull
himself back--at least, until starvation has so reduced him that he
will probably be unable, if set free, to win (as we say in Scotland)
his way back to the open.

"I remember a tale of one of my father's terriers who got so lost. The
keepers went daily to the cairn hoping against hope. At last one day a
pair of bright eyes were seen at the bottom of a hole. They did not
disappear when the dog's name was called. A brilliant idea seized one
of the keepers. The dog evidently could not get up, so a rabbit skin
was folded into a small parcel round a stone and let down by a string.
The dog at once seized the situation--and the skin--held on, was drawn
up, and fainted on reaching the mouth of the hole. He was carried home
tenderly and nursed; he recovered."

Referring to the characteristics of this terrier, Colonel Malcolm
continues:--"Attention to breeding as to colour has undoubtedly
increased the whiteness, but, other points being good, a dog of the
West Highland White Terrier breed is not to be rejected if he shows
his descent by a slight degree of pale red or yellow on his back or
his ears. I know an old Argyllshire family who consider that to
improve their terriers they ought all to have browny yellow ears.
Neither again, except for the show bench, is there the slightest
objection to half drop ears--_i.e._, the points of one or both ears
just falling over.

"Unfortunately, the show bench has a great tendency to spoil all
breeds from too much attention being given to what is evident--and
ears are grand things for judges to pin their faith to; also, they
greatly admire a fine long face and what is called--but wrongly
called--a strong jaw, meaning by that an ugly, heavy face. I have
often pointed out that the tiger, the cat, the otter, all animals
remarkable for their strength of jaw, have exceedingly short faces,
but their bite is cruelly hard. And what, again, could be daintier
than the face of a fox?

"The terrier of the West Highlands of Scotland has come down to the
present day, built on what I may perhaps call the fox lines, and it is
a type evolved by work--hard and deadly dangerous work. It is only of
late years that dogs have been bred for show. The so-called 'Scottish'
Terrier, which at present rules the roost, dates from 1879 as a show

"I therefore earnestly hope that no fancy will arise about these dogs
which will make them less hardy, less wise, less companionable, less
active, or less desperate fighters underground than they are at
present. A young dog that I gave to a keeper got its stomach torn open
in a fight. It came out of the cairn to its master to be helped. He
put the entrails back to the best of his ability, and then the dog
slipped out of his hands to finish the fight, and forced the fox out
into the open! That is the spirit of the breed; but, alas, that cannot
be exhibited on the show bench. They do say that a keeper of mine,
when chaffed by the 'fancy' about the baby faces of his 'lot,' was
driven to ask, 'Well, can any of you gentlemen oblige me with a cat,
and I'll show you?' I did not hear him say it, so it may only be a

"Anyhow, I have in my kennel a dog who, at ten months old, met a vixen
fox as she was bolting out of her cairn, and he at once caught her by
the throat, stuck to her till the pack came up, and then on till she
was killed. In the course of one month his wounds were healed, and he
had two other classical fights, one with a cat and the other with a
dog fox. Not bad for a pup with a 'baby face?'

"I trust my readers understand that the West Highland White Terriers
are not White Aberdeens, not a new invention, but have a most
respectable ancestry of their own. I add the formal list of points,
but this is the work of show bench experts--and it will be seen from
what I have written that I do not agree with them on certain
particulars. There should be feather to a fair degree on the tail, but
if experts will not allow it, put rosin on your hands and pull the
hair out--and the rosin will win your prize. The eye should not be
sunk, which gives the sulky look of the 'Scotch' Terrier, but should
be full and bright, and the expression friendly and confiding. The
skull should not be narrow anywhere. It is almost impossible to get
black nails in a dog of pure breed and the black soon wears off the
pad work, so folk must understand this. On two occasions recently I
have shown dogs, acknowledged, as dogs, to be quite first class, 'but,
you see, they are not the proper type.' The judges unfortunately have
as yet their eyes filled with the 'Scottish' terrier type and prefer
mongrels that show it to the real 'Simon Pure.'"

* * * * *

Terrier is that of a small, game, hardy-looking terrier, possessed
with no small amount of self-esteem, with a "varminty" appearance,
strongly built, deep in chest and back ribs, straight back and
powerful quarters, on muscular legs and exhibiting in a marked degree
a great combination of strength and activity. COLOUR--White. COAT--Very
important, and seldom seen to perfection; must be double-coated. The
outer coat consists of hard hair, about 2-1/2 inches long, and free
from any curl. The under coat, which resembles fur, is short, soft,
and close. Open coats are objectionable. SIZE--Dogs to weigh from 14
to 18 lb., and bitches from 12 to 16 lb., and measure from 8 to 12
inches at the shoulder. SKULL--Should not be too narrow, being in
proportion to his powerful jaw, proportionately long, slightly domed,
and gradually tapering to the eyes, between which there should be a
slight indentation or stop. Eyebrows heavy. The hair on the skull to
be from 3/4 to 1 inch long, and fairly hard. EYES--Widely set apart,
medium in size, dark hazel in colour, slightly sunk in the head, sharp
and intelligent, which, looking from under the heavy eyebrows, give a
piercing look. Full eyes, and also light-coloured eyes, are very
objectionable. MUZZLE--Should be powerful, proportionate in length,
and should gradually taper towards the nose, which should be fairly
wide, and should not project forward beyond the upper jaw. The jaws
level and powerful, and teeth square or evenly met, well set, and
large for the size of the dog. The nose and roof of mouth should be
distinctly black in colour. EARS--Small, carried erect or semi-erect,
but never drop, and should be carried tightly up. The semi-erect ear
should drop nicely over at the tips, the break being about
three-quarters up the ear, and both forms of ears should terminate in
a sharp point. The hair on them should be short, smooth (velvety), and
they should not be cut. The ears should be free from any fringe at the
top. Round, pointed, broad and large ears are very objectionable, also
ears too heavily covered with hair. NECK--Muscular, and nicely set on
sloping shoulders. CHEST--Very deep, with breadth in proportion to the
size of the dog. BODY--Compact, straight back, ribs deep and well
arched in the upper half of rib, presenting a flattish side appearance.
Loins broad and strong. Hind-quarters strong, muscular, and wide
across the top. LEGS AND FEET--Both fore and hind legs should be short
and muscular. The shoulder blades should be comparatively broad, and
well-sloped backwards. The points of the shoulder blades should be
closely knit into the backbone, so that very little movement of them
should be noticeable when the dog is walking. The elbow should be
close in to the body both when moving or standing, thus causing the
fore-leg to be well placed in under the shoulder. The fore-legs should
be straight and thickly covered with short hard hair. The hind-legs
should be short and sinewy. The thighs very muscular and not too wide
apart. The hocks bent and well set in under the body, so as to be
fairly close to each other either when standing, walking, or running
(trotting); and, when standing, the hind-legs, from the point of the
hock down to fetlock joint, should be straight or perpendicular and
not far apart. The fore-feet are larger than the hind ones, are round,
proportionate in size, strong, thickly padded, and covered with short
hard hair. The foot must point straight forward. The hind-feet are
smaller, not quite as round as fore-feet, and thickly padded. The
under surface of the pads of feet and all the nails should be
distinctly black in colour. Hocks too much bent (cow hocks) detract
from the general appearance. Straight hocks are weak. Both kinds are
undesirable, and should be guarded against. TAIL--Six or seven inches
long, covered with hard hairs, no feathers, as straight as possible;
carried gaily, but not curled over back. A long tail is objectionable.
MOVEMENT--Should be free, straight, and easy all round. In front, the
leg should be freely extended forward by the shoulder. The hind
movement should be free, strong, and close. The hocks should be freely
flexed and drawn close in under the body, so that, when moving off the
foot, the body is thrown or pushed forward with some force. Stiff,
stilty movement behind is very objectionable.

FAULTS: COAT--Any silkiness, wave, or tendency to curl is a serious
blemish, as is also an open coat. Black or grey hairs disqualify for
competition. SIZE--Any specimens under the minimum, or above the
maximum weight, are objectionable. EYES--Full or light coloured.
EARS--Round-pointed, drop, broad and large, or too heavily covered
with hair. MUZZLE--Either under or over shot, and defective teeth.

* * * * *


AND CH. WOLVERLEY CHUMMIE Photograph by T. Fall]



The breed of terrier now known as the Dandie Dinmont is one of the
races of the dog which can boast of a fairly ancient lineage. Though
it is impossible now to say what was the exact origin of this breed,
we know that it was first recognised under its present name after the
publication of Scott's _Guy Mannering_, in the year 1814, and we know
that for many years previously there had existed in the Border
counties a rough-haired, short-legged race of terrier, the constant
and very effective companion of the Border farmers and others in their
fox-hunting expeditions.

Various theories have been suggested by different writers as to the
manner in which the breed was founded. Some say that the Dandie is the
result of crossing a strain of rough-haired terriers with the
Dachshund; others that a rough-haired terrier was crossed with the
Otterhound; and others again assert that no direct cross was ever
introduced to found the breed, but that it was gradually evolved from
the rough-haired terriers of the Border district. And this latter
theory is probably correct.

The Dandie would appear to be closely related to the Bedlington
Terrier. In both breeds we find the same indomitable pluck, the same
pendulous ear, and a light silky "topknot" adorning the skull of each;
but the Dandie was evolved into a long-bodied, short-legged dog, and
the Bedlington became a long-legged, short-bodied dog! Indeed to
illustrate the close relationship of the two breeds a case is quoted
of the late Lord Antrim, who, in the early days of dog shows,
exhibited two animals from the same litter, and with the one obtained
a prize or honourable mention in the Dandie classes, and with the
other a like distinction in the Bedlington classes.

It may be interesting to give a few particulars concerning the
traceable ancestors of the modern Dandie. In Mr. Charles Cook's book
on this breed, we are given particulars of one William Allan, of
Holystone, born in 1704, and known as Piper Allan, and celebrated as a
hunter of otters and foxes, and for his strain of rough-haired terriers
who so ably assisted him in the chase. William Allan's terriers
descended to his son James, also known as the "Piper," and born in the
year 1734. James Allan died in 1810, and was survived by a son who
sold to Mr. Francis Somner at Yetholm a terrier dog named Old Pepper,
descended from his grandfather's famous dog Hitchem. Old Pepper was
the great-grandsire of Mr. Somner's well-known dog Shem. These
terriers belonging to the Allans and others in the district are
considered by Mr. Cook to be the earliest known ancestors of the
modern Dandie Dinmont.

Sir Walter Scott himself informs us that he did not draw the character
of Dandie Dinmont from any one individual in particular, but that the
character would well fit a dozen or more of the Lidderdale yeomen of
his acquaintance. However, owing to the circumstance of his calling
all his terriers Mustard and Pepper, without any other distinction
except "auld" and "young" and "little," the name came to be fixed by
his associates upon one James Davidson, of Hindlee, a wild farm in the
Teviotdale mountains.

James Davidson died in the year 1820, by which time the Dandie Dinmont
Terrier was being bred in considerable numbers by the Border farmers
and others to meet the demand for it which had sprung up since the
appearance of _Guy Mannering_.

As a result of the controversies that were continually recurring with
regard to the points of a typical Dandie Dinmont there was formed in
the year 1876 the Dandie Dinmont Terrier Club, with the object of
settling the question for ever, and for this purpose all the most
noted breeders and others interested were invited to give their views
upon it.

The standard of points adopted by the club is as follows:--

* * * * *

HEAD--Strongly made and large, not out of proportion to the dog's
size; the muscles showing extraordinary development, more especially
the maxillary. SKULL--Broad between the ears, getting gradually less
towards the eyes, and measuring about the same from the inner corner
of the eyes to back of skull as it does from ear to ear. The forehead
well domed. The head is covered with very soft silky hair, which
should not be confined to a mere topknot, and the lighter in colour
and silkier it is the better. The cheeks, starting from the ears
proportionately with the skull, have a gradual taper towards the
muzzle, which is deep and strongly made, and measures about three
inches in length, or in proportion to skull as three is to five. The
muzzle is covered with hair of a little darker shade than the topknot,
and of the same texture as the feather of the fore-legs. The top of
the muzzle is generally bare for about an inch from the black part of
the nose, the bareness coming to a point towards the eye, and being
about one inch broad at the nose. The nose and inside of mouth black
or dark coloured. The teeth very strong, especially the canine, which
are of extraordinary size for such a small dog. The canines fit well
into each other, so as to give the greatest available holding and
punishing power, and the teeth are level in front, the upper ones very
slightly overlapping the under ones. (Many of the finest specimens
have a "swine mouth," which is very objectionable, but it is not so
great an objection as the protrusion of the under jaw.) EYES--Set wide
apart, large, full, round, bright, expressive of great determination,
intelligence and dignity; set low and prominent in front of the head;
colour a rich dark hazel. EARS--Pendulous, set well back, wide apart
and low on the skull, hanging close to the cheek, with a very slight
projection at the base, broad at the junction of the head and tapering
almost to a point, the fore part of the ear tapering very little, the
tapering being mostly on the back part, the fore part of the ear
coming almost straight down from its junction with the head to the
tip. They should harmonise in colour with the body colour. In the case
of a pepper dog they are covered with a soft, straight, brownish hair
(in some cases almost black). In the case of a mustard dog the hair
should be mustard in colour, a shade darker than the body, but not
black. All should have a thin feather of light hair starting about two
inches from the tip, and of nearly the same colour and texture as the
topknot, which gives the ear the appearance of a distinct point. The
animal is often one or two years old before the feather is shown. The
cartilage and skin of the ear should not be thick, but rather thin.
Length of ear, from three to four inches. NECK--Very muscular, well
developed, and strong; showing great power of resistance, being well
set into the shoulders. BODY--Long, strong, and flexible; ribs well
sprung and round, chest well developed and let well down between the
fore-legs; the back rather low at the shoulder, having a slight
downward curve and a corresponding arch over the loins, with a very
slight gradual drop from top of loins to root of tail; both sides of
backbone well supplied with muscle. TAIL--Rather short, say from eight
inches to ten inches, and covered on the upper side with wiry hair of
darker colour than that of the body, the hair on the under side being
lighter in colour, and not so wiry, with a nice feather, about two
inches long, getting shorter as it nears the tip; rather thick at the
root, getting thicker for about four inches, then tapering off to a
point. It should not be twisted or curled in any way, but should come
up with a curve like a scimitar, the tip, when excited, being in a
perpendicular line with the root of the tail. It should neither be set
on too high nor too low. When not excited it is carried gaily, and a
little above the level of the body. LEGS--The fore-legs short, with
immense muscular development and bone, set wide apart, the chest
coming well down between them. The feet well formed, and _not flat_,
with very strong brown or dark-coloured claws. Bandy legs and flat
feet are objectionable. The hair on the fore-legs and feet of a pepper
dog should be tan, varying according to the body colour from a rich
tan to a pale fawn; of a mustard dog they are of a darker shade than
its head, which is a creamy white. In both colours there is a nice
feather, about two inches long, rather lighter in colour than the hair
on the fore-part of the leg. The hind-legs are a little longer than
the fore ones, and are set rather wide apart, but not spread out in an
unnatural manner, while the feet are much smaller, the thighs are well
developed, and the hair of the same colour and texture as the fore
ones, but having no feather or dew claws; the whole claws should be
dark; but the claws of all vary in shade according to the colour of
the dog's body. COAT--This is a very important point; the hair should
be about two inches long; that from skull to root of tail a mixture of
hardish and soft hair, which gives a sort of crisp feel to the hand.
The hair should not be wiry; the coat is termed pily or pencilled. The
hair on the under part of the body is lighter in colour and softer
than that on the top. The skin on the belly accords with the colour of
dog. COLOUR--The colour is pepper or mustard. The pepper ranges from a
dark bluish black to a light silver grey, the intermediate shades
being preferred, the body colour coming well down the shoulder and
hips, gradually merging into the leg colour. The mustards vary from a
reddish brown to a pale fawn, the head being a creamy white, the legs
and feet of a shade darker than the head. The claws are dark as in
other colours. (Nearly all Dandie Dinmonts have some white on the
chest, and some have also white claws.) SIZE--The height should be
from 8 to 11 inches at the top of shoulder. Length from top of
shoulder to root of tail should not be more than twice the dog's
height, but, preferably, one or two inches less. WEIGHT--From 14 lb.
to 24 lb. the best weight as near 18 lb. as possible. These weights
are for dogs in good working order.

* * * * *

In the above standard of points we have a very full and detailed
account of what a Dandie should be like, and if only judges at shows
would bear them in mind a little more, we should have fewer
conflicting decisions given, and Dandie fanciers and the public
generally would not from time to time be set wondering as to what is
the correct type of the breed.

A Dandie makes an excellent house guard; for such a small dog he has
an amazingly deep, loud bark, so that the stranger, who has heard him
barking on the far side of the door, is quite astonished when he sees
the small owner of the big voice. When kept as a companion he becomes
a most devoted and affectionate little friend, and is very intelligent.
As a dog to be kept in kennels there is certainly one great drawback
where large kennels are desired, and that is the risk of keeping two
or more dogs in one kennel; sooner or later there is sure to be a
fight, and when Dandies fight it is generally a very serious matter;
if no one is present to separate them, one or both of the combatants
is pretty certain to be killed. But when out walking the Dandie is no
more quarrelsome than other breeds of terriers, if properly trained
from puppyhood.

There is one little matter in breeding Dandies that is generally a
surprise to the novice, and that is the very great difference in the
appearance of the young pups and the adult dog. The pups are born
quite smooth-haired, the peppers are black and tan in colour, and the
mustards have a great deal of black in their colouring. The topknot
begins to appear sometimes when the dog is a few months old, and
sometimes not till he is a year or so old. It is generally best to
mate a mustard to a pepper, to prevent the mustards becoming too light
in colour, though two rich-coloured mustards may be mated together
with good results. It is a rather curious fact that when two mustards
are mated some of the progeny are usually pepper in colour, though
when two peppers are mated there are very seldom any mustard puppies.

The popularity of the Dandie has now lasted for nearly a hundred
years, and there is no reason why it should not last for another
century, if breeders will only steer clear of the exaggeration of
show points, and continue to breed a sound, active, and hardy terrier.



That the Skye Terrier should be called "the Heavenly Breed" is a
tribute to the favour in which he is held by his admirers. Certainly
when he is seen in perfection he is an exceedingly beautiful dog. As
certainly there is no breed more affectionate, more faithful, or more
lovable. Among his characteristics are a long-enduring patience, a
prompt obedience, and a deep-hearted tenderness, combined with
fearless courage. He is more sensitive to rebuke and punishment than
most dogs, and will nurse resentment to those who are unjust to him;
not viciously, but with an almost human plaintiveness which demands an
immediate reconciliation. He is staunch and firm as his native hills
to those who are kind to him, and for entering into battle with an
enemy there is no dog more recklessly daring and resolute.

Visitors to dog shows are disposed to believe that the Skye Terrier,
with its well-groomed coat that falls in smooth cascades down its
sides, and its veil of thick hair that obscures the tender softness of
its dark and thoughtful eyes, is meant only to look beautiful upon the
bench or to recline in comfortable indolence on silken cushions. This
is a mistake. See a team of Skyes racing up a hillside after a
fugitive rabbit, tirelessly burrowing after a rat, or displaying their
terrier strategy around a fox's earth or an otter's holt, and you will
admit that they are meant for sport, and are demons at it. Even their
peculiarity of build is a proof that they are born to follow vermin
underground. They are long of body, with short, strong legs, adapted
for burrowing. With the Dachshund they approximate more closely than
any other breeds to the shape of the badger, the weasel, and the
otter, and so many animals which Nature has made long and low in order
that they may inhabit earths and insinuate themselves into narrow
passages in the moorland cairns.

There can be no question that these dogs, which are so typically
Highland in character and appearance, as well as the Clydesdale, the
Scottish, the Dandie Dinmont, and the White Poltalloch terriers, are
all the descendants of a purely native Scottish original. They are all
inter-related; but which was the parent breed it is impossible to

It is even difficult to discover which of the two distinct types of
the Skye Terrier was the earlier--the variety whose ears stand alertly
erect or its near relative whose ears are pendulous. Perhaps it does
not matter. The differences between the prick-eared Skye and the
drop-eared are so slight, and the characteristics which they have in
common are so many, that a dual classification was hardly necessary.
The earliest descriptions and engravings of the breed present a
terrier considerably smaller than the type of to-day, carrying a
fairly profuse, hard coat, with short legs, a body long in proportion
to its height, and with ears that were neither erect nor drooping, but
semi-erect and capable of being raised to alertness in excitement. It
is the case that drop-eared puppies often occur in the litters of
prick-eared parents, and _vice versa_.

As its name implies, this terrier had its early home in the misty
island of Skye; which is not to say that it was not also to be found
in Lewis, Oronsay, Colonsay and others of the Hebrides, as well as on
the mainland of Scotland. Dr. Johnson, who visited these islands with
Boswell in 1773, noticed these terriers and observed that otters and
weasels were plentiful in Skye, that the foxes were numerous, and that
they were _hunted by small dogs_. He was so accurate an observer that
one regrets he did not describe the Macleod's terriers and their work.
They were at that time of many colours, varying from pure white to
fawn and brown, blue-grey and black. The lighter coloured ones had
black muzzles, ears, and tails. Their tails were carried more gaily
than would be permitted by a modern judge of the breed.

In those days the Highlander cared less for the appearance than he did
for the sporting proclivities of his dogs, whose business it was to
oust the tod from the earth in which it had taken refuge; and for this
purpose certain qualities were imperative. First and foremost the
terrier needed to be small, short of leg, long and lithe in body, with
ample face fringe to protect his eyes from injury, and possessed of
unlimited pluck and dash.

The Skye Terrier of to-day does not answer to each and every one of
these requirements. He is too big--decidedly he is too big--especially
in regard to the head. A noble-looking skull, with large,
well-feathered ears may be admirable as ornament, but would assuredly
debar its possessor from following into a fox's lair among the
boulders. Then, again, his long coat would militate against the
activity necessary for his legitimate calling.

It was not until about 1860 that the Skye Terrier attracted much
notice among dog lovers south of the Border, but Queen Victoria's
admiration of the breed, of which from 1842 onwards she always owned
favourite specimens, and Sir Edwin Landseer's paintings in which the
Skye was introduced, had already drawn public attention to the
decorative and useful qualities of this terrier. The breed was
included in the first volume of the Kennel Club Stud Book, and the
best among the early dogs were such as Mr. Pratt's Gillie and
Dunvegan, Mr. D. W. Fyfe's Novelty, Mr. John Bowman's Dandie, and Mr.
Macdona's Rook. These were mostly of the drop-eared variety, and were
bred small.

About the year 1874, fierce and stormy disputes arose concerning the
distinctions of the Scottish breeds of terriers. The controversy was
continued until 1879, when the Kennel Club was approached with the
view to furnishing classes. The controversy was centred upon three
types of Scottish terriers: those which claimed to be pure Skye
Terriers, a dog described briefly as Scotch, and a third, which for a
time was miscalled the Aberdeen. To those who had studied the
varieties, the distinctions were clear; but the question at issue
was--to which of the three rightly belonged the title of Scottish
Terrier? The dog which the Scots enthusiasts were trying to get
established under this classification was the Cairn Terrier of the
Highlands, known in some localities as the short-coated, working Skye,
and in others as the Fox-terrier, or Tod-hunter. A sub-division of
this breed was the more leggy "Aberdeen" variety.

The present-day Skye is without doubt one of the most beautiful
terriers in existence. He is a dog of medium size, with a weight not
exceeding 25 lb., and not less than 18 lb. he is long in proportion to
his height, with a very level back, a powerful jaw with perfectly
fitting teeth, a small hazel eye, and a long hard coat just reaching
the ground. In the prick-eared variety the ears are carried erect,
with very fine ear feathering, and the face fringe is long and thick.
The ear feathering and face fall are finer in quality than the coat,
which is exceedingly hard and weather-resisting. And here it is well
to point out that the Skye has two distinct coats: the under coat,
somewhat soft and woolly, and the upper, hard and rain-proof. This
upper coat should be as straight as possible, without any tendency to
wave or curl. The tail is not very long, and should be nicely
feathered, and in repose never raised above the level of the back.

The same description applies to the drop-eared type, except that the
ears in repose, instead of being carried erect, fall evenly on each
side of the head. When, however, the dog is excited, the ears are
pricked forward, in exactly the same fashion as those of the Airedale
Terrier. This is an important point, a houndy carriage of ear being a
decided defect. The drop-eared variety is usually the heavier and
larger dog of the two; and for some reason does not show the quality
and breeding of its neighbour. Lately, however, there has evidently
been an effort made to improve the drop-eared type, with the result
that some very excellent dogs have recently appeared at the important

Probably Mr. James Pratt has devoted more time and attention to the
Skye Terrier than any other now living fancier, though the names of
Mr. Kidd and Mr. Todd are usually well known. Mr. Pratt's Skyes were
allied to the type of terrier claiming to be the original Skye of the
Highlands. The head was not so large, the ears also were not so
heavily feathered, as is the case in the Skye of to-day, and the
colours were very varied, ranging from every tint between black and

In 1892 a great impetus was given to the breed by Mrs. Hughes, whose
kennels at Wolverley were of overwhelmingly good quality. Mrs. Hughes
was quickly followed by such ardent and successful fanciers as Sir
Claud and Lady Alexander, of Ballochmyle, Mrs. Freeman, Miss Bowyer
Smyth, and Miss McCheane. Lately other prominent exhibitors have
forced their way into the front rank, among whom may be mentioned the
Countess of Aberdeen, Mrs. Hugh Ripley, Mrs. Wilmer, Miss Whishaw, and
Mrs. Sandwith. Mrs. Hughes' Wolverley Duchess and Wolverley Jock were
excellent types of what a prick-eared Skye should be. Excellent, too,
were Mrs. Freeman's Alister, and Sir Claud Alexander's Young Rosebery,
Olden Times, Abbess, and Wee Mac of Adel, Mrs. Wilmer's Jean, and Mr.
Millar's Prince Donard. But the superlative Skye of the period, and
probably the best ever bred, is Wolverley Chummie, the winner of
thirty championships which are but the public acknowledgment of his
perfections. He is the property of Miss McCheane, who is also the
owner of an almost equally good specimen of the other sex in Fairfield
Diamond. Among the drop-eared Skyes of present celebrity may be
mentioned Mrs. Hugh Ripley's Perfection, Miss Whishaw's Piper Grey,
and Lady Aberdeen's Cromar Kelpie.

There are two clubs in England and one in Scotland instituted to
protect the interests of this breed, namely, the Skye Terrier Club of
England, the Skye and Clydesdale Club, and the Skye Terrier Club of
Scotland. The Scottish Club's description is as follows:--

* * * * *

HEAD--Long, with powerful jaws and incisive teeth closing level, or
upper just fitting over under. _Skull_: wide at front of brow,
narrowing between the ears, and tapering gradually towards the muzzle,
with little falling in between or behind the eyes. _Eyes_: hazel,
medium size, close set. _Muzzle_: always black. EARS (PRICK OR
PENDANT)--When _prick_, not large, erect at outer edges, and slanting
towards each other at inner, from peak to skull. When _pendant_,
larger, hanging straight, lying flat, and close at front.
BODY--Pre-eminently long and low. Shoulders broad, chest deep, ribs
well sprung and oval shaped, giving a flattish appearance to the
sides. Hind-quarters and flank full and well developed. Back level and
slightly declining from the top of the hip joint to the shoulders. The
neck long and gently crested. TAIL--When _hanging_, the upper half
perpendicular, the under half thrown backward in a curve. When
_raised_, a prolongation of the incline of the back, and not rising
higher nor curling up. LEGS--Short, straight, and muscular. No dew
claws, the feet large and pointing forward. COAT (DOUBLE)--An _under_,
short, close, soft, and woolly. An _over_, long, averaging 5-1/2
inches, hard, straight, flat, and free from crimp or curl. Hair on
head, shorter, softer, and veiling the forehead and eyes; on the ears,
overhanging inside, falling down and mingling with the side locks, not
heavily, but surrounding the ear like a fringe, and allowing its shape
to appear. Tail also gracefully feathered. COLOUR (ANY VARIETY)--Dark
or light blue or grey, or fawn with black points. Shade of head and
legs approximating that of body.

1. AVERAGE MEASUREMENTS: DOG--Height at shoulder, 9 inches. Length,
back of skull to root of tail, 22-1/2 inches; muzzle to back of skull,
8-1/2 inches; root of tail to tip joint, 9 inches. Total length, 40
inches. BITCH--Half an inch lower, and 2-1/2 inches shorter than dog,
all points proportional; thus, body, 21 inches; head, 8 inches; and
tail, 8-1/2 inches. Total, 37-1/2 inches.

2. AVERAGE WEIGHT: DOG--18 lb.; bitch, 16 lb. No dog should be over 20
lb., nor under 16 lb.; and no bitch should be over 18 lb., nor under
14 lb.

* * * * *

Whereas the Scottish Club limits the approved length of coat to 5-1/2
inches, the English Club gives a maximum of 9 inches. This is a fairly
good allowance, but many of the breed carry a much longer coat than
this. It is not uncommon, indeed, to find a Skye with a covering of 12
inches in length, which, even allowing for the round of the body,
causes the hair to reach and often to trail upon the ground.

The Clydesdale may be described as an anomaly. He stands as it were
upon a pedestal of his own; and unlike other Scotch terriers he is
classified as non-sporting. Perhaps his marvellously fine and silky
coat precludes him from the rough work of hunting after vermin, though
it is certain his game-like instincts would naturally lead him to do
so. Of all the Scottish dogs he is perhaps the smallest; his weight
seldom exceeding 18 lb. He is thus described by the Skye Terrier Club
of Scotland:--

* * * * *

GENERAL APPEARANCE--A long, low, level dog, with heavily fringed erect
ears, and a long coat like the finest silk or spun glass, which hangs
quite straight and evenly down each side, from a parting extending
from the nose to the root of the tail. HEAD--Fairly long, skull flat
and very narrow between the ears, gradually widening towards the eyes
and tapering very slightly to the nose, which must be black. The jaws
strong and the teeth level. EYES--Medium in size, dark in colour, not
prominent, but having a sharp, terrier-like expression, eyelids black.
EARS--Small, set very high on the top of the head, carried perfectly
erect, and covered with long silky hair, hanging in a heavy fringe
down the sides of the head. BODY--Long, deep in chest, well ribbed up,
the back being perfectly level. TAIL--Perfectly straight, carried
almost level with the back, and heavily feathered. LEGS--As short and
straight as possible, well set under the body, and entirely covered
with silky hair. Feet round and cat-like. COAT--As long and straight
as possible, free from all trace of curl or waviness, very glossy and
silky in texture, with an entire absence of undercoat. COLOUR--A level,
bright steel blue, extending from the back of the head to the root of
the tail, and on no account intermingled with any fawn, light or dark
hairs. The head, legs, and feet should be a clear, bright, golden tan,
free from grey, sooty, or dark hairs. The tail should be very dark
blue or black.

* * * * *

The Clydesdale Terrier is rare, at any rate as regards the show bench;
there are never more than two or three at most exhibited south of the
Tweed, even when classes are provided at the big shows and
championships offered, thus indicating that the breed is not a popular
one; and amongst those kennels who do show there exists at the present
time but one dog who can lay claim to the title of champion; this
unique specimen is the property of Sir Claud Alexander, Bart., of
Ballochmyle, and is known under the name of Wee Wattie. There are of
course several fanciers in Scotland, among whom may be mentioned Mr.
G. Shaw, of Glasgow, who is the owner of several fine examples of the
breed, including beautiful San Toy and the equally beautiful Mozart.

As with the Skye Terrier, it seems a matter of difficulty to produce a
perfect Clydesdale, and until the breed is taken up with more energy
it is improbable that first class dogs will make an appearance in the
show ring. A perfect Clydesdale should figure as one of the most
elegant of the terrier breed; his lovely silken coat, the golden brown
hue of his face fringe, paws and legs, his well pricked and feathery
ear, and his generally smart appearance should combine to form a
picture exciting general admiration.



The most devout lover of this charming and beautiful terrier would
fail if he were to attempt to claim for him the distinction of descent
from antiquity. Bradford, and not Babylon, was his earliest home, and
he must be candidly acknowledged to be a very modern manufactured
variety of the dog. Yet it is important to remember that it was in
Yorkshire that he was made--Yorkshire, where live the cleverest
breeders of dogs that the world has known.

One can roughly reconstitute the process. What the Yorkshiremen
desired to make for themselves was a pigmy, prick-eared terrier with a
long, silky, silvery grey and tan coat. They already possessed the
foundation in the old English Black and Tan wire-haired Terrier. To
lengthen the coat of this working breed they might very well have had
recourse to a cross with the prick-eared Skye, and to eliminate the
wiry texture of the hair a further cross with the Maltese dog would
impart softness and silkiness without reducing the length. Again, a
cross with the Clydesdale, which was then assuming a fixed type, would
bring the variety yet nearer to the ideal, and a return to the black
and tan would tend to conserve the desired colour. In all probability
the Dandie Dinmont had some share in the process. Evidence of origin
is often to be found more distinctly in puppies than in the mature
dog, and it is to be noted that the puppies of both the Dandie and the
Yorkshire are born with decided black and tan colouring.

The original broken-haired Yorkshire Terrier of thirty years ago was
often called a Scottish Terrier, or even a Skye, and there are many
persons who still confound him with the Clydesdale, whom he somewhat
closely resembles. At the present time he is classified as a toy dog
and exhibited almost solely as such. It is to be regretted that until
very lately the terrier character was being gradually bred out of him,
and that the perkiness, the exuberance and gameness which once
distinguished him as the companion of the Yorkshire operative, was in
danger of being sacrificed to the desire for diminutive size and
inordinate length of coat.

Perhaps it would be an error to blame the breeders of Yorkshire
Terriers for this departure from the original type as it appeared,
say, about 1870. It is necessary to take into consideration the
probability that what is now called the old-fashioned working variety
was never regarded by the Yorkshiremen who made him as a complete and
finished achievement. It was possibly their idea at the very beginning
to produce just such a diminutive dog as is now to be seen in its
perfection at exhibitions, glorying in its flowing tresses of steel
blue silk and ruddy gold; and one must give them full credit for the
patience and care with which during the past forty years they have
been steadily working to the fixed design of producing a dwarfed breed
which should excel all other breeds in the length and silkiness of its
robe. The extreme of cultivation in this particular quality was
reached some years ago by Mrs. Troughear, whose little dog Conqueror,
weighing 5-1/2 lb., had a beautiful enveloping mantle of the uniform
length of four-and-twenty inches.

Doubtless all successful breeders and exhibitors of the Yorkshire
Terrier have their little secrets and their peculiar methods of
inducing the growth of hair. They regulate the diet with extreme
particularity, keeping the dog lean rather than fat, and giving him
nothing that they would not themselves eat. Bread, mixed with green
vegetables, a little meat and gravy, or fresh fish, varied with milk
puddings and Spratt's "Toy Pet" biscuits, should be the staple food.
Bones ought not to be given, as the act of gnawing them is apt to mar
the beard and moustache. For the same reason it is well when possible
to serve the food from the fingers. But many owners use a sort of mask
or hood of elastic material which they tie over the dog's head at
meal-times to hold back the long face-fall and whiskers, that would
otherwise be smeared and sullied. Similarly as a protection for the
coat, when there is any skin irritation and an inclination to scratch,
linen or cotton stockings are worn upon the hind feet.

Many exhibitors pretend that they use no dressing, or very little, and
this only occasionally, for the jackets of their Yorkshire Terriers;
but it is quite certain that continuous use of grease of some sort is
not only advisable but even necessary. Opinions differ as to which is
the best cosmetic, but Hairmero, the dressing prepared for the purpose
by Miss D. Wilmer, of Yoxford, Suffolk, could not easily be improved
upon for this or any other long-coated breed.

For the full display of their beauty, Yorkshire Terriers depend very
much upon careful grooming. It is only by grooming that the silvery
cascade of hair down the dog's sides and the beautiful tan face-fall
that flows like a rain of gold from his head can be kept perfectly
straight and free from curl or wrinkle; and no grease or pomade, even
if their use were officially permitted, could impart to the coat the
glistening sheen that is given by the dexterous application of the
brush. The gentle art of grooming is not to be taught by theory.
Practice is the best teacher. But the novice may learn much by
observing the deft methods employed by an expert exhibitor.

Mr. Peter Eden, of Manchester, is generally credited with being the
actual inventor of the Yorkshire Terrier. He was certainly one of the
earliest breeders and owners, and his celebrated Albert was only one
of the many admirable specimens with which he convinced the public of
the charms of this variety of dog. He may have given the breed its
first impulse, but Mrs. M. A. Foster, of Bradford, was for many years
the head and centre of all that pertained to the Yorkshire Terrier,
and it was undoubtedly she who raised the variety to its highest point
of perfection. Her dogs were invariably good in type. She never
exhibited a bad one, and her Huddersfield Ben, Toy Smart, Bright,
Sandy, Ted, Bradford Hero, Bradford Marie, and Bradford Queen--the
last being a bitch weighing only 24 oz.--are remembered for their
uniform excellence. Of more recent examples that have approached
perfection may be mentioned Mrs. Walton's Ashton King, Queen, and
Bright, and her Mont Thabor Duchess. Mr. Mitchell's Westbrook Fred has
deservedly won many honours, and Mr. Firmstone's Grand Duke and Mynd
Damaris, and Mrs. Sinclair's Mascus Superbus, stand high in the
estimation of expert judges of the breed. Perhaps the most beautiful
bitch ever shown was Waveless, the property of Mrs. R. Marshall, the
owner of another admirable bitch in Little Picture. Mrs. W. Shaw's Ch.
Sneinton Amethyst is also an admirable specimen.

The standard of points laid down by the Yorkshire Terrier Club is as

* * * * *

GENERAL APPEARANCE--That of a long-coated pet dog, the coat hanging
quite straight and evenly down each side, a parting extending from the
nose to the end of the tail. The animal should be very compact and
neat, his carriage being very sprightly; bearing an air of importance.
Although the frame is hidden beneath a mantle of hair, the general
outline should be such as to suggest the existence of a vigorous and
well-proportioned body. HEAD--Should be rather small and flat, not too
prominent or round in the skull; rather broad at the muzzle, with a
perfectly black nose; the hair on the muzzle very long, which should
be a rich, deep tan, not sooty or grey. Under the chin, long hair,
about the same colour as on the crown of the head, which should be a
bright, golden tan, and not on any account intermingled with dark or
sooty hairs. Hairs on the sides of the head should be very long, of a
few shades deeper tan than that on the top of the head, especially
about the ear-roots. EYES--Medium in size, dark in colour, having a
sharp, intelligent expression, and placed so as to look directly
forward. They should not be prominent. The edges of the eyelids should
be dark. EARS--Small, V-shaped, and carried semi-erect, covered with
short hair; colour to be a deep rich tan. MOUTH--Good even mouth;
teeth as sound as possible. A dog having lost a tooth or two, through
accident or otherwise, is not to disqualify, providing the jaws are
even. BODY--Very compact, with a good loin, and level on the top of
the back. COAT--The hair, as long and as straight as possible (not
wavy), should be glossy, like silk (not woolly), extending from the
back of the head to the root of the tail; colour, a bright steel blue,
and on no account intermingled with fawn, light or dark hairs. All tan
should be darker at the roots than at the middle of the hairs, shading
off to a still lighter tan at the tips. LEGS--Quite straight, should
be of a bright golden tan, well covered with hair, a few shades
lighter at the end than at the roots. FEET--As round as possible;
toe-nails black. TAIL--Cut to medium length; with plenty of hair,
darker blue than the rest of the body, especially at the end of the
tail, which is carried slightly higher than the level of the back.
WEIGHT--Divided into two classes; under 5 lb. and over 5 lb. to 12 lb.



Long before the Pomeranian dog was common in Great Britain, this breed
was to be met with in many parts of Europe, especially in Germany; and
he was known under different names, according to his size and the
locality in which he flourished. The title of Pomeranian is not
admitted by the Germans at all, who claim this as one of their
national breeds, and give it the general name of the German Spitz.

At Athens, in the Street of Tombs, there is a representation of a
little Spitz leaping up to the daughter of a family as she is taking
leave of them, which bears the date equivalent to 56 B.C., and in the
British Museum there is an ancient bronze jar of Greek workmanship,
upon which is engraved a group of winged horses at whose feet there is
a small dog of undoubted Pomeranian type. The date is the second
century, B.C.

It is now generally accepted that, wherever our Pomeranian originated,
he is a Northern or Arctic breed. Evidence goes to show that his
native land in prehistoric times was the land of the Samoyedes, in the
north of Siberia, along the shores of the Arctic Ocean. The Samoyede
dog is being gradually introduced into England, and good specimens can
be frequently seen at the principal shows. The similarity between our
large white Pomeranian and the Samoyede is too great to be accidental.
And we are drawn to the conclusion that in prehistoric times a
migration of the Samoyedes was made from their native land into
Pomerania, the most eastern province of Prussia bordering on the
Baltic Sea, and that these people took with them their dogs, which
were the progenitors of the present race of Pomeranian or Spitz.

But in any case the Pomeranian dog, so called, has been a native of
various parts of Europe from very early times. His advent into England
has been of comparatively recent date, at least in any great numbers,
so far as can be ascertained, since no ancient records exist on this
question. Gainsborough, however, painted the famous actress, Mrs.
Robinson, with a large white Pomeranian sitting by her side.

In Rees' _Encyclopedia_, published in 1816, a good picture of a white
Pomeranian is given with a fairly truthful description. In this work
he is said to be "larger than the common sheep dog." Rees gives his
name as _Canis Pomeranius_, from Linnaeus, and _Chien Loup_, from
Buffon. From these examples, therefore, we may infer that the large
Pomeranian, or Wolf Spitz, was already known in England towards the
end of the eighteenth century at least. There are, however, no
systematic registers of Pomeranians prior to the year 1870.

Even ten years later than this last date, so little was the breed
appreciated that a well-known writer on dogs began an article on the
Pomeranian with the words "The Pomeranian is admittedly one of the
least interesting dogs in existence, and consequently his supporters
are few and far between."

The founders of the Kennel Club held their first dog show in 1870, and
in that year only three Pomeranians were exhibited. For the next
twenty years little or no permanent increase occurred in the numbers
of Pomeranians entered at the chief dog show in England. The largest
entry took place in 1881, when there were fifteen; but in 1890 there
was not a single Pomeranian shown. From this time, however, the
numbers rapidly increased. Commencing in 1891 with fourteen,
increasing in 1901 to sixty, it culminated in 1905 with the record
number of one hundred and twenty-five. Such a rapid advance between
the years 1890 and 1905 is unprecedented in the history of dog shows,
although it is right to add that this extraordinarily rapid rise into
popularity has since been equalled in the case of the now fashionable

This tendency to advancement in public favour was contemporaneous with
the formation of the Pomeranian Club of England, which was founded in
1891, and through its fostering care the Pomeranian has reached a
height of popularity far in advance of that attained by any other
breed of toy dog. One of the first acts of the club was to draw up a
standard of points as follows:--

* * * * *

APPEARANCE--The Pomeranian should be a compact, short coupled dog,
well knit in frame. He should exhibit great intelligence in his
expression, and activity and buoyancy in his deportment. HEAD AND
NOSE--Should be foxy in outline or wedge-shaped, the skull being
slightly flat, large in proportion to the muzzle, which should finish
rather fine and free from lippiness. The teeth should be level, and
should on no account be undershot. The hair on the head and face
should be smooth and short-coated. The nose should be black in white,
orange and sable dogs; but in other colours may be self, but never
parti-colour or white. EARS--Should be small, not set too far apart,
nor too low down, but carried perfectly erect like those of a fox,
and, like the head, should be covered with short, soft hair.
EYES--Should be medium in size, not full, nor set too wide apart,
bright and dark in colour, showing great intelligence; in white,
shaded sable, or orange dogs the rims round the eyes should be black.
NECK AND BODY--The neck should be rather short, well set in. The back
must be short and the body compact, being well ribbed up and the
barrel well rounded. The chest must be fairly deep and not too wide,
but in proportion to the size of the dog. LEGS--The fore-legs must be
well feathered, perfectly straight, of medium length, and not such as
would be termed "leggy" or "low" on leg, but in due proportion in

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