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Dogs and All About Them by Robert Leighton

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and white, red roan, liver white and tan, and tricolours or
quadri-colours--_i.e._, blue or red roan and tan, or both combined,
with tan. The Spaniel Club furnishes the following description of
the Black Field Spaniel:--

* * * * *

HEAD--Should be quite characteristic of this grand sporting dog, as
that of the Bloodhound or the Bulldog; its very stamp and countenance
should at once convey the conviction of high breeding, character and
nobility; skull well developed, with a distinctly elevated occipital
tuberosity, which, above all, gives the character alluded to; not
too wide across muzzle, long and lean, never snipy nor squarely cut,
and in profile curving gradually from nose to throat; lean beneath
eyes, a thickness here gives coarseness to the whole head. The great
length of muzzle gives surface for the free development of the
olfactory nerve, and thus secures the highest possible scenting
powers. EYES--Not too full, but not small, receding or overhung;
colour dark hazel or dark brown, or nearly black; grave in expression,
and bespeaking unusual docility and instinct. EARS--Set low down as
possible, which greatly adds to the refinement and beauty of the head,
moderately long and wide, and sufficiently clad with nice Setter-like
feather. NECK--Very strong and muscular, so as to enable the dog to
retrieve his game without undue fatigue; not too short, however. BODY
(INCLUDING SIZE AND SYMMETRY)--Long and very low, well ribbed up to
a good strong loin, straight or slightly arched, never slack; weight
from about 35 lbs. to 45 lbs. NOSE--Well developed, with good open
nostrils, and always black. SHOULDERS AND CHEST--Former sloping and
free, latter deep and well developed, but not too round and wide.
BACK AND LOIN--Very strong and muscular; level and long in proportion
to the height of the dog. HIND-QUARTERS--Very powerful and muscular,
wide, and fully developed. STERN--Well set on, and carried low, if
possible below the level of the back, in a perfectly straight line,
or with a slight downward inclination, never elevated above the back,
and in action always kept low, nicely fringed, with wavy feather of
silky texture. FEET AND LEGS--Feet not too small, and well protected
between the toes with soft feather; good strong pads. Legs straight
and immensely boned, strong and short, and nicely feathered with
straight or waved Setter-like feather, overmuch feathering below the
hocks objectionable. COAT--Flat or slightly waved, and never curled.
Sufficiently dense to resist the weather, and not too short. Silky
in texture, glossy, and refined in nature, with neither duffelness
on the one hand nor curl or wiriness on the other. On chest under
belly, and behind the legs, there should be abundant feather, but
never too much, and that of the right sort, viz., Setter-like. The
tail and hind-quarters should be similarly adorned. COLOUR--Jet black
throughout, glossy and true. A little white on chest, though a
drawback, not a disqualification. GENERAL APPEARANCE--That of a
sporting dog, capable of learning and doing anything possible for
his inches and conformation. A grand combination of beauty and

* * * * *

VII. THE ENGLISH SPRINGER.--It is only quite recently that the Kennel
Club has officially recognised the variety known by the name at the
head of this section. For a long time the old-fashioned liver and
white, or black Spaniels, longer in the leg than either Sussex or
Field Spaniels, had been known as Norfolk Spaniels, and under this
title the Spaniel Club has published a description of them. There
had, however, been a considerable amount of discussion about the
propriety of this name of "Norfolk," and the weight of the evidence
adduced went to show that as far as any territorial connection with
the county of that name went, it was a misnomer, and that it probably
arose from the breed having been kept by one of the Dukes of Norfolk,
most likely that one quoted by Blaine in his _Rural Sports_, who was
so jealous of his strain that it was only on the expressly stipulated
condition that they were not to be allowed to breed in the direct
line that he would allow one to leave his kennels.

But, when this old breed was taken up by the Sporting Spaniel Society,
they decided to drop the name of "Norfolk," and to revert to the old
title of "Springer," not, perhaps, a very happy choice, as all
Spaniels are, properly speaking, Springers in contradistinction to
Setters. The complete official designation on the Kennel Club's
register is "English Springers other than Clumbers, Sussex, and
Field," a very clumsy name for a breed. There is no doubt that this
variety of Spaniel retains more resemblance to the old strains which
belonged to our forefathers, before the long and low idea found favour
in the eyes of exhibitors, and it was certainly well worth preserving.
The only way nowadays by which uniformity of type can be obtained
is by somebody having authority drawing up a standard and scale of
points for breeders to go by, and the Sporting Spaniel Society are
to be commended for having done this for the breed under notice, the
fruit of their action being already apparent in the larger and more
uniform classes to be seen at shows.

As the officially recognised life of the breed has been such a short
one, there are naturally not very many names of note among the
prize-winners. The principal breeders and owners have so far been
Mr. W. Arkwright, Mr. Harry Jones, Sir Hugo FitzHerbert, Mr. C. C.
Bethune Eversfield, and Mr. Winton Smith.

They are undoubtedly the right dogs for those who want Spaniels to
travel faster and cover more ground than the more ponderous and
short-legged Clumbers, Sussex, or Field Spaniels do, but their work
is hardly equal in finish and precision to that of either of the two
former breeds.

The following revised description of the English Springer has been
issued by the Sporting Spaniel Society:--

* * * * *

SKULL--Long and slightly arched on top, fairly broad, with a stop,
and well-developed temples. JAWS--Long and broad, not snipy, with
plenty of thin lip. EYES--Medium size, not too full, but bright and
intelligent, of a rich brown. EARS--Of fair length, low set, and
lobular in shape. NECK--Long, strong, and slightly arched.
SHOULDERS--Long and sloping. FORE-LEGS--Of a moderate length,
straight, with flat strong bone. BODY--Strong, with well-sprung ribs,
good girth, and chest deep and fairly broad. LOIN--Rather long,
strong, and slightly arched. HIND-QUARTERS AND HIND-LEGS--Very
muscular, hocks well let down, stifles moderately bent, and not
twisted inwards or outwards. FEET--Strong and compact. STERN--Low
carried, not above the level of the back, and with a vibratory motion.
COAT--Thick and smooth or very slightly wavy, it must not be too long.
The feathering must be only moderate on the ears, and scanty on the
legs, but continued down to the heels. COLOUR--Liver and white and
black and white (with or without tan), fawn and white, yellow and
white, also roans and self colours of all these tints. The pied
colours are preferable, however, as more easily seen in cover. GENERAL
APPEARANCE--An active compact dog, upstanding, but by no means stilty.
His height at shoulder should about equal his length from the top
of the withers to the root of the tail.

* * * * *

VIII. THE WELSH SPRINGER.--Like the English Springer, the Welsh
Springer has only very recently come into existence--officially, that
is to say; but his admirers claim for him that he has existed as a
separate breed for a long time, though not beyond the bounds of the
Principality, where he is referred to as the Starter.

When his claims were first put forward they were vigorously contested
by many who could claim to speak and write with authority upon the
various breeds of Spaniels existing in these islands, and it was
freely asserted that they were nothing but crossbreds between the
ordinary Springer and probably a Clumber in order to account for the
red or orange markings and the vine-leaf-shaped ears. Even if they
are a new breed, they are a most meritorious one, both in their
appearance, which is eminently sporting and workmanlike, and for the
excellence of their work in the field, which has been amply
demonstrated by the record earned at the field trials by Mr. A. T.
Williams and others, but those who have seen them at work have nothing
but good to say of them, and for working large rough tracts of country
in teams their admirers say they are unequalled.

In appearance they are decidedly attractive, rather more lightly built
than most Spaniels, small in size, indeed very little larger than
Cockers, invariably white in colour, with red or orange markings,
and possessing rather fine heads with small Clumber-shaped ears. Their
general appearance is that of extremely smart and active little dogs.

The Welsh Springer is described by the Sporting Spaniel Society as

* * * * *

SKULL--Fairly long and fairly broad, slightly rounded with a stop
at the eyes. JAWS--Medium length, straight, fairly square, the
nostrils well developed, and flesh coloured or dark. A short, chubby
head is objectionable. EYES--Hazel or dark, medium size, not
prominent, not sunken, nor showing haw. EARS--Comparatively small
and gradually narrowing towards the tip, covered with feather not
longer than the ear, set moderately low and hanging close to the
cheeks. NECK--Strong, muscular, clean in throat. SHOULDERS--Long and
sloping. FORE-LEGS--Medium length, straight, good bone, moderately
feathered. BODY--Strong, fairly deep, not long, well-sprung ribs.
Length of body should be proportionate to length of leg.
LOIN--Muscular and strong, slightly arched, well coupled up and knit
together. HIND-QUARTERS AND HIND-LEGS--Strong; hocks well let down;
stifles moderately bent (not twisted in or out), not feathered below
the hock on the leg. FEET--Round, with thick pads. STERN--Low, never
carried above the level of the back, feathered, and with a lively
motion. COAT--Straight or flat, and thick. COLOUR--Red or orange and
white. GENERAL APPEARANCE--Symmetrical, compact, strong, merry,
active, not stilty, built for endurance and activity, and about 28
lb. and upwards in weight, but not exceeding 45 lb.

* * * * *

IX. THE COCKER SPANIEL.--For the last few years the popularity of
this smaller sized branch of the Spaniel tribe has been steadily
increasing, and the Cocker classes at most of the best shows are now
remarkable both for the number of entries and the very high standard
of excellence to which they attain.

A short time ago black Cockers were decidedly more fashionable than
their parti-coloured relatives, but now the reverse is the case, and
the various roans and tricolours have overtaken and passed the others,
both in general quality and in the public esteem. The reason for this
popularity of the breed as a whole is not far to seek. The
affectionate and merry disposition of the Cocker and his small size
compared with that of the other breeds pre-eminently fit him for a
companion in the house as well as in the field, and he ranks among
his admirers quite as many of the fairer sex as he does men--a fact
which is not without a certain element of danger, since it should
never be lost sight of that the breed is a sporting one, which should
on no account be allowed to degenerate into a race of mere house
companions or toys.

Small-sized Spaniels, usually called Cockers, from their being more
especially used in woodcock shooting, have been indigenous to Wales
and Devonshire for many years, and it is most likely from one or both
of these sources that the modern type has been evolved. It is probable
too that the type in favour to-day, of a short coupled, rather "cobby"
dog, fairly high on the leg, is more like that of these old-fashioned
Cockers than that which obtained a decade or two ago, when they were
scarcely recognised as a separate breed, and the Spaniel classes were
usually divided into "Field Spaniels over 25 lb." and "Field Spaniels
under 25 lb." In those days a large proportion of the prizes fell
to miniature Field Spaniels. The breed was not given official
recognition on the Kennel Club's register till 1893, nor a section
to itself in the Stud Book; and up to that date the only real
qualification a dog required to be enabled to compete as a Cocker
was that he should be under the weight of 25 lb., a limit arbitrarily
and somewhat irrationally fixed, since in the case of an animal just
on the border-line he might very well have been a Cocker before and
a Field Spaniel after breakfast.

It is not easy to find authentic pedigrees going back further than
a quarter of a century, but Mr. C. A. Phillips can trace his own
strain back to 1860, and Mr. James Farrow was exhibiting successfully
thirty-five years ago. The former gentleman published the pedigree
of his bitch Rivington Dora for eighteen generations _in extenso_
in _The Sporting Spaniel_; while the famous Obo strain of the latter
may be said to have exercised more influence than any other on the
black variety both in this country and in the United States.

It was in 1880 that the most famous of all the "pillars" of the Cocker
stud, Mr. James Farrow's Obo, made his first bow to the public, he
and his litter sister Sally having been born the year before. He won
the highest honours that the show bench can give, and the importance
of his service to the breed both in his owner's kennel and outside
it, can scarcely be over-estimated. Nearly all of the best blacks,
and many of the best coloured Cockers, are descended from him. At
this period the type mostly favoured was that of a dog rather longer
in the body and lower on the leg than it is at present, but the Obo
family marked a progressive step, and very rightly kept on winning
under all the best judges for many years, their owner being far too
good a judge himself ever to exhibit anything but first-class

and CH. DIXON BOWDLER (Grandson) _From the Painting by Lilian

Meanwhile, although the blacks were far the most fashionable--and
it was said that it was hopeless to try to get the same quality in
coloured specimens--several enthusiastic breeders for colour were
quietly at work, quite undismayed by the predilection shown by most
exhibitors and judges for the former colour. Among them was Mr. C.
A. Phillips, whose two bitches from Mr. James Freme, of Wepre Hall,
Flintshire, succeeded in breeding from one of them, whom he named
Rivington Sloe, the celebrated dog Rivington Signal, who, mated with
Rivington Blossom, produced Rivington Bloom, who was in turn the dam
of Rivington Redcoat. These dogs proved almost, if not quite, as
valuable to the coloured variety as Obo did to the blacks, and formed
the foundation of Mr. J. M. Porter's celebrated Braeside strain which
afterwards became so famous.

During the last few years Mr. R. de Courcy Peele's kennel has easily
held the pride of place in this variety. Most readers are no doubt
familiar with the many beautiful Cockers which have appeared in the
show ring and carried off so many prizes under the distinguishing
affix Bowdler. His kennel was built up on a Braeside foundation, and
has contained at one time or other such flyers as Ben Bowdler, Bob
Bowdler, Rufus Bowdler, Dixon Bowdler, Eva Bowdler, Mary Bowdler,
Blue-coat Bowdler, Susan Bowdler, and others, and Ben and Bob have
also been, as sires, responsible for the success of a good many dogs
hailing from other kennels. He has also been fairly successful with
blacks, which, however, have usually been purchased and not bred by
him, the two best being Master Reuben, bred by Miss Joan Godfrey,
and Jetsam Bowdler, a bitch who has distinguished herself both in
the ring and in the field.

Coloured Cockers are certainly "booming" just now, and as a
consequence the blacks, who are equally worthy of support, are being
rather neglected. Certainly it is the case that whereas one sees at
most shows big classes of the former filled with a good level lot
with hardly a bad specimen amongst them, the classes devoted to the
latter, besides not being so well filled, are much more uneven, and
always contain a large proportion of weeds and toys. A few years ago
the black classes were immeasurably superior to the coloured, and
it is to be hoped that in the near future they will regain at least
a position of equality with them.

At the last few Field Trial meetings the Spaniel Club has provided
classes confined to Cockers, which have filled fairly well, and
enabled the small breed to demonstrate that it can in its way be quite
as useful as its larger cousins. A Cocker can very often go and work
as well where a larger Spaniel cannot even creep, and for working
really thick hedgerows or gorse has no superior. There seems to be
every prospect of a brilliant future, and increased popularity for
this charming breed.

Its interests are looked after both by the Spaniel Club and the
comparatively newly formed Cocker Spaniel Club, and it is also quite
as much in favour on the other side of the Atlantic as it is in the
United Kingdom. Indeed, the classes in America and Canada compare
very favourably with our own.

The descriptive particulars of the breed are:--

* * * * *

HEAD--Not so heavy in proportion and not so high in occiput as in
the modern Field Spaniel, with a nicely developed muzzle or jaw; lean,
but not snipy, and yet not so square as in the Clumber or Sussex
varieties, but always exhibiting a sufficiently wide and
well-developed nose. Forehead perfectly smooth, rising without a too
decided stop from muzzle into a comparatively wide and rounded,
well-developed skull, with plenty of room for brain power. EYES--Full,
but not prominent, hazel or brown coloured, with a general expression
of intelligence and gentleness, though decidedly wideawake, bright
and merry, never goggled nor weak as in the King Charles and Blenheim
kinds. EARS--Lobular, set on low, leather fine and not exceeding
beyond the nose, well clothed with long silky hair, which must be
straight or wavy--no positive curls or ringlets. NECK--Strong and
muscular, and neatly set on to fine sloping shoulders. BODY (INCLUDING
SIZE AND SYMMETRY)--Not quite so long and low as in the other breeds
of Spaniels, more compact and firmly knit together, giving the
impression of a concentration of power and untiring activity.
WEIGHT--The weight of a Cocker Spaniel of either sex should not exceed
25 lb., or be less than 20 lb. Any variation either way should be
penalised. NOSE--Sufficiently wide and well developed to ensure the
exquisite scenting powers of this breed. SHOULDERS AND CHEST--The
former sloping and fine, chest deep and well developed, but not too
wide and round to interfere with the free action of the fore-legs.
BACK AND LOIN--Immensely strong and compact in proportion to the size
and weight of the dog; slightly sloping towards the tail.
HIND-QUARTERS--Wide, well rounded, and very muscular, so as to ensure
untiring action and propelling power under the most trying
circumstances of a long day, bad weather, rough ground, and dense
covert. STERN--That most characteristic of blue blood in all the
Spaniel family may, in the lighter and more active Cocker, although
set low down, be allowed a slightly higher carriage than in the other
breeds, but never cocked up over, but rather in a line with the back,
though the lower its carriage and action the better, and when at work
its action should be incessant in this, the brightest and merriest
of the whole Spaniel family. FEET AND LEGS--The legs should be well
boned, feathered and straight, for the tremendous exertions expected
from this grand little sporting dog, and should be sufficiently short
for concentrated power, but not too short as to interfere with its
full activity. Feet firm, round, and cat-like, not too large,
spreading, and loose jointed. This distinct breed of Spaniel does
not follow exactly on the lines of the larger Field Spaniel, either
in lengthiness, lowness, or otherwise, but is shorter in the back,
and rather higher on the legs. COAT--Flat or waved, and silky in
texture, never wiry, woolly, or curly, with sufficient feather of
the right sort, viz., waved or Setter-like, but not too profuse and
never curly. GENERAL APPEARANCE--Confirmatory of all indicated above,
viz., a concentration of pure blood and type, sagacity, docility,
good temper, affection, and activity.



The Basset was not familiarly known to British sportsmen before 1863,
in which year specimens of the breed were seen at the first exhibition
of dogs held in Paris, and caused general curiosity and admiration
among English visitors. In France, however, this hound has been used
for generations, much as we use our Spaniel, as a finder of game in
covert, and it has long been a popular sporting dog in Russia and
Germany. In early times it was chiefly to be found in Artois and
Flanders, where it is supposed to have had its origin; but the home
of the better type of Basset is now chiefly in La Vendee, in which
department some remarkably fine strains have been produced.

There are three main strains of the French Basset--the Lane, the
Couteulx, and the Griffon. The Griffon Basset is a hound with a hard
bristly coat, and short, crooked legs. It has never found great favour
here. The Lane hounds are derived from the kennels of M. Lane, of
Franqueville, Baos, Seine-Inferieure, and are also very little
appreciated in this country. They are a lemon and white variety, with
_torse_ or bent legs. The Couteulx hounds were a type bred up into
a strain by Comte le Couteulx de Canteleu. They were tricolour, with
straight, short legs, of sounder constitution than other strains,
with the make generally of a more agile hound, and in the pedigree
of the best Bassets owned in this country fifteen years ago, when
the breed was in considerable demand, Comte de Couteulx's strain was
prominent and always sought for.

With careful selection and judicious breeding we have now produced
a beautiful hound of fine smooth coat, and a rich admixture of
markings, with a head of noble character and the best of legs and
feet. Their short, twinkling legs make our Bassets more suitable for
covert hunting than for hunting hares in the open, to which latter
purpose they have frequently been adapted with some success. Their
note is resonant, with wonderful power for so small a dog, and in
tone it resembles the voice of the Bloodhound.

The Basset-hound is usually very good tempered and not inclined to
be quarrelsome with his kennel mates; but he is wilful, and loves
to roam apart in search of game, and is not very amenable to
discipline when alone. On the other hand, he works admirably with
his companions in the pack, when he is most painstaking and
indefatigable. Endowed with remarkable powers of scent, he will hunt
a drag with keen intelligence.

There are now several packs of Bassets kept in England, and they show
very fair sport after the hares; but it is not their natural vocation,
and their massive build is against the possibility of their becoming
popular as harriers. The general custom is to follow them on foot,
although occasionally some sportsmen use ponies. Their pace, however,
hardly warrants the latter expedient. On the Continent, where big
game is more common than with us, the employment of the Basset is
varied. He is a valuable help in the tracking of boar, wolf, and deer,
and he is also frequently engaged in the lighter pastimes of pheasant
and partridge shooting.

The Earl of Onslow and the late Sir John Everett Millais were among
the earliest importers of the breed into England. They both had
recourse to the kennels of Count Couteulx. Sir John Millais' Model
was the first Basset-hound exhibited at an English dog show, at
Wolverhampton in 1875. Later owners and breeders of prominence were
Mr. G. Krehl, Mrs. Stokes, Mrs. C. C. Ellis and Mrs. Mabel Tottie.

As with most imported breeds, the Basset-hound when first exhibited
was required to undergo a probationary period as a foreign dog in
the variety class at the principal shows. It was not until 1880 that
a class was provided for it by the Kennel Club.

It is to be regretted that owners of this beautiful hound are not
more numerous. Admirable specimens are still to be seen at the leading
exhibitions, but the breed is greatly in need of encouragement. At
the present time the smooth dog hound taking the foremost place in
the estimate of our most capable judges is Mr. W. W. M. White's Ch.
Loo-Loo-Loo, bred by Mrs. Tottie, by Ch. Louis Le Beau out of Sibella.
Mr. Croxton Smith's Waverer is also a dog of remarkably fine type.
Among bitch hounds Sandringham Dido, the favourite of Her Majesty
the Queen, ranks as the most perfect of her kind.

The rough or Griffon-Basset, introduced into England at a later date
than the smooth, has failed for some reason to receive great
attention. In type it resembles the shaggy Otterhound, and as at
present favoured it is larger and higher on the leg than the smooth
variety. Their colouring is less distinct, and they seem generally
to be lemon and white, grey and sandy red. Their note is not so rich
as that of the smooth variety. In France the rough and the smooth
Bassets are not regarded as of the same race, but here some breeders
have crossed the two varieties, with indifferent consequences.

Some beautiful specimens of the rough Basset have from time to time
been sent to exhibition from the Sandringham kennels. His Majesty
the King has always given affectionate attention to this breed, and
has taken several first prizes at the leading shows, latterly with
Sandringham Bobs, bred in the home kennels by Sandringham Babil ex

Perhaps the most explicit description of the perfect Basset-hound
is still that compiled twenty-five years ago by Sir John Millais.
It is at least sufficiently comprehensive and exact to serve as a

* * * * *

"The Basset, for its size, has more bone, perhaps, than nearly any
other dog.

"The skull should be peaked like that of the Bloodhound, with the
same dignity and expression, the nose black (although some of my own
have white about theirs), and well flewed. For the size of the hound
I think the teeth are extremely small. However, as they are not
intended to destroy life, this is probably the reason.

"The ears should hang like the Bloodhound's, and are like the softest
velvet drapery.

"The eyes are a deep brown, and are brimful of affection and
intelligence. They are pretty deeply set, and should show a
considerable haw. A Basset is one of those hounds incapable of
having a wicked eye.

"The neck is long, but of great power; and in the _Basset a jambes
torses_ the flews extend very nearly down to the chest. The chest
is more expansive than even in the Bulldog, and should in the _Bassets
a jambes torses_ be not more than two inches from the ground. In the
case of the _Bassets a jambes demi-torses_ and _jambes droites_, being
generally lighter, their chests do not, of course, come so low.

"The shoulders are of great power, and terminate in the crooked feet
of the Basset, which appear to be a mass of joints. The back and ribs
are strong, and the former of great length.

"The stern is carried gaily, like that of hounds in general, and when
the hound is on the scent of game this portion of his body gets
extremely animated, and tells me, in my own hounds, when they have
struck a fresh or a cold scent, and I even know when the foremost
hound will give tongue.

"The hind-quarters are very strong and muscular, the muscles standing
rigidly out down to the hocks.

"The skin is soft in the smooth haired dogs, and like that of any
other hound, but in the rough variety it is like that of the

"Colour, of course, is a matter of fancy, although I infinitely prefer
the tricolour, which has a tan head and a black and white body."



Persons unfamiliar with the sporting properties of this long-bodied
breed are apt to refer smilingly to the Dachshund as "the dog that
is sold by the yard," and few even of those who know him give credit
to the debonair little fellow for the grim work which he is intended
to perform in doing battle with the vicious badger in its lair.
Dachshund means "badger dog," and it is a title fairly and squarely
earned in his native Germany.

Given proper training, he will perform the duties of several sporting
breeds rolled into one. Possessing a wonderful nose, combined with
remarkable steadiness, his kind will work out the coldest scent, and
once fairly on the line they will give plenty of music and get over
the ground at a pace almost incredible. Dachshunds hunt well in a
pack, and, though it is not their recognised vocation, they can be
successfully used on hare, on fox, and any form of vermin that wears
a furry coat. But his legitimate work is directed against the badger,
in locating the brock under ground, worrying and driving him into
his innermost earth, and there holding him until dug out. It is no
part of his calling to come to close grips, though that often happens
in the confined space in which he has to work. In this position a
badger with his powerful claws digs with such energy and skill as
rapidly to bury himself, and the Dachshund needs to be provided with
such apparatus as will permit him to clear his way and keep in touch
with his formidable quarry. The badger is also hunted by Dachshunds
above ground, usually in the mountainous parts of Germany, and in
the growing crops of maize, on the lower slopes, where the vermin
work terrible havoc in the evening. In this case the badger is rounded
up and driven by the dogs up to the guns which are posted between
the game and their earths. For this sport the dog used is heavier,
coarser, and of larger build, higher on the leg, and more generally
houndy in appearance. Dachshunds are frequently used for deer driving,
in which operation they are especially valuable, as they work slowly,
and do not frighten or overrun their quarry, and can penetrate the
densest undergrowth. Packs of Dachshunds may sometimes be engaged
on wild boar, and, as they are web-footed and excellent swimmers,
there is no doubt that their terrier qualities would make them useful
assistants to the Otterhound. Apropos of their capabilities in the
water it is the case that a year or two ago, at Offenbach-on-Main,
at some trials arranged for life-saving by dogs, a Dachshund carried
off the first prize against all comers.

As a companion in the house the Dachshund has perhaps no compeer.
He is a perfect gentleman; cleanly in his habits, obedient,
unobtrusive, incapable of smallness, affectionate, very sensitive
to rebuke or to unkindness, and amusingly jealous. As a watch he is
excellent, quick to detect a strange footstep, valiant to defend the
threshold, and to challenge with deep voice any intruder, yet sensibly
discerning his master's friends, and not annoying them with prolonged
growling and grumbling as many terriers do when a stranger is
admitted. Properly brought up, he is a perfectly safe and amusing
companion for children, full of animal spirits, and ever ready to
share in a romp, even though it be accompanied by rough and tumble
play. In Germany, where he is the most popular of all dogs, large
or small, he is to be found in every home, from the Emperor's palace
downwards, and his quaint appearance, coupled with his entertaining
personality, is daily seized upon by the comic papers to illustrate
countless jokes at his expense.

The origin of the Dachshund is not very clear. Some writers have
professed to trace the breed or representations of it on the monuments
of the Egyptians. Some aver that it is a direct descendant of the
French Basset-hound, and others that he is related to the old
Turnspits--the dogs so excellent in kitchen service, of whom Dr. Caius
wrote that "when any meat is to be roasted they go into a wheel, where
they, turning about with the weight of their bodies, so diligently
look to their business that no drudge nor scullion can do the feat
more cunningly, whom the popular sort hereupon term Turnspits."
Certainly the dog commonly used in this occupation was long of body
and short of leg, very much resembling the Dachshund.

In all probability the Dachshund is a manufactured breed--a breed
evolved from a large type of hound intermixed with a terrier to suit
the special conditions involved in the pursuit and extermination of
a quarry that, unchecked, was capable of seriously interfering with
the cultivation of the land. He comprises in his small person the
characteristics of both hound and terrier--his wonderful powers of
scent, his long, pendulous ears, and, for his size, enormous bone,
speak of his descent from the hound that hunts by scent. In many
respects he favours the Bloodhound, and one may often see Dachshunds
which, having been bred from parents carefully selected to accentuate
some fancy point, have exhibited the very pronounced "peak" (occipital
bone), the protruding haw of the eye, the loose dewlap and the colour
markings characteristic of the Bloodhound. His small stature, iron
heart, and willingness to enter the earth bespeak the terrier cross.

The Dachshund was first introduced to this country in sufficient
numbers to merit notice in the early 'sixties, and, speedily
attracting notice by his quaint formation and undoubted sporting
instincts, soon became a favourite. At first appearing at shows in
the "Foreign Dog" class, he quickly received a recognition of his
claims to more favoured treatment, and was promoted by the Kennel
Club to a special classification as a sporting dog. Since then his
rise has been rapid, and he now is reckoned as one of the numerically
largest breeds exhibited. Unfortunately, however, he has been little,
if ever, used for sport in the sense that applies in Germany, and
this fact, coupled with years of breeding from too small a stock (or
stock too nearly related) and the insane striving after the fanciful
and exaggerated points demanded by judges at dog shows, many of whom
never saw a Dachshund at his legitimate work, has seriously affected
his usefulness. He has deteriorated in type, lost grit and sense,
too, and is often a parody of the true type of Dachshund that is to
be found in his native land.

To the reader who contemplates possessing one or more Dachshunds a
word of advice may be offered. Whether you want a dog for sport, for
show, or as a companion, endeavour to get a good one--a well-bred
one. To arrive at this do not buy from an advertisement on your own
knowledge of the breed, but seek out an expert amateur breeder and
exhibitor, and get his advice and assistance. If you intend to start
a kennel for show purposes, do not buy a high-priced dog at a show,
but start with a well-bred bitch, and breed your own puppies, under
the guidance of the aforementioned expert. In this way, and by rearing
and keeping your puppies till they are of an age to be exhibited,
and at the same time carefully noting the awards at the best shows,
you will speedily learn which to retain and the right type of dog
to keep and breed for, and in future operations you will be able to
discard inferior puppies at an earlier age. But it is a great mistake,
if you intend to form a kennel for show purposes, to sell or part
with your puppies too early. It is notorious with all breeds that
puppies change very much as they grow. The best looking in the nest
often go wrong later, and the ugly duckling turns out the best of
the litter. This is especially true of Dachshunds, and it requires
an expert to pick the best puppy of a litter at a month or two old,
and even he may be at fault unless the puppy is exceptionally well

To rear Dachshund puppies successfully you must not overload them
with fat--give them strengthening food that does not lay on flesh.
Lean, raw beef, finely chopped, is an excellent food once or twice
a day for the first few months, and, though this comes expensive,
it pays in the end. Raw meat is supposed to cause worm troubles, but
these pests are also found where meat is not given, and in any case
a puppy is fortified with more strength to withstand them if fed on
raw meat than otherwise, and a good dosing from time to time will
be all that is necessary to keep him well and happy.

Young growing puppies must have their freedom to gambol about, and
get their legs strong. Never keep the puppies cooped up in a small
kennel run or house. If you have a fair-sized yard, give them the
run of that, or even the garden, in spite of what your gardener may
say--they may do a little damage to the flowers, but will assuredly
do good to themselves. They love to dig in the soft borders: digging
is second nature to them, and is of great importance in their

If you have not a garden, or if the flowers are too sacred, it is
better to place your puppies as early as possible with respectable
cottagers, or small farmers, especially the latter, with whom they
will have entire freedom to run about, and will not be overfed.

If you intend to show your puppies, you should begin some time in
advance to school them to walk on the lead and to stand quiet when
ordered to. Much depends on this in the judging ring, where a dog
who is unused to being on a lead often spoils his chances of appearing
at his best under the (to him) strange experiences of restraint which
the lead entails.

During the past five-and-twenty years the names of two particular
Dachshunds stand out head and shoulders above those of their
competitors: Champions Jackdaw and Pterodactyl. Jackdaw had a
wonderful record, having, during a long show career, never been beaten
in his class from start to finish, and having won many valuable
prizes. He was credited with being the most perfect Dachshund that
had ever been seen in England, and probably as good as anything in

Ch. Jackdaw was a black and tan dog, bred and owned by Mr. Harry
Jones, of Ipswich. He was sired by Ch. Charkow, out of Wagtail, and
born 20th July, 1886. Through his dam he was descended from a famous
bitch, Thusnelda, who was imported by Mr. Mudie in the early
'eighties. She was a winner of high honours in Hanover. The name of
Jackdaw figures in all the best pedigrees of to-day.

Ch. Pterodactyl was born in 1888, and bred by Mr. Willink. He was
in a measure an outcross from the standard type of the day, and his
dam, whose pedigree is in dispute, was thought to have been imported.
After passing through one or two hands he was purchased by Mr. Harry
Jones, and in his kennel speedily made a great name in the show ring
and at the stud, and was eventually sold for a high price to Mr.
Sidney Woodiwiss, who at that period had the largest kennel of
Dachshunds in England.

"Ptero," as he was called, was a big, light red dog, with wonderful
fore-quarters and great muscular development. He also possessed what
is called a "punishing jaw" and rather short ears, and looked a
thorough "business" dog. He had an almost unbroken series of successes
at shows in England, and being taken to Germany (in the days before
the quarantine regulations), he took the highest honours in the
heavy-weight class, and a special prize for the best Dachshund of
all classes. This dog became the favourite sire of his day and the
fashionable colour.

The black and tan thereupon went quite out of favour, and this fact,
coupled with the reckless amount of inbreeding of red to red that
has been going on since Ptero's day, accounts largely for the
prevalence of light eyes, pink noses, and bad-coloured coats of the
Dachshunds, as a class, to-day.

There are, strictly speaking, three varieties of Dachshund--(_a_)
the short-haired, (_b_) the long-haired, and (_c_) the rough-haired.

Of these we most usually find the first-named in England, and they
are no doubt the original stock. Of the others, though fairly numerous
in Germany, very few are to be seen in this country, and although
one or two have been imported the type has never seemed to appeal
to exhibitors.

Both the long-haired and rough-haired varieties have no doubt been
produced by crosses with other breeds, such as the Spaniel and
probably the Irish Terrier, respectively.

In the long-haired variety the hair should be soft and wavy, forming
lengthy plumes under the throat, lower parts of the body, and the
backs of the legs, and it is longest on the under side of the tail,
where it forms a regular flag like that of a Setter or Spaniel. The
rough-haired variety shows strongly a terrier cross by his "varmint"
expression and short ears.

The Germans also subdivide by colour, and again for show purposes
by weight. These subdivisions are dealt with in their proper order
in the standard of points, and it is only necessary to say here that
all the varieties, colours, and weights are judged by the same
standard except in so far as they differ in texture of coat. At the
same time the Germans themselves do not regard the dapple Dachshunds
as yet so fixed in type as the original coloured dogs, and this
exception must also apply to the long and the rough haired varieties.

The following German standard of points embodies a detailed
description of the breed:--

* * * * *

Dachshund is a very long and low dog, with compact and well-muscled
body, resting on short, slightly crooked fore-legs. A long head and
ears, with bold and defiant carriage and intelligent expression. In
disposition the Dachshund is full of spirit, defiant when attacked,
aggressive even to foolhardiness when attacking; in play amusing and
untiring; by nature wilful and unheeding. HEAD--Long, and appearing
conical from above, and from a side view, tapering to the point of
the muzzle, wedge-shaped. The skull should be broad rather than
narrow, to allow plenty of brain room, slightly arched, and fairly
straight, without a stop, but not deep or snipy. EYES--Medium in size,
oval, and set obliquely, with very clear, sharp expression and of a
dark colour, except in the case of the liver and tan, when the eyes
may be yellow; and in the dapple, when the eyes may be light or
"wall-eyed." NOSE--Preferably deep black. The flesh-coloured and
spotted noses are allowable only in the liver and tan and dapple
varieties. EARS--Set on moderately high, or, seen in profile, above
the level of the eyes, well back, flat, not folded, pointed, or
narrow, hanging close to the cheeks, very mobile, and when at
attention carried with the back of the ear upward and outward.
NECK--Moderately long, with slightly arched nape, muscular and clean,
showing no dewlap, and carried well up and forward. FORE-QUARTERS--His
work underground demands strength and compactness, and, therefore,
the chest and shoulder regions should be deep, long, and wide. The
shoulder blade should be long, and set on very sloping, the upper
arm of equal length with, and at right angles to, the shoulder blade,
strong-boned and well-muscled, and lying close to ribs, but moving
freely. The lower arm is slightly bent inwards, and the feet should
be turned slightly outwards, giving an appearance of "crooked" legs
approximating to the cabriole of a Chippendale chair. Straight,
narrow, short shoulders are always accompanied by straight, short,
upper arms, forming an obtuse angle, badly developed brisket and
"keel" or chicken breast, and the upper arm being thrown forward by
the weight of the body behind causes the legs to knuckle over at the
"knees." Broad, sloping shoulders, on the other hand, insure soundness
of the fore-legs and feet. LEGS AND FEET--Fore-legs very short and
strong in bone, slightly bent inwards; seen in profile, moderately
straight and never bending forward or knuckling over. Feet large,
round, and strong, with thick pads, compact and well-arched toes,
nails strong and black. The dog must stand equally on all parts of
the foot. BODY--Should be long and muscular, the chest very oval,
rather than very narrow and deep, to allow ample room for heart and
lungs, hanging low between front legs, the brisket point should be
high and very prominent, the ribs well sprung out towards the loins
(not flat-sided). Loins short and strong. The line of back only
slightly depressed behind shoulders and only slightly arched over
loins. The hind-quarters should not be higher than the shoulders,
thus giving a general appearance of levelness. HIND-QUARTERS--The
rump round, broad, and powerfully muscled; hip bone not too short,
but broad and sloping; the upper arm, or thigh, thick, of good length,
and jointed at right angles to the hip bone. The lower leg (or second
thigh) is, compared with other animals, short, and is set on at right
angles to the upper thigh, and is very firmly muscled. The hind-legs
are lighter in bone than the front ones, but very strongly muscled,
with well-rounded-out buttocks, and the knee joint well developed.
Seen from behind, the legs should be wide apart and straight, and
not cowhocked. The dog should not be higher at the quarters than at
shoulder. STERN--Set on fairly high, strong at root, and tapering,
but not too long. Neither too much curved nor carried too high; well,
but not too much, feathered; a bushy tail is better than too little
hair. COAT AND SKIN--Hair short and close as possible, glossy and
smooth, but resistant to the touch if stroked the wrong way. The skin
tough and elastic, but fitting close to the body. COLOUR--_One
Coloured_:--There are several self-colours recognised, including deep
red, yellowish red, smutty red. Of these the dark, or cherry, red
is preferable, and in this colour light shadings on any part of the
body or head are undesirable. "Black" is rare, and is only a sport
from black and tan. _Two Coloured_:--Deep black, brown (liver) or
grey, with golden or tan markings (spots) over the eyes at the side
of the jaw and lips, inner rim of ears, the breast, inside and back
of legs, the feet, and under the tail for about one-third of its
length. In the above-mentioned colours white markings are
objectionable. The utmost that is allowed being a small spot, or a
few hairs, on the chest. _Dappled_:--A silver grey to almost white
foundation colour, with dark, irregular spots (small for preference)
of dark grey, brown, tan, or black. The general appearance should
be a bright, indefinite coloration, which is considered especially
useful in a hunting dog. WEIGHT--Dachshunds in Germany are classified
by weight as follows:--_Light-weight_--Dogs up to 16-1/2 lb., bitches
up to 15-1/2 lb. _Middle-weight_--Dogs up to 22 lb., bitches up to
22 lb. _Heavy-weight_--Over 22 lb. _Toys_--Up to 12 lb. The German
pound is one-tenth more than the English. The light-weight dog is
most used for going to ground.



There can hardly have been a time since the period of the Norman
Conquest when the small earth dogs which we now call terriers were
not known in these islands and used by sporting men as assistants
in the chase, and by husbandmen for the killing of obnoxious vermin.
The two little dogs shown in the Bayeux tapestry running with the
hounds in advance of King Harold's hawking party were probably meant
for terriers. Dame Juliana Berners in the fifteenth century did not
neglect to include the "Teroures" in her catalogue of sporting dogs,
and a hundred years later Dr. Caius gave pointed recognition to their
value in unearthing the fox and drawing the badger.

"Another sorte, there is," wrote the doctor's translator in 1576,
"which hunteth the Fox and the Badger or Greye onely, whom we call
Terrars, because they (after the manner and custome of ferrets in
searching for Connyes) creep into the grounde, and by that meanes
make afrayde, nyppe and bite the Foxe and the Badger in such sorte
that eyther they teare them in pieces with theyr teeth, beying in
the bosome of the earth, or else hayle and pull them perforce out
of theyr lurking angles, darke dongeons, and close caues; or at the
least through cocened feare drive them out of theire hollow harbours,
in so much that they are compelled to prepare speedie flyte, and,
being desirous of the next (albeit not the safest) refuge, are
otherwise taken and intrapped with snayres and nettes layde over
holes to the same purpose. But these be the least in that kynde
called Sagax."

The colour, size, and shape of the original terriers are not indicated
by the early writers, and art supplies but vague and uncertain
evidence. Nicholas Cox, who wrote of sporting dogs in _The Gentleman's
Recreation_ (1667), seems to suggest that the type of working terrier
was already fixed sufficiently to be divided into two kinds, the one
having shaggy coats and straight limbs, the other smooth coats and
short bent legs. Yet some years later another authority--Blome--in
the same publication was more guarded in his statements as to the
terrier type when he wrote: "Everybody that is a fox hunter is of
opinion that he hath a good breed, and some will say that the terrier
is a peculiar species of itself. I will not say anything to the
affirmative or negative of the point."

Searching for evidence on the subject, one finds that perhaps the
earliest references to the colours of terriers were made by Daniel
in his _Field Sports_ at the end of the eighteenth century, when he
described two sorts, the one rough, short-legged, and long-backed,
very strong, and "most commonly of a black or yellowish colour, mixed
with white"--evidently a hound-marked dog; and another smooth-coated
and beautifully formed, with a shorter body and more sprightly
appearance, "generally of a reddish brown colour, or black with
tanned legs."

Gilpin's portrait of Colonel Thornton's celebrated Pitch, painted
in 1790, presents a terrier having a smooth white coat with a black
patch at the set-on of the undocked tail, and black markings on the
face and ears. The dog's head is badly drawn and small in proportion;
but the body and legs and colouring would hardly disgrace the
Totteridge Kennels of to-day. Fox-terriers of a noted strain were
depicted from life by Reinagle in _The Sportsman's Cabinet_, published
over a hundred years ago; and in the text accompanying the engraving
a minute account is given of the peculiarities and working capacities
of the terrier. We are told that there were two breeds: the one
wire-haired, larger, more powerful, and harder bitten; the other
smooth-haired and smaller, with more style. The wire-hairs were white
with spots, the smooths were black and tan, the tan apparently
predominating over the black. The same writer states that it was
customary to take out a brace of terriers with a pack of hounds, a
larger and a smaller one, the smaller dog being used in emergency
when the earth proved to be too narrow to admit his bigger companion.
It is well known that many of the old fox hunters have kept their
special breeds of terrier, and the Belvoir, the Grove, and Lord
Middleton's are among the packs to which particular terrier strains
have been attached.

That even a hundred years ago terriers were bred with care, and that
certain strains were held in especial value, is shown by the recorded
fact that a litter of seven puppies was sold for twenty-one guineas--a
good price even in these days--and that on one occasion so high a
sum as twenty guineas was paid for a full-grown dog. At that time
there was no definite and well-established breed recognised throughout
the islands by a specific name; the embracing title of "Terrier"
included all the varieties which have since been carefully
differentiated. But very many of the breeds existed in their
respective localities awaiting national recognition. Here and there
some squire or huntsman nurtured a particular strain and developed
a type which he kept pure, and at many a manor-house and farmstead
in Devonshire and Cumberland, on many a Highland estate and Irish
riverside where there were foxes to be hunted or otters to be killed,
terriers of definite strain were religiously cherished. Several of
these still survive, and are as respectable in descent and quite as
important historically as some of the favoured and fashionable
champions of our time. They do not perhaps possess the outward beauty
and distinction of type which would justify their being brought into
general notice, but as workers they retain all the fire and verve
that are required in dogs that are expected to encounter such vicious
vermin as the badger and the fox.

Some of the breeds of terriers seen nowadays in every dog show were
equally obscure and unknown a few years back. Thirty-seven years ago
the now popular Irish Terrier was practically unknown in England,
and the Scottish Terrier was only beginning to be recognised as a
distinct breed. The Welsh Terrier is quite a new introduction that
a dozen or so years ago was seldom seen outside the Principality;
and so recently as 1881 the Airedale was merely a local dog known
in Yorkshire as the Waterside or the Bingley Terrier. Yet the breeds
just mentioned are all of unimpeachable ancestry, and the circumstance
that they were formerly bred within limited neighbourhoods is in
itself an argument in favour of their purity. We have seen the process
of a sudden leap into recognition enacted during the past few years
in connection with the white terrier of the Western Highlands--a dog
which was familiarly known in Argyllshire centuries ago, yet which
has only lately emerged from the heathery hillsides around Poltalloch
to become an attraction on the benches at the Crystal Palace and on
the lawns of the Botanical Gardens; and the example suggests the
possibility that in another decade or so the neglected Sealyham
Terrier, the ignored terrier of the Borders, and the almost forgotten
Jack Russell strain, may have claimed a due recompense for their long

There are lovers of the hard-bitten working "earth dogs" who still
keep these strains inviolate, and who greatly prefer them to the
better-known terriers whose natural activities have been too often
atrophied by a system of artificial breeding to show points. Few of
these old unregistered breeds would attract the eye of the fancier
accustomed to judge a dog parading before him in the show ring. To
know their value and to appreciate their sterling good qualities,
one needs to watch them at work on badger or when they hit upon the
line of an otter. It is then that they display the alertness and the
dare-devil courage which have won for the English terriers their name
and fame.

An excellent working terrier was the white, rough-haired strain kept
by the Rev. John Russell in Devonshire and distributed among
privileged sportsmen about Somersetshire and Gloucestershire. The
working attributes of these energetic terriers have long been
understood, and the smart, plucky little dogs have been constantly
coveted by breeders all over the country, but they have never won
the popularity they deserve.

Those who have kept both varieties prefer the Russell to the Sealyham
Terrier, which is nevertheless an excellent worker. It is on record
that one of these, a bitch of only 9 lb. weight, fought and killed,
single-handed, a full-grown dog-fox. The Sealyham derives its breed
name from the seat of the Edwardes family, near Haverfordwest, in
Pembrokeshire, where the strain has been carefully preserved for well
over a century. It is a long-bodied, short-legged terrier, with a
hard, wiry coat, frequently whole white, but also white with black
or brown markings or brown with black. They may be as heavy as 17
lb., but 12 lb. is the average weight. Some years ago the breed seemed
to be on the down grade, requiring fresh blood from a well-chosen
outcross. One hears very little concerning them nowadays, but it
is certain that when in their prime they possessed all the grit,
determination, and endurance that are looked for in a good working

A wire-haired black and tan terrier was once common in Suffolk and
Norfolk, where it was much used for rabbiting, but it may now be
extinct, or, if not extinct, probably identified with the Welsh
Terrier, which it closely resembled in size and colouring. There was
also in Shropshire a well-known breed of wire-hair terriers, black
and tan, on very short legs, and weighing about 10 lb. or 12 lb.,
with long punishing heads and extraordinary working powers. So, too,
in Lancashire and Cheshire one used to meet with sandy-coloured
terriers of no very well authenticated strain, but closely resembling
the present breed of Irish Terrier; and Squire Thornton, at his place
near Pickering, in Yorkshire, had a breed of wire-hairs tan in colour
with a black stripe down the back. Then there is the Cowley strain,
kept by the Cowleys of Callipers, near King's Langley. These are white
wire-haired dogs marked like the Fox-terrier, and exceedingly game.
Possibly the Elterwater Terrier is no longer to be found, but some
few of them still existed a dozen years or so ago in the Lake
District, where they were used in conjunction with the West Cumberland
Otterhounds. They were not easily distinguishable from the
better-known Border Terriers of which there are still many strains,
ranging from Northumberland, where Mr. T. Robson, of Bellingham, has
kept them for many years, to Galloway and Ayrshire and the Lothians,
where their coats become longer and less crisp.

There are many more local varieties of the working terrier as, for
example, the Roseneath, which is often confused with the Poltalloch,
or White West Highlander, to whom it is possibly related. And the
Pittenweem, with which the Poltalloch Terriers are now being crossed;
while Mrs. Alastair Campbell, of Ardrishaig, has a pack of Cairn
Terriers which seem to represent the original type of the improved
Scottie. Considering the great number of strains that have been
preserved by sporting families and maintained in more or less purity
to type, it is easy to understand how a "new" breed may become
fashionable, and still claim the honour of long descent. They may
not in all cases have the beauty of shape which is desired on the
show bench; but it is well to remember that while our show terriers
have been bred to the highest perfection we still possess in Great
Britain a separate order of "earth dogs" that for pluckily following
the fox and the badger into their lairs or bolting an otter from his
holt cannot be excelled all the world over.



This dog, one would think, ought, by the dignified title which he
bears, to be considered a representative national terrier, forming
a fourth in the distinctively British quartette whose other members
are the Scottish, the Irish, and the Welsh Terriers. Possibly in the
early days when Pearson and Roocroft bred him to perfection it was
hoped and intended that he should become a breed typical of England.
He is still the only terrier who owns the national name, but he has
long ago yielded pride of place to the Fox-terrier, and it is the
case that the best specimens of his race are bred north of the border,
while, instead of being the most popular dog in the land, he is
actually one of the most neglected and the most seldom seen. At the
Kennel Club Show of 1909 there was not a single specimen of the breed
on view, nor was one to be found at the recent shows at Edinburgh,
Birmingham, Manchester, or Islington, nor at the National Terrier
Show at Westminster. It is a pity that so smart and beautiful a dog
should be suffered to fall into such absolute neglect. One wonders
what the reason of it can be. Possibly it is that the belief still
prevails that he is of delicate constitution, and is not gifted with
a great amount of intelligence or sagacity; there is no doubt,
however, that a potent factor in hastening the decline is to be found
in the edict against cropping. Neither the White Terrier nor the
Manchester Terrier has since been anything like so popular as they
both were before April, 1898, when the Kennel Club passed the law
that dogs' ears must not be cropped.

Writers on canine history, and Mr. Rawdon Lee among the number, tell
us that the English White Terrier is a comparatively new breed, and
that there is no evidence to show where he originally sprang from,
who produced him, or for what reason he was introduced. His existence
as a distinct breed is dated back no longer than forty years. This
is about the accepted age of most of our named English terriers. Half
a century ago, before the institution of properly organised dog shows
drew particular attention to the differentiation of breeds, the
generic term "terrier" without distinction was applied to all "earth
dogs," and the consideration of colour and size was the only common
rule observed in breeding. But it would not be difficult to prove
that a white terrier resembling the one now under notice existed in
England as a separate variety many generations anterior to the period
usually assigned to its recognition.

In the National Portrait Gallery there is a portrait of Mary of
Modena, Queen Consort of James II., painted in 1670 by William
Wissing, who has introduced at the Queen's side a terrier that is
undoubtedly of this type. The dog has slight brown or brindle markings
on the back, as many English White Terriers have, and it is to be
presumed that it is of the breed from which this variety is descended.

Apart from colour there is not a great difference between the White
English Terrier and the Manchester Black and Tan. But although they
are of similar shape and partake much of the same general character,
yet there is the distinction that in the black and tan the
conservation of type is stronger and more noticeable than in the
white, in which the correct shape and action are difficult to obtain.
It ought naturally to be easier to breed a pure white dog from white
parents than to breed correctly marked and well tanned puppies from
perfect black and tans; but the efforts of many breeders do not seem
to support such a theory in connection with the English Terrier, whose
litters frequently show the blemish of a spot of brindle or russet.
These spots usually appear behind the ears or on the neck, and are
of course a disfigurement on a dog whose coat to be perfect should
be of an intense and brilliant white. It appears to be equally
difficult to breed one which, while having the desired purity of
colour, is also perfect in shape and terrier character. It is to be
noted, too, that many otherwise good specimens are deaf--a fault which
seriously militates against the dog's possibilities as a companion
or as a watch.

Birmingham and Manchester were the localities in which the English
Terrier was most popular forty years ago, but it was Mr. Frederick
White, of Clapham, who bred all the best of the white variety and
who made it popular in the neighbourhood of London. His terriers were
of a strain founded by a dog named King Dick, and in 1863 he exhibited
a notable team in Laddie, Fly, Teddie, and Nettle. Mr. S. E. Shirley,
M. P., was attracted to the breed, and possessed many good examples,
as also did the Rev. J. W. Mellor and Mr. J. H. Murchison. Mr. Alfred
Benjamin's Silvio was a prominent dog in 1877.

Silvio was bred by Mr. James Roocroft, of Bolton, who owned a large
kennel of this variety of terrier, and who joined with his townsman,
Joe Walker, and with Bill Pearson in raising the breed to popularity
in Lancashire. Bill Pearson was the breeder of Tim, who was considered
the best terrier of his time, a dog of 14 lb., with a brilliant white
coat, the darkest of eyes, and a perfect black nose.

It is apparent that the Whippet was largely used as a cross with the
English Terrier, which may account to a great extent for the decline
of terrier character in the breed. Wiser breeders had recourse to
the more closely allied Bull-terrier; Mr. Shirley's prize winning
Purity was by Tim out of a Bull-terrier bitch, and there is no doubt
that whatever stamina remains in the breed has been supported by this

The following is the description laid down by the White English
Terrier Club:--

* * * * *

HEAD--Narrow, long and level, almost flat skull, without cheek
muscles, wedge-shaped, well filled up under the eyes, tapering to
the nose, and not lippy. EYES--Small and black, set fairly close
together, and oblong in shape. NOSE--Perfectly black. EARS--Cropped
and standing perfectly erect. NECK AND SHOULDERS--The neck should
be fairly long and tapering from the shoulders to the head, with
sloping shoulders, the neck being free from throatiness, and slightly
arched at the occiput. CHEST--Narrow and deep. BODY--Short and curving
upwards at the loins, sprung out behind the shoulders, back slightly
arched at loins, and falling again at the joining of the tail to the
same height as the shoulders. LEGS--Perfectly straight and well under
the body, moderate in bone, and of proportionate length. FEET--Feet
nicely arched, with toes set well together, and more inclined to be
round than hare-footed. TAIL--Moderate length, and set on where the
arch of the back ends, thick where it joins the body, tapering to
a point, and not carried higher than the back. COAT--Close, hard,
short, and glossy. COLOUR--Pure white, coloured marking to disqualify.
CONDITION--Flesh and muscles to be hard and firm. WEIGHT--From 12
lb. to 20 lb.



The Black and Tan, or Manchester, Terrier as we know him to-day is
a comparatively new variety, and he is not to be confounded with the
original terrier with tan and black colouring which was referred to
by Dr. Caius in the sixteenth century, and which was at that time
used for going to ground and driving out badgers and foxes.

Formerly there was but little regard paid to colour and markings,
and there was a considerably greater proportion of tan in the coat
than there is at the present day, while the fancy markings, such as
pencilled toes, thumb marks, and kissing spots were not cultivated.
The general outline of the dog, too, was less graceful and altogether

During the first half of the nineteenth century the chief
accomplishment of this terrier was rat-killing. There are some
extraordinary accounts of his adroitness, as well as courage, in
destroying these vermin. The feats of a dog called Billy are recorded.
He was matched to destroy one hundred large rats in eight minutes
and a half. The rats were brought into the ring in bags, and as soon
as the number was complete Billy was put over the railing into their
midst. In six minutes and thirty-five seconds they were all destroyed.
In another match he killed the same number in six minutes and thirteen

It was a popular terrier in Lancashire, and it was in this county
that the refining process in his shape and colouring was practised,
and where he came by the name of the Manchester Terrier.

Like the White English Terriers the Black and Tan has fallen on evil
days. It is not a popular dog among fanciers, and although many good
ones may be seen occasionally about the streets the breed suffers
from want of the care and attention that are incidental to the
breeding and rearing of dogs intended for competition at shows.

There are many who hold the opinion that one of the chief reasons
for the decadence in the popularity of the Black and Tan Terrier,
notwithstanding its many claims to favour, is to be found in the loss
of that very alert appearance which was a general characteristic
before the Kennel Club made it illegal to crop the ears of such as
were intended for exhibition. It must be admitted that until very
recently there was a considerable amount of truth in the prevalent
opinion, inasmuch as a rather heavy ear, if carried erect, was the
best material to work upon, and from which to produce the long, fine,
and upright, or "pricked" effect which was looked upon as being the
correct thing in a cropped dog; hence it followed that no care was
taken to select breeding stock likely to produce the small,
semi-erect, well-carried, and thin ears required to-day, consequently
when the edict forbidding the use of scissors came into force there
were very few small-eared dogs to be found. It has taken at least
ten or a dozen years to eradicate the mischief, and even yet the cure
is not complete.

Another factor which has had a bad effect is the belief, which has
become much too prevalent, that a great deal of "faking" has been
practised in the past, and that it has been so cleverly performed
as to deceive the most observant judge, whereby a very artificial
standard of quality has been obtained.

The standard of points by which the breed should be judged is as

* * * * *

GENERAL APPEARANCE--A terrier calculated to take his own part in the
rat pit, and not of the Whippet type. HEAD--The head should be long,
flat, and narrow, level and wedge-shaped, without showing cheek
muscles; well filled up under the eyes, with tapering, tightly-lipped
jaws and level teeth. EYES--The eyes should be very small, sparkling,
and bright, set fairly close together and oblong in shape.
NOSE--Black. EARS--The correct carriage of ears is a debatable point
since cropping has been abolished. Probably in the large breed the
drop ear is correct, but for Toys either erect or semi-erect carriage
of the ear is most desirable. NECK AND SHOULDERS--The neck should
be fairly long and tapering from the shoulders to the head, with
sloping shoulders, the neck being free from throatiness and slightly
arched at the occiput. CHEST--The chest should be narrow but deep.
BODY--The body should be moderately short and curving upwards at the
loin; ribs well sprung, back slightly arched at the loin and falling
again at the joining of the tail to the same height as the shoulders.
FEET--The feet should be more inclined to be cat- than hare-footed.
TAIL--The tail should be of moderate length and set on where the arch
of the back ends; thick where it joins the body, tapering to a point,
and not carried higher than the back. COAT--The coat should be close,
smooth, short and glossy. COLOUR--The coat should be jet black and
rich mahogany tan, distributed over the body as follows: On the head
the muzzle is tanned to the nose, which with the nasal bone is jet
black. There is also a bright spot on each cheek and above each eye;
the underjaw and throat are tanned, and the hair inside the ears is
the same colour; the fore-legs tanned up to the knee, with black lines
(pencil marks) up each toe, and a black mark (thumb mark) above the
foot; inside the hind-legs tanned, but divided with black at the hock
joints; and under the tail also tanned; and so is the vent, but only
sufficiently to be easily covered by the tail; also slightly tanned
on each side of the chest. Tan outside the hind-legs--commonly called
breeching--is a serious defect. In all cases the black should not
run into the tan, nor _vice versa_, but the division between the two
colours should be well defined. WEIGHT--For toys not exceeding 7 lb.;
for the large breed from 10 to 20 lb. is most desirable.



The Bull-terrier is now a gentlemanly and respectably owned dog,
wearing an immaculate white coat and a burnished silver collar; he
has dealings with aristocracy, and is no longer contemned for keeping
bad company. But a generation or two ago he was commonly the associate
of rogues and vagabonds, skulking at the heels of such members of
society as Mr. William Sikes, whom he accompanied at night on darksome
business to keep watch outside while Bill was within, cracking the
crib. In those days the dog's ears were closely cropped, not for the
sake of embellishment, but as a measure of protection against the
fangs of his opponent in the pit when money was laid upon the result
of a well-fought fight to the death. For fighting was the acknowledged
vocation of his order, and he was bred and trained to the work. He
knew something of rats, too, and many of his kind were famed in the
land for their prowess in this direction. Jimmy Shaw's Jacko could
finish off sixty rats in three minutes, and on one occasion made a
record by killing a thousand in a trifle over an hour and a half.

The breed is sufficiently modern to leave no doubt as to its
derivation. In the first quarter of the nineteenth century attention
was being directed to the improvement of terriers generally, and new
types were sought for. They were alert, agile little dogs, excellent
for work in the country; but the extravagant Corinthians of the
time--the young gamesters who patronised the prize-ring and the
cock-pit--desired to have a dog who should do something more than kill
rats, or unearth the fox, or bolt the otter: which accomplishments
afforded no amusement to the Town. They wanted a dog combining all
the dash and gameness of the terrier with the heart and courage and
fighting instinct of the Bulldog. Wherefore the terrier and the
Bulldog were crossed. A large type of terrier was chosen, and this
would be the smooth-coated Black and Tan, or the early English White
Terrier; but probably both were used indifferently, and for a
considerable period. The result gave the young bucks what they
required: a dog that was at once a determined vermin killer and an
intrepid fighter, upon whose skill in the pit wagers might with
confidence be laid.

The animal, however, was neither a true terrier nor a true Bulldog,
but an uncompromising mongrel; albeit he served his immediate purpose,
and was highly valued for his pertinacity, if not for his appearance.
In 1806 Lord Camelford possessed one for which he had paid the very
high price of eighty-four guineas, and which he presented to Belcher,
the pugilist. This dog was figured in _The Sporting Magazine_ of the
time. He was a short-legged, thick-set, fawn-coloured specimen, with
closely amputated ears, a broad blunt muzzle, and a considerable
lay-back; and this was the kind of dog which continued for many years
to be known as the Bull-and-terrier. He was essentially a man's dog,
and was vastly in favour among the undergraduates of Oxford and

Gradually the Bulldog element, at first pronounced, was reduced to
something like a fourth degree, and, with the terrier character
predominating, the head was sharpened, the limbs were lengthened and
straightened until little remained of the Bulldog strain but the
dauntless heart and the fearless fighting spirit, together with the
frequent reversion to brindle colouring, which was the last outward
and visible characteristic to disappear.

Within the remembrance of men not yet old the Bull-terrier was as
much marked with fawn, brindle, or even black, as are the Fox-terriers
of our own period. But fifty years or so ago white was becoming
frequent, and was much admired. A strain of pure white was bred by
James Hinks, a well-known dog-dealer of Birmingham, and it is no doubt
to Hinks that we are indebted for the elegant Bull-terrier of the
type that we know to-day. These Birmingham dogs showed a refinement
and grace and an absence of the crook-legs and coloured patches which
betrayed that Hinks had been using an out-cross with the English White
Terrier, thus getting away further still from the Bulldog.

With the advent of the Hinks strain in 1862 the short-faced dog fell
into disrepute, and pure white became the accepted colour. There was
a wide latitude in the matter of weight. If all other points were
good, a dog might weigh anything between 10 and 38 lbs., but classes
were usually divided for those above and those below 16 lb. The type
became fixed, and it was ruled that the perfect Bull-terrier "must
have a long head, wide between the ears, level jaws, a small black
eye, a large black nose, a long neck, straight fore-legs, a small
hare foot, a narrow chest, deep brisket, powerful loin, long body,
a tail set and carried low, a fine coat, and small ears well hung
and dropping forward."

Idstone, who wrote this description in 1872, earnestly insisted that
the ears of all dogs should be left uncut and as Nature made them;
but for twenty years thereafter the ears of the Bull-terrier continued
to be cropped to a thin, erect point. The practice of cropping, it
is true, was even then illegal and punishable by law, but, although
there were occasional convictions under the Cruelty to Animals Act,
the dog owners who admired the alertness and perkiness of the cut
ear ignored the risk they ran, and it was not until the Kennel Club
took resolute action against the practice that cropping was entirely

The president of the Kennel Club, Mr. S. E. Shirley, M. P., had
himself been a prominent owner and breeder of the Bull-terrier. His
Nelson, bred by Joe Willock, was celebrated as an excellent example
of the small-sized terrier, at a time, however, when there were not
a great many competitors of the highest quality. His Dick, also, was
a remarkably good dog. Earlier specimens which have left their names
in the history of the breed were Hinks's Old Dutch, who was, perhaps,
even a more perfect terrier than the same breeder's Madman and Puss.

Lancashire and Yorkshire have always been noted for good
Bull-terriers, and the best of the breed have usually been produced
in the neighbourhoods of Leeds, Bradford, Manchester, Bolton, and
Liverpool, while Birmingham also shared in the reputation. At one
time Londoners gave careful attention to the breed, stimulated thereto
by the encouragement of Mr. Shirley and the success of Alfred George.

Of recent years the Bull-terrier has not been a great favourite, and
it has sadly deteriorated in type; but there are signs that the
variety is again coming into repute, and within the past two years
many admirable specimens--as nearly perfect, perhaps, as many that
won honour in former generations--have been brought into prominence.
Among dogs, for example, there are Mr. E. T. Pimm's Sweet Lavender,
Dr. M. Amsler's MacGregor, Mr. Chris Houlker's His Highness, and Mr.
J. Haynes' Bloomsbury Young King. Among bitches there are Mrs.
Kipping's Delphinium Wild and Desdemona, Mr. Hornby's Lady Sweetheart,
Mr. W. Mayor's Mill Girl, Mr. T. Gannaway's Charlwood Belle, Dr. J. W.
Low's Bess of Hardwicke, and Mrs. E. G. Money's Eastbourne Tarqueenia.
While these and such as these beautiful and typical terriers are being
bred and exhibited there is no cause to fear a further decline in
popularity for a variety so eminently engaging.

The club description is as follows:--

* * * * *

GENERAL APPEARANCE--The general appearance of the Bull-terrier is
that of a symmetrical animal, the embodiment of agility, grace,
elegance, and determination. HEAD--The head should be long, flat,
and wide between the ears, tapering to the nose, without cheek
muscles. There should be a slight indentation down the face, without
a stop between the eyes. The jaws should be long and very powerful,
with a large black nose and open nostrils. Eyes small and very black,
almond shape preferred. The lips should meet as tightly as possible,
without a fold. The teeth should be regular in shape, and should meet
exactly; any deviation, such as pigjaw, or being underhung, is a great
fault. EARS--The ears, when cropped, should be done scientifically
and according to fashion. Cropped dogs cannot win a prize at shows
held under Kennel Club rules, if born after March 31st, 1895. When
not cropped, it should be a semi-erect ear, but others do not
disqualify. NECK--The neck should be long and slightly arched, nicely
set into the shoulders tapering to the head without any loose skin,
as found in the Bulldog. SHOULDERS--The shoulders should be strong,
muscular, and slanting; the chest wide and deep, with ribs well
rounded. BACK--The back short and muscular, but not out of proportion
to the general contour of the animal. LEGS--The fore-legs should be
perfectly straight, with well-developed muscles; not out at shoulder,
but set on the racing lines, and very strong at the pastern joints.
The hind-legs are long and, in proportion to the fore-legs, muscular,
with good strong, straight hocks, well let down near the ground.
FEET--The feet more resemble those of a cat than a hare.
COLOUR--Should be white. COAT--Short, close, and stiff to the touch,
with a fine gloss. TAIL--Short in proportion to the size of the dog,
set on very low down, thick where it joins the body, and tapering
to a fine point. It should be carried at an angle of about 45 degrees,
without curl, and never over the back. HEIGHT AT SHOULDERS--From 12
to 18 inches. WEIGHT--From 15 lb. to 50 lb.



To attempt to set forth the origin of the Fox-terrier as we know him
to-day would be of no interest to the general reader, and would entail
the task of tracing back the several heterogeneous sources from which
he sprang. It is a matter of very little moment whether he owes his
origin to the white English Terrier or to the Bull-terrier crossed
with the Black and Tan, or whether he has a mixture of Beagle blood
in his composition, so it will suffice to take him as he emerged from
the chaos of mongreldom about the middle of the last century, rescued
in the first instance by the desire of huntsmen or masters of
well-known packs to produce a terrier somewhat in keeping with their
hounds; and, in the second place, to the advent of dog shows. Prior
to that time any dog capable, from his size, conformation, and pluck,
of going to ground and bolting his fox was a Fox-terrier, were he
rough or smooth, black, brown, or white.

The starting-point of the modern Fox-terrier dates from about the
'sixties, and no pedigrees before that are worth considering.

From three dogs then well known--Old Jock, Trap, and Tartar--he claims
descent; and, thanks to the Fox-terrier Club and the great care taken
in compiling their stud-books, he can be brought down to to-day. Of
these three dogs Old Jock was undoubtedly more of a terrier than the
others. It is a moot point whether he was bred, as stated in most
records of the time, by Captain Percy Williams, master of the Rufford,
or by Jack Morgan, huntsman to the Grove; it seems, however, well
established that the former owned his sire, also called Jock, and
that his dam, Grove Pepper, was the property of Morgan. He first came
before the public at the Birmingham show in 1862, where, shown by
Mr. Wootton, of Nottingham, he won first prize. He subsequently
changed hands several times, till he became the property of Mr.
Murchison, in whose hands he died in the early 'seventies. He was
exhibited for the last time at the Crystal Palace in 1870, and though
then over ten years old won second to the same owner's Trimmer. At
his best he was a smart, well-balanced terrier, with perhaps too much
daylight under him, and wanting somewhat in jaw power; but he showed
far less of the Bull-terrier type than did his contemporary Tartar.

This dog's antecedents were very questionable, and his breeder is
given as Mr. Stevenson, of Chester, most of whose dogs were
Bull-terriers pure and simple, save that they had drop ears and short
sterns, being in this respect unlike old Trap, whose sire is generally
supposed to have been a Black and Tan Terrier. This dog came from
the Oakley Kennels, and he was supposed to have been bred by a miller
at Leicester. However questionable the antecedents of these three
terriers may have been, they are undoubtedly the progenitors of our
present strain, and from them arose the kennels that we have to-day.

Mention has been made of Mr. Murchison, and to him we owe in a great
measure the start in popularity which since the foundation of his
large kennel the Fox-terrier has enjoyed. Mr. Murchison's chief
opponents in the early 'seventies were Mr. Gibson, of Brockenhurst,
with his dogs Tyke and Old Foiler; Mr. Luke Turner, of Leicester,
with his Belvoir strain, which later gave us Ch. Brockenhurst Joe,
Ch. Olive and her son, Ch. Spice; Mr. Theodore Bassett, Mr. Allison,
and, a year or so later, Mr. Frederick Burbidge, the Messrs. Clarke,
Mr. Tinne, Mr. Francis Redmond, and Mr. Vicary. About this time a
tremendous impetus was given to the breed by the formation, in 1876,
of the Fox-terrier Club, which owed its inception to Mr. Harding Cox
and a party of enthusiasts seated round his dinner table at 36,
Russell Square, among whom were Messrs. Bassett, Burbidge, Doyle,
Allison, and Redmond, the last two named being still members of the
club. The idea was very warmly welcomed, a committee formed, and a
scale of points drawn up which, with but one alteration, is in vogue
to-day. Every prominent exhibitor or breeder then, and with few
exceptions since, has been a member, and the club is by far the
strongest of all specialist clubs.

It will be well to give here the said standard of points.

* * * * *

HEAD AND EARS--The _Skull_ should be flat and moderately narrow, and
gradually decreasing in width to the eyes. Not much "stop" should
be apparent, but there should be more dip in the profile between the
forehead and top jaw than is seen in the case of a Greyhound. The
_Cheeks_ must not be full. The _Ears_ should be V-shaped and small,
of moderate thickness, and dropping forward close to the cheek, not
hanging by the side of the head like a Foxhound's. The _Jaw_, upper
and under, should be strong and muscular; should be of fair punishing
strength, but not so in any way to resemble the Greyhound or modern
English Terrier. There should not be much falling away below the eyes.
This part of the head, should, however, be moderately chiselled out,
so as not to go down in a straight line like a wedge. The _Nose_,
towards which the muzzle must gradually taper, should be black. The
_Eyes_ should be dark in colour, small, and rather deep set, full
of fire, life, and intelligence; as nearly as possible circular in
shape. The _Teeth_ should be as nearly as possible level, _i.e._,
the upper teeth on the outside of the lower teeth. NECK--Should be
clean and muscular, without throatiness, of fair length, and gradually
widening to the shoulders. SHOULDERS AND CHEST--The _Shoulders_ should
be long and sloping, well laid back, fine at the points, and clearly
cut at the withers. The _Chest_ deep and not broad. BACK AND LOIN--The
_Back_ should be short, straight, and strong, with no appearance of
slackness. The _Loin_ should be powerful and very slightly arched.
The fore ribs should be moderately arched, the back ribs deep; and
the dog should be well ribbed up. HIND-QUARTERS--Should be strong
and muscular, quite free from droop or crouch; the thighs long and
powerful; hocks near the ground, the dog standing well up on them
like a Foxhound, and not straight in the stifle. STERN--Should be
set on rather high, and carried gaily, but not over the back or
curled. It should be of good strength, anything approaching a
"pipe-stopper" tail being especially objectionable. LEGS AND FEET--The
_Legs_ viewed in any direction must be straight, showing little or
no appearance of an ankle in front. They should be strong in bone
throughout, short and straight to pastern. Both fore and hind legs
should be carried straight forward in travelling, the stifles not
turned outwards. The elbows should hang perpendicular to the body,
working free of the side. The _Feet_ should be round, compact, and
not large. The soles hard and tough. The toes moderately arched, and
turned neither in nor out. COAT--Should be straight, flat, smooth,
hard, dense, and abundant. The belly and under side of the thighs
should not be bare. As regards colour, white should predominate;
brindle, red, or liver markings are objectionable. Otherwise this
point is of little or no importance. SYMMETRY, SIZE, AND CHARACTER--The
dog must present a general gay, lively, and active appearance; bone
and strength in a small compass are essentials; but this must not
be taken to mean that a Fox-terrier should be cloggy, or in any way
coarse--speed and endurance must be looked to as well as power, and
the symmetry of the Foxhound taken as a model. The terrier, like the
hound, must on no account be leggy, nor must he be too short in the
leg. He should stand like a cleverly-made hunter, covering a lot of
ground, yet with a short back, as before stated. He will then attain
the highest degree of propelling power, together with the greatest
length of stride that is compatible with the length of his body.
Weight is not a certain criterion of a terrier's fitness for his
work--general shape, size and contour are the main points; and if
a dog can gallop and stay, and follow his fox up a drain, it matters
little what his weight is to a pound or so, though, roughly speaking,
it may be said he should not scale over twenty pounds in show

DISQUALIFYING POINTS: NOSE--White, cherry, or spotted to a
considerable extent with either of these colours. EARS--prick, tulip,
or rose. MOUTH--much overshot or much undershot.

* * * * *

In order to give some idea of the extraordinary way in which the
Fox-terrier took the public taste, it will be necessary to hark back
and give a _resume_ of the principal kennels and exhibitors to whom
this was due. In the year in which the Fox-terrier Club was formed,
Mr. Fred Burbidge, at one time captain of the Surrey Eleven, had the
principal kennels. He was the pluckiest buyer of his day, and once
he fancied a dog nothing stopped him till it was in his kennels. He
bought Nimrod, Dorcas, Tweezers, and Nettle, and with them and other
discriminating purchases he was very hard to beat on the show-bench.
Strange to say, at this time he seemed unable to breed a good dog,
and determined to have a clear out and start afresh. A few brood
bitches only were retained, and the kennels moved from Champion Hill
to Hunton Bridge, in Hertfordshire. From thence in a few years came
Bloom, Blossom, Tweezers II., Hunton Baron, Hunton Bridegroom, and
a host of others, which spread the fame of the great Hunton strain.
When the kennel was dispersed at Mr. Burbidge's untimely death in
1892, the dogs, 130 lots in all, were sold by auction and realised
P1,800; Hunton Tartar fetched P135, Justice P84, Bliss P70, and
Scramble P65.

Messrs. A. H. and C. Clarke were at this time quietly founding a
kennel, which perhaps has left its mark more indelibly on the breed
than any before or since. Brockenhurst Rally was a most fortunate
purchase from his breeder, Mr. Herbert Peel, and was by Brockenhurst
Joe from a Bitters bitch, as from this dog came Roysterer and Ruler,
their dam being Jess, an old Turk bitch; and from Rollick by Buff
was bred Ruse and Ransome. Roysterer was the sire of Result, by many
considered the best Fox-terrier dog of all time; and Result's own
daughter Rachel was certainly the best bitch of her day. All these
terriers had intense quality and style, due for the most part to
inbreeding. Very little new blood was introduced, with an inevitable
result; and by degrees the kennel died out.

No history of the Fox-terrier could be complete without mention of
Mr. Francis Redmond and his kennel, going back, as it does, to the
Murchison and Luke Turner period, and being still to-day the most
prominent one in existence. We can date his earlier efforts from his
purchase of Deacon Nettle, the dam of Deacon Ruby; Dusty was the dam
of Ch. Diamond Dust; Dickon he had from Luke Turner, and in this dog
we have one of the foundation-stones of the Fox-terrier stud-book,
as he was the sire of Splinter, who in his turn was the sire of

Mr. Redmond's next great winners were D'Orsay and Dominie, two
sterling good terriers, the former of which was the sire of Dame
D'Orsay, who, bred to Despoiler, produced Dame Fortune, the mother
of Donna Fortuna, whose other parent was Dominie. Donna Fortuna,
considered universally the best specimen of a Fox-terrier ever
produced, had from the first a brilliant career, for though fearlessly
shown on all occasions she never knew defeat. Some took exception
to her want of what is called terrier character, and others would
have liked her a shade smaller; but we have still to see the
Fox-terrier, taken all round, that could beat her.

As an outcross Mr. Redmond purchased Dreadnought, one of the highest
class dogs seen for many years, but had very bad luck with him, an
accident preventing him from being shown and subsequently causing
his early death. We must not forget Duchess of Durham or Dukedom;
but to enumerate all Mr. Redmond's winners it would be necessary to
take the catalogues of all the important shows held for the past
thirty years. To no one do we owe so much; no one has made such a
study of the breed, reducing it almost to a science, with the result
that even outside his kennels no dog has any chance of permanently
holding his own unless he has an ample supply of the blood.

The great opponent of the Totteridge Kennel up to some few years ago
was unquestionably Mr. Vicary, of Newton Abbot, who laid the
foundation of his kennel with Vesuvian, who was by Splinter, out of
Kohinor, and from whom came the long line of winners, Venio-Vesuvienne,
Vice-Regal, Valuator, Visto, and Veracity. Fierce war raged round
these kennels, each having its admiring and devoted adherents, until
one side would not look at anything but a Redmond Terrier to the
exclusion of the Vicary type. The Newton Abbot strain was remarkable
for beautiful heads and great quality, but was faulty in feet and
not absolute as to fronts, each of which properties was a _sine qua
non_ amongst the Totteridge dogs. Latter-day breeders have recognised
that in the crossing of the two perfection lies, and Mr. Redmond
himself has not hesitated to go some way on the same road.

[Illustration: FOX TERRIERS
1. Mrs. J. H. Brown's Ch. Captain Double
2. Mr. J. C. Tinne's Ch. The Sylph
3. Mr. T. J. Stephen's Wire-Hair Ch. Sylvan Result
_Photograph by Revely_]

It is fortunate for the breed of Fox-terriers how great a hold the
hobby takes, and how enthusiastically its votaries pursue it,
otherwise we should not have amongst us men like Mr. J. C. Tinne,
whose name is now a household word in the Fox-terrier world, as it
has been any time for the past thirty years. Close proximity, in those
days, to Mr. Gibson at Brockenhurst made him all the keener, and one
of his first terriers was a bitch of that blood by Bitters. With
daughters of Old Foiler he did very well--to wit, Pungent, sister
to Dorcas, while through Terror we get Banquet, the granddam of
Despoiler. He purchased from Mr. Redmond both Deacon Diamond and Daze,
each of whom was bred to Spice, and produced respectively Auburn and
Brockenhurst Dainty; from the latter pair sprang Lottery and Worry,
the granddam of Tom Newcome, to whom we owe Brockenhurst Agnes,
Brockenhurst Dame, and Dinah Morris, and consequently Adam Bede and
Hester Sorrel.

It has always been Mr. Tinne's principle to aim at producing the best
terrier he could, irrespective of the fads of this kennel or that,
and his judgment has been amply vindicated, as the prize lists of
every large show will testify. And to-day he is the proud possessor
of Ch. The Sylph, who has beaten every one of her sex, and is
considered by many about the best Fox-terrier ever seen.

No name is better known or more highly respected by dog owners than
that of the late Mr. J. A. Doyle, as a writer, breeder, judge, or
exhibitor of Fox-terriers. Whilst breeding largely from his own stock,
he was ever on the look-out for a likely outcross. He laid great store
on terrier character, and was a stickler for good coats; a point much
neglected in the present-day dog.

Amongst the smaller kennels is that of Mr. Reeks, now mostly
identified with Oxonian and that dog's produce, but he will always
be remembered as the breeder of that beautiful terrier, Avon Minstrel.
Mr. Arnold Gillett has had a good share of fortune's favours, as the
Ridgewood dogs testify; whilst the Messrs. Powell, Castle, Glynn,
Dale, and Crosthwaite have all written their names on the pages of
Fox-terrier history. Ladies have ever been supporters of the breed,
and no one more prominently so than Mrs. Bennett Edwards, who through
Duke of Doncaster, a son of Durham, has founded a kennel which at
times is almost invincible, and which still shelters such grand
terriers as Doncaster, Dominie, Dodger, Dauphine, and many others
well known to fame. Mrs. J. H. Brown, too, as the owner of Captain
Double, a terrier which has won, and deservedly, more prizes than
any Fox-terrier now or in the past, must not be omitted.

Whether the present Fox-terrier is as good, both on the score of
utility and appearance, as his predecessors is a question which has
many times been asked, and as many times decided in the negative as
well as in the affirmative. It would be idle to pretend that a great
many of the dogs now seen on the show bench are fitted to do the work
Nature intended them for, as irrespective of their make and shape
they are so oversized as to preclude the possibility of going to
ground in any average sized earth.

This question of size is one that must sooner or later be tackled
in some practical way by the Fox-terrier Club, unless we are to see
a race of giants in the next few generations. Their own standard gives
20 lb.--a very liberal maximum; but there are dogs several pounds
heavier constantly winning prizes at shows, and consequently being
bred from, with the result which we see. There are many little dogs,
and good ones, to be seen, but as long as the judges favour the big
ones these hold no chance, and as it is far easier to produce a good
big one than a good little one, breeders are encouraged to use sires
who would not be looked at if a hard-and-fast line were drawn over
which no dogs should win a prize. There are hundreds of Fox-terriers
about quite as capable of doing their work as their ancestors ever
were, and there is hardly a large kennel which has not from time to
time furnished our leading packs with one or more dogs, and with
gratifying results. It is, therefore, a great pity that our leading
exhibitors should often be the greatest delinquents in showing dogs
which they know in their hearts should be kept at home or drafted
altogether, and it is deplorable that some of our oldest judges should
by their awards encourage them.

Before concluding this chapter it may not be out of place to say a
few words as to the breeding and rearing of Fox terriers.

In the first place, _never_ breed from an animal whose pedigree is
not authenticated beyond a shadow of a doubt; and remember that while
like _may_ beget like, the inevitable tendency is to throw back to
former generations. The man who elects to breed Fox-terriers must
have the bumps of patience and hope very strongly developed, as if
the tyro imagines that he has only to mate his bitch to one of the
known prize-winning dogs of the day in order to produce a champion,
he had better try some other breed. Let him fix in his mind the ideal
dog, and set to work by patient effort and in the face of many
disappointments to produce it. It is not sufficient that, having
acquired a bitch good in all points save in head, that he breeds her
to the best-headed dog he can find. He must satisfy himself that the
head is not a chance one, but is an inherited one, handed down from
many generations, good in this particular, and consequently potent
to reproduce its like. So in all other points that he wishes to
reproduce. In the writer's experience, little bitches with quality
are the most successful. Those having masculine characteristics should
be avoided, and the best results will be obtained from the first three
litters, after which a bitch rarely breeds anything so good. See that
your bitch is free from worms before she goes to the dog, then feed
her well, and beyond a dose of castor oil some days before she is
due to whelp, let Nature take its course. Dose your puppies well for
worms at eight weeks old, give them practically as much as they will
eat, and unlimited exercise. Avoid the various advertised nostrums,
and rely rather on the friendly advice of some fancier or your
veterinary surgeon.

Take your hobby seriously, and you will be amply repaid, even if
success does not always crown your efforts, as while the breeding
of most animals is a fascinating pursuit, that of the Fox-terrier
presents many varying delights.



The wire-hair Fox-terrier is, with the exception of its coat,
identical with the smooth Fox-terrier--full brother in fact to him.
The two varieties are much interbred, and several litters in
consequence include representatives of both; and not only this, but
it is quite a frequent occurrence to get a smooth puppy from wire-hair
parents, although for some generations neither of the parents may
have had any smooth cross in their pedigrees.

The North of England and South Wales (to a lesser extent) have ever
been the home of the wire-hair, and nearly all the best specimens
have come originally from one or the other of those districts. There
is no doubt that there was excellent stock in both places, and there
is also no doubt that though at times this was used to the best
advantage, there was a good deal of carelessness in mating, and a
certain amount in recording the parentage of some of the terriers.
With regard to this latter point it is said that one gentleman who
had quite a large kennel and several stud dogs, but who kept no books,
used never to bother about remembering which particular dog he had
put to a certain bitch, but generally satisfied himself as to the
sire of a puppy when it came in from "walk" by just examining it and
saying "Oh, that pup must be by owd Jock or Jim," as the case might
be, "'cos he's so loike 'im," and down he would go on the entry form
accordingly. However this may be, there is no doubt that the sire
would be a wire-hair Fox-terrier, and, although the pedigree therefore
may not have been quite right, the terrier was invariably pure bred.

In the early days the smooth was not crossed with the wire to anything
like the extent that it was later, and this fact is probably the cause
of the salvation of the variety. The wire-hair has had more harm done
to him by his being injudiciously crossed with the smooth than
probably by anything else.

The greatest care must be exercised in the matter of coat before any
such cross is effected. The smooth that is crossed with the wire must
have a really hard, and not too full coat, and, as there are very,
very few smooths now being shown with anything like a proper coat
for a terrier to possess, the very greatest caution is necessary.
Some few years back, almost incalculable harm was done to the variety
by a considerable amount of crossing into a strain of smooths with
terribly soft flannelly coats. Good-looking terriers were produced,
and therein lay the danger, but their coats were as bad as bad could
be; and, though people were at first too prone to look over this very
serious fault, they now seem to have recovered their senses, and thus,
although much harm was done, any serious damage has been averted.
If a person has a full-coated wire-hair bitch he is too apt to put
her to a smooth simply because it is a smooth, whom he thinks will
neutralise the length of his bitch's jacket, but this is absolute
heresy, and must not be done unless the smooth has the very hardest
of hair on him. If it is done, the result is too horrible for words:
you get an elongated, smooth, full coat as soft as cotton wool, and
sometimes as silkily wavy as a lady's hair. This is not a coat for
any terrier to possess, and it is not a wire-hair terrier's coat,
which ought to be a hard, crinkly, peculiar-looking broken coat on
top, with a dense undercoat underneath, and must never be mistakable
for an elongated smooth terrier's coat, which can never at any time
be a protection from wind, water, or dirt, and is, in reality, the

The wire-hair has had a great advertisement, for better or worse,
in the extraordinarily prominent way he has been mentioned in
connection with "faking" and trimming. Columns have been written on
this subject, speeches of inordinate length have been delivered,
motions and resolutions have been carried, rules have been
promulgated, etc., etc., and the one dog mentioned throughout in
connection with all of them has been our poor old, much maligned
wire-hair. He has been the scapegoat, the subject of all this
brilliancy and eloquence, and were he capable of understanding the
language of the human, we may feel sure much amusement would be his.

There are several breeds that are more trimmed than the wire-hair,
and that might well be quoted before him in this connection. There
is a vast difference between legitimate trimming, and what is called
"faking." All dogs with long or wire-hair or rough coats naturally
require more attention, and more grooming than those with short smooth
coats. For the purposes of health and cleanliness it is absolutely
necessary that such animals should be frequently well groomed. There
is no necessity, given a wire-hair with a good and proper coat, to
use anything but an ordinary close-toothed comb, a good hard brush,
and an occasional removal of long old hairs on the head, ears, neck,
legs, and belly, with the finger and thumb. The Kennel Club
regulations for the preparation of dogs for exhibition are perfectly
clear on this subject, and are worded most properly. They say that
a dog "shall be disqualified if any part of his coat or hair has been
cut, clipped, singed, or rasped down by any substance, or if any of
the new or fast coat has been removed by pulling or plucking in any
manner," and that "no comb shall be used which has a cutting or
rasping edge." There is no law, therefore, against the removal of
old coat by finger and thumb, and anyone who keeps long-haired dogs
knows that it is essential to the dog's health that there should be

It is in fact most necessary in certain cases, at certain times, to
pull old coat out in this way. Several terriers with good coats are
apt to grow long hair very thickly round the neck and ears, and unless
this is removed when it gets old, the neck and ears are liable to
become infested with objectionable little slate-coloured nits, which
will never be found as long as the coat is kept down when necessary.
Bitches in whelp and after whelping, although ordinarily good-coated,
seem to go all wrong in their coats unless properly attended to in
this way, and here again, if you wish to keep your bitch free from
skin trouble, it is a necessity, in those cases which need it, to
use finger and thumb.

If the old hair is pulled out only when it is old, there is no
difficulty about it, and no hurt whatever is occasioned to the dog,
who does not in reality object at all. If, however, new or fast coat
is pulled out it not only hurts the dog but it is also a very foolish
thing to do, and the person guilty of such a thing fully merits

Most of the nonsense that is heard about trimming emanates, of course,
from the ignoramus; the knife, he says, is used on them all, a sharp
razor is run over their coats, they are singed, they are cut, they
are rasped (the latter is the favourite term). Anything like such
a sweeping condemnation is quite inaccurate and most unfair. It is
impossible to cut a hair without being detected by a good judge, and
very few people ever do any such thing, at any rate for some months
before the terrier is exhibited, for if they do, they know they are
bound to be discovered, and, as a fact, are.

When the soft-coated dogs are clipped they are operated on, say, two
or three months before they are wanted, and the hair gets a chance
to grow, but even then it is easily discernible, and anyone who, like
the writer, has any experience of clipping dogs in order to cure them
of that awful disease, follicular mange, knows what a sight the animal
is when he grows his coat, and how terribly unnatural he looks.

The wire-hair has never been in better state than he is to-day; he
is, generally speaking, far ahead of his predecessors of twenty-five
years ago, not only from a show point of view, but also in working
qualities. One has only to compare the old portraits of specimens
of the variety with dogs of the present day to see this. A good many
individual specimens of excellent merit, it is true, there were, but
they do not seem to have been immortalised in this way. The portraits
of those we do see are mostly representations of awful-looking brutes,
as bad in shoulders, and light of bone, as they could be; they appear
also to have had very soft coats, somewhat akin to that we see on
a Pomeranian nowadays, though it is true this latter fault may have
been that of the artist, or probably amplified by him.

Perhaps the strongest kennel of wire-hairs that has existed was that
owned a good many years ago by Messrs. Maxwell and Cassell. Several
champions were in the kennel at the same time, and they were a sorty
lot of nice size, and won prizes all over the country. Jack Frost,
Jacks Again, Liffey, Barton Wonder, Barton Marvel, and several other
good ones, were inmates of this kennel, the two latter especially
being high-class terriers, which at one time were owned by Sir H.
de Trafford. Barton Marvel was a very beautiful bitch, and probably
the best of those named above, though Barton Wonder was frequently
put above her. Sir H. de Trafford had for years a very good kennel
of the variety, and at that time was probably the biggest and best

Mr. Carrick, of Carlisle, was also a prominent owner years ago, and
showed some excellent terriers, the best being Carlisle Tack, Trick,
and Tyro. The latter was an exceptionally good dog.

Mr. Sam Hill, of Sheffield, had also a strong kennel, always well
shown by George Porter, who is now, and has been for some years, in
America, where he still follows his old love. Mr. Hill's name will
ever be associated with that of his great dog Meersbrook Bristles,
who has undoubtedly done the breed a great amount of good. Mr. Mayhew
is another old fancier, who nearly always showed a good one. Mr.
Mayhew has been in America now for many years. One dog of his, who
it is believed became a champion, viz. Brittle, did at one time a
big business at stud, perhaps not to the advantage of the breed, for
he was possessed of a very bad fault, in that he had what was called
a topknot ring, a bunch of soft silky hairs on his forehead, an
unfailing sign of a soft coat all over, and a thing which breeders
should studiously avoid. This topknot was at one time more prevalent
than it is now. Whether it is a coincidence or not one cannot say,
but it is a fact that in the writer's experience several terriers
possessed of this fault have also blue markings, which again are
almost invariably accompanied by a soft coat, and taking these two
peculiarities together it would seem that at some time, years ago,
a cross with that wonderfully game but exceedingly soft-coated
terrier, the Bedlington, may have been resorted to, though if so it
would appear that nowadays any effect of it is gradually dying out.

Mr. George Raper is one of the old fanciers who has for many years
owned some of the best specimens of the variety, Ch. Go Bang perhaps
being the most notable. Go Bang was a beautiful terrier; there was
no denying his quality. Mr. Raper sold him to Mr. G. M. Carnochan,
of New York, for something like P500, probably the biggest price that
has ever been paid for any Fox-terrier. Mr. Hayward Field is another
gentleman who has been exhibiting the breed for very many years, and
has owned several good terriers. The late Mr. Clear had also at one
time a strong kennel, the best of which by a long way was Ch. Jack
St. Leger.

Mr. Wharton was a well-known exhibitor and judge some time back. It
was he who owned that excellent little terrier Ch. Bushey Broom, who
created quite a furore when first exhibited at the Westminster

Mr. Harding Cox was years ago a great supporter of the variety. He
exhibited with varying success, and was always much in request as
a judge; one knew in entering under him that he wanted firstly a
_terrier_, and further that the terrier had to be _sound_. Mr. Cox
has of course played a big part in the popularisation of the
Fox-terrier, for, as all the world knows, he was the instigator of
the Fox-terrier Club, it being founded at a meeting held at his house.
His love has ever been for the small terrier, and certainly the
specimens shown by him, whatever their individual faults, were
invariably a sporting, game-looking lot. Mr. Sidney Castle has for
many years shown wire-hair Fox-terriers of more than average merit;
and thoroughly understands the variety, indeed, perhaps as well as
anybody. Messrs. Bartle, Brumby Mutter, G. Welch, and S. Wilson, are
all old fanciers who have great experience, have bred and shown
excellent specimens.

In mentioning the names of celebrated men and terriers of years gone
by, reference must be made to a terrier shown some time ago, which
was as good, taken all round, as any that have so far appeared. This
was Ch. Quantock Nettle, afterwards purchased by a gentleman in Wales
and renamed Lexden Nettle. Of correct size, with marvellous character,
an excellent jacket and very takingly marked with badger tan and black
on a wonderful head and ears, this bitch swept the board, as they
say, and unquestionably rightly so.

No article on the wire-hair Fox-terrier would be complete without
mentioning the name of the late Mr. S. E. Shirley, President of the
Kennel Club. Mr. Shirley was a successful exhibitor in the early days

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