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Dogs and All About Them by Robert Leighton

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well-defined; the hocks well let down. NAILS--The nails in the
black-spotted variety should be black and white in the liver-spotted
variety brown and white. TAIL--The tail should not be too long, strong
at the insertion, and gradually tapering towards the end, free from
coarseness. It should not be inserted too low down, but carried with
a slight curve upwards, and never curled. It should be spotted, the
more profusely the better. COAT--The coat should be short, hard, dense
and fine, sleek and glossy in appearance, but neither woolly nor
silky. COLOUR AND MARKINGS--These are most important points. The
ground colour in both varieties should be pure white, very decided,
and not intermixed. The colour of the spots of the black-spotted
variety should be black, the deeper and richer the black the better;
in the liver-spotted variety they should be brown. The spots should
not intermingle, but be as round and well-defined as possible, the
more distinct the better; in size they should be from that of a
sixpence to a florin. The spots on head, face, ears, legs, tail, and
extremities to be smaller than those on the body. WEIGHT--Dogs,
55 lbs.; bitches, 50 lbs.



The townsman who knows the shepherd's dog only as he is to be seen,
out of his true element, threading his confined way through crowded
streets where sheep are not, can have small appreciation of his wisdom
and his sterling worth. To know him properly, one needs to see him
at work in a country where sheep abound, to watch him adroitly
rounding up his scattered charges on a wide-stretching moorland,
gathering the wandering wethers into close order and driving them
before him in unbroken company to the fold; handling the stubborn
pack in a narrow lane, or holding them in a corner of a field,
immobile under the spell of his vigilant eye. He is at his best as
a worker, conscious of the responsibility reposed in him; a marvel
of generalship, gentle, judicious, slow to anger, quick to action;
the priceless helpmeet of his master--the most useful member of all
the tribe of dogs.

Few dogs possess the fertile, resourceful brain of the Collie. He
can be trained to perform the duties of other breeds. He makes an
excellent sporting dog, and can be taught to do the work of the
Pointer and the Setter, as well as that of the Water Spaniel and the
Retriever. He is clever at hunting, having an excellent nose, is a
good vermin-killer, and a most faithful watch, guard, and companion.
Major Richardson, who for some years has been successful in training
dogs to ambulance work on the field of battle, has carefully tested
the abilities of various breeds in discovering wounded soldiers, and
he gives to the Collie the decided preference.

It is, however, as an assistant to the flock-master the farmer, the
butcher, and the drover that the Collie takes his most appropriate
place in every-day life. The shepherd on his daily rounds, travelling
over miles of moorland, could not well accomplish his task without
his Collie's skilful aid. One such dog, knowing what is expected of
him, can do work which would otherwise require the combined efforts
of a score of men.

Little is known with certainty of the origin of the Collie, but his
cunning and his outward appearance would seem to indicate a
relationship with the wild dog. Buffon was of opinion that he was
the true dog of nature, the stock and model of the whole canine
species. He considered the Sheepdog superior in instinct and
intelligence to all other breeds, and that, with a character in which
education has comparatively little share, he is the only animal born
perfectly trained for the service of man.

One of the most perfect working Collies in Scotland to-day is the
old-fashioned black and white type, which is the most popular among
the shepherds of Scotland. At the shows this type of dog is invariably
at the top of the class. He is considered the most tractable, and is
certainly the most agile. Second to this type in favour is the
smooth-coated variety, a very hard, useful dog, well adapted for hill
work and usually very fleet of foot. He is not so sweet in temper
as the black and white, and is slow to make friends. In the Ettrick
and Yarrow district the smooth is a popular sheepdog. The shepherds
maintain that he climbs the hills more swiftly than the rough, and
in the heavy snowstorms his clean, unfeathered legs do not collect
and carry the snow. He has a fuller coat than the show specimens
usually carry, but he has the same type of head, eye, and ears, only
not so well developed.

Then there is the Scottish bearded, or Highland Collie, less popular
still with the flock-master, a hardy-looking dog in outward style,
but soft in temperament, and many of them make better cattle than
sheep dogs. This dog and the Old English Sheepdog are much alike in
appearance, but that the bearded is a more racy animal, with a head
resembling that of the Dandie Dinmont rather than the square head
of the Bobtail. The strong-limbed bearded Collie is capable of getting
through a good day's work, but is not so steady nor so wise as the
old-fashioned black and white, or even the smooth coated variety.
He is a favourite with the butcher and drover who have sometimes a
herd of troublesome cattle to handle, and he is well suited to rough
and rocky ground, active in movement, and as sure-footed as the wild
goat. He can endure cold and wet without discomfort, and can live on
the Highland hills when others less sturdy would succumb. In the
standard adopted for judging the breed, many points are given for
good legs and feet, bone, body, and coat, while head and ears are
not of great importance. Movement, size, and general appearance have
much weight. The colour is varied in this breed. Cream-coloured
specimens are not uncommon, and snow white with orange or black
markings may often be seen, but the popular colour is grizzly grey.
Unfortunately the coats of many are far too soft and the undercoat
is frequently absent.

Working trials to test the skill of the sheepdog have become frequent
fixtures among shepherds and farmers within recent years, and these
competitions have done much towards the improvement of the working
qualities of the Collie. In general the excelling competitors at
working trials are the rough-coated black and white Collies. The
smooth-coated variety and the Beardie are less frequent winners. The
handsome and distinguished gentlemen of the Ch. Wishaw Leader type
are seldom seen on the trial field, although formerly such a dog as
Ch. Ormskirk Charlie might be successfully entered with others equally
well bred from the kennels of that good trainer and fancier, Mr.
Piggin, of Long Eaton. A good working Collie, however, is not always
robed in elegance. What is desirable is that the shepherd and farmer
should fix a standard of points, and breed as near as possible to
that standard, as the keepers of the show Collie breed to an
acknowledged type of perfection. Nevertheless, from a bad worker of
good descent many an efficient worker might be produced by proper
mating, and those of us skilled in the breeding of Collies know the
importance of a well-considered process of selection from unsullied

It is a pity that the hard-working dog of the shepherd does not
receive the attention in the way of feeding and grooming that is
bestowed on the ornamental show dog. He is too often neglected in
these particulars. Notwithstanding this neglect, however, the average
life of the working dog is longer by a year or two than that of his
more beautiful cousin. Pampering and artificial living are not to
be encouraged; but, on the other hand, neglect has the same effect
of shortening the span of life, and bad feeding and inattention to
cleanliness provoke the skin diseases which are far too prevalent.

There is not a more graceful and physically beautiful dog to be seen
than the show Collie of the present period. Produced from the old
working type, he is now practically a distinct breed. His qualities
in the field are not often tested, but he is a much more handsome
and attractive animal, and his comeliness will always win for him
many admiring friends. The improvements in his style and appearance
have been alleged to be due to an admixture with Gordon Setter blood.
In the early years of exhibitions he showed the shorter head, heavy
ears, and much of the black and tan colouring which might seem to
justify such a supposition; but there is no evidence that the cross
was ever purposely sought. Gradually the colour was lightened to sable
and a mingling of black, white, and tan came into favour. The shape
of the head was also improved. These improvements in beauty of form
and colour have been largely induced by the many Collie clubs now
in existence not only in the United Kingdom and America, but also
in South Africa and Germany, by whom the standards of points have
been perfected. Type has been enhanced, the head with the small
ornamental ears that now prevail is more classical; and scientific
cultivation and careful selection of typical breeding stock have
achieved what may be considered the superlative degree of quality,
without appreciable loss of stamina, size, or substance.

Twenty years or so ago, when Collies were becoming fashionable, the
rich sable coat with long white mane was in highest request. In 1888
Ch. Metchley Wonder captivated his admirers by these rich qualities.
He was the first Collie for which a very high purchase price was paid,
Mr. Sam Boddington having sold him to Mr. A. H. Megson, of Manchester,
for P530. High prices then became frequent. Mr. Megson paid as much
as P1,600 to Mr. Tom Stretch for Ormskirk Emerald. No Collie has had
a longer or more brilliant career than Emerald, and although he was
not esteemed as a successful sire, yet he was certainly the greatest
favourite among our show dogs of recent years.

Mr. Megson has owned many other good specimens of the breed, both
rough and smooth. In the same year that he bought Metchley Wonder,
he gave P350 for a ten-months' puppy, Caractacus. Sable and white
is his favourite combination of colour, a fancy which was shared some
years ago by the American buyers, who would have nothing else. Black,
tan, and white became more popular in England, and while there is
now a good market for these in the United States the sable and white
remains the favourite of the American buyers and breeders.

The best Collie of modern times was undoubtedly Ch. Squire of Tytton,
which went to America for P1,250. A golden sable with quality, nice
size, and profuse coat, he had an unbeaten record in this country.
Another of our best and most typical rough Collies was Ch. Wishaw
Leader. This beautiful dog, who had a most distinguished show career,
was a well-made black, tan, and white, with an enormous coat and
beautiful flowing white mane; one of the most active movers,
displaying quality all through, and yet having plenty of substance.
He had that desirable distinction of type which is so often lacking
in our long-headed Collies. Ormskirk Emerald's head was of good length
and well balanced, the skull sufficiently flat; his eye was
almond-shaped and dark-brown in colour, his expression keen and wise,
entirely free from the soft look which we see on many of the faces
to-day. Historical examples of the show Collie have also been seen
in Champions Christopher, Anfield Model, Sappho of Tytton, Parbold
Piccolo, and Woodmanstern Tartan.

In recent years the smooth Collie has gained in popularity quite as
certainly as his more amply attired relative. Originally he was a
dog produced by mating the old-fashioned black and white with the
Greyhound. But the Greyhound type, which was formerly very marked,
can scarcely be discerned to-day. Still, it is not infrequent that
a throw-back is discovered in a litter producing perhaps a
slate-coloured, a pure, white, or a jet black individual, or that
an otherwise perfect smooth Collie should betray the heavy ears or
the eye of a Greyhound. At one time this breed of dog was much
cultivated in Scotland, but nowadays the breeding of smooths is
almost wholly confined to the English side of the Border.

[Illustration: MR. R. A. TAIT'S COLLIE CH. WISHAW LEADER Photograph
by C. Reid, Wishaw]

The following is the accepted description of the Perfect Collie:--

* * * * *

THE SKULL should be flat, moderately wide between the ears, and
gradually tapering towards the eyes. There should only be a slight
depression at stop. The width of skull necessarily depends upon
combined length of skull and muzzle; and the whole must be considered
in connection with the size of the dog. The cheek should not be full
or prominent. THE MUZZLE should be of fair length, tapering to the
nose, and must not show weakness or be snipy or lippy. Whatever the
colour of the dog may be, the nose must be black. THE TEETH should
be of good size, sound and level; very slight unevenness is
permissible. THE JAWS--Clean cut and powerful. THE EYES are a very
important feature, and give expression to the dog; they should be
of medium size, set somewhat obliquely, of almond shape, and of a
brown colour except in the case of merles, when the eyes are
frequently (one or both) blue and white or china; expression full
of intelligence, with a quick alert look when listening. THE EARS
should be small and moderately wide at the base, and placed not too
close together but on the top of the skull and not on the side of
the head. When in repose they should be usually carried thrown back,
but when on the alert brought forward and carried semi-erect, with
tips slightly drooping in attitude of listening. THE NECK should be
muscular, powerful and of fair length, and somewhat arched. THE BODY
should be strong, with well sprung ribs, chest deep, fairly broad
behind the shoulders, which should be sloped, loins very powerful.
The dog should be straight in front. THE FORE-LEGS should be straight
and muscular, neither in nor out at elbows, with a fair amount of
bone; the forearm somewhat fleshy, the pasterns showing flexibility
without weakness. THE HIND-LEGS should be muscular at the thighs,
clean and sinewy below the hocks, with well bent stifles. THE FEET
should be oval in shape, soles well padded, and the toes arched and
close together. The hind feet less arched, the hocks well let down
and powerful. THE BRUSH should be moderately long carried low when
the dog is quiet, with a slight upward "swirl" at the end, and may
be gaily carried when the dog is excited, but not over the back. THE
COAT should be very dense, the outer coat harsh to the touch, the
inner or under coat soft, furry, and very close, so close as almost
to hide the skin. The mane and frill should be very abundant, the
mask or face smooth, as also the ears at the tips, but they should
carry more hair towards the base; the fore-legs well feathered, the
hind-legs above the hocks profusely so; but below the hocks fairly
smooth, although all heavily coated Collies are liable to grow a
slight feathering. Hair on the brush very profuse. COLOUR in the
Collie is immaterial. IN GENERAL CHARACTER he is a lithe active dog,
his deep chest showing lung power, his neck strength, his sloping
shoulders and well bent hocks indicating speed, and his expression
high intelligence. He should be a fair length on the leg, giving him
more of a racy than a cloddy appearance. In a few words, a Collie
should show endurance, activity, and intelligence, with free and true
action. In height dogs should be 22 ins. to 24 ins. at the shoulders,
bitches 20 ins. to 22 ins. The weight for dogs is 45 to 65 lbs.,
bitches 40 to 55 lbs. THE SMOOTH COLLIE only differs from the rough
in its coat, which should be hard, dense and quite smooth. THE MAIN
FAULTS to be avoided are a domed skull, high peaked occipital bone,
heavy, pendulous or pricked ears, weak jaws, snipy muzzle, full
staring or light eyes, crooked legs, large, flat or hare feet, curly
or soft coat, cow hocks, and brush twisted or carried right over the
back, under or overshot mouth.



Intelligent and picturesque, workmanlike and affectionate, the Old
English Sheepdog combines, in his shaggy person, the attributes at
once of a drover's drudge and of an ideal companion. Although the
modern dog is seen less often than of old performing his legitimate
duties as a shepherd dog, there is no ground whatever for supposing
that he is a whit less sagacious than the mongrels which have largely
supplanted him. The instincts of the race remain unchanged; but the
mongrel certainly comes cheaper.

Carefully handled in his youth, the bob-tail is unequalled as a stock
dog, and he is equally at home and efficient in charge of sheep, of
cattle, and of New Forest ponies. So deep-rooted is the natural
herding instinct of the breed that it is a thousand pities that the
modern shepherd so frequently puts up with an inferior animal in place
of the genuine article.

Nor is it as a shepherd dog alone that the bob-tail shines in the
field. His qualifications as a sporting dog are excellent, and he
makes a capital retriever, being usually under excellent control,
generally light-mouthed, and taking very readily to water. His
natural inclination to remain at his master's heel and his exceptional
sagacity and quickness of perception will speedily develop him, in
a sportsman's hands, into a first-rate dog to shoot over.

These points in his favour should never be lost sight of, because
his increasing popularity on the show bench is apt to mislead many
of his admirers into the belief that he is an ornamental rather than
a utility dog. Nothing could be further from the fact. Nevertheless,
he has few equals as a house dog, being naturally cleanly in his
habits, affectionate in his disposition, an admirable watch, and an
extraordinarily adaptable companion.

As to his origin, there is considerable conflict of opinion, owing
to the natural difficulty of tracing him back to that period when
the dog-fancier, as he flourishes to-day, was all unknown, and the
voluminous records of a watchful Kennel Club were still undreamed
of. From time immemorial a sheepdog, of one kind or another, has
presided over the welfare of flocks and herds in every land. Probably,
in an age less peaceable than ours, this canine guardian was called
upon, in addition to his other duties, to protect his charges from
wolves and bears and other marauders. In that case it is very possible
that the early progenitors of the breed were built upon a larger and
more massive scale than is the sheepdog of to-day.

The herd dogs of foreign countries, such as the Calabrian of the
Pyrenees, the Himalayan drover's dog, and the Russian Owtchah, are
all of them massive and powerful animals, far larger and fiercer than
our own, though each of them, and notably the Owtchah, has many points
in common with the English bob-tail. It is quite possible that all
of them may trace their origin, at some remote period, to the same
ancestral strain. Indeed, it is quite open to argument that the
founders of our breed, as it exists to-day, were imported into England
at some far-off date when the duties of a sheepdog demanded of him
fighting qualities no longer necessary.

Throughout the nineteenth century, one finds conclusive evidence that
the breed was very fairly represented in many parts of England,
notably in Suffolk, Hampshire, and Dorsetshire, and also in Wales.
Youatt writes of it in 1845, Richardson in 1847, and "Stonehenge"
in 1859. Their descriptions vary a little, though the leading
characteristics are much the same, but each writer specially notes
the exceptional sagacity of the breed.

The dog was well known in Scotland, too, under the title of the
Bearded Collie, for there is little doubt that this last is merely
a variant of the breed. He differs, in point of fact, chiefly by
reason of possessing a tail, the amputation of which is a recognised
custom in England.

With regard to this custom, it is said that the drovers originated
it. Their dogs, kept for working purposes, were immune from taxation,
and they adopted this method of distinguishing the animals thus
exempted. It has been argued, by disciples of the Darwinian theory
of inherited effects from continued mutilations, that a long process
of breeding from tailless animals has resulted in producing puppies
naturally bob-tailed, and it is difficult, on any other hypothesis,
to account for the fact that many puppies are so born. It is certainly
a fact that one or two natural bob-tails are frequently found in a
litter of which the remainder are duly furnished with well-developed

From careful consideration of the weight of evidence, it seems
unlikely that the breed was originally a tailless one, but the modern
custom undoubtedly accentuates its picturesqueness by bringing into
special prominence the rounded shaggy quarters and the characteristic
bear-like gait which distinguish the Old English Sheepdog.

Somewhere about the 'sixties there would appear to have been a revival
of interest in the bob-tail's welfare, and attempts were made to bring
him into prominence. In 1873 his admirers succeeded in obtaining for
him a separate classification at a recognised show, and at the Curzon
Hall, at Birmingham, in that year three temerarious competitors
appeared to undergo the ordeal of expert judgment. It was an
unpromising beginning, for Mr. M. B. Wynn, who officiated found their
quality so inferior that he contented himself with awarding a second

But from this small beginning important results were to spring, and
the Old English Sheepdog has made great strides in popularity since
then. At Clerkenwell, in 1905, the entries in his classes reached
a total of over one hundred, and there was no gainsaying the quality.

This satisfactory result is due in no small measure to the initiative
of the Old English Sheepdog Club, a society founded in 1888, with
the avowed intention of promoting the breeding of the old-fashioned
English Sheepdog, and of giving prizes at various shows held under
Kennel Club Rules.

The pioneers of this movement, so far as history records their names,
were Dr. Edwardes-Ker, an enthusiast both in theory and in practice,
from whose caustic pen dissentients were wont to suffer periodical
castigation; Mr. W. G. Weager, who has held office in the club for
some twenty years; Mrs. Mayhew, who capably held her own amongst her
fellow-members of the sterner sex; Mr. Freeman Lloyd, who wrote an
interesting pamphlet on the breed in 1889; and Messrs. J. Thomas and
Parry Thomas.

Theirs can have been no easy task at the outset, for it devolved upon
them to lay down, in a succinct and practical form, leading principles
for the guidance of future enthusiasts. It runs thus:--

* * * * *

GENERAL APPEARANCE--A strong, compact-looking dog of great symmetry,
absolutely free from legginess, profusely coated all over, very
elastic in its gallop, but in walking or trotting he has a
characteristic ambling or pacing movement, and his bark should be
loud, with a peculiar _pot casse_ ring in it. Taking him all round,
he is a thick-set, muscular, able-bodied dog, with a most intelligent
expression, free from all _Poodle_ or _Deerhound_ character.
SKULL--Capacious, and rather squarely formed, giving plenty of room
for brain power. The parts over the eyes should be well arched and
the whole well covered with hair. JAW--Fairly long, strong, square
and truncated; the stop should be defined to avoid a Deerhound face.
_The attention of judges is particularly called to the above
properties, as a long, narrow head is a deformity_. EYES--Vary
according to the colour of the dog, but dark or wall eyes are to be
preferred. NOSE--Always black, large, and capacious. TEETH--Strong
and large, evenly placed, and level in opposition. EARS--Small, and
carried flat to side of head, coated moderately. LEGS--The fore-legs
should be dead straight, with plenty of bone, removing the body to
a medium height from the ground, without approaching legginess; well
coated all round. FEET--Small, round; toes well arched and pads thick
and hard. TAIL--Puppies requiring docking must have an appendage left
of one and a half to two inches and the operation performed when not
older than four days. NECK AND SHOULDERS--The neck should be fairly
long, arched gracefully, and well coated with hair; the shoulders
sloping and narrow at the points, the dog standing lower at the
shoulder than at the loin. BODY--Rather short and very compact, ribs
well sprung, and brisket deep and capacious. The loin should be very
stout and gently arched, while the hind-quarters should be round and
muscular, and with well let down hocks, and the hams densely coated
with a thick long jacket in excess of any other part. COAT--Profuse,
and of good hard texture, not straight but shaggy and free from curl.
The undercoat should be a waterproof pile, when not removed by
grooming or season. COLOUR--Any shade of grey, grizzle, blue or
blue-merled, with or without white markings, or in reverse; any shade
of brown or sable to be considered distinctly objectionable and not
to be encouraged. HEIGHT--Twenty-two inches and upwards for dogs,
slightly less for bitches. Type, character, and symmetry are of the
greatest importance, and on no account to be sacrificed to size alone.

* * * * *

Turning to the questions of care and kennel management, we may start
with the puppy. It is obvious that where bone and substance are
matters of special desirability, it is essential to build up in the
infant what is to be expected of the adult. For this reason it is
a great mistake to allow the dam to bring up too many by herself.
To about six or seven she can do justice, but a healthy bitch not
infrequently gives birth to a dozen or more. Under such circumstances
the services of a foster-mother are a cheap investment. By dividing
the litter the weaklings may be given a fair chance in the struggle
for existence, otherwise they receive scant consideration from their
stronger brethren.

At three or four days old the tails should be removed, as near the
rump as possible. The operation is easy to perform, and if done with
a sharp, clean instrument there is no danger of after ill effects.

If the mother be kept on a very liberal diet, it will usually be found
that she will do all that is necessary for her family's welfare for
the first three weeks, by which time the pups have increased
prodigiously in size. They are then old enough to learn to lap for
themselves, an accomplishment which they very speedily acquire.
Beginning with fresh cow's milk for a week, their diet may be
gradually increased to Mellin's or Benger's food, and later to gruel
and Quaker Oats, their steadily increasing appetites being catered
for by the simple exercise of commonsense. Feed them little and often,
about five times a day, and encourage them to move about as much as
possible; and see that they never go hungry, without allowing them
to gorge. Let them play until they tire, and sleep until they hunger
again, and they will be found to thrive and grow with surprising
rapidity. At six weeks old they can fend for themselves, and shortly
afterwards additions may be made to their diet in the shape of
paunches, carefully cleaned and cooked, and Spratt's Puppy Rodnim.
A plentiful supply of fresh milk is still essential. Gradually the
number of their meals may be decreased, first to four a day, and later
on to three, until at six months old they verge on adolescence; and
may be placed upon the rations of the adult dog, two meals a day.

Meanwhile, the more fresh air and sunshine, exercise, and freedom
they receive, the better will they prosper, but care must be taken
that they are never allowed to get wet. Their sleeping-place
especially must be thoroughly dry, well ventilated, and scrupulously

As to the adult dog, his needs are three: he must be well fed, well
housed, and well exercised. Two meals a day suffice him, but he likes
variety, and the more his fare can be diversified the better will
he do justice to it. Biscuits, Rodnim, Flako, meat, vegetables,
paunches, and sheep's heads, with an occasional big bone to gnaw,
provide unlimited change, and the particular tastes of individuals
should be learned and catered for.

As to the bob-tail's kennel, there is no need whatever for a
high-priced fancy structure. Any weatherproof building will do,
provided it be well ventilated and free from draughts. In very cold
weather a bed of clean wheat straw is desirable, in summer the bare
boards are best. In all weathers cleanliness is an absolute essential,
and a liberal supply of fresh water should be always available.

Grooming is an important detail in a breed whose picturesqueness
depends so largely on the profuseness of their shaggy coats, but there
is a general tendency to overdo it. A good stiff pair of dandy brushes
give the best results, but the coats must not be allowed to mat or
tangle, which they have a tendency to do if not properly attended
to. Mats and tangles, if taken in time, can generally be teased out
with the fingers, and it is the greatest mistake to try and drag them
out with combs. These last should be used as little as possible, and
only with the greatest care when necessary at all. An over-groomed
bob-tail loses half his natural charm. Far preferable is a muddy,
matted, rough-and-tumble-looking customer, with his coat as Nature
left it.



The Chow Chow is a dog of great versatility. He is a born sportsman
and loves an open-air life--a warrior, always ready to accept battle,
but seldom provoking it. He has a way of his own with tramps, and
seldom fails to induce them to continue their travels. Yet withal
he is tender-hearted, a friend of children, an ideal companion, and
often has a clever gift for parlour tricks. In China, his fatherland,
he is esteemed for another quality--his excellence as a substitute
for roast mutton.

Though in his own country he is regarded as plebeian, just a common
cur, he is by no means a mongrel. That he is of ancient lineage is
proved by the fact that he always breeds true to type. He yields to
the Pekinese Spaniel the claim to be the Royal dog of China, yet his
blood must be of the bluest. If you doubt it, look at his tongue.

Outwardly, the Chow worthily embodies the kind, faithful heart and
the brave spirit within. His compact body (weighing 40 lbs. or more),
with the beautiful fur coat and ruff, the plume tail turned over on
his back and almost meeting his neck-ruff, the strong, straight legs
and neat, catlike feet, gives an impression of symmetry, power, and
alertness. His handsome face wears a "scowl." This is the technical
term for the "no nonsense" look which deters strangers from undue
familiarity, though to friends his expression is kindness itself.

Though the Chow has many perfections, the perfect Chow has not yet
arrived. He nearly came with Ch. Chow VIII.--long since dead,
alas!--and with Ch. Fu Chow, the best Chow now living, his light
coloured eyes being his only defect. With many judges, however, this
dog's black coat handicaps him sadly in competition with his red
brethren. Chow VIII. is considered the best and most typical dog ever
benched, notwithstanding his somewhat round eyes. Almond eyes are
of course correct in Chinamen. Ch. Red Craze owns the head which is
perfect with the correct ear-carriage and broad muzzle, and the scowl
and characteristic expression of a good Chow.

Dark red is the accepted colour of the Chow. Modern judges will not
look twice at a light or parti-coloured dog, and it is to be feared
that if even Ch. Chow VIII. could revisit the scenes of his bygone
triumphs, his beautiful light markings would prove a fatal bar to
his success. The judges would be quite wrong, but if you want a dog
for show you must be sure to get a good whole-coloured dark red. If,
on the other hand, you have a Chow as a companion and friend, do not
be at all troubled if his ruff, yoke, culottes and tail are white
or cream-coloured. These are natural, correct and typical marks,
though present-day fanciers are trying to "improve" them away.

A list of points as drawn up by the Chow Chow Club some years ago
is added. The points are fairly right, but the tongue of a live Chow
is never black. It should be blue, such a colour as might result from
a diet of bilberries.

* * * * *

POINTS OF THE CHOW CHOW: HEAD--Skull flat and broad, with little stop,
well filled out under the eyes. MUZZLE--Moderate in length, and broad
from the eyes to the point (not pointed at the end like a fox).
NOSE--Black, large and wide. (In cream or light-coloured specimens,
a pink nose is allowable.) TONGUE--Black. EYES--Dark and small. (In
a blue dog light colour is permissible.) EARS--Small, pointed, and
carried stiffly erect. They should be placed well forward over the
eyes, which gives the dog the peculiar characteristic expression of
the breed--viz., a sort of scowl. TEETH--Strong and level.
NECK--Strong, full, set well on the shoulders, and slightly arched.
SHOULDERS--Muscular and sloping. CHEST--Broad and deep. BACK--Short,
straight, and strong. LOINS--Powerful. TAIL--Curled tightly over the
back. FORE-LEGS--Perfectly straight, of moderate length, and with
great bone. HIND-LEGS--Same as fore-legs, muscular and with hocks
well let down. FEET--Small, round and catlike, standing well on the
toes. COAT--Abundant, dense, straight, and rather coarse in texture,
with a soft woolly undercoat. COLOUR--Whole-coloured black, red,
yellow, blue, white, etc., not in patches (the under part of tail
and back of thighs frequently of a lighter colour). GENERAL
APPEARANCE--A lively, compact, short coupled dog, well-knit in frame,
with tail curled well over the back. DISQUALIFYING POINTS--Drop ears,
red tongue, tail not curled over back, white spots on coat, and red
nose, except in yellow or white specimens.

N.B.--Smooth Chows are governed by the same scale of points, except
that the coat is smooth.

* * * * *

As to the weight, bitches scale about 30 lbs., but dogs are heavier.
Ch. Shylock weighed 47-3/4 lbs., and Red Craze 38 lbs.



The Poodle is commonly acknowledged to be the most wisely intelligent
of all members of the canine race. He is a scholar and a gentleman;
but, in spite of his claims of long descent and his extraordinary
natural cleverness, he has never been widely popular in this country
as the Collie and the Fox-Terrier are popular. There is a general
belief that he is a fop, whose time is largely occupied in personal
embellishment, and that he requires a great deal of individual
attention in the matter of his toilet. It may be true that to keep
him in exhibition order and perfect cleanliness his owner has need
to devote more consideration to him than is necessary in the case
of many breeds; but in other respects he gives very little trouble,
and all who are attached to him are consistent in their opinion that
there is no dog so intensely interesting and responsive as a
companion. His qualities of mind and his acute powers of reasoning
are indeed so great that there is something almost human in his
attractiveness and his devotion. His aptitude in learning is never
denied, and many are the stories told of his marvellous talent and

Not merely as a showman's dog has he distinguished himself. He is
something more than a mountebank of the booths, trained to walk the
tight rope and stand on his head. He is an adept at performing tricks,
but it is his alertness of brain that places him apart from other
animals. There is the example of the famous Munito, who in 1818
perplexed the Parisians by his cleverness with playing cards and his
intricate arithmetical calculations. Paris was formerly the home of
most of the learned Poodles, and one remembers the instance of the
Poodle of the Pont Neuf, who had the habit of dirtying the boots of
the passers-by in order that his master--a shoe-black stationed
half-way across the bridge--might enjoy the profit of cleaning them.
In Belgium Poodles were systematically trained to smuggle valuable
lace, which was wound round their shaven bodies and covered with a
false skin. These dogs were schooled to a dislike of all men in
uniform, and consequently on their journey between Mechlin and the
coast they always gave a wide berth to the Customs officers. On the
Continent Poodles of the larger kind are often used for draught work.

There can be little doubt that the breed originated in Germany, where
it is known as the _Pudel_, and classed as the _Canis familiaris
Aquaticus_. In form and coat he would seem to be closely related to
the old Water-dog, and the resemblance between a brown Poodle and
an Irish Water Spaniel is remarkable. The Poodle is no longer regarded
as a sporting dog, but at one period he was trained to retrieve
waterfowl, and he still on occasion displays an eager fondness for
the water.

Throughout Europe and in the United States--wherever these dogs are
kept--it is usual to clip the coat on the face, the legs, and the
hinder part of the body, leaving tufts of hair on the thighs and a
ring of hair on the pasterns. The origin and purpose of the custom
are not apparent, but now that Poodles are almost always kept as house
dogs, this mode of ornamentation at least commends itself by reducing
the labour of daily grooming if the coat is to be maintained in good
condition and the dog to be a pleasant associate.

The profuse and long coat of this dog has the peculiarity that if
not kept constantly brushed out it twists up into little cords which
increase in length as the new hair grows and clings about it. The
unshed old hair and the new growth entwined together thus become
distinct rope-like cords. Eventually, if these cords are not cut
short, or accidentally torn off, they drag along the ground, and so
prevent the poor animal from moving with any degree of comfort or
freedom. Some few owners, who admire and cultivate these long cords,
keep them tied up in bundles on the dog's back, but so unnatural and
unsightly a method of burdening the animal is not to be commended.

Corded Poodles are very showy, and from the remarkable appearance
of the coat, attract a great deal of public attention when exhibited
at shows; but they have lost popularity among most fanciers, and have
become few in number owing to the obvious fact that it is impossible
to make pets of them or keep them in the house. The reason of this
is that the coat must, from time to time, be oiled in order to keep
the cords supple and prevent them from snapping, and, of course, as
their coats cannot be brushed, the only way of keeping the dog clean
is to wash him, which with a corded Poodle is a lengthy and laborious
process. Further, the coat takes hours to dry, and unless the newly
washed dog be kept in a warm room he is very liable to catch cold.
The result is, that the coats of corded Poodles are almost invariably
dirty, and somewhat smelly.

At one time it was suggested that cordeds and non-cordeds were two
distinct breeds, but it is now generally accepted that the coat of
every well-bred Poodle will, if allowed, develop cords.

Curly Poodles, on the other hand, have advanced considerably in
favour. Their coats should be kept regularly brushed and combed and,
if washed occasionally, they will always be smart and clean, and
pleasant companions in the house.

The four colours usually considered correct are black, white, brown,
and blue. White Poodles are considered the most intelligent, and it
is certain that professional trainers of performing dogs prefer the
white variety. The black come next in the order of intelligence, and
easily surpass the brown and blue, which are somewhat lacking in true
Poodle character.

No strict lines are drawn as regards brown, and all shades ranging
from cream to dark brown are classed as brown. Mrs. Robert Long a
few years ago startled her fellow-enthusiasts by exhibiting some
parti-coloured specimens; but they were regarded as freaks, and did
not become popular.

The points to be looked for in choosing a Poodle are, that he should
be a lively, active dog, with a long, fine head, a dark oval eye,
with a bright alert expression, short in the back, not leggy, but
by no means low on the ground, with a good loin, carrying his tail
well up; the coat should be profuse, all one colour, very curly, and
rather wiry to the touch.

If you buy a Poodle puppy you will find it like other intelligent
and active youngsters, full of mischief. The great secret in
training him is first to gain his affection. With firmness, kindness,
and perseverance, you can then teach him almost anything. The most
lively and excitable dogs are usually the easiest to train. It is
advantageous to teach your dog when you give him his meal of biscuit,
letting him have the food piece by piece as a reward when each trick
is duly performed. Never attempt to teach him two new tricks at a
time, and when instructing him in a new trick let him always go
through his old ones first. Make it an invariable rule never to be
beaten by him. If--as frequently is the case with your dogs--he
declines to perform a trick, do not pass it over or allow him to
substitute another he likes better; but, when you see he obstinately
refuses, punish him by putting away the coveted food for an hour or
two. If he once sees he can tire you out you will have no further
authority over him, while if you are firm he will not hold out against
you long. It is a bad plan to make a dog repeat too frequently a trick
which he obviously dislikes, and insistence on your part may do great
harm. The Poodle is exceptionally sensitive, and is far more
efficiently taught when treated as a sensible being rather than as
a mere quadrupedal automaton. He will learn twice as quickly if his
master can make him understand the reason for performing a task. The
whip is of little use when a lesson is to be taught, as the dog will
probably associate his tasks with a thrashing and go through them
in that unwilling, cowed, tail-between-legs fashion which too often
betrays the unthinking hastiness of the master, and is the chief
reason why the Poodle has sometimes been regarded as a spiritless

The Poodle bitch makes a good mother, rarely giving trouble in
whelping, and the puppies are not difficult to rear. Their chief
dangers are gastritis and congestion of the lungs, which can be
avoided with careful treatment. It should be remembered that the dense
coat of the Poodle takes a long time to dry after being wetted, and
that if the dog has been out in the rain, and got his coat soaked,
or if he has been washed or allowed to jump into a pond, you must
take care not to leave him in a cold place or to lie inactive before
he is perfectly dry.

Most Poodles are kept in the house or in enclosed kennels, well
protected from draught and moisture, and there is no difficulty in
so keeping them, as they are naturally obedient and easily taught
to be clean in the house and to be regular in their habits.

The coat of a curly Poodle should be kept fleecy and free from tangle
by being periodically combed and brushed. The grooming keeps the skin
clean and healthy, and frequent washing, even for a white dog, is
not necessary. The dog will, of course, require clipping from time
to time. In Paris at present it is the fashion to clip the greater
part of the body and hind-quarters, but the English Poodle Club
recommends that the coat be left on as far down the body as the last
rib, and it is also customary with us to leave a good deal of coat
on the hind-quarters.

Probably the best-known Poodle of his day in this country was Ch.
The Model, a black corded dog belonging to Mr. H. A. Dagois, who
imported him from the Continent. Model was a medium-sized dog, very
well proportioned, and with a beautifully moulded head and dark,
expressive eyes, and I believe was only once beaten in the show ring.
He died some few years ago at a ripe old age, but a great many of
the best-known Poodles of the present day claim relationship to him.
One of his most famous descendants was Ch. The Joker, also black
corded, who was very successful at exhibitions. Another very handsome
dog was Ch. Vladimir, again a black corded, belonging to Miss

Since 1905 the curly Poodles have very much improved, and the best
specimens of the breed are now to be found in their ranks. Ch. Orchard
Admiral, the property of Mrs. Crouch, a son of Ch. The Joker and Lady
Godiva, is probably the best specimen living. White Poodles, of which
Mrs. Crouch's Orchard White Boy is a notable specimen, ought to be
more widely kept than they are, but it must be admitted that the task
of keeping a full-sized white Poodle's coat clean in a town is no
light one.

Toy White Poodles, consequently, are very popular. The toy variety
should not exceed fifteen inches in height at the shoulder, and in
all respects should be a miniature of the full-sized dog, with the
same points.

* * * * *

active, intelligent, and elegant-looking dog, well built, and carrying
himself very proudly. HEAD--Long, straight, and fine, the skull not
broad, with a slight peak at the back. MUZZLE--Long (but not snipy)
and strong--not full in cheek; teeth white, strong, and level; gums
black, lips black and not showing lippiness. EYES--Almond shaped,
very dark, full of fire and intelligence. NOSE--Black and sharp.
EARS--The leather long and wide, low set on, hanging close to the
face. NECK--Well proportioned and strong, to admit of the head being
carried high and with dignity. SHOULDERS--Strong and muscular, sloping
well to the back. CHEST--Deep and moderately wide. BACK--Short,
strong, and slightly hollowed, the loins broad and muscular, the ribs
well sprung and braced up. FEET--Rather small, and of good shape,
the toes well arched, pads thick and hard. LEGS--Fore-legs set
straight from shoulder, with plenty of bone and muscle. Hind-legs
very muscular and well bent, with the hocks well let down. TAIL--Set
on rather high, well carried, never curled or carried over back.
COAT--Very profuse, and of good hard texture; if corded, hanging in
tight, even cords; if non-corded, very thick and strong, of even
length, the curls close and thick, without knots or cords.
COLOURS--All black, all white, all red, all blue. THE WHITE POODLE
should have dark eyes, black or very dark liver nose, lips, and
toe-nails. THE RED POODLE should have dark amber eyes, dark liver
nose, lips, and toe-nails. THE BLUE POODLE should be of even colour,
and have dark eyes, lips, and toe-nails. All the other points of
White, Red, and Blue poodles should be the same as the perfect Black

N.B.--It is strongly recommended that only one-third of the body be
clipped or shaved, and that the hair on the forehead be left on.



The Schipperke may fitly be described as the Paul Pry of canine
society. His insatiate inquisitiveness induces him to poke his nose
into everything; every strange object excites his curiosity, and he
will, if possible, look behind it; the slightest noise arouses his
attention, and he wants to investigate its cause. There is no end
to his liveliness, but he moves about with almost catlike agility
without upsetting any objects in a room, and when he hops he has a
curious way of catching up his hind legs. The Schipperke's disposition
is most affectionate, tinged with a good deal of jealousy, and even
when made one of the household he generally attaches himself more
particularly to one person, whom he "owns," and whose protection he
deems his special duty.

These qualities endear the Schipperke as a canine companion, with
a quaint and lovable character; and he is also a capital vermin dog.
When properly entered he cannot be surpassed as a "ratter."

Schipperkes have always been kept as watch-dogs on the Flemish canal
barges, and that, no doubt, is the origin of the name, which is the
Flemish for "Little Skipper," the syllable "ke" forming the diminutive
of "schipper."

The respectable antiquity of this dog is proved by the result of the
researches Mr. Van der Snickt and Mr. Van Buggenhoudt made in the
archives of Flemish towns, which contain records of the breed going
back in pure type over a hundred years.

The first Schipperke which appeared at a show in this country was
Mr. Berrie's Flo. This was, however, such a mediocre specimen that
it did not appeal to the taste of the English dog-loving public. In
1888 Dr. Seelig brought over Skip, Drieske, and Mia. The first-named
was purchased by Mr. E. B. Joachim, and the two others by Mr. G. R.
Krehl. Later on Mr. Joachim became the owner of Mr. Green's Shtoots,
and bought Fritz of Spa in Belgium, and these dogs formed the nucleus
of the two kennels which laid the foundation of the breed in England.

It was probably the introduction of the Schipperke to England that
induced Belgian owners to pay greater attention to careful breeding,
and a club was started in 1888 in Brussels, whose members, after "long
and earnest consideration," settled a description and standard of
points for the breed.

Not long afterwards the Schipperke Club (England) was inaugurated,
and drew up the following standard of points, which was adopted in
December, 1890, and differed only very slightly from the one
acknowledged by the Belgian society and later by the St. Hubert
Schipperke Club.

* * * * *

type; skull should not be round, but broad, and with little stop.
The muzzle should be moderate in length, fine but not weak, should
be well filled out under the eyes. NOSE--Black and small.
EYES--Dark brown, small, more oval than round, and not full; bright,
and full of expression. EARS--Shape: Of moderate length, not too
broad at the base, tapering to a point. Carriage: Stiffly erect,
and when in that position the inside edge to form as near as possible
a right angle with the skull and strong enough not to be bent
otherwise than lengthways. TEETH--Strong and level. NECK--Strong and
full, rather short, set broad on the shoulders and slightly arched.
SHOULDERS--Muscular and sloping. CHEST--Broad and deep in brisket.
BACK--Short, straight, and strong. LOINS--Powerful, well drawn up
from the brisket. FORE-LEGS--Perfectly straight, well under the body,
with bone in proportion to the body. HIND-LEGS--Strong, muscular,
hocks well let down. FEET--Small, catlike, and standing well on the
toes. NAILS--Black. HIND-QUARTERS--Fine compared to the fore-parts,
muscular and well-developed thighs, tailless, rump well rounded.
COAT--Black, abundant, dense, and harsh, smooth on the head, ears
and legs, lying close on the back and sides, but erect and thick round
the neck, forming a mane and frill, and well feathered on back of
thighs. WEIGHT--About twelve pounds. GENERAL APPEARANCE--A small cobby
animal with sharp expression, intensely lively, presenting the
appearance of being always on the alert. DISQUALIFYING POINTS--Drop,
or semi-erect ears. FAULTS--White hairs are objected to, but are not

* * * * *

The back of the Schipperke is described as straight, but it
should round off at the rump, which should be rotund and full,
guinea-pig-like. The continued straight line of a terrier's back
is not desirable, but it will frequently be found in specimens that
have been docked. The Belgian standard requires the legs to be "fine,"
and not have much bone. The bone of a terrier is only met with in
coarse Schipperkes. As to size, it need only be noted that the maximum
of the small size, viz., 12 lbs., is that generally preferred in
England, as well as in Belgium. Further, it is only necessary to
remark that the Schipperke is a dog of quality, of distinct
characteristics, cobby in appearance, not long in the back, nor high
on the leg; the muzzle must not be weak and thin, nor short and blunt;
and, finally, he is not a prick-eared, black wire-haired terrier.

The Schipperke's tail, or rather its absence, has been the cause of
much discussion, and at one time gave rise to considerable acrimonious
feeling amongst fanciers. On the introduction of this dog into Great
Britain it arrived from abroad with the reputation of being a tailless
breed, but whether Belgian owners accidentally conveyed that
impression or did it purposely to give the breed an additional
distinction is difficult to say. Anyhow the Schipperke is no more
"tailless" than the old English Sheepdog. That is to say a larger
number of individuals are born without any caudal appendage or only
a stump of a tail than in any other variety of dogs. It is said that
a docked dog can be told from one that has been born tailless in this
way; when the docked animal is pleased, a slight movement at the end
of the spine where the tail was cut off is discernible, but the
naturally tailless dog sways the whole of its hind-quarters.



The Bloodhound was much used in olden times in hunting and in the
pursuit of fugitives; two services for which his remarkable acuteness
of smell, his ability to keep to the particular scent on which he
is first laid, and the intelligence and pertinacity with which he
follows up the trail, admirably fit him. The use and employment of
these dogs date back into remote antiquity. We have it on the
authority of Strabo that they were used against the Gauls, and we
have certain knowledge that they were employed not only in the
frequent feuds of the Scottish clans, and in the continuous border
forays of those days, but also during the ever-recurring hostilities
between England and Scotland.

Indeed, the very name of the dog calls up visions of feudal castles,
with their trains of knights and warriors and all the stirring
panorama of these brave days of old, when the only tenure of life,
property, or goods was by the strong hand.

This feudal dog is frequently pictured by the poet in his ballads
and romances, and in "The Lady of the Lake" we find the breed again
mentioned as

"--dogs of black St. Hubert's breed,
Unmatched for courage, breath, and speed."

These famous black Bloodhounds, called St. Huberts, are supposed to
have been brought by pilgrims from the Holy Land. Another larger
breed, also known by the same name, were pure white, and another kind
were greyish-red. The dogs of the present day are probably a blend
of all these varieties.


The Bloodhound, from the nobler pursuit of heroes and knights, came
in later years to perform the work of the more modern detective; but
in this also his services were in time superseded by the justice's
warrant and the police officer. We find it recorded about 1805,
however, that "the Thrapston Association for the Prevention of Felons
in Northamptonshire have provided and trained a Bloodhound for the
detection of sheep-stealers."

The reputation it obtained for sagacity and fierceness in the capture
of runaway slaves, and the cruelties attributed to it in connection
with the suppression of the various negro risings, especially that
of the Maroons, have given the animal an evil repute, which more
probably should attach to those who made the animal's courage and
sagacity a means for the gratification of their own revolting cruelty
of disposition. It has been justly remarked that if entire credence
be given to the description that was transmitted through the country
of this extraordinary animal, it might be supposed that the Spaniards
had obtained the ancient and genuine breed of Cerberus himself.

Coming again to this country, we find the Bloodhound used from time
to time in pursuit of poachers and criminals, and in many instances
the game recovered and the man arrested.

There is no doubt that the police in country districts, and at our
convict prisons, could use Bloodhounds to advantage; but public
sentiment is decidedly against the idea, and although one of His
Majesty's prisons has been offered a working hound for nothing, the
authorities have refused to consider the question or give the hound
a trial.

Half a century ago the Bloodhound was so little esteemed in this
country that the breed was confined to the kennels of a very few
owners; but the institution of dog shows induced these owners to bring
their hounds into public exhibition, when it was seen that, like the
Mastiff, the Bloodhound claimed the advantage of having many venerable
ancestral trees to branch from. At the first Birmingham show, in 1860,
Lord Bagot brought out a team from a strain which had been in his
lordship's family for two centuries, and at the same exhibition there
was entered probably one of the best Bloodhounds ever seen, in Mr.
T. A. Jenning's Druid. Known now as "Old" Druid, this dog was got
by Lord Faversham's Raglan out of Baron Rothschild's historic bitch
Fury, and his blood goes down in collateral veins through Mr. L. G.
Morrel's Margrave, Prince Albert Solm's Druid, and Mr. Edwin Brough's
Napier into the pedigrees of many of the celebrated hounds of the
present day.

Another famous Druid--grandsire of Colonel Cowen's hound of the
name--was owned by the Hon. Grantley Berkeley. This typical dog was
unsurpassed in his time, and his talent in following a line of scent
was astonishing. His only blemish was one of character; for, although
usually as good-tempered as most of the breed are, he was easily
aroused to uncontrollable fits of savage anger.

Queen Victoria at various times was the possessor of one or more fine
specimens of the Bloodhound, procured for her by Sir Edwin Landseer,
and a capital hound from the Home Park Kennels at Windsor was
exhibited at the London Show in 1869, the judge on the occasion being
the Rev. Thomas Pearce, afterwards known as "Idstone." Landseer was
especially fond of painting the majestic Bloodhound, and he usually
selected good models for his studies. The model for the hound in his
well-known picture, "Dignity and Impudence," was Grafton, who was
a collateral relative of Captain J. W. Clayton's celebrated Luath XI.

Four superlative Bloodhounds of the past stand out in unmistakable
eminence as the founders of recognised strains. They are Mr. Jenning's
Old Druid, Colonel Cowen's Druid, Mr. Reynold Ray's Roswell, and
Captain Clayton's Luath XI.; and the owner of a Bloodhound which can
be traced back in direct line of descent to any one of these four
patriarchs may pride himself upon possessing a dog of unimpeachable

Among breeders within recent years Mr. Edwin Brough, of Scarborough,
is to be regarded as the most experienced and successful. No record
of the breed would be complete without some acknowledgment of the
great services he has rendered to it. Bloodhounds of the correct type
would to-day have been very few and far between if it had not been
for his enthusiasm and patient breeding. Mr. Brough bred and produced
many hounds, which all bore the stamp of his ideal, and there is no
doubt that for all-round quality his kennel stands first in the
history of the Bloodhound. His most successful cross was, perhaps,
Beckford and Bianca, and one has only to mention such hounds as
Burgundy, Babbo, Benedicta, and Bardolph to recall the finest team
of Bloodhounds that has ever been benched.

Mrs. G. A. Oliphant, of Shrewton, Wilts, whose kennels include Chatley
Blazer and Chatley Beaufort, has of late years been a keen supporter
of the breed. Mrs. Oliphant, who is the president of the ladies'
branch of the Kennel Club, is a great believer in hounds being workers
first and show hounds second, and her large kennels have produced
many hounds of a robust type and of good size and quality. There is
no doubt that as far as hunting is concerned at the present moment
this kennel stands easily first. But admirable Bloodhounds have also
given distinction to the kennels of Mr. S. H. Mangin, Dr. Sidney
Turner, Mr. Mark Beaufoy, Mr. F. W. Cousens, Mr. A. O. Mudie, Lord
Decies, Mr. Hood Wright, Mr. A. Croxton Smith, Dr. C. C. Garfit, Dr.
Semmence, and Mrs. C. Ashton Cross, to mention only a few owners and
breeders who have given attention to this noble race of dog.

The description of a perfect type of dog, as defined by the
Association of Bloodhound breeders, is as follows:--

* * * * *

GENERAL CHARACTER--The Bloodhound possesses, in a most marked degree,
every point and characteristic of those dogs which hunt together by
scent (_Sagaces_). He is very powerful and stands over more ground
than is usual with hounds of other breeds. The skin is thin to the
touch and extremely loose, this being more especially noticeable about
the head and neck, where it hangs in deep folds. HEIGHT--The mean
average height of adult dogs is 26 inches and of adult bitches 24
inches. Dogs usually vary from 25 inches to 27 inches and bitches
from 23 inches to 25 inches; but in either case the greater height
is to be preferred, provided that character and quality are also
combined. WEIGHT--The mean average weight of adult dogs in fair
condition is 90 pounds and of adult bitches 80 pounds. Dogs attain
the weight of 110 pounds, bitches 100 pounds. The greater weights
are to be preferred, provided (as in the case of height) that quality
and proportion are also combined. EXPRESSION--The expression is noble
and dignified and characterised by solemnity, wisdom and power.
TEMPERAMENT--In temperament he is extremely affectionate, quarrelsome
neither with companions nor with other dogs. His nature is somewhat
shy, and equally sensitive to kindness or correction by his master.
HEAD--The head is narrow in proportion to its length and long in
proportion to the body, tapering but slightly from the temples to
the end of the muzzle thus (when viewed from above and in front)
having the appearance of being flattened at the sides and of being
nearly equal in width throughout its entire length. In profile the
upper outline of the skull is nearly in the same plane as that of
the foreface. The length from end of nose to stop (midway between
the eyes) should be not less than that from stop to back of occipital
protuberance (peak). The entire length of head from the posterior
part of the occipital protuberance to the end of the muzzle should
be 12 inches, or more, in dogs, and 11 inches, or more, in bitches.
SKULL--The skull is long and narrow, with the occipital peak very
pronounced. The brows are not prominent, although, owing to the
deep-set eyes, they may have that appearance. FOREFACE--The foreface
is long, deep, and of even width throughout, with square outline when
seen in profile. EYES--The eyes are deeply sunk in the orbits, the
lids assuming a lozenge or diamond shape, in consequence of the lower
lids being dragged down and everted by the heavy flews. The eyes
correspond with the general tone of colour of the animal, varying
from deep hazel to yellow. The hazel colour is, however, to be
preferred, although very seldom seen in red-and-tan hounds. EARS--The
ears are thin and soft to the touch, extremely long, set very low,
and fall in graceful folds, the lower parts curling inwards and
backwards. WRINKLE--The head is furnished with an amount of loose
skin which in nearly every position appears super-abundant, but more
particularly so when the head is carried low; the skin then falls
into loose, pendulous ridges and folds, especially over the forehead
and sides of the face. NOSTRILS--The nostrils are large and open.
LIPS, FLEWS, AND DEWLAP--In front the lips fall squarely, making a
right-angle with the upper line of the foreface, whilst behind they
form deep, hanging flews, and, being continued into the pendent folds
of loose skin about the neck, constitute the dewlap, which is very
pronounced. These characters are found, though in a less degree, in
the bitch. NECK, SHOULDERS, AND CHEST--The neck is long, the shoulders
muscular and well sloped backwards; the ribs are well sprung, and
the chest well let down between the forelegs, forming a deep keel.
LEGS AND FEET--The fore-legs are straight and large in bone, with
elbows squarely set; the feet strong and well knuckled up; the thighs
and second thighs (gaskins) are very muscular; the hocks well bent
and let down and squarely set. BACK AND LOINS--The back and loins
are strong, the latter deep and slightly arched. STERN--The stern
is long and tapering and set on rather high, with a moderate amount
of hair underneath. GAIT--The gait is elastic, swinging, and free--the
stern being carried high, but not too much curled over the back.
COLOUR--The colours are black-and-tan, red-and-tan, and tawny--the
darker colours being sometimes interspersed with lighter or
badger-coloured hair and sometimes flecked with white. A small amount
of white is permissible on chest, feet, and tip of stern.



The Otterhound is a descendant of the old Southern Hound, and there
is reason to believe that all hounds hunting their quarry by nose
had a similar source. Why the breed was first called the Southern
Hound, or when his use became practical in Great Britain, must be
subjects of conjecture; but that there was a hound good enough to
hold a line for many hours is accredited in history that goes very
far back into past centuries. The hound required three centuries ago
even was all the better esteemed for being slow and unswerving on
a line of scent, and in many parts of the Kingdom, up to within half
that period, the so-called Southern Hound had been especially
employed. In Devonshire and Wales the last sign of him in his purity
was perhaps when Captain Hopwood hunted a small pack of hounds very
similar in character on the fitch or pole-cat; the _modus operandi_
being to find the foraging grounds of the animal, and then on a line
that might be two days old hunt him to his lair, often enough ten
or twelve miles off.

When this sort of hunting disappeared, and improved ideas of
fox-hunting came into vogue, there was nothing left for the Southern
Hound to do but to hunt the otter. He may have done this before at
various periods, but history rather tends to show that otter-hunting
was originally associated with a mixed pack, and some of Sir Walter
Scott's pages seem to indicate that the Dandie Dinmont and kindred
Scottish terriers had a good deal to do with the sport. It is more
than probable that the rough-coated terrier is identical with the
now recognised Otterhound as an offshoot of the Southern Hound; but
be that as it may, there has been a special breed of Otterhound for
the last eighty years, very carefully bred and gradually much improved
in point of appearance. They are beautiful hounds to-day, with heads
as typical as those of Bloodhounds, legs and feet that would do for
Foxhounds, a unique coat of their own, and they are exactly suitable
for hunting the otter, as everyone knows who has had the enjoyment
of a day's sport on river or brook.

The greatest otter hunter of the last century may have been the Hon.
Geoffrey Hill, a younger brother of the late Lord Hill. A powerful
athlete of over six feet, Major Hill was an ideal sportsman in
appearance, and he was noted for the long distances he would travel
on foot with his hounds. They were mostly of the pure rough sort,
not very big; the dogs he reckoned at about 23-1/2 inches, bitches
22: beautiful Bloodhound type of heads, coats of thick, hard hair,
big in ribs and bones, and good legs and feet.

Major Hill seldom exhibited his hounds. They were seen now and then
at Birmingham; but, hunting as hard as they did through Shropshire,
Staffordshire, Cheshire, and into Wales, where they got their best
water, there was not much time for showing. Their famous Master has
been dead now many years, but his pack is still going, and shows great
sport as the Hawkstone under the Mastership of Mr. H. P. Wardell,
the kennels being at Ludlow race-course, Bromfield.

The leading pack in the Kingdom for the last sixty years, at any rate,
has been the Carlisle when in the hands of Mr. J. C. Carrick, who
was famous both for the sport he showed and for his breed of
Otterhound, so well represented at all the important shows. Such
hounds as Lottery and Lucifer were very typical specimens; but of
late years the entries of Otterhounds have not been very numerous
at the great exhibitions, and this can well be explained by the fact
that they are wanted in greater numbers for active service, there
being many more packs than formerly--in all, twenty-one for the
United Kingdom.

The sport of otter-hunting is decidedly increasing, as there have
been several hunts started within the last six years. There can well
be many more, as, according to the opinion of that excellent
authority, the late Rev. "Otter" Davies, as he was always called,
there are otters on every river; but, owing to the nocturnal and
mysterious habits of the animals, their whereabouts or existence is
seldom known, or even suspected. Hunting them is a very beautiful
sport, and the question arises as to whether the pure Otterhounds
should not be more generally used than they are at present. It is
often asserted that their continued exposure to water has caused a
good deal of rheumatism in the breed, that they show age sooner than
others, and that the puppies are difficult to rear. There are,
however, many advantages in having a pure breed, and there is much
to say for the perfect work of the Otterhound. The scent of the otter
is possibly the sweetest of all trails left by animals. One cannot
understand how it is that an animal swimming two or three feet from
the bottom of a river-bed and the same from the surface should leave
a clean line of burning scent that may remain for twelve or eighteen
hours. The supposition must be that the scent from the animal at first
descends and is then always rising. At any rate, the oldest Foxhound
or Harrier that has never touched otter is at once in ravishing
excitement on it, and all dogs will hunt it. The terrier is never
keener than when he hits on such a line.

The Foxhound, so wonderful in his forward dash, may have too much
of it for otter hunting. The otter is so wary. His holt can very well
be passed, his delicious scent may be overrun; but the pure-bred
Otterhound is equal to all occasions. He is terribly certain on the
trail when he finds it. Nothing can throw him off it, and when his
deep note swells into a sort of savage howl, as he lifts his head
towards the roots of some old pollard, there is a meaning in it--no
mistake has been made. In every part of a run it is the same; the
otter dodges up stream and down, lands for a moment, returns to his
holt; but his adversaries are always with him, and as one sees their
steady work the impression becomes stronger and stronger that for
the real sport of otter-hunting there is nothing as good as the
pure-bred Otterhound. There is something so dignified and noble about
the hound of unsullied strain that if you once see a good one you
will not soon forget him. He is a large hound, as he well needs to
be, for the "varmint" who is his customary quarry is the wildest,
most vicious, and, for its size, the most powerful of all British
wild animals, the inveterate poacher of our salmon streams, and
consequently to be mercilessly slaughtered, although always in
sporting fashion. To be equal to such prey, the hound must have a
Bulldog's courage, a Newfoundland's strength in water, a Pointer's
nose, a Retriever's sagacity, the stamina of the Foxhound, the
patience of a Beagle, the intelligence of a Collie.

* * * * *

THE PERFECT OTTERHOUND: HEAD--The head, which has been described as
something between that of a Bloodhound and that of a Foxhound, is
more hard and rugged than either. With a narrow forehead, ascending
to a moderate peak. EARS--The ears are long and sweeping, but not
feathered down to the tips, set low and lying flat to the cheeks.
EYES--The eyes are large, dark and deeply set, having a peculiarly
thoughtful expression. They show a considerable amount of the haw.
NOSE--The nose is large and well developed, the nostrils expanding.
MUZZLE--The muzzle well protected from wiry hair. The jaw very
powerful with deep flews. NECK--The neck is strong and muscular, but
rather long. The dewlap is loose and folded. CHEST--The chest, deep
and capacious, but not too wide. BACK--The back is strong, wide and
arched. SHOULDERS--The shoulders ought to be sloping, the arms and
thighs substantial and muscular. FEET--The feet, fairly large and
spreading, with firm pads and strong nails to resist sharp rocks.
STERN--The stern when the hound is at work is carried gaily, like
that of a rough Welsh Harrier. It is thick and well covered, to serve
as a rudder. COAT--The coat is wiry, hard, long and close at the
roots, impervious to water. COLOUR--Grey, or buff, or yellowish, or
black, or rufus red, mixed with black or grey. HEIGHT--22 to 24



It is now some thirty years since an important controversy was carried
on in the columns of _The Live Stock Journal_ on the nature and
history of the great Irish Wolfhound. The chief disputants in the
discussion were Captain G. A. Graham, of Dursley, Mr. G. W. Hickman,
Mr. F. Adcock, and the Rev. M. B. Wynn, and the main point as issue
was whether the dog then imperfectly known as the Irish Wolfdog was
a true descendant of the ancient _Canis graius Hibernicus_, or whether
it was a mere manufactured mongrel, owing its origin to an admixture
of the Great Dane and the dog of the Pyrenees, modified and brought
to type by a cross with the Highland Deerhound. It was not
doubted--indeed, history and tradition clearly attested--that there
had existed in early times in Ireland a very large and rugged hound
of Greyhound form, whose vocation it was to hunt the wolf, the red
deer, and the fox. It was assuredly known to the Romans, and there
can be little doubt that the huge dog Samr, which Jarl Gunnar got
from the Irish king Myrkiarton in the tenth century and took back
with him to Norway, was one of this breed. But it was supposed by
many to have become extinct soon after the disappearance of the last
wolf in Ireland, and it was the endeavour of Captain Graham to
demonstrate that specimens, although admittedly degenerate, were
still to be found, and that they were capable of being restored to
a semblance of the original type.

At the time when he entered into the controversy, Captain Graham had
been actively interesting himself for something like a score of years
in the resuscitation of the breed, and his patience had been well
rewarded. By the year 1881 the Irish Wolfhound had been practically
restored, although it has taken close upon a quarter of a century
to produce the magnificent champions Cotswold and Cotswold Patricia,
those brilliant examples of the modern breed--a brace of Wolfhounds
who bear testimony to the vast amount of energy and perseverance which
Captain Graham and his enthusiastic colleague Major Garnier displayed
in evolving from rough material the majestic breed that holds so
prominent a position to-day.

There is little to be gathered from ancient writings concerning the
size and appearance of the Irish Wolfhounds in early times.
Exaggerated figures are given as to height and weight; but all
authorities agree that they were impressively large and imposing dogs,
and that they were regarded as the giants of the canine race.

It seems extraordinary that so little should have been accurately
known and recorded of a dog which at one time must have been a
familiar figure in the halls of the Irish kings. It was no mere
mythical animal like the heraldic griffin, but an actual sporting
dog which was accepted as a national emblem of the Emerald Isle,
associated with the harp and the shamrock.

As regards the origin of the Irish Wolfhound, more than one theory
is advanced. By some authorities it is suggested that it was the dog
which we now know as the Great Dane. Others hold that as there were
rough-coated Greyhounds in Ireland, it is this dog, under another
name, which is now accepted. But probably the late Captain Graham
was nearer the truth when he gave the opinion that the Irish hound
that was kept to hunt wolves has never become extinct at all, but
is now represented in the Scottish Deerhound, only altered a little
in size and strength to suit the easier work required of it--that
of hunting the deer. This is the more probable, as the fact remains
that the chief factor in the resuscitation of the Irish Wolfhound
has been the Scottish Deerhound.

The result of Captain Graham's investigations when seeking for animals
bearing some relationship to the original Irish "Wolfe Dogge" was
that three strains were to be found in Ireland, but none of the
representatives at that time was anything like so large as those
mentioned in early writings, and they all appeared to have
deteriorated in bone and substance. Sir J. Power, of Kilfane, was
responsible for one line, Mr. Baker, of Ballytobin, for another, and
Mr. Mahoney, of Dromore, for the remaining strain. From bitches
obtained from two of these kennels, Captain Graham, by crossing them
with the Great Dane and Scottish Deerhound, achieved the first step
towards producing the animal that he desired. Later on the Russian
Wolfhound, better known as the Borzoi, an exceedingly large hound,
was introduced, as also were one or two other large breeds of dogs.

The intermixture of these canine giants, however, was not at first
very satisfactory, as although plenty of bone was obtained, many were
most ungainly in appearance and ill-shaped animals that had very
little about them to attract attention. Captain Graham, however, stuck
to his work, and very soon the specimens that he brought forward began
to show a fixity of type both in head and in general outline. Brian
was one of his best dogs, but he was not very large, as he only stood
just over thirty inches at the shoulder. Banshee and Fintragh were
others, but probably the best of Captain Graham's kennel was the bitch
Sheelah. It was not, however, until towards the end of the last
century that the most perfect dogs were bred. These included O'Leary,
the property of Mr. Crisp, of Playford Hall. O'Leary is responsible
for many of the best dogs of the present day, and was the sire of Mrs.
Percy Shewell's Ch. Cotswold, who is undoubtedly the grandest Irish
Wolfhound ever bred. In height Cotswold stands 34-1/2 inches and is
therefore perhaps the largest dog of any breed now alive.

In 1900 Mr. Crisp bred Kilcullen from O'Leary, this dog winning the
championship at the Kennel Club Show at the Crystal Palace in 1902
under Captain Graham. This was the year the Irish Wolfhound Club
presented the hound Rajah of Kidnal as a regimental pet to the newly
formed Irish Guards.

Rajah of Kidnal, who was bred and exhibited by Mrs. A. Gerard, of
Malpas, was the selection of Captain Graham and two other judges.
This dog, which has been renamed Brian Boru, is still hearty and well,
and was at his post on St. Patrick's Day, 1909, when the shamrock
that had been sent by Her Majesty Queen Alexandra was handed to the

Mrs. Gerard owned one of the largest kennels of Irish Wolfhounds in
England, and amongst her many good dogs and bitches was Cheevra, who
was a wonderful brood bitch, and included amongst her stock were
several that worked their way up to championship honours; she was
the dam of Rajah of Kidnal.

Besides Ballyhooley, Mr. W. Williams owned a good dog in Finn by Brian
II. Finn produced Miss Packe's Wickham Lavengro, a black and tan dog
that has won several prizes. Some judges are opposed to giving prizes
to Irish Wolfhounds of this colour, but Captain Graham did not object
to it. Finn was a very heavy dog, and weighed 148 lbs.

A hound that has been of great benefit to the breed in Ireland is
Ch. Marquis of Donegal, the property of Mr. Martin.

Amongst the bitches that have been instrumental in building up the
breed to its present high state of excellence is Princess Patricia
of Connaught who is by Dermot Astore out of Cheevra, and is the dam
of Ch. Cotswold Patricia. She is one of the tallest of her race, her
height being 33 inches; another bitch that measures the same number
of inches at the shoulder being Dr. Pitts-Tucker's Juno of the Fen,
a daughter of Ch. Wargrave.

Mr. Everett, of Felixstowe, is now one of the most successful
breeders. He exhibited at the 1908 Kennel Club show a most promising
young dog in Felixstowe Kilronan, with which he was second to Mrs.
Shewell's Ch. Cotswold, of whom he is now kennel companion. At the
same show Miss Clifford, of Ryde, exhibited a good hound in Wildcroft,
another of Dermot Astore's sons, and other supporters of the breed
are Lady Kathleen Pilkington, Mr. T. Hamilton Adams, Mr. G. H.
Thurston, Mr. Bailey, Mrs. F. Marshall, Mr. J. L. T. Dobbin, and Miss
Ethel McCheane.

The following is the description of the variety as drawn up by the

* * * * *

GENERAL APPEARANCE--The Irish Wolfhound should not be quite so heavy
or massive as the Great Dane, but more so than the Deerhound, which
in general type he should otherwise resemble. Of great size and
commanding appearance, very muscular, strongly though gracefully
built; movements easy and active; head and neck carried high; the
tail carried with an upward sweep, with a slight curve towards the
extremity. The minimum height and weight of dogs should be 31 inches
and 120 pounds, of bitches 28 inches and 90 pounds. Anything below
this should be debarred from competition. Great size, including height
at shoulder and proportionate length of body, is the desideratum to
be aimed at, and it is desired firmly to establish a race that shall
average from 32 inches to 34 inches in dogs, showing the requisite
power, activity, courage, and symmetry. HEAD--Long, the frontal bones
of the forehead very slightly raised and very little indentation
between the eyes. Skull not too broad; muzzle long and moderately
pointed; ears small and Greyhound-like in carriage. NECK--Rather long,
very strong and muscular, well arched, without dewlap and loose skin
about the throat. CHEST--Very deep, breast wide. BACK--Rather long
than short. Loins arched. TAIL--Long and slightly curved, of moderate
thickness, and well covered with hair. BELLY--Well drawn up.
FORE-QUARTERS--Shoulders muscular, giving breadth of chest, set
sloping, elbows well under, neither turned inwards nor outwards.
Leg--Forearm muscular and the whole leg strong and quite straight.
HIND-QUARTERS--Muscular thighs, and second thigh long and strong as
in the Greyhound, and hocks well let down and turning neither in nor
out. FEET--Moderately large and round, neither turned inwards nor
outwards; toes well arched and closed, nails very strong and curved.
HAIR--Rough and hard on body, legs, and head; especially wiry and
long over eyes and under jaw. COLOUR AND MARKINGS--The recognised
colours are grey, brindle, red, black, pure white, fawn, or any colour
that appears in the Deerhound. FAULTS--Too light or heavy in head,
too highly arched frontal bone, large ears and hanging flat to the
face; short neck; full dewlap; too narrow or too broad a chest; sunken
and hollow or quite level back; bent fore-legs; over-bent fetlocks;
twisted feet; spreading toes; too curly a tail; weak hind-quarters,
cow hocks, and a general want of muscle; too short in body.



The Deerhound is one of the most decorative of dogs, impressively
stately and picturesque wherever he is seen, whether it be amid the
surroundings of the baronial hall, reclining at luxurious length
before the open hearth in the fitful light of the log fire that
flickers on polished armour and tarnished tapestry; out in the open,
straining at the leash as he scents the dewy air, or gracefully
bounding over the purple of his native hills. Grace and majesty are
in his every movement and attitude, and even to the most prosaic mind
there is about him the inseparable glamour of feudal romance and
poetry. He is at his best alert in the excitement of the chase; but
all too rare now is the inspiring sight that once was common among
the mountains of Morven and the glens of Argyll of the deep-voiced
hound speeding in pursuit of his antlered prey, racing him at full
stretch along the mountain's ridge, or baying him at last in the
fastness of darksome corrie or deep ravine. Gone are the good romantic
days of stalking beloved by Scrope. The Highlands have lost their
loneliness, and the inventions of the modern gunsmith have robbed
one of the grandest of hunting dogs of his glory, relegating him to
the life of a pedestrian pet, whose highest dignity is the winning
of a pecuniary prize under Kennel Club rules.

Historians of the Deerhound associate him with the original Irish
Wolfdog, of whom he is obviously a close relative, and it is sure
that when the wolf still lingered in the land it was the frequent
quarry of the Highland as of the Hibernian hound. Legend has it that
Prince Ossian, son of Fingal, King of Morven, hunted the wolf with
the grey, long-bounding dogs. "Swift-footed Luath" and "White-breasted
Bran" are among the names of Ossian's hounds. I am disposed to affirm
that the old Irish Wolfhound and the Highland Deerhound are not only
intimately allied in form and nature, but that they are two strains
of an identical breed, altered only in size by circumstance and

Whatever the source of the Highland Deerhound, and at whatever period
it became distinct from its now larger Irish relative, it was
recognised as a native dog in Scotland in very early times, and it
was distinguished as being superior in strength and beauty to the
hounds of the Picts.

From remote days the Scottish nobles cherished their strains of
Deerhound, seeking glorious sport in the Highland forests. The red
deer belonged by inexorable law to the kings of Scotland, and great
drives, which often lasted for several days, were made to round up
the herds into given neighbourhoods for the pleasure of the court,
as in the reign of Queen Mary. But the organised coursing of deer
by courtiers ceased during the Stuart troubles, and was left in the
hands of retainers, who thus replenished their chief's larder.

The revival of deerstalking dates back hardly further than a hundred
years. It reached its greatest popularity in the Highlands at the
time when the late Queen and Prince Albert were in residence at
Balmoral. Solomon, Hector, and Bran were among the Balmoral hounds.
Bran was an especially fine animal--one of the best of his time,
standing over thirty inches in height.

Two historic feats of strength and endurance illustrate the tenacity
of the Deerhound at work. A brace of half-bred dogs, named Percy and
Douglas, the property of Mr. Scrope, kept a stag at bay from Saturday
night to Monday morning; and the pure bred Bran by himself pulled
down two unwounded stags, one carrying ten and the other eleven tines.
These, of course, are record performances, but they demonstrate the
possibilities of the Deerhound when trained to his natural sport.


Driving was commonly resorted to in the extensive forests, but
nowadays when forests are sub-divided into limited shootings the deer
are seldom moved from their home preserves, whilst with the use of
improved telescopes and the small-bore rifle, stalking has gone out
of fashion. With guns having a muzzle velocity of 2,500 feet per
second, it is no longer necessary for sportsmen stealthily to stalk
their game to come within easy range, and as for hounds, they have
become a doubtful appendage to the chase.

Primarily and essentially the Deerhound belongs to the order
_Agaseus_, hunting by sight and not by scent, and although he may
indeed occasionally put his nose to the ground, yet his powers of
scent are not remarkable. His vocation, therefore, has undergone a
change, and it was recently ascertained that of sixty deer forests
there were only six upon which Deerhounds were kept for sporting

Happily the Deerhound has suffered no decline in the favour bestowed
upon him for his own sake. The contrary is rather the case, and he
is still an aristocrat among dogs, valued for his good looks, the
symmetry of his form, his grace and elegance, and even more so for
his faithful and affectionate nature. Sir Walter Scott declared that
he was "a most perfect creature of heaven," and when one sees him
represented in so beautiful a specimen of his noble race as St.
Ronan's Rhyme, for example, or Talisman, or Ayrshire, one is tempted
to echo this high praise.

Seven-and-twenty years ago Captain Graham drew up a list of the most
notable dogs of the last century. Among these were Sir St. George
Gore's Gruim (1843-44), Black Bran (1850-51); the Marquis of
Breadalbane's King of the Forest, said to stand 33 inches high; Mr.
Beaseley's Alder (1863-67), bred by Sir John McNeill of Colonsay;
Mr. Donald Cameron's Torrum (1869), and his two sons Monzie and Young
Torrum; and Mr. Dadley's Hector, who was probably the best-bred dog
living in the early eighties. Torrum, however, appears to have been
the most successful of these dogs at stud. He was an exceedingly grand
specimen of his race, strong framed, with plenty of hair of a blue
brindle colour. Captain Graham's own dog Keildar, who had been trained
for deerstalking in Windsor Park, was perhaps one of the most elegant
and aristocratic-looking Deerhounds ever seen. His full height was
30 inches, girth 33-1/2 inches, and weight, 95 lbs., his colour bluish
fawn, slightly brindled, the muzzle and ears being blue. His nearest
competitor for perfection was, after Hector, probably Mr. Hood
Wright's Bevis, a darkish red brown brindle of about 29 inches. Mr.
Wright was the breeder of Champion Selwood Morven, who was the
celebrity of his race about 1897, and who became the property of Mr.
Harry Rawson. This stately dog was a dark heather brindle, standing
32-3/8 inches at the shoulder, with a chest girth of 34-1/2 inches.

A few years ago breeders were inclined to mar the beauty of the
Deerhound by a too anxious endeavour to obtain great size rather than
to preserve the genuine type; but this error has been sufficiently
corrected, with the result that symmetry and elegance conjoined with
the desired attributes of speed are not sacrificed. The qualities
aimed at now are a height of something less than 30 inches, and a
weight not greater than 105 lbs., with straight fore-legs and short,
cat-like feet, a deep chest, with broad, powerful loins, slightly
arched, and strength of hind-quarters, with well-bent stifles, and
the hocks well let down. Straight stifles are objectionable, giving
a stilty appearance. Thick shoulders are equally a blemish to be
avoided, as also a too great heaviness of bone. The following is the
accepted standard of merit.

* * * * *

HEAD--The head should be broadest at the ears, tapering slightly to
the eyes, with the muzzle tapering more decidedly to the nose. The
muzzle should be pointed, but the teeth and lips level. The head
should be long, the skull flat rather than round, with a very slight
rise over the eyes, but with nothing approaching a stop. The skull
should be coated with moderately long hair which is softer than the
rest of the coat. The nose should be black (though in some blue-fawns
the colour is blue) and slightly aquiline. In the lighter-coloured
dogs a black muzzle is preferred. There should be a good moustache
of rather silky hair, and a fair beard. EARS--The ears should be set
on high, and, in repose, folded back like the Greyhound's, though
raised above the head in excitement without losing the fold, and even,
in some cases, semi-erect. A prick ear is bad. A big, thick ear,
hanging flat to the head, or heavily coated with long hair, is the
worst of faults. The ear should be soft, glossy, and like a mouse's
coat to the touch, and the smaller it is the better. It should have
no long coat or long fringe, but there is often a silky, silvery coat
on the body of the ear and the tip. Whatever the general colour, the
ears should be black or dark-coloured. NECK AND SHOULDERS--The neck
should be long--that is, of the length that befits the Greyhound
character of the dog. An over-long neck is not necessary, nor
desirable, for the dog is not required to stoop in his work like a
Greyhound, and it must be remembered that the mane, which every good
specimen should have, detracts from the apparent length of neck.
Moreover, a Deerhound requires a very strong neck to hold a stag.
The nape of the neck should be very prominent where the head is set
on, and the throat should be clean-cut at the angle and prominent.
The shoulders should be well sloped, the blades well back, with not
too much width between them. Loaded and straight shoulders are very
bad faults. STERN--Stern should be tolerably long, tapering, and
reaching to within 1-1/2 inches of the ground, and about 1-1/2 inches
below the hocks. When the dog is still, dropped perfectly straight
down, or curved. When in motion it should be curved when excited,
in no case to be lifted out of the line of the back. It should be
well covered with hair, on the inside thick and wiry, underside
longer, and towards the end a slight fringe is not objectionable.
A curl or ring tail is very undesirable. EYES--The eyes should be
dark: generally they are dark brown or hazel. A very light eye is
not liked. The eye is moderately full with a soft look in repose,
but a keen, far-away gaze when the dog is roused. The rims of the
eyelids should be black. BODY--The body and general formation is that
of a Greyhound of larger size and bone. Chest deep rather than broad,
but not too narrow and flat-sided. The loin well arched and drooping
to the tail. A straight back is not desirable, this formation being
unsuitable for going uphill, and very unsightly. LEGS AND FEET--The
legs should be broad and flat, a good broad forearm and elbow being
desirable. Fore-legs, of course, as straight as possible. Feet close
and compact, with well-arched toes. The hind-quarters drooping, and
as broad and powerful as possible, the hips being set wide apart.
The hind-legs should be well bent at the stifle, with great length
from the hip to the hock, which should be broad and flat. Cow hocks,
weak pasterns, straight stifles, and splay feet are very bad faults.
COAT--The hair on the body, neck, and quarters should be harsh and
wiry, and about 3 inches or 4 inches long; that on the head, breast,
and belly is much softer. There should be a slight hairy fringe on
the inside of the fore and hind-legs, but nothing approaching to the
feathering of a Collie. The Deerhound should be a shaggy dog, but
not over coated. A woolly coat is bad. Some good strains have a slight
mixture of silky coat with the hard, which is preferable to a woolly
coat, but the proper covering is a thick, close-lying, ragged coat,
harsh or crisp to the touch. COLOUR--Colour is much a matter of fancy.
But there is no manner of doubt that the dark blue-grey is the most
preferred. Next come the darker and lighter greys or brindles, the
darkest being generally preferred. Yellow and sandy-red or red-fawn,
especially with black points--_i.e._, ears and muzzle--are also in
equal estimation, this being the colour of the oldest known strains,
the McNeil and the Chesthill Menzies. White is condemned by all the
old authorities, but a white chest and white toes, occurring as they
do in a great many of the darkest-coloured dogs, are not so greatly
objected to, but the less the better, as the Deerhound is a
self-coloured dog. A white blaze on the head or a white collar should
entirely disqualify. In other cases, though passable, an attempt
should be made to get rid of white markings. The less white the
better, but a slight white tip to the stern occurs in the best
strains. HEIGHT OF DOGS--From 28 inches to 30 inches, or even more
if there be symmetry without coarseness, which, however, is rare.
HEIGHT OF BITCHES--From 26 inches upwards. There can be no objection
to a bitch being large, unless she is too coarse, as even at her
greatest height she does not approach that of the dog, and, therefore,
could not well be too big for work, as over-big dogs are. Besides,
a big bitch is good for breeding and keeping up the size. WEIGHT--From
85 pounds to 105 pounds in dogs; from 65 pounds to 80 pounds in

* * * * *

Among the more prominent owners of Deerhounds at the present time
are Mrs. H. Armstrong, Mrs. W. C. Grew, Mrs. Janvrin Dickson, Miss
A. Doxford, Mr. Harry Rawson, and Mr. H. McLauchin. Mrs. Armstrong
is the breeder of two beautiful dog hounds in Talisman and Laird of
Abbotsford, and of two typically good bitches in Fair Maid of Perth
and Bride of Lammermoor. Mrs. Grew owns many admirable specimens,
among them being Blair Athol, Ayrshire, Kenilworth, and Ferraline.
Her Ayrshire is considered by some judges to be the most perfect
Deerhound exhibited for some time past. He is somewhat large, perhaps,
but he is throughout a hound of excellent quality and character,
having a most typical head, with lovely eyes and expression, perfect
front, feet and hind-quarters. Other judges would give the palm to
Mr. Harry Rawson's St. Ronan's Ranger, who is certainly difficult
to excel in all the characteristics most desirable in the breed.



Of the many foreign varieties of the dog that have been introduced
into this country within recent years, there is not one among the
larger breeds that has made greater headway in the public favour than
the Borzoi, or Russian Wolfhound. Nor is this to be wondered at. The
most graceful and elegant of all breeds, combining symmetry with
strength, the wearer of a lovely silky coat that a toy dog might envy,
the length of head, possessed by no other breed--all go to make the
Borzoi the favourite he has become.

He is essentially what our American cousins would call a "spectacular"
dog. Given, for example, the best team of terriers and a fifth-rate
team of Borzois, which attracts the more attention and admiration
from the man in the street? Which does he turn again to look at? Not
the terriers! Add to this that the Borzoi makes a capital house dog,
is, as a rule, affectionate and a good companion, it is not to be
wondered at that he has attained the dignified position in the canine
world which he now holds.

In his native country the Borzoi is employed, as his English name
implies, in hunting the wolf and also smaller game, including foxes
and hares.

Several methods of hunting the larger game are adopted, one form being
as follows. Wolves being reported to be present in the neighbourhood,
the hunters set out on horseback, each holding in his left hand a
leash of three Borzois, as nearly matched as possible in size, speed,
and colour. Arrived at the scene of action, the chief huntsman
stations the hunters at separate points every hundred yards or so
round the wood. A pack of hounds is sent in to draw the quarry, and
on the wolves breaking cover the nearest hunter slips his dogs. These
endeavour to seize their prey by the neck, where they hold him until
the hunter arrives, throws himself from his horse, and with his knife
puts an end to the fray.

Another method is to advance across the open country at intervals
of about two hundred yards, slipping the dogs at any game they may
put up.

Trials are also held in Russia. These take place in a large railed
enclosure, the wolves being brought in carts similar to our deer
carts. In this case a brace of dogs is loosed on the wolf. The whole
merit of the course is when the hounds can overtake the wolf and pin
him to the ground, so that the keepers can secure him alive. It
follows, therefore, that in this case also the hounds must be of equal
speed, so that they reach the wolf simultaneously; one dog would, of
course, be unable to hold him.

Naturally, the dogs have to be trained to the work, for which purpose
the best wolves are taken alive and sent to the kennels, where the
young dogs are taught to pin him in such a manner that he cannot turn
and use his teeth. There seems to be no reason why the Borzoi should
not be used for coursing in this country.

One of the first examples of the breed exhibited in England was owned
by Messrs. Hill and Ashton, of Sheffield, about 1880, at which time
good specimens were imported by the Rev. J. C. Macdona and Lady Emily
Peel, whose Sandringham and Czar excited general admiration. It was
then known as the Siberian Wolfhound. Some years later the Duchess
of Newcastle obtained several fine dogs, and from this stock Her Grace
founded the kennel which has since become so famous. Later still,
Queen Alexandra received from the Czar a gift of a leash of these
stately hounds, one of them being Alex, who quickly achieved honours
as a champion.

The breed has become as fashionable in the United States as in Great
Britain, and some excellent specimens are to be seen at the annual
shows at Madison Square Gardens.

To take the points of the breed in detail, the description of the
perfect Borzoi is as follows:--

* * * * *

HEAD--This should be long, lean, and well balanced, and the length,
from the tip of the nose to the eyes, must be the same as from the
eyes to the occiput. A dog may have a long head, but the length may
be all in front of the eyes. The heads of this breed have greatly
improved the last few years; fewer "apple-headed" specimens, and more
of the desired triangular heads being seen. The skull should be flat
and narrow, the stop not perceptible, the muzzle long and tapering.
Too much stress cannot be laid on the importance of the head being
well filled up before the eyes. The head, from forehead to nose,
should be so fine that the direction of the bones and principal veins
can be seen clearly, and in profile should appear rather Roman nosed.
Bitches should be even narrower in head than dogs. THE EYES should
be dark, expressive, almond shaped, and not too far apart. THE EARS
like those of a Greyhound, small, thin, and placed well back on the
head, with the tips, when thrown back, almost touching behind the
occiput. It is not a fault if the dog can raise his ears erect when
excited or looking after game, although some English judges dislike
this frequent characteristic. The head should be carried somewhat
low, with the neck continuing the line of the back. SHOULDERS--Clean
and sloping well back, _i.e._, the shoulder blades should almost touch
one another. CHEST--Deep and somewhat narrow. It must be capacious,
but the capacity must be got from depth, and not from "barrel" ribs--a
bad fault in a running hound. BACK--Rather bony, and free from any
cavity in the spinal column, the arch in the back being more marked
in the dog than in the bitch. LOINS--Broad and very powerful, showing
plenty of muscular development. THIGHS--Long and well developed, with
good second thigh. The muscle in the Borzoi is longer than in the
Greyhound. RIBS--Slightly sprung, very deep, reaching to the elbow.
FORE-LEGS--Lean and straight. Seen from the front they should be
narrow and from the side broad at the shoulder and narrowing gradually
down to the foot, the bone appearing flat and not round as in the
Foxhound. HIND-LEGS--The least thing under the body when standing
still, not straight, and the stifle slightly bent. They should, of
course, be straight as regards each other, and not "cow-hocked," but
straight hind-legs imply a want of speed. FEET--Like those of the
Deerhound, rather long. The toes close together and well arched.
COAT--Long, silky, not woolly; either flat, wavy, or curly. On the
head, ears and front-legs it should be short and smooth; on the neck
the frill should be profuse and rather curly; on the chest and the
rest of the body, the tail and hind-quarters, it should be long; the
fore-legs being well feathered. TAIL--Long, well feathered, and not
gaily carried. It should be carried well down, almost touching the
ground. HEIGHT--Dogs from 29 inches upwards at shoulder, bitches from
27 inches upwards. (Originally 27 inches and 26 inches. Altered at
a general meeting of the Borzoi Club, held February, 1906.)
FAULTS--Head short and thick; too much stop; parti-coloured nose;
eyes too wide apart; heavy ears; heavy shoulders; wide chest; "barrel"
ribbed; dew-claws; elbows turned out; wide behind. Also light eyes
and over or undershot jaws. COLOUR--The Club standard makes no mention
of colour. White, of course, should predominate; fawn, lemon, orange,
brindle, blue, slate and black markings are met with. Too much of
the latter, or black and tan markings, are disliked. Whole coloured
dogs are also seen.

* * * * *

The foregoing description embodies the standard of points as laid
down and adopted by the Borzoi Club, interpolated with some remarks
for the further guidance of the novice.

The Borzoi Club was founded in 1892, and now consists of about fifty
members, with the Duke and Duchess of Newcastle as joint-presidents.
It does much good work for the breed, guaranteeing classes at shows,
where otherwise few or none would be given, encouraging the breeding
of high-class Borzois by offering its valuable challenge cups and
other special prizes, and generally looking after the interests of
the breed.

Although the Club standard of height has been raised from 27 and 26
inches to 29 and 27 inches for dogs and bitches respectively, it must
be borne in mind that the best dogs of to-day far exceed these
measurements, and, unless _exceptionally_ good in other points, a
dog of 29 inches at shoulder would stand little or no chance in the
showing under the majority of English judges; indeed, bitches of 29
to 30 inches are by no means uncommon.

Not many of us can afford to start at the top of the tree, and, except
for the favoured few to whom money is no object, and who can buy
ready-made champions, there is no better way of starting a kennel
than to purchase a really good bitch, one, say, capable of winning
at all but the more important shows. She must be of good pedigree,
strong, and healthy; such an one ought to be obtained for P15 upwards.
Mate her to the best dog whose blood "nicks" suitably with hers, but
do not waste time and money breeding from fourth-rate stud dogs, for
if you do it is certain you will only meet with disappointment. On
the other hand, if you have had little or no experience of dogs, you
may possibly prefer to start with a puppy. If so, place yourself in
the hands of a breeder with a reputation at stake (unless you have
a friend who understands the breed). It is a fact that even a "cast
off" from a good strain that has been bred for certain points for
years is more likely to turn out a better dog than a pup whose dam
has been mated "haphazard" to some dog who may or may not have been
a good one. Big kennels also generally possess the best bitches and
breed from them, and the bitch is quite as important a factor as the
sire. If, however, you prefer to rely on your own judgment, and wish
to choose a puppy yourself from a litter, select the one with the
longest head, biggest bone, smallest ears, and longest tail, or as
many of these qualities as you can find combined in one individual.
Coat is a secondary matter in quite a young pup; here one should be
guided by the coat of the sire and dam. Still, choose a pup with a
heavy coat, if possible, although when this puppy coat is cast, the
dog may not grow so good as one as some of the litter who in early
life were smoother.

As regards size, a Borzoi pup of three months should measure about
19 inches at the shoulder, at six months about 25 inches, and at nine
months from 27 to 29 inches. After ten or twelve months, growth is
very slow, although some continue adding to their height until they
are a year and a half old. They will, of course, increase in girth
of chest and develop muscle until two years old; a Borzoi may be
considered in its prime at from three to four years of age. As regards
price, from P5 to P10 is not too much to pay for a really good pup
of about eight to ten weeks old; if you pay less you will probably
get only a second-rate one. Having purchased your puppy, there are
three principal items to be considered if you intend to rear him well;
firstly, his diet must be varied; secondly, the pup must have
unlimited exercise, and never be kept on the chain; thirdly, internal
parasites must be kept in check. For young puppies "Ruby" Worm Cure
is most efficacious, and does not distress the patient.

Food should be given at regular intervals--not less frequently than
five times a day to newly weaned puppies--and may consist of porridge,
bread and milk, raw meat minced fine, and any table scraps, with
plenty of new milk. Well-boiled paunch is also greatly appreciated,
and, being easily digested, may be given freely.

One important part of the puppy's education that must by no means
be neglected is to accustom him to go on the collar and lead. Borzoi
pups are, as a rule extremely nervous, and it requires great patience
in some cases to train them to the lead. Short lessons should be given
when about four months old. If you can induce the puppy to think it
is a new game, well and good--he will take to it naturally; but once
he looks upon it as something to be dreaded, it means hours of patient
work to break him in.

If you decide on commencing with a brood bitch, see that she is dosed
for worms before visiting the dog; that she is in good hard
condition--not fat, however; and, if possible, accompany her yourself
and see her mated. For the first week rather less than her usual
quantity of food should be given; afterwards feed as her appetite
dictates, but do not let her get too fat, or she may have a bad time
when whelping. For two days before the puppies are due give sloppy
but nourishing diet, and this should be continued, given slightly
warm, for four or five days after the pups are born. Borzois as a
rule make excellent mothers, but to rear them well they should not
be allowed to suckle more than five--or, if a strong, big bitch,
six--pups. If the litter is larger, it is better to destroy the
remainder, or use a foster mother.


Whatever they may be in their native land--and the first imported
specimens were perhaps rather uncertain in temper--the Borzoi, as
we know him in this country, is affectionate, devoted to his owner,
friendly with his kennel companions and makes a capital house dog.
As a lady's companion he is hard to beat; indeed, a glance at any
show catalogue will prove that the majority of Borzois are owned by
the gentle sex. No one need be deterred from keeping a Borzoi by a
remark the writer has heard hundreds of times at shows: "Those dogs
are _so_ delicate." This is not the case. Once over distemper
troubles--and the breed certainly does suffer badly if it contracts
the disease--the Borzoi is as hardy as most breeds, if not hardier.
Given a good dry kennel and plenty of straw, no weather is too cold
for them. Damp, of course, must be avoided, but this applies equally
to other breeds.

The adult hound, like the puppy, should never be kept on chain; a
kennel with a railed-in run should be provided, or a loose box makes
a capital place for those kept out of doors, otherwise no different
treatment is required from that of other large breeds.



The Greyhound is the oldest and most conservative of all dogs, and
his type has altered singularly little during the seven thousand years
in which he is known to have been cherished for his speed, and kept

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