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Diseases of the Horse's Foot by Harry Caulton Reeks

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of propulsion of the body onward.'

The effect of these several obtuse-angled joints in the limb is to absorb
the greater part of the force exerted by the body-weight before it reaches
the foot. When with this we take the facts that the fore-limbs have to
carry the head and neck, and that they have to bear this added weight, plus
a propelling force from behind, we see why it is that they should be so
subject to the disease, and the hind-limbs so exempt.

As pointing out the part that concussion plays in its causation, we may
mention that navicular disease is a disease of the middle-aged and the
worked animal. It is interesting to note, too, that it occurs in animals
with well developed frogs--in feet in which frog-pressure with the ground
is most marked. This at first sight appears to flatly contradict what we
have said with regard to frog-pressure in other portions of this work. With
this, however, must be reckoned other predisposing causes. In this case it
is not to frog-pressure alone we must look, but to the condition of the
frog itself, and that of the neighbouring parts. It is when we have a frog
which, though well developed and apparently satisfying all demands as
to size and build, is at the same time composed of a hard, dry, and
non-yielding horn that we must look for trouble.

The foot predisposed to navicular disease is the strong, round, short-toed
or clubby foot, open at the heels, with a sound frog jutting prominently
out between them. Here is a frog exposed to all the pressure that might
be desired for it, bounded at its sides by heels thick and strong, and
indisposed to yield, and itself liable, from its very exposure, to become,
in the warm stable, hard and dry, and incompressible' (Percival).

Here, instead of acting, as normally it should, as a resilient body, and an
aid to the absorption of concussion, it seems rather to play the part of
a foreign body, and to bring concussion about. Seeing, then, that the
navicular bursa is in very near contact with it, it is conceivable that
this joint-like apparatus should suffer, and the pedal articulation be left
unaffected, the more so when we take into consideration the compression
theory just described.

4. _A Weak Navicular Bone_.--When the disease commences first in the
bone--and there is no denying the fact that sometimes, although not
invariably, it does--it may be explained by attributing to the structure of
the bone an abnormal weakness in build.

The navicular bone consists normally of compact and cancellated tissue
arranged in certain proportions, the compact tissue without, and the
cancellated within. These proportions can only be judged of by the
examinations of sections of the bone, and when it is found in any case that
the cancellated tissue bulks more largely in the formation of the bone than
normally it should, we have what we may term a weak navicular bone. In this
connection Colonel Smith says: 'Though it is far from present in every case
of the disease, still I consider it a factor of great importance.'

5. _A Defective or Irregular Blood-supply to the Bone_.--This, Colonel
Smith considers, is brought about by excessive and irregular work, and by
the opposite condition--rest. The author points out that the bloodvessels
passing to and from the navicular bone run in the substance of the
interosseous ligaments, or in such proximity to them that it is conceivable
that under certain circumstances mechanical interference may occur to the
navicular circulation. He further points out a fact that is, of course,
well known to every veterinarian, that in periods of work the circulation
of the foot is hurried, and that in rest there is always a tendency to
congestion; and he says in conclusion: 'I cannot help thinking that
irregularities in the blood-supply in a naturally weak bone must be a
factor of some importance, especially when the kind of work the horse is
performing is a series of vigorous efforts followed by rest.'

6. _Senile Decay_.--With approaching age the various tissues lose their
vigour, and are prone to disease. The navicular bone and surrounding
structures are not exempt. With the other and more active causes we have
described acting at the same time it is not surprising that navicular
disease is seen as a result.

In conclusion, it is well, perhaps, to say that, no matter to which
particular theory of causation we may lean, we should make up our minds to
consider them as a whole. While one cause may be exciting, the other may
be predisposing, and the two must act together before evil results are
noticed. It may be that even more than two are concerned in bringing on the
disease, and to each the careful veterinarian will give due consideration.

_Symptoms and Diagnosis_.--In the early stages of navicular disease the
symptoms are obscure. Pointing of the affected limb is the first evidence
the animal gives. This, however, more often than not, goes unnoticed,
and the first symptom usually observed by the owner or attendant is the
lameness. Even this is such as to at first occasion no alarm, being
intermittent and slight, and only very gradually becoming marked. In a few
cases, however, lameness will come on suddenly, and is excessive from the
commencement. It is the lameness, slow in its onset, intermittent in
its character, and gradual in its progress, however, that is ordinarily
characteristic of navicular disease.

The animal is taken out from the stable sound, with just a vague suspicion,
perhaps, that he moved a bit stiffly. While out he is thought by his driver
or rider to be going feelingly with one foot or with both. Even this is not
marked, and the driver has some difficulty in assuring himself whether or
no he really observed it, or whether it was but imagination.

On the return home the limb is examined, and nothing abnormal is to be
found. The leg is of its normal appearance, and neither heat nor tenderness
is to be observed in it or in the foot. On the following day the animal
again is sound, and the lameness of the previous day is put down to a
slight strain or something equally simple. The patient is then, perhaps,
rested for a day or two. When next he is worked he again moves out from the
stable sound, but again during the going gives the driver the unpleasant
impression that something is amiss; and so the case goes on. One day the
owner fears the animal is becoming seriously enough affected to warrant him
in calling in his veterinary surgeon; the next he is confidently assuring
himself that nothing is wrong.

Perhaps the animal is now rested for a week or two, or even for a month or
two, hoping that this will put him sound. Immediately on commencing work,
however, the same symptoms as before assert themselves, and the veterinary
surgeon is called in.

With a history such as we have given the veterinarian's suspicions are
aroused. He has the animal trotted, and may notice at this stage that there
is an inclination to go on the toes, that the lame limb or limbs are not
put forward freely, and that progression is stilty and uncertain; it
is such, in fact, as to at once suggest the possibility of corns being
present.

In some cases there is just the suspicion of a limp with one limb, and
this only at intervals during the trot. At one moment the veterinarian
is positive that he sees the animal going lame; at another he is just as
confident he sees him coming towards him sound.

Nothing is found in the limb--neither heat, tenderness, nor swelling. There
is nothing in the gait (either a limited movement of the radius, or a
circular sweep with the leg) to indicate shoulder or other lameness, and
the veterinary surgeon, by eliminative evidence, is bound to conclude that
the trouble is in the foot.

The foot is then examined--pared, percussed, pinched, and in other ways
manipulated--but nothing further is forthcoming. In such a case the
veterinary surgeon is wise to declare the abortive result of his
examination, to hint darkly of his suspicions, and to suggest a second
examination at some future date. It may be that two, three, four, or even
more, such examinations are necessary before he can justly pronounce a
positive verdict.

Later he is enabled to do this by an increase in the severity of the
symptoms, and by the changes that take place in the form of the foot.
The lameness is now more marked, and the 'pointing' in the stable more
frequent. With regard to the latter symptom, it has been seriously
discussed whether the horse with navicular disease points with the heel
elevated or with it pressed to the ground. In either case, of course, the
limb is advanced; but while some hold that the phalangeal articulations are
flexed and the heel slightly raised, in order to relieve the pressure of
the perforans tendon on the affected area, and so obtain ease, there are
others who hold that the heel is pressed firmly to the ground in order to
deaden the pain. It may be, and most probably is, that both are right; but,
in our opinion, there is no doubt whatever that pointing with the heel
elevated is by far the most common.

The lameness is now excessive, and is especially noticeable when the animal
is put to work on a rough or on a hard ground. Even now, however, heat of
the foot or tenderness is so slight as to be out of all proportion to the
alteration in gait.

With the case thus far advanced, evidence of pain may be obtained by
pressing with the thumb in the hollow of the heel. Evidence of pain may
also be obtained by using the farrier's pincers on the frog. These methods,
however, are never wholly satisfactory, as a horse with the soundest of
feet will sometimes flinch under these manipulations.

Extreme and forcible flexion of the corono-pedal articulation also
sometimes gives evidence of tenderness. In this case the foot is held up,
the animal's metacarpus resting on the operator's knee, and the toe of the
hoof pushed downwards with some degree of force.

The same movement of the joint is given by causing the animal to put full
weight upon the diseased limb, a small wedge of wood being first placed
under the toe. In this manner the pressure of the perforans tendon upon the
bursa is greatly increased, and the animal is caused to show symptoms of
distress.

The lameness may also be increased, and diagnosis helped, by paring
the heels, so as to leave the frog prominent and take the whole of the
body-weight. The same end is also obtained by applying a bar shoe. This was
originally pointed out by Brauell, and is quoted by Zundel and by Moeller.

The changes in the form of the hoof may now be noticed. These are largely
dependent on the fact that more or less constantly the patient saves the
heel. The horn of the walls in this region, and the horn of the frog,
is thereby put out of action and induced to atrophy. The hoof gradually
assumes a more upright shape, and the heels contract. We thus get a hoof
which is visibly narrowed from side to side, with a frog that is atrophied
and often thrushy, and with a sole that is abnormally concave, hard, and
affected with corns.

When occurring in the hind-feet--a condition that is rare, but which has
been noticed by Loiset, and quoted by Zundel--the animal is stiff behind,
walks on his toes, and gives one the impression that he is suffering from
some affection in the region of the loins.

One such case is reported by an English veterinary surgeon, and we quote it
here:

'A gray gelding, and a capital hunter, the property of a gentleman in this
neighbourhood, became lame in the near fore-foot after the hunting season
of 1859. The lameness was believed to be due to navicular disease.
The operation of neurectomy was ultimately had recourse to. The horse
subsequently did his work as well as ever, and was ridden to hounds
regularly till the end of the year 1861, when he went lame of the off
fore-foot. From this date he also showed very peculiar action behind, and
was at times lame of both hind-limbs without any apparent cause.

'In the year 1862, from the groom's indiscreet use of physic,
superpurgation was brought on which caused the animal's death. On a
post-mortem examination being made, the horse was found to have _navicular
disease of all four feet_. It is worthy of note that this horse had
always "extravagant" action behind, but was a remarkably quick and good
jumper.'[A]

[Footnote A: F. Blakeway, M.R.C.V.S., _Veterinarian_, vol. ii., p. 21.]

_Differential Diagnosis_.--Navicular disease may be mistaken for ordinary
contracted foot. It will be remembered, however, that in the early stages
of navicular disease contraction is absent, and that it is only when the
disease in the bursa is of long standing that contraction comes on. With
ordinary contracted foot, too, careful paring and suitable shoeing soon
sees a diminution in the degree of lameness, and a return to the normal in
shape (see Treatment of Contracted Foot, p. 125). With navicular disease,
however, such shoeing as is beneficial in the treatment of contracted foot
(notably the various methods of giving to the frog counter-pressure with
ground) soon brings on an aggravation of the lameness.

It is, perhaps, even more likely to be confounded with contraction when we
have with the contraction a state of atrophy and thrush of the frog. With
a frog in this condition pressure will give rise to pain, and navicular
disease be erroneously judged to be present. In such a case we must rely
wholly upon either extreme flexion or extreme extension of the joint to
guide us, when, if contraction _only_ is the offending condition, no
symptom of pain will be shown.

Navicular disease may also be confused with rheumatic affections,
with sprain of the posterior ligaments of the first interphalangeal
articulation, and with sesamoid lameness. Mistakes are sometimes made, too,
especially with a hasty observer, in confounding it with shoulder lameness.

In rheumatism the constant changing of the seat of pain, the sometimes
elevated temperature, and the appearance of symptoms of heat, tenderness,
and swelling in the affected area should guide one to a right conclusion.

In sprain of the posterior ligaments of the coronet and in sesamoid
lameness, nothing but a careful examination and manipulation of the parts
will ward off error, for in each of these cases there is 'pointing' and
resting of the limb, and considerable disinclination to put weight firmly
upon it. If at the same time manipulation gives distinct evidence of pain,
all doubt may be set at rest.

Roughly speaking, sesamoid lameness is a condition of the gliding surface
of the sesamoids, and the face of the tendon playing over them, similar to
that found in navicular disease. All symptoms of pointing, the constant
maintaining of the limb in a state of flexion, and a feeling manner of
progression are again all present. It is plain from this that in all cases
where an animal with a gait at all suggestive of navicular disease is
brought for our examination, the manipulation of the limb should be
thorough. The character of the lameness is almost sure to deceive us; and
it is not until we are able to obtain local symptoms pointing to the one or
the other of the conditions we have enumerated that a decisive opinion may
be given. In sesamoid lameness the local symptoms are those of heat and
pain in the fetlock on palpation, and a swelling of the affected parts,
such swelling being at first slight, yielding, and barely distinguishable,
and afterwards larger, bony and hard, and more marked. Later still there is
distinct evidence of 'knuckling' over at the fetlock and inability to fully
flex it.

In cases of shoulder lameness the gait alone should be sufficient to render
liability of error small, for with nearly every case there is a manifest
inability to 'get the limb forward', and this is best seen at a side view
when the animal is trotting past the observer. When trotting towards
one, there is a further and unmistakable symptom common to most shoulder
lamenesses that serves to distinguish it at once, and that is the peculiar
'sweeping' outwards with the affected limb.

Lastly, with either of the conditions we have just mentioned, it is the
exception to get contracted foot follow on. With navicular disease it
sooner or later makes its appearance.

_Prognosis_.--The prognosis of navicular disease (once diagnosed with
certainty) must almost of necessity be unfavourable. The facts that the
disease has made serious progress before it is really noticeable, that
the situation of the parts prohibits operative interference, and that the
disease is one of a chronic and slowly progressive type, all point to an
unfavourable termination.

_Treatment_.--We have seen from the pathology of this disease that it may
commence either as a rarefactive ostitis, or as a synovitis and tenositis
in connection with the bursa. With the former condition in existence, or
when this and the synovitis has led to erosion of the cartilage, treatment
is probably of no avail, on account of the more chronic nature of these two
conditions. When, however, the condition is simply that of synovitis or
tenositis, a more or less acute condition, we may assume that suitable
treatment and a long rest will bring about resolution.

The first indications in treatment are those of what we may term 'nursing'
the foot. It should have sufficient rest, should be placed so as to
minimize as far as possible compression of the parts, and should have
its posterior half treated so as to render it softer and less liable to
concussion.

The period of rest required cannot be satisfactorily advised, and the
practitioner is wise who makes it a long one. Best should be advised, in
fact, long after symptoms of lameness have disappeared and recovery is
judged to have taken place.

Compression of the parts may be somewhat minimized, if the animal be kept
in the stable, by allowing the floor upon which the front-feet are to stand
to be slightly sloping from behind forwards. The same effect, though not so
marked, is obtained by removing the shoes, and considerably lowering the
wall at the toe, while allowing that of the heels to remain. It may here be
remarked that it is a good practice to allow the shoes to remain on, and
this even when the animal is at grass. They should, however, be frequently
removed, and the foot trimmed as we have directed.

With the foot thus trimmed so as to most suitably adjust the angles of
the articulations, it should next be thoroughly pared and rasped in its
posterior half, so as to render the horn of the sole and the frog and the
horn of the quarters as thin as possible. The heels, however, should not be
excessively lowered, _if at all_. We now have the foot in a soft condition,
and easily expanded. It should, if possible, be kept so; and this may be
done either by the use of poultices, by tepid baths, or by standing the
animal upon a bedding that may easily be kept constantly damp. Such
materials as tan, peat moss, or sawdust, are either of them suitable.

All this, of course, calls for keeping the animal in the stable. It is far
better, however, more especially if a piece of marshy land is at hand, to
turn him out in that. A moderate amount of exercise is beneficial rather
than not, and the feet are thus constantly kept damp without trouble to the
attendants.

The second indication in the treatment is that of applying a
counter-irritant as near to the diseased parts as possible. Regarding its
efficacy we must confess to being somewhat sceptical. The treatment has
been constantly practised and advised, however, and we feel bound to give
it mention here. A smart blister may, therefore, be applied to the whole of
the coronet, and need not be prevented from running into the hollow of the
heel.

Instead of blistering the coronet (or in conjunction with that treatment),
the counter-irritant may be applied by passing a seton through the plantar
cushion or fibro-fatty frog. Setoning the frog appears to have been
introduced by Sewell. In many cases great benefit is claimed to have been
derived from it, especially by English veterinarians of Sewell's time, and
by others on the Continent. Percival, however, was not an advocate for it,
and, at the present day, it is a practice which appears to have dropped out
of use altogether.

[Illustration: FIG. 164.--FROG SETON NEEDLE.]

To perform this operation a seton needle of a curved pattern is needed
(see Fig. 164). This is threaded with a piece of stout tape dressed with a
cantharides, hellebore, or other blistering ointment, and then passed in at
the hollow of the heel, emerging at the point of the frog. The course the
needle should take will be understood from a reference to Fig. 165.

The seton may be passed with the horse in the standing position. Previously
the point of the frog should be thinned, and the animal should be twitched.
After-treatment consists simply in moving the seton daily, and dressing it
occasionally with any stimulating ointment, or with turpentine.

If, in spite of these treatments, the disease persists, then nothing
remains but neurectomy.

D. DISLOCATIONS.

The firm and rigid manner in which the bones of the pedal articulation
are held together renders dislocation of this joint an exceedingly rare
occurrence, and then it is only liable to happen under the operation of
great force. In the literature to our hand we have only been successful
in discovering one reported instance, and, strange to say, in this, a
well-marked case, the cause was altogether obscure. We quote the case at
the end of this section.

[Illustration: FIG. 165.--DIAGRAM SHOWING THE COURSE TAKEN BY THE NEEDLE
WHEN SETONING THE FROG. This is shown by the dotted curved line _a, b_.
1, The navicular bone; 2, the plantar cushion; 3, the os pedis; 4, the
perforans tendon.]

A partial dislocation of this articulation is the condition met with in
'Buttress Foot.' In this case the fracture of the pyramidal process, and
the consequent lengthening of the tendon of the extensor pedis, allows the
os coronae to occupy upon the articulatory surface of the os pedis a more
backward position than normally it should.

It is quite probable, too, that slight lesions of the other restraining
ligaments and tendons of the articulation may bring about a similar though
less marked condition. We may be quite sure of this--that whenever such
lesions (as, for example, sprain and partial rupture of the lateral
ligaments) do occur, and the normal position of the opposing bones is
changed, if only slightly, that great pain and excessive lameness must be
the result, and this with but little to show in the foot. Many of our cases
of obscure foot lameness might, if capable of demonstration, turn out to be
cases of sprain and partial dislocation of the pedal articulation.

_Recorded Case_.--'The animal, a trooper of the 8th Hussars, was found on
the morning of April 17 unable to bear any weight on the limb (the
near hind). Cause not known--the heel-rope I thought at first; but on
investigation I found the heel-rope had been on the other leg.

_Diagnosis_.--Dislocation of the left os coronae from the articulating
surface of the os pedis in a backward direction.

'Every devisable means were unsuccessful in reducing the limb to its
natural position. The horse was thrown, and a strong rope, with four men
pulling at it, was fastened round the hoof, whilst I put my knee to the
back of the pastern, using all possible force, with one hand to the foot
and the other to the fetlock, but all to no purpose. Next day other means
were tried. First by throwing the horse and placing him on his belly, with
the fore-legs stretched out forwards, and the hind-legs backwards. This I
did so as to get the injured limb placed as nearly flat on the ground as
possible, with its anterior aspect downwards. Then a very heavy man, with
his boots off, was made to jump on the back of the pastern, where the
prominence showed most; and afterwards, when these means failed, a strong
piece of wood, well covered with leather, was placed (where the hollow of
the heel ought to have been) on the most prominent part, and hit several
times with a heavy hammer; but all efforts were futile.

'_Prognosis_.--Unfavourable. During the latter operations I had a very
strong pressure applied to the hoof, and the horse firmly fastened in every
way, and it appeared as though no amount of force would ever reduce the
dislocation.

'_Tautological_.--The case was destroyed on April 30, being of no further
use to the service.

'_Post-mortem_.--The os coronae was found to have slipped out of the
articulating cavity of the os pedis, backwards and past the lateral
ligaments. These last-named structures prevented the bone being forced
forward into its proper position, being firmly locked over the lateral
prominences. The capsular ligament was considerably lacerated and inflamed,
causing slight effusion and swelling about the region of the coronet.'[A]

[Footnote A: T. Flintoff, A.V.D., _Veterinary Journal_, vol. xix., p. 74.]

_Treatment_.--After the forcible means of reduction related by Mr.
Flintoff, we may add that when they are successful, they should be followed
by suitable bandaging of the parts, and rest. The first is effected by
applying plaster of Paris and linen, and the second by having the animal
put in slings.

INDEX

Accidental tearing off of the entire hoof
Acute arthritis
causes of
symptoms of
treatment of
Acute laminitis
causes of
complications in
congestion in
course of
definition of
diagnosis in
exudation in
pathological anatomy of
prognosis in
suppuration in
symptoms of
treatment of
Acute periostitis simple
Acute simple coronitis
causes of
definition of
symptoms of
prognosis of
treatment of
Acute simple synovitis
Advantages of neurectomy
Amputational neuroma after neurectomy
Anatomy, pathological, of corn
Applying poultices, method of
Arteries of the foot
Arthritis, acute
causes of
symptoms of
treatment of
Arthritis, simple or serous
Arthritis, suppurative
causes of
definition of
diagnosis of
pathology of
symptoms of
treatment of
Articulation, the first interphalangeal
Articulation, the second interphalangeal

Bar pad and a half-shoe in the treatment of contracted feet
Bar shoes in the treatment of contraction
Bayer's treatment for chronic laminitis
Bermbach's treatment for canker
Bind
Bone, caries of
Bones, fracture of the, after neurectomy
Bones, fracture of the
Bones, necrosis of
Bones, the
Brittle hoof
causes of
definition of
symptoms of
treatment of
Broad's treatment of laminitis
Broue's expansion shoe
Bruised sole, chronic
Buttress foot

Canker
Bermbach's treatment of
causes of
definition of
differential diagnosis in
history of
Hoffmann's treatment of
Imminger's treatment of
Malcolm's treatment of
pathological anatomy of
prognosis in
Rose's treatment of
symptoms of
treatment of
Caries of bone
Caries of the os pedis in pricked foot
Cartilage, the lateral
Cartilaginous quittor
Causes of acute laminitis
of acute simple coronitis
of brittle hoof
of canker
of chronic coronitis
of chronic laminitis
of club-foot
of corn
of contracted feet
of coronary contraction of the
foot
of crooked foot
of curved hoof
of false quarter
of flat-foot
of keraphyllocele
of nail-bound
of navicular disease
of pumiced foot
of punctured foot
of ringed hoof
of sand-crack
of seedy-toe
of side-bone
of simple chronic coronitis
of simple cutaneous quittor
of specific coronitis
of sub-horny quittor
of thrush
of weak heels
Caustic solution, Villate's
Changes in the bone in navicular disease
in the bursa in navicular disease
in the cartilage in navicular disease
in the internal structures of the foot in contraction
in the tendon in navicular disease
Charlier shoe, the
Charlier shoeing for contracted foot
Chemical properties of horn
Chronic coronitis, simple
causes of
definition of
symptoms of
treatment of
Chronic bruised sole
treatment of
Chronic laminitis
Bayer's treatment of
causes of
definition of
Gross's treatment of
Gunther's treatment of
Imminger's treatment of
Joly's treatment of
Meyer's treatment of
pathological anatomy of
surgical shoeing for
symptoms of
treatment of
treatment of, by ligaturing the digital arteries
Chronic oedema of the leg after neurectomy
Chronic synovitis
Clamp, sand-crack, Koster's
McGill's
Vachette's
Clamping sand-cracks, methods of
Classification of corns
of punctured foot according to the situation of the wound
of sand-crack
of quittor
Club-foot
causes of
definition of
symptoms of
treatment of
Cocaine injections as an aid to diagnosis in foot lamenesses
Colic, metastatic, in laminitis
Commencement, point of, in navicular disease
Common situations of the wound in punctured foot.
Complicated sand-crack, operations for
Complications in coronitis
in laminitis
in pricked foot
in sand-crack
in simple or cutaneous quittor
in sub-horny quittor
Compression as a cause of navicular disease
Concussion as a cause of navicular disease
Conformation, faulty
Congestion in laminitis
Contracted foot
causes of
changes in the internal structures of
definition of
local or coronary
prognosis of
surgical shoeing for
symptoms of
treatment of
Contraction of the foot, a bar pad and a half-shoe in the treatment of
bar shoes in the treatment of
expansion shoes in the treatment of
Corn
causes of
classification of
definition of
pathological anatomy of
prognosis in
surgical shoeing in
symptoms of
the dry
the moist
the suppurating
treatment of
Coronary contraction of the foot
causes of
definition of
symptoms of
treatment of
Coronary cushion, the
Coronary edge of the wall, expansion and contraction of the
Coronitis
acute simple
causes of
complications in
definition of
prognosis of
symptoms of
treatment of
Coronitis, simple chronic
causes of
definition of
symptoms of
treatment of
Coronitis, specific
causes of
definition of
symptoms of
treatment of
Course of acute laminitis
Crooked foot
causes of
definition of
symptoms of
treatment of
Curved hoof
causes of
definition of
treatment of
Cushion
the coronary
the plantar
Cutaneous or simple quittor

De Fay's expansion shoe.
Defective or irregular blood-supply to the bone a cause of navicular
disease
Definition
of acute laminitis
of acute simple coronitis
of brittle hoof
of canker
of chronic coronitis
of chronic laminitis
of club-foot
of contracted foot
of corn
of coronary contraction of the foot
of crooked foot
of curved hoof
of false quarter
of flat-foot
of keraphyllocele
of nail-bound
of navicular disease
of pumiced foot
of punctured foot
of pyramidal disease
of quittor
of ringed hoof
of sand-crack
of seedy-toe
of side-bone
of simple chronic coronitis
of specific coronitis
of spongy hoof
of sub-horny quittor
of thrush
of weak heels
Development of the hoof
Diagnosis
of acute laminitis
of canker
of foot lameness by injections of cocaine
of navicular disease
of punctured foot
of pyramidal disease
of side-bone
of sub-horny quittor
Differential diagnosis in canker
in navicular disease
Diseases arising from faulty conformation
Dislocation of the os coronae
recorded case of
Dislocations
Dry corn

Einsiedel's expansion shoe
Examining the foot method of
Exercise, forced, in the treatment of laminitis
Expansion and contraction
of the coronary edge of the wall
of the hoof under the body-weight
of the solar edge of the wall
of the sole
Expansion shoe Broue's
De Fay's
Einsiedel's
Hartmann's
Smith's
Expansion shoes in the treatment of contraction
Extensor pedis tendon, the
Extirpation
of the lateral cartilage in quittor
of the lateral cartilage, after Moller and Frick
of the lateral cartilage, after Bayer
Exudation in laminitis

False quarter
causes of
definition of
symptoms of
treatment of
Faulty conformation
diseases arising from
Feeding a cause of laminitis
Flat-foot
causes of
definition of
symptoms of
treatment of
Flexor pedis perforans tendon, the
Flexor pedis perforatus tendon, the
Foot, buttress
Foot, changes in the internal structures in contraction of the
Foot, contracted
causes of
definition of
prognosis of
symptoms of
treatment of
Forced exercise in laminitis
Fractures
Fractures of the bones after neurectomy
of the navicular bone
of the os coronae
of the os pedis
Frog, the
Functions of the lateral cartilages

Gangrene of the sensitive structures in laminitis
Gathered nail
Gelatinous degeneration after neurectomy
Grooving the wall
in laminitis (Smith's operation)
in treatment of sand-crack
in treatment of side-bone (Smith's operation)
Gross's treatment of chronic laminitis
Growth of hoof, rate of
Gunther's treatment of chronic laminitis

Hartmann's expansion shoe
Heels, weak
causes of
definition of
symptoms of
treatment of
Heredity
as a cause of navicular disease
as a cause of side-bone
Histology of horn
History
of canker
of navicular disease
of neurectomy
Hind-feet, navicular disease in the
Hind-limb with the side-line, method of securing
Hoffmann's treatment of canker
Hoof, the
accidental tearing off of
expansion and contraction of
development of
rate of growth of
Horn
chemical properties of
histology of
Hutlederkitt

Imminger's treatment
for chronic laminitis
for canker
Immobilizing a sand-crack by grooving the wall, methods of
Infection of the limb, septic
Injections of cocaine as an aid to diagnosis in foot lameness
Interphalangeal articulation
the first
the second
Instruments
required in plantar neurectomy
in operations on the foot
Irregular blood-supply to the bone as a cause of navicular disease

Joly's treatment of chronic laminitis

Koster's sand-crack clamp
Keraphyllocele
causes of
definition of
pathological anatomy of
symptoms of
treatment of
Keratoma

Lameness, cocaine injections as an aid to diagnosis in
Laminae, the sensitive
Laminitis
acute
Broad's treatment of
causes of
complications in
congestion in
course of
definition of
diagnosis in
exudation in
feeding, a cause of
forced exercise in the treatment of
gangrene of the sensitive structures in
grooving the wall in the treatment of
local applications in the treatment of
local bleeding in the treatment of
metastatic colic in
metastatic pneumonia in
neurectomy in
opening the sole in the treatment of
parturient
pathological anatomy of
periostitis and ostitis in
phlebotomy in the treatment of
prognosis in
rocker bar shoes in the treatment of
Smith's operation in
suppuration in
symptoms of
symptoms of, in the four feet
symptoms of, in the fore-feet alone
symptoms of, in the hind-feet alone
treatment of
Laminitis
chronic
Bayer's treatment of
causes of
definition of
Gross's treatment of
Gunther's treatment of
Imminger's treatment of
Joly's treatment of
Meyer's treatment of
pathological anatomy of
surgical shoeing for
symptoms of
treatment of
Laminitis, parturient
Lateral cartilage, the
extirpation of, in quittor, after Holier and Frick
extirpation of, in quittor, after Bayer
functions of
necrosed, pathological anatomy of
necrosis of
ossification of
wounds of
Leg, chronic oedema of the, after neurectomy
Length of rest required after neurectomy
Ligaments, the
Ligaturing the digital arteries, in chronic laminitis
Limb, septic infection of
Local applications in laminitis
Local bleeding in laminitis
Local or coronary contraction of the foot
Low ringbone

Malcolm's treatment of canker
McGill's sand-crack clamp
Median neurectomy
Metal plates in the treatment of sand-crack
Metastatic colic in laminitis
Metastatic pneumonia in laminitis
Methods of applying poultices
of examining the foot
of immobilizing sand-crack by grooving the wall
Methods of restraint
of securing a hind-limb with the side-line
of securing the foot to the cannon of another limb
Meyer's treatment of chronic laminitis
Moist corn

Nail-bound
causes of
definition of
symptoms of
treatment of
Nail-tread
Navicular bone, the
fracture of
Navicular bursa, puncture of the, in pricked foot
Navicular bursa punctured, treatment of
Navicular disease
causes of
changes in the bone in
changes in the bursa in
changes in the cartilage in
changes in the tendon in
definition of
diagnosis of
differential diagnosis of
history of
in the hind-feet
point of commencement of
prognosis of
symptoms of
treatment of
Necrosed lateral cartilage
pathological anatomy of
Necrosis of bone
of tendon and ligament in sub-horny quittor
of the lateral cartilage (cartilaginous quittor)
Necrotic plantar aponeurosis, treatment of
Nerve, reunion of, after neurectomy
Nerves, the
Neurectomy
advantages of
amputational neuroma in
fracture of the bones after
gelatinous degeneration after
history of
instruments required in
in laminitis
length of rest required after
persistent pruritus after
pricked foot after
reunion of divided nerve after
sequelae of
stumbling after
use of the horse after
Neurectomy
median
plantar
Neuroma, amputational, after neurectomy

Oedema of the leg after neurectomy
Opening the sole in the treatment of laminitis
Operation for complicated sand-crack
for laminitis
for necrosed lateral cartilage in quittor
for necrosed plantar aponeurosis
for side-bone
Operations on the foot, instruments required in
Operations on the horn, treatment of contracted foot by
Os coronae, the
dislocation of
fracture of
Os pedis, the
caries of, in pricked foot
fracture of
Osteoplastic ostitis
Osteoplastic periostitis
Ostitis in laminitis
Ostitis,
rarefying
osteoplastic
Ossification of the lateral cartilages (side-bone)
Overreach
shoeing for
treatment of

Parturient laminitis
Pathological anatomy of acute laminitis
of canker
of chronic laminitis
of corn
of keraphyllocele
of necrosed lateral cartilage
of pyramidal disease
of simple cutaneous quittor
of navicular disease
Pedal articulation, puncture of the
Perforans tendon, the flexor pedis
Perforates tendon, the flexor pedis
Periople, the
Periostitis and ostitis in laminitis
Periostitis, osteoplastic
Periostitis, recorded cases of
Periostitis,
simple acute
suppurative
Periostitis, treatment of
Persistent pruritus after neurectomy
Phlebotomy in laminitis
Plantar aponeurosis,
wounds of the
treatment of necrosed
Plantar cushion
Plantar neurectomy
history of
instruments required in
operation of
Pneumonia in laminitis
metastatic
Point of commencement of navicular disease
Poultices, methods of applying
Preventive treatment of cutaneous quittor
Pricked foot
after neurectomy
complications of
Prognosis
in acute simple coronitis
in canker
in contracted foot
in corn
in laminitis
in navicular disease
in punctured foot
in sand-crack
in simple cutaneous quittor
Properties of horn, chemical
Protection of sand-crack by metal plates
Pruritus after neurectomy
Pumiced foot
causes of
definition of
symptoms of
treatment of
Punctured foot
causes of
classification of
common situation of the wound in
complications in
definition of
diagnosis of
prognosis of
symptoms of
treatment of
Puncture of the navicular bursa
treatment of
Puncture of the pedal articulation
Purulent synovitis
Pyramidal disease

Quittor
classification of
definition of
Quittor, simple or cutaneous
causes of
complications in
curative treatment of
definition of
pathological anatomy of
preventive treatment of
prognosis of
symptoms of
treatment of
sub-horny
causes of
complications in
definition of
diagnosis of
extirpation of the lateral cartilage in, after Moller and Frick
extirpation of the lateral cartilage in, after Bayer
necrosis of the lateral cartilage in (cartilaginous quittor)
necrosis _of_ tendon and ligament in (tendinous quittor)
surgical shoeing in
symptoms of
treatment of

Rarefying ostitis
Recorded case of dislocation
of the os coronae
of navicular disease in both hind-feet
of periostitis
of pyramidal disease
Rest required after neurectomy, length of
Restraint, methods of
Reunion of the divided nerve after neurectomy
Ringbone, low
Ringed hoof
causes of
definition of
treatment of
Rocker bar shoes in laminitis
Rose's treatment of canker

Sand-crack
causes of
clamp
Koster's
McGill's
Vachette's
clamping, methods of
classification of
complications in
definition of
operations for complicated
prognosis in
surgical shoeing for
symptoms of
treatment of
treatment of, by grooving the wall
treatment of, by wedging the fissure
Second interphalangeal articulation, the
Securing a hind-limb with the side-line, method of
Securing the foot to the cannon of another limb, method of
Seedy-toe
causes of
definition of
symptoms of
treatment of
Senile decay as a cause of navicular disease
Sensitive laminae, the
Sensitive structures, gangrene of, in laminitis
Septic infection of the limb
Sequelae of neurectomy
Serous arthritis
Shoe, bar
Charlier's
Charlier's tip
expansion
Broue's
De Fay's
Einsiedel's
Hartmann's
Smith's
for overreach
plate
rocker bar
slipper, Broue's
slipper and bar-clip, Einsiedel's
three-quarter
three-quarter bar
thinned tip
tip
with 'dropped' heel
with extended toe-piece
with extended toe-piece (Nunn's)
with heel-clip
with 'set' heel
Side-bone
causes of
definition of
diagnosis of
heredity a cause of
Smith's operation for
symptoms of
treatment of
Side-line, the
Simple acute coronitis
Simple acute periostitis
Simple coronitis
acute
chronic
Simple or cutaneous quittor
causes of
complications in
curative treatment of
definition of
pathological anatomy of
preventive treatment of
prognosis of
symptoms of
treatment of
Simple serous arthritis
Simple synovitis, acute
Smith's expansion shoe
operation for laminitis
operation for side-bone
Solar edge of the wall, expansion and contraction of the
Sole, chronic bruised
Sole, expansion and contraction of the
Sole, the
Specific coronitis
causes of
definition of
symptoms of
treatment of
Spongy hoof
definition of
symptoms of
treatment of
Stumbling after neurectomy
Sub-horny quittor
causes of
complications in
definition of
diagnosis of
necrosis of the lateral cartilage in (cartilaginous quittor)
necrosis of tendon and ligament in (tendinous quittor)
symptoms of
treatment of
surgical shoeing for
Suppurating corn
Suppuration in laminitis
Suppurative arthritis
causes of
definition of
diagnosis of
pathology of
symptoms of
treatment of
Suppurative periostitis
Suppurative synovitis
Surgical shoeing for corn
for chronic laminitis
for laminitis, acute
for sand-crack
for quittor
Symptoms
of acute simple coronitis
of brittle hoof
of canker
of chronic coronitis
of chronic laminitis
of club-foot
of contracted foot
of corn
of coronary contraction of the foot
of crooked foot
of false quarter
of flat-foot
of keraphyllocele
of laminitis
of laminitis in all four feet
of laminitis in the fore-feet alone
of laminitis in the hind-feet alone
of nail-bound
of navicular disease
of pumiced foot
of punctured foot
of pyramidal disease
of sand-crack
of seedy-toe
of side-bone
of simple chronic coronitis
of simple cutaneous quittor
of specific coronitis
of spongy hoof
of sub-horny quittor
of synovitis, chronic
of synovitis, purulent or suppurative
of synovitis, simple acute
of thrush
of weak heels
Synovitis, acute simple
causes of
treatment of

Tearing off of the entire hoof, accidental
Tendon
the extensor pedis
the flexor pedis perforans
the flexor pedis perforatus
Tendons, the
Thrush
causes of
definition of
symptoms of
treatment of
Tight-nailing
Tip-shoes
Tissue, the velvety
Tread, See Overreach
Treatment
of acute laminitis
of acute simple coronitis
of brittle hoof
of canker
of canker
Bermbach's
Hoffmann's
Imminger's
Malcolm's
Rose's
of chronic bruised sole
of chronic coronitis
of chronic laminitis
of chronic laminitis by ligaturing the digital arteries
of club-foot
of contracted feet
of contracted feet by expansion shoes
of contracted feet by operations on the horn
of corns
of coronary contraction of the foot
of crooked foot
of curved hoof
of cutaneous quittor
of false quarter
of keraphyllocele
of nail-bound
of navicular disease
of necrotic plantar aponeurosis
of periostitis
of pumiced foot
of punctured foot
of punctured navicular bursa
of pyramidal disease
of ringed hoof
of sand-crack
of sand-crack by clamping the fissure
of sand-crack by grooving the wall
of sand-crack by wedging the fissure
of seedy-toe
of side-bone
of simple chronic coronitis
of specific coronitis
of spongy hoof
of sub-horny quittor
of synovitis
of thrush
of weak heels
Use of the horse that has undergone neurectomy
Vachette's sand-crack clamp
Veins, the
Velvety tissue, the
Villate's caustic solution

Wall, the
Weak heels
causes of
definition of
symptoms of
treatment of
Wedging the fissure in the treatment of sand-crack
Wound in punctured foot, common situations of the
Wounds of the lateral cartilages
Wounds of the plantar aponeurosis

THE END

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