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Discoveries in Australia, Volume 1. by J Lort Stokes

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moderately protractile, and curve a little downwards.

The teeth are disposed on the jaws in rather broad villiform bands, the
individual teeth being setaceous and erect. They become a little taller
nearer the outside, and the outer terminal cross row, composed of three
on each side of the symphysis, may be termed small canines. On the lower
jaw the villiform teeth in front are more uniformly small, and there is
an acute row of subulate teeth, which are tallest in the middle of the
limbs of the jaw, beyond which, towards the corners of the mouth, there
is an even row of very small teeth. At the end of the jaw there is a
small canine on each side exterior to all the others.

The fore edge of the preorbitar is slightly curved in form of the italic
f, the lower corner curving forward abruptly, so as to produce a notch,
which is filled up by the extremity of the retracted maxillary. The whole
end of the snout, back to the eyes, including the disk of the preorbitar,
is minutely porous, and a row of large pores borders the upper half of
the orbit.

The jaws, the uneven lobate disk of the preoperculum and the
branchiostegous membrane are naked, the rest of them being scaly. The
scales of the cheek are disposed in six concentric curves, the same
arrangement extending to the gill-cover, but less conspicuously. A small
flat spinous point projects beyond the scales of the operculum, which has
a very narrow membranous edging. The scales are ciliated. The caudal is
slightly notched at the end, its basal half is scaly, as is also the base
of the pectorals; the rest of the fins are scaleless. The dorsal is
nearly even, its height being, however, rather greatest at the fourth or
fifth spine. Its end is rounded.

A dark stripe, commencing at the top of the snout, runs through the eye
straight to the tail, and a fainter one occupies the summit of the back
to the end of the dorsal. The curve of the lateral line rises above the
lower stripe anteriorly, but coincides with it beyond the posterior end
of the dorsal. The rest of the fish is silvery, and the fins are not
marked. These colours are described from a specimen preserved in spirits.
Length, 5 inches.

HABITAT. King George's Sound. (Bynoe).


Chelmon marginalis. RICHARDSON.

Chelmon marginalis, Richardson, Annals and Mag. of Nat. Hist. 10, page
28, September 1842.

RADII. D.9 : 31; A. 3-2l; C. 17 3/3; P. 16; V. 1 : 5.

FISHES. PLATE 4. Natural size.

This fish is described in the Annals of Natural History from a dried
specimen brought from Port Essington by Mr. Gilbert. It has very much the
form of Chelmon rostratus, but wants the eye-like spot on the dorsal.
Several examples in spirits were brought by the officers of the Beagle
from the north-west coast of Australia, all of which show a broad band
passing between the dorsal and anal fins, which was not visible in the
dried specimen. This band is bounded anteriorly by one, and posteriorly
by two whitish lines. In the Annals the anal fin is described as being
more angular than the dorsal, but in the specimens in spirits the reverse
appears to be the case. This variation depends on the degree or expansion
of the fins, and both may be much rounded by pulling the rays apart. The
exact distribution of the bands may be clearly made out from the figure,
which is very correct. The rays of the fins probably vary in number in
different individuals, and our careful enumeration of those specimens
kept in spirits, as recorded above, gives two or three soft rays more in
the dorsal and anal, than we were able to detect in the dried skin.
Length, 5 1/4 inches.

HABITAT. Northern and north-western coasts of Australia.



CH. GEN. Corpus compressissimum, assulaeforme: caput crassius, minus
altum, declive. Os parvum. Maxilla inferior porifera, ore clauso
ascendens, hinc, ore hiante, ultra maxillam speriorem modice protractam

Preoperculum margine integro nec spinifero, disco arcto, inaequali,
esquamoso, genam squamosam postice et infra cingens. Operculum
tridentatum: Suboperculum crenatum; utrumque et interoperculum
latiusculum squamis satis magnis tecta. Dentes villiformes, minuti cum
dente canino in media utroque latere maxillae inferioris et trans apicem
utriusque maxillae dentibus quatuor (vel sex) fortioribus, altioribus, in
serie exteriori ordinatis. Dentes vomeris et palati acuti, stipati
minuti. Dentes pharyngei, acerosi inequales, acuti.

Membrana branchialis radiis sex sustentata, interoperculis liberis,
accumbentibus tecta.

Squamae satis magnae, nitidae ciliatae. Linea lateralis antice abrupte
ascendens, dein dorso parallela et approximata, postice diffracta
infraque per mediam caudam cursum resumens.

Pinnae magnae esquamosae. Pinna dorsi anique radiis tribus, spinosis,
ceteris articulatis. Pinnae ventrales sub pectorales offixae, propter
tenuitatem ventris invicem approximatae.

The strong resemblance which the subject of this article bears to the
Pseudochromis olivaceus of Dr. Ruppell (Neue Worlbethiere, page 8, taf.
2, figure 3) induced me at first sight to refer it to the same genus, but
on examination I found that very material alterations would require to be
made in the generic characters assigned to Pseudochromis,* to enable them
to apply to our fish.

(*Footnote. M. Swainson, considering this name as very objectionable, has
proposed Labristoma instead. Both names are founded on the resemblance
which the fish bears to another genus, in whole or in part, and the
objection which has been made to the one is equally valid against the

The above character has therefore been drawn up, and ichthyologists may
consider Assiculus, either as a proper generic form, or as merely a
subgenus or subdivision of Pseudochromis, with an extended character,
according to their different views of arrangement. The last named genus,
as described and restricted by Dr. Ruppell, from whom all our knowledge
of it is derived, has the jaw teeth disposed in a single row, and the
minute palatine teeth of a sphaeroidal form. The operculum has its angle
prolonged, and is not toothed, nor is the suboperculum crenated; and a
considerable number of the rays of the dorsal fin, succeeding to the
three spinous ones, are simple but flexible, the posterior ones only
being articulated and divided in the usual manner. Linnaeus has briefly
characterized two fish (Labrus ferrugineus, Bl. Schn. page 251, and
Labrus marginalis, Id. page 263) which most probably belong, either to
Pseudochromis or Assiculus, and which are to be placed, M. Valenciennes
thinks, near Malacanthus, among the Labridae. Now, this family, according
to M. Agassiz, is essentially cycloid in the structure of its scales,
although there is a slight departure from the rigid characters of the
order in the serrated preopercular of Crenilabrus, Ctenolabrus, and some
others, and in the spine bearing operculum of Malacanthus. The latter
genus is, moreover, described by M. Agassiz as possessing scales with
toothed edges, and rough to the touch when the finger is drawn forwards.
It has the simple intestinal canal without caeca, which is proper to the
Labridae. The intestine of Pseudochromis is similarly formed, the stomach
being continuous with the rest of the alimentary canal, and not
distinguished by any cul de sac. Having but one specimen of Assiculus for
examination, I have not been able to submit it to dissection to see
whether the structure of its intestines be the same or not, but both it
and Pseudochromis differ very widely from the labroid type in their
scales, possessing the peculiar firm, shining, strongly ciliated
structure, which we observe in Glyphisodon and its allies, and in the
lateral line being interrupted in a precisely similar manner. Chromis and
Plesiops have already been removed by M. Valenciennes from the Labridae
to the Glyphisodontidae, and it is with them that we feel inclined to
range Assiculus and Pseudochromis, notwithstanding the discrepancies in
the form of the intestinal canal. We can, however, trace a gradation in
the variation of form. The normal number of caeca in the Glyphysodontidae
is three. In Chromis there are generally two small ones, while the Bolti
of the Nile, or the Chromis niloticus of Cuvier, has no pyloric caecum,
but a large cul de sac to the stomach. Malacanthus is widely separated
from the Glyphisodontidae by its continuous lateral line. Since these
remarks were written I have seen Muller's paper, entitled, Beitrage zur
Kentniss der naturlichen Familien der Fische, in which the Chromidae are
indicated as a distinct family from the Glyphisodontidae, which latter he
names Labroidei stenoidei; and Pseudochromis, it is stated, belongs to
neither of these families, because it has twofold pharyngeals with a
division between them. Dr. Muller promises a separate article on
Pseudochromis, which I have not yet seen.


Assiculus punctatus.

RADII. BR. 6; D. 3 : 23; A. 3 : 12; C. 21; P. 18: V. 1, 5.

FISHES. PLATE 2. Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

This fish is as thin in the body as a lath, whence the generic name. Its
greatest width is at the cheek, as shown by the section figure 3, where
the transverse diameter is about half the height. Figure 4 shows the
section at the gill cover, and third dorsal spine, where the thickness is
less; and figure 5, represents a section behind the ventrals, where the
thickness is little more than a tithe of the height, and it gradually
decreases to the caudal fin. The oblong profile is highest at the third
dorsal spine, whence it descends with a slightly convex curve to the
mouth, which is low down--the under jaw when extended, being nearly on a
line with the belly. The height of the tail between the vertical fins is
equal to half the greatest height of the body. The dorsal and ventral
lines are both acute, especially the former, and the medial line of the
nape continues acute to the orbits.

The length of the head, measured from the upper jaw, is contained four
times and a half in the total length of the fish. The large round eye,
situated near the upper profile, fills more than a quarter of this
length. The orbit is surrounded by a ring of muciferous canals, with open
orifices, which are the only exterior vestiges of the suborbitar chain.
The small mouth descends obliquely and scarcely reaches back to the
orbit. The intermaxillaries are moderately protractile, but the lower
jaw, when depressed, projects still further forward. The maxillary widens
towards its lower end, which curves a little forwards. Three pores exist
on each limb of the lower jaw.

The teeth of the upper jaw present a fine, but rather uneven and broad
cardiform surface at the symphysis, which narrows to a single row towards
the corner of the mouth, where they are a little longer and more
subulate. Four canine teeth stand across the end of the jaw anterior to
the dental plate, the intermediate ones being shorter than the outer
ones. The dentition of the under jaw differs in the dental band being
narrower, and in there being a conspicuous canine in the middle of each
limb of the jaw. There are also six canines standing across the extreme
tips of the jaw, opposed to the upper ones. Most of the teeth are
slightly curved backwards. The chevron of the vomer projects from the
roof of the mouth, and its surface is armed by minute teeth in about
three or four densely crowded rows. The palatine teeth are still more
minute, and the band is four or five deep. The teeth, when examined with
a lens, appear to be very acute and in nowise spherical. The pharyngeal
teeth are subulate and acute, and of unequal heights. There seems to be
only one inferior pharyngeal bone below; but without dissection this
could not be clearly made out. The outer branchial rakers are long.

The narrow, slightly pitted, scaleless disk of the preoperculum bounds
the scaly cheek behind and below, and has an entire edge with neither
spine nor acute angle at the bend. The other pieces of the gill cover are
closely covered with scales, only a little smaller than those of the
body. The pretty wide thin inter-operculum lays freely over the gill
membranes, and covers them when shut up. The sub-operculum is minutely
crenulated on the edge, and has a small sub-membranous tip, which
projects a little beyond the three opercular teeth. A small curved notch
marks the separation between the interoperculum and sub-operculum.

The scales extend on the crown of the head to the middle of the orbits.
The snout, lips, jaws, the place at the corner of the mouth over which
the maxillary glides and the gill membrane are scaleless. The scales of
the body are very regularly disposed, showing rhomboidal disks when in
situ, with strongly ciliated edges. The lateral line ascends at its
commencement and bends rather suddenly under the first soft dorsal ray to
run near and parallel to the ridge of the back. It terminates beneath the
sixth ray from the end of the fin, but recommences on the fourth scale
beneath, and runs in the middle height of the tail to the base of the
caudal. Two or three of the scales before its recommencement, have a
minute pit in the middle of their disks, as is not unusual with the
Glyphisodons. The first part of the lateral line forms an almost
continuous tubular ridge traced on thirty-eight scales of the second row
from the summit of the back; the posterior part traverses six or seven
scales. There are twelve or thirteen scales in a vertical row on the side
of the body.

The anus, situated a short way before the anal fin, has a very small

There are no scales on the fin membranes. The three dorsal spines are
short, graduated, moderately stout, and pungent. The twenty-three soft
rays are all distinctly articulated, and more or less branched. The last
ray is divided to the base, and is graduated with the two preceding ones,
giving a rounded form to the posterior tip of the fin. The specimen had
the anterior part of the fin frayed a little, so that it is probable that
the soft rays are higher and less distinctly branched than the artist has
represented them to be in copying the example placed before him. The
ventrals are in a line with the tip of the gill cover and first soft
dorsal ray, and from the extreme narrowness of the pelvis are close to
each other. They are tapering, pointed, and overlap the beginning of the
anal, which, though it have fewer rays than the dorsal, is similar in
structure. The pectoral and caudal are much rounded, especially the
latter. There is a greater space between the anal and caudal than between
the dorsal and the same fin. In the caudal there are twenty rays,
including two very short ones above, and the same number below.

The general colour of the specimen, which has been long in spirits, is
shining yellowish-brown with several round dots of azure-blue scattered
over the body. The cheek is crossed obliquely by a row of three spots.
The figure errs in representing the spots as dispersed over the cheek;
they are in fact ranged in a row. Length, 2 1/2 inches.

HABITAT. Coast of Australia.

Haslar Hospital, 28th October, 1845.








Head subquadrangular, raised in front, head-shields flat, thin, rather
rugose. Nasal shields ovate, triangular, rather anterior, with a groove
behind the nostril. Rostral shields triangular, erect. Supranasal none;
internasal broad; frontonasal large, contiguous; frontal and
interparietal small, frontoparietal and parietal moderate; eyebrow
shields, 4-4. Temples scaly, no shields between the orbit and labial
plates. Eyes rather small, lower lid opatic, covered with scales. Ears
oblong, with a large scale in front. Body fusiform, roundish thick;
scales of the back, broad, lozenge-shaped, keeled; keels ending in a
dagger point; largest on the hinder parts of the throat and belly;
transverse, ovate, 6-sided. Limbs four, strong. Toes elongate,
compressed, unequal, clawed; tail short, conical, tapering, depressed;
with rings of large, broad, lozenge-shaped, dagger-pointed, spinose
scales, with a central series of very broad 6-sided smooth scales

This genus is intermediate between Cyclodus and Egernia, but quite
distinct from both. It differs from Tachydosaurus and Cyclodus in having
slender elongated toes like Egernia, in the scales being keeled, and in
there being no series of large plates beneath the orbit, and it is easily
known from Egernia by the tail being depressed and broad, instead of
conical and round. Like all the genera above named, it appears to be
peculiar to Australia.

The Silubosaure. Silubosaurus stokesii.


Olive brown, varied with black and large white spots; shields of the head
white, black-edged.

Inhabits Australia.


Head quadrangular, rather tapering in front. Head shields convex, rugose.
Nasal shields ovate-triangular, rather anterior, approximate; supranasal
none; rostral triangular, erect; internasal lozenge-shaped, as long as
broad; frontonasal rhombic, lateral, separate; frontal and interparietal
moderate, elongate; frontoparietals 2, rather diverging, contiguous in
front; parietal moderate, half ovate. Temple shielded. Orbit without any
scales between it and the labial shields. Ears oblong, with 4 small
scales in front. Body fusiform. Scales of the back, sides, and upper part
of the limbs broad, 6-sided, with a large central keel ending in a spine,
larger on the loins, those of the nape 3- or 5-grooved, of the throat and
belly thin, broad, ovate, 6-sided. Legs 4, strong. Toes elongate,
compressed, unequal, clawed. Tail as long as the body, round, tapering,
with 6 series of broad 6-sided, keeled, strongly-spined scales, with a
series of broad 6-sided smooth scales.

Cunningham's Egernia. Egernia cunninghami.

Tiliqua cunninghami. Gray, Proceedings of the Zoological Society 1832 to


Olive, white spotted head, brown chin, and beneath white; ears with 3 or
4 pointed scales in front.

Inhabits Australia.



Head large, covered with small rather unequal not imbricate scales. sides
of the face rounded, without any large scales upon the edge of the
eyebrows. Parotids swollen, unarmed. Nostrils lateral, medial. Throat
lax, with a slight cross fold behind. The sides of the neck unarmed. Nape
and back with a crest of low angular distant scales. Body compressed,
with rings of rather small rhombic keeled rough uniform scales placed in
cross rings; of the belly rather larger, obliquely keeled; of the limbs
larger. Tail elongated, tapering, rather compressed, with keeled scales,
those of the under sides rather truncated, the keel of the scales of the
end forming ridges, the upper surface slightly keeled, subdentated. Toes
5-5, moderate, unequal. Femoral and preanal pores none.

The Chelosania. Chelosania brunnea.

Pale brown, rather paler beneath.

Inhabits West Australia.


Head moderate, subquadrangular, covered with regular keeled scales, of
the occiput rather smaller. Face-ridge rather angular, edged with small
scales. Parotids rather swollen, with a ridge of rather larger conical
scales over the ears above. Nostrils lateral, medial. Throat rather lax,
with a cross fold behind. Nape and back rounded, not crested. Scales of
the back equal, rhombic, keeled, placed in longitudinal series; on the
sides smaller, but with the keels forming rather ascending ridges; of the
belly similar, in longitudinal series, with the keels sharp and rather
produced at the tip. The tail round, tapering, with imbricate rhombic
seales, with the keels forming longitudinal ridges. Femoral and preanal
pores none. Toes 5-5, unequal.


The Gindalia. Gindalia bennettii.

Pale brown, rather paler beneath; the scales of the back small, sharply
keeled, forming longitudinal ridges, which converge together just at the
base of the tail towards the two upper ridges formed by the keels of the
scales of the tail; of the limbs rather larger.

Inhabits North-West coast of Australia.


The Crested Grammatophore. Grammatophora cristata.

Olive; head black varied, beneath pale; throat, chest and under side of
the thighs black; tail black-ringed; scales rather irregular, with a
central and two lateral series of compressed keeled scales; nape with a
crest of compressed elevated distant scales; sides of the neck with
scattered single elongated conical spines; tail tapering, with uniform
keeled scales, keeled above, rather dilated at the base, with indistinct
cross series of rather larger scales.

Inhabits West Australia.

The Netted Grammatophore. Grammatophora reticulata.

Grammatophora decresii, Gray, Grey's Trav. Austr. 2, not Dum. et Bib.

Black, yellow-spotted and varied, beneath grey, vermiclated with
blackish; tail black-ringed; back and nape with a central series of
larger keeled scales, with distant cross series of similar scales; sides
of the nape and parotids with series of rather larger keeled scales;
scales of the back small, subequal; tail tapering, with regular nearly
equal keeled scales, and 1 or 2 cross bands of larger scales at the base.

Inhabits West Australia.

The Yellow-spotted Grammatophore. Grammatophora ornata.

Black; the back with a series of large yellow spots, smaller on the
sides; the tail and limbs yellow-banded, beneath yellow; the throat
black-dotted; chest blackish; nape with a slight scaly crest; ears with a
few tubercular scales in front; neck with 3 or 4 groups of short
tubercular scales on each side; the scales small, ovate, imbricate,
keeled, of the middle of the back rather larger, and with a few rather
larger (white) ones scattered on the sides; nostril near the front edge
of the orbit.

Inhabits West Australia.


Stokes' Sea Serpent. Hydrus stokesii.


Grey; white beneath; scales of the back, broad, ovate, cordate, keeled;
of the sides larger, and of the belly largest, all keeled; of the two
central series of the belly rather larger, more acute and smooth. Labial
shields, 5, 1, 5, high band-like; the 4 and 5 the highest. 1, cheek
scale; 1, anterior, and 3, posterior ocular, the lower hinder largest;
the hinder labial shields behind the eye small, the hinder one smallest.

Inhabits Australian Seas.

This species is the giant of the genus, being very many times larger than
the Hydrus major of Shaw (Pelamis shawi, Messem.) from the coast of
India. The body is as thick as a man's thigh, and it must have been a
most powerful and dangerous enemy to any person in the water.


Head ovate, depressed, covered with small rather acute scales, with 2
small frontal plates just over the rostral in front; rostral small,
triangular, concave in the centre. Nostrils large, rather anterior, in
the middle of a rather large plate, with a slight slit to the hinder
edge; labial scales rather larger; the lower ones with a concavity in the
middle of each scale. Eyes convex, rather large, pupil oblong; throat
with small acute scales. Body elongate, compressed, subpentangular; back
covered with very small semicircular scales, with a row of larger ovate
keeled scales on each side, and 2 or 3 rows of similar larger keeled
scales over the vertebral line; the sides covered with moderate ovate
keeled scales, rather larger beneath the belly, covered with a series of
transverse rounded plates. Tail elongate, rather compressed,
subpentangular, tapering, like the back above, and with a single series
of rounded transverse plates beneath.

Gonionotus plumbeus.


Bluish-grey, belly and beneath white. Length of body 9, of tail 4, total
13 inches.

Inhabits --

This animal is at once known from all the other Homalopsina, by the three
keels on the back, by having only a single series of plates beneath, and
in the lower labial shields being pitted.



Crocodilus palustris, Lesson Belanger, Vog. 305. Gray Cat. Reptiles
British Museum 62. Crocodilus vulgaris, Dum. and Bibr. Erp. Gen. n. 108.
Crocodilus biporcatus, Cuv. Oss. Foss. tome 5 plate 1, figure 4. Skull.
Crocodilus biporcatus raninus, Muller.

Inhabits Victoria River.

Captain Stokes has furnished me with the following note on this species.

"Length in feet inches:
of Alligator: 15 0.
From base of head to extremity of nose: 2 2.
Across the base of head: 2 0.
Iength of lower jaw: 2 0.

Teeth in both jaws vary in size, and are variously disposed, as will be
seen in the sketch.

In upper jaw on each side of maxillary bone: 18 2 incisors.

In lower jaw on each side of maxillary bone: 15 2 incisors.

The largest teeth are 1 1/2 inch in length. The two lower incisors are
stronger and longer than the upper, and project through two holes in
front part of upper jaw. Breadth across the animal from extreme of one
fore foot, across the shoulders, to the other side, 5 feet 2 inches. The
fore feet have each five perfect toes, the three inner or first, have
long horny nails, slightly curved, the two outer toes have no nails, nor
are they webbed. The third and fourth toes are deeply webbed, allowing a
wide space between them, which is apparent, even in their passive state.
The hind feet are twice the size and breadth of the fore, with four long
toes, the two first are webbed as far as the first joint, and the other
are strongly webbed to the apex of last joint; the last or outer toe has
no nail. From the apex of tail, a central highly notched ridge runs up
about midway of it, and there splitting into two branches, passes up on
each side of the spine over the back, as far up as the shoulders,
gradually diminishing in height to the termination. A central ridge runs
down from the nape of the neck, over the spinous processes of the
vertebrae (being firmly attached to them by strong ligaments) as far down
as the sacrum, diminishing to its termination likewise."

The eggs are oblong, 3 inches and 3 lines long, and 2 inches 8 lines in

The skull of this specimen, which was presented to the British Museum by
Captain Stokes, has exactly the same form and proportions as that of the
crocodiles called Goa and Muggar on the Indian continent, and is quite
distinct in the characters from the Egyptian species.

A number of large stones, about the size (the largest) of a man's fist,
were found in the stomach.

Messrs. Dumeril and Bibron deny that any species of crocodile is found in
Australia. See Erpet. Gen. 1 1836, 45.






Megacephala australasiae, Hope, Proceedings of the Entomological Society,
November 1, 1841, Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 9, 425.


Habitat: North-West Australia.

Aenigma cyanipenne, Hope; variety with the whole of the thorax


The specimen figured, in other respects seems to me to agree with the
species above-mentioned, described briefly by the Reverend F. Hope in the
Proceedings of the Entomological Society for
November 1, 1841.


Biphyllocera kirbyana, White, App. to Grey's Australia, 2 462.


Habitat: Australia.

In figure 4a are well seen the beautifully pectinated lamellae of the
antennae in this genus.

The species is of a pitchy brown, beneath it is yellowish and hairy; the
margin of the thorax is yellowish, its disk has many short rust-coloured
hairs, the elytra have 9 longitudinal impressed lines, the spaces between
transversely striolated and somewhat scaled.


Calloodes grayianus, White, Annals and Magazine of Natural History,
January 1845.


Head green, punctured, head shield yellowish, sides rounded, somewhat
straight in front, under side of head bronzy ferruginous. Thorax narrow,
the sides slightly rounded so as to be almost continuous with the lateral
line of the elytra; behind it projects in the middle, and is notched over
the scutellum: of a lively glossy green, the sides broadly margined with
yellow. Elytra much depressed, especially on the sides and behind, having
a wide but shallow sinus on the sides; surface punctured, the punctures
generally running in striae, some of the rows placed in slightly grooved
lines: lively glossy green, sides broadly margined with yellow. Legs and
underside ferruginous, bases of abdominal segments green, as are the tips
of the femora and all the tarsi: front edge of tibiae of fore-legs
without teeth, hind tibiae moderate.

Habitat: New Holland, North-West Coast.


Cetonia (Diaphonia) notabilis.


Head for the most part yellow, the yellow extending in a point to beyond
a line drawn between the eyes, behind deep black, margin somewhat
thickened, brownish, four small obscure spots in front; antennae and
palpi brown. Thorax, with many scattered punctures, yellow, with a large
black mark occupying the greater part of the upper surface, narrowed and
notched in front, sinuated slightly on the sides, and with two notches in
the middle behind. Elytra with many punctures arranged indistinctly in
lines, brownish yellow, the suture, tip and extreme edge of each elytron
narrowly margined with brown; scutellum yellowish, black at the base and
tip. Abdomen beneath yellow, each segment margined with brown, the
pygidium yellow, with two largish oblique black spots. Legs black,
posterior femora edged in front with yellow. Length 9 lines.

Habitat: New Holland.

This species seems to be allied to Schizorhina succinea Hope.
Transactions of the Entomological Society, 3 281.*

(*Footnote. I may here mention, that in the collection of the British
Museum there is a female of the Diaphonia frontalis, in colour closely
resembling the male; and that the D. cunninghami of G.R. Gray, regarded
by both Burmeister and Schaum as the female of D. frontalis, is decidedly
a distinct species; it was described and figured by M.M. Gory and
Percheron, from a female specimen now in the British Museum.)


Stigmodera elegantula.


Head cleft between the eyes; Prothorax above and beneath vermilion, with
a greenish black spot in the middle, and two small black dots, one on
each side. Elytra with four double rows of impressed punctures, united at
the end. Apex with two sharp points, the outer the longest, a notch
between them; the elytra are vermilion, the base has a narrow transverse
green band, an angular dark green spot before the middle, with two deep
notches in front, and rounded behind, behind this and connected with it
by a narrow sutural line of the same colour, is a fascia running quite
across the angle in the middle of each elytron, and dilated on the
suture, the tip of each elytron is broadly pointed with the same dark
green; meso- and metathorax beneath, dark green, as are the legs. Abdomen

Length about 6 lines.

Habitat: North-West Coast of New Holland.

This species comes near Conognatha concinnata Hope. Proceedings of the
Entomological Society Annals of Natural History 11 318.


Stigmodera saundersii. Hope Transactions of the Entomological Society 4


Black, with a bluish green hue. Head in front bronzed, deeply punctured.
Thorax deeply punctured, with three deep black longitudinal lines above,
the middle one broadest: Elytra orange red, with four keels and two rows
of deep punctures between each; edge slightly serrated; end of each
tapering so as to leave a notch when both are closed; tip broadly black,
inclined to green in some lights; a large roundish black patch common to
both elytra on the middle, base narrowly edged with black, the shoulders
with a black lineolet and a small round black spot across the suture;
legs and under parts of a deep bluish black, with a slight tinge of

Habitat: Van Diemen's Land.


Stigmodera erythrura.


Head greenish yellow, deeply punctured, a black band, sinuated in front
between the eyes, on the back part of the head. Thorax above black, sides
and a narrow line down the middle yellow. Elytra gradually tapering to
the end, black with the margin at the base yellow, and a somewhat broader
line of the same colour near the suture; on each elytron are three yellow
spots, the middle one largest and tipped with red on the outside. Legs
and under side greenish yellow; three last segments of abdomen beneath of
a rust colour with four longitudinal rows of yellow spots.

Length about 6 lines.

Habitat: New Holland (Swan River).

Clerus ? obesus.


Head brassy brown; thorax brownish yellow, glossy; elytra with more than
the basal half deep blue, with regular deeply pitted punctures, close to
each other, an elevated knob at the base in the middle, the apical
portion smooth purplish black, the smooth place on the suture running
into the pitted part, between the two are four short transverse lines of
whitish hairs, two on each elytron; near the tip are two oblique patches
of white hairs: head finely punctulate, covered with short hairs. Thorax
as it were two lobed behind, an angular depression in the middle, and
somewhat narrowed in front; legs deep blue with whitish hairs. Length 5

Habitat: New Holland.

This curious species bears the above name of Mr. Newman, in the
collection of the British Museum, I cannot find his description of it,
and not having seen Spinola's work, cannot refer it to its particular



Head broader than long, swollen behind the eyes; antennae 11-jointed,
first joint the longest, bent and gradually thickened towards the tip,
second joint thin and cup-shaped, half the depth of third joint which is
squarish, fourth joint oblong, dilated anteriorly at the ends, and larger
than second and third together, fifth to the tenth joints somewhat
lamellate, nearly as long as the other four joints; eyes narrow and
notched, the part of the head within the notch prominent; palpi thick,
terminal joint oblong. Thorax narrowed in front, rounded on the sides and
somewhat truncated behind; scutellum triangular, with a notched
projection at the base; elytra very short, one-third the length of the
body, wide at the base, narrowed at the tip; legs heteromerous, rather
short, all the thighs compressed, claws simple.

This genus, which at first sight looks like a Meloe, is closely allied to


Sitarida hopei.


Black; elytra slightly pitchy; head and thorax thickly punctured; thorax
with a cruciform impression on the disk; elytra with three keels meeting
before they reach the apex, the intermediate spaces and the apex
irregularly punctate.

Length 1 inch 5 lines.

Habitat: New Holland.



Head as long as broad; antennae with all the joints flattened, serrated
on each side; 11-jointed, third to 9th joints widest. Thorax as wide as
the head, narrowed in front; sides somewhat angular truncated behind,
surface irregular; scutellum large, triangular. Elytra longer than the
abdomen, sides parallel, ends rounded. Legs heteromerous, four claws to
each tarsus, two of them larger than the others, and minutely serrulate
on the inside.

Palaestrida bicolor.


Head, thorax, scutellum, body and legs, entirely black. Elytra light
orange with three slight keels, the outer somewhat forked. Head coarsely
punctured. Thorax with scattered punctures, and three or four depressions
on the upper part.

Length 6 and 7 lines.

Habitat: New Holland.

This new genus comes near Palaestra laporte (Anim. Artic. 2 250) and
Tmesidera westwood (in Guerin's Mag. de Zool. 1841, plate 85.)


Tranes vigorsii (Hope) Schoenh. Curc. 7 2, 130.


Cinnamon brown, the sides of the thorax with yellowish brown hairs, and
patches in the striae of the same coloured hairs. Sides of the body
beneath covered with yellowish hairs. Thorax very minutely punctured.
glossy, with a very short deepish groove in the middle behind.

Length 9 to 11 lines.

Habitat: New Holland.



Antennae as long as the body, 11-jointed, first joint thick knobbed,
second very small, terminal longer than third, pointed with a blunt tooth
beyond the middle. Thorax globular, wider than the body.


Cyclodera quadrinotata.


Head, antennae, thorax, body and legs, black. Elytra yellowish red, tip
and a large oblong spot on each black, the spot not reaching either
margin of the elytron; under side of abdomen covered with silky hairs.
The head is coarsely punctured, the thorax minutely chagrined with a deep
indented spot on each side behind the middle. Elytra finely chagrined,
with faint indications of two or three longitudinal lines on each.

Length 7 1/2 lines.

Habitat: New Holland, North-West Coast.

This well marked species seems to be allied to the genera Arhopalus and


Clytus (Obrida) fascialis.


Head black, punctured; antennae black, seventh and eighth joints
yellowish. Thorax black, punctured and hairy, a short narrow smooth line
on the back behind. Elytra purplish violet, with three longitudinal
keeled lines not extending to the tip, coarsely punctured, except on the
lines which are smooth: two first pairs of legs red, tips and bases of
the joints darkish; tarsi with brownish hairs, posterior legs deep black;
tibiae with longish hairs.

Length 4 lines.

Habitat: New Holland.


Callipyrga turrita. Nemman, Entomologist, 413.


Habitat: New Holland, near Sydney.

The figure of this beautiful longicorn beetle, is drawn from the original
specimen described by Mr. Newman; it is now in the collection of the
British Museum.


Microtragus senex.


Head ashy, antennae brown. Thorax brownish black, punctured and hirsute,
a thick blunt spine from the middle on each side. Elytra at the base in
the middle with a blunt slightly hooked spine, they have two prominent
keels, the external the longest, the surface is deeply punctured, in some
parts almost pitted, grey, a black line on sides and extending over the
back, so as to form an oblong black spot from the middle to near the
base, a dagger-shaped spot on the suture behind, and a few black spots on
the elevated line. Abdomen beneath greyish. Legs grey, with short
blackish bristles, tarsi narrow not dilated.

Length about 7 lines.

Habitat: New Holland.

This curiously marked longicorn comes near Ceraegidion boisduval.


Paropsis scutifera.


Yellow; head vermilion, with two long black spots between and behind the
eyes. Elytra yellow with a large squarish spot common to both, outwardly
bounded by a dark line, except in front where the yellow of the general
surface runs into the square. The ground of the spot is red, with a
yellow line near the suture on each side; elytra at the base narrowly
edged with black. Antennae, legs, and underside yellow.

Length 2 1/4 lines.

Habitat: New Holland.


Chrysomela (Australica ?) strigipennis.


Brown with a greenish metallic hue. Thorax and elytra margined with
obscure yellow, thorax with the anterior angles yellow, a few irregular
punctures in the middle, and the posterior parts thickly dotted with
impressed points; elytra with seven irregular lines of impressed dots,
towards the tip they are irregularly dispersed, there are a few irregular
yellow streaks near the margins of the elytra; under side blackish brown,
tibiae and tarsi yellowish.

Length about 4 1/4 lines.

Habitat: New Holland.

This differs from Australica in having the thorax narrower, and the
antennae longer and less thickened at the end.






Genus EUSCHEMON, Doubleday.

Maxillae moderately long.

Labial Palpi of moderate length, basal joint very short, compressed,
curved, clothed with scales and long hairs, second joint about four times
as long as the first, subcylindric, clothed with long scales, third joint
clothed with small scales, short, elongate-oval, slenderer than the
second, the scales of which almost conceal it.

Antennae elongate, with a fusiform club much hooked at the extremity.

Eyes large, forehead broad.

Anterior wings triangular, the outer and inner margins nearly equal,
about two-thirds the length of the anterior. Costal nervure two-thirds
the entire length of the wing; subcostal nervule slightly deflected
towards the end of the cell, throwing off its first nervule at about
one-third of its length, the second about the middle of its course, the
space between the origins of the second and third nervules not as long as
that between the first and second, the fourth arising just before the end
of the cell: upper discocellular nervule very short, the second discoidal
equidistant from the first discoidal and the third median nervule, the
disco-cellular nervules almost atrophied; median nervule throwing off its
first nervule not far from the base, the third nervule a little bent
where the discocellular joins it, radial nervure running nearly parallel
with the inner margin throughout its whole length, reaching the outer
margin a little above the anal angle. Posterior wings broad, semi-ovate,
costal nervure long, sub-costal terminating in only two nervules,
discoidal nervule nearly atrophied; discocellular the same, united with
the third median nervule; cell rather large. Base of these wings in the
male with a strong bristle passing behind a strong corneous retinaculum,
which arises from the anterior side of the sub-costal nervure.

Legs rather long; anterior tibiae with a curved spine on the inside,
covered by the long scales of the tibiae, anterior tarsi twice the length
of the tibiae, basal joint longer than the rest combined, second and
third equal; the two combined equal to about two-thirds the length of the
first, fourth and fifth very short, together about equal to the third.
Second pair with the tibiae about two-thirds as long as the tarsi, with
numerous minute spines along their sides and two stout ones at the apex;
joints of the tarsi having about the same relative proportions as in the
anterior pair. Posterior tibiae and tarsi nearly as in the second pair.
Claws of all the tarsi stout, simple.


Euschemon rafflesia.

Hesp. rafflesia, McLeay, Appendix to King's Survey of Australia, 463.

Anterior wings black above, with a transverse macular sulphur-coloured
band beyond the middle, and a submarginal one, broadest towards the apex,
composed of greenish atoms. Posterior wings with a large oval
sulphur-coloured spot in the cell, separated only by the median nervure
from a smaller one on the abdominal margin near the base, and followed by
a sub-trigonate one divided into three parts by the median nervules.
Below, the markings are nearly as above, with the addition of a greenish
line along the costa of the anterior wings, bending downwards at its
termination. Posterior wings encircled by a marginal band of the same
greenish colour.

Head black, orbits of the eyes and a line across the vertex white. Palpi
bright crimson except the last joint which is black. Antennae black.
Thorax black. Abdomen above black, the base and the edges of four of the
segments whitish, last segment bright crimson; below, whitish at the
base, crimson beyond the middle.

Exp. alar. 2 un. 9 lin.

Habitat: New Holland.


Genus SYNEMON, Doubleday.

Head round, eyes large, forehead broad.

Maxillae rather long.

Labial palpi short, clothed with dense long scales, first joint short,
second more than double the length of the first, tapering towards its
extremity, third joint about equal in length to the second, sub
cylindric, tapering towards the apex. Antennae with a stout, short club,
more or less mucronate at the apex, the mucro mostly if not always with a
tuft of scales at the point, the club sometimes appearing compressed
(perhaps from desiccation).

Thorax stout, anterior wings triangular, the costal nervure terminating
about the middle of the costa, the sub-costal terminating in five
nervules of which the first and second one are thrown off before the
disco-cellular nervule, the third almost immediately beyond it, the
fourth rather further from the third than this is from the second;
discoidal nervules almost atrophied at their origin, the first connected
with the subcostal nervure, the latter with the third median nervule by a
very short discocellular; the discoidal nervule itself almost atrophied,
running nearly parallel with and immediately above the median; third
median nervule much bent at its origin. Posterior wings sub-ovate, costal
nervure long, sub-costal terminating only in two nervules, upper
discocellular nervule wanting, discoidal nervure distinct and simple
throughout its whole course to the outer margin, with a slight bend at
its junction with the short disco-cellular which connects it with the
median nervule: bristle in the male simple, retained by a corneous
retinaculum arising from the posterior side of the sub-costal nervure,
compound in the female, retained by a bunch of scales arising from the
anterior side of the median nervure.

Anterior legs short, tibiae with a strong sharp spine about the middle,
the first joint of the tarsi about the same length as the tibiae, the
four remaining ones equal in length to the first: second pair with the
tibiae about two-thirds as long as the tarsi, bi-spinose at the
extremity, first joint of the tarsi nearly equal to all the rest:
posterior legs with the tibiae about two-thirds the length of the tarsi,
bispinose at the apex and furnished also with two spines beyond the
middle, first joint of the tarsi longer than the rest combined. Claws of
all the feet simple, tarsi spiny.

Abdomen cylindrical, arched in the male, tufted at its extremity, in the
female tapering to a point.

There seems to be a slight difference in the structure of the antennae in
this genus, in the first species the club is rounder and less mucronate
than in the two following ones, it seems also destitute of the tuft of
scales at the point.



Hesperia ? sophia, White, Appendix to Grey's Narrative, volume 2, page
474, figure 7.

Anterior wings of the male brown, clouded with grey and fuscous-brown, a
dark cloud near the base, another at the end of the discoidal cell
followed by a white dot, the nervures greyish white. Posterior wings
black, the base with an oval yellow spot, a macular yellow band beyond
the middle, followed by a series of yellow spots. Cilia yellowish towards
the anal angle.

Head greyish, antennae black varied with white. Thorax grey. Abdomen
black at the base, whitish beyond.

Female with the anterior wings nearly black, clouded with light bluish
grey scales, on the margin arranged into a band divided by a series of
black spots; extremity of the cell with a white dot; beyond the cell a
short macular band commencing on the costa. Posterior wings black, with a
large orange spot near the base, followed by a broad abbreviated,
transverse band, commencing on the abdominal margin and succeeded by a
large rounded spot of the same colour; between these and the outer margin
a series of three or four orange spots.

Head dark grey, palpi nearly white, antennae black, ringed with white.
Abdomen pale fulvous.

Exp. alar. 1 un. 10 lines.

Habitat: New Holland.

This fine species was first described by Mr. White in the Appendix to
Captain Grey's Narrative. He then expressed the opinion that it was
nearly allied to Castnia and Coronis. The generic characters given above
will fully justify this view. In fact we can only regard it as the
Australian representative of Castnia.

The under surface of this species is beautifully varied with black and
orange, but I may refer for a more detailed account to the work above


Synemon theresa.

Anterior wings above greyish, the disc varied with longitudinal pale and
fuscous dashes, beyond the middle the pale dashes almost form a
transverse band, followed by a series of dark spots, margin brown
slightly varied with white; cilia grey. Posterior wings fulvous-brown at
the base, marked with a clear fulvous spot, beyond this, fulvous with a
transverse macular band, the margin itself black; cilia grey. Below, the
anterior wings orange, with the outer margin narrowly black, before the
apex are three or four black spots. Posterior wings greyish in the male,
in the female nearly as above, but paler.

Head, thorax, and abdomen grey above, whitish below; antennae black,
ringed with white.

The posterior wings of the male are of a somewhat castaneous hue above,
and less clearly marked than those of the female.

Exp. alar. 1 un. 6 lin.


Synemon mopsa.

Anterior wings pale fuscous or brownish, with two white dashes at the
base, the discoidal cell with a white spot, beyond the cell a transverse
macular white band, in which are a series of fuscous spots; the margin
slightly shaded with pale grey. Posterior wings light chestnut brown,
with some fuscescent clouds, towards the outer margin. Below, light
brown, the anterior wings rather fulvescent, all with some darker clouds.

Head, thorax, and abdomen grey above, beneath paler: antennae black,
ringed with white.

Exp. alar. 1 un. 3 lin.

Habitat: New Holland.


Agarista leonora.

All the wings purplish black, anterior with a short bluish white striga
close to the base, followed at a short distance by a second curved one,
united to the former by a vitta of the same colour, extending along the
radial nervure; towards the extremity of the discoidal cell is a white
spot, followed by three smaller, not always well defined ones, on the
costa below and a little beyond which are four generally more distinct
ones, of which the third from the costa is largest, these are followed by
a slightly flexuous and bluish white macular striga, beyond which is a
series of from three to five spots of the same colour. Near the anal
angle is a round bluish spot, preceded, in part surrounded by a
semicircle of the same colour, between which and the second transverse
striga is an irregular spot, also bluish. Posterior wings with a macular
band, not extending to the anterior margin. Cilia of all the wings white,
spotted except at the apex of the anterior with black. Below, purplish
black, the base of all the wings slightly marked with bluish, the
anterior with a distinct white spot near the extremity of the discoidal
cell, and a macular white band beyond the middle, beyond which near the
costa is a bluish spot; posterior wings with a band corresponding to that
above, connected with outer margin by a less distinct bluish white band.

Head yellow-white, forehead and vertex black, antenna black.

Thorax black, with two transverse lines anteriorly and the sides
posteriorly yellowish, legs black, spotted with white, densely clothed
with fulvous hairs at the base of the coxae. Abdomen black, last segment
bright fulvous.

Female with markings rather more blue than in the male.

Exp. alar. 1 un. 9 lin.

Habitat: New Holland.


Glaucopis ganymede.

All the wings black, the anterior with a small diaphanous spot near the
base, below the median nervure; a larger one before the middle extending
from the sub-costal to the radial nervure, divided by the median nervure
into two unequal portions, the extremity of the cell marked by a
crescent-shaped, metallic blue spot, beyond which are two diaphanous
spots, one placed just below the origin of the second sub-costal nervule,
the other much larger, divided by the last median nervule. Posterior
wings with a white, partly diaphanous spot, close to the base, and a
transverse diaphanous band a little beyond the middle.

Head black, face and orbits of the eyes white, antennae and palpi black.
Thorax black, legs black except the coxae which are white. Abdomen
crimson, the first and second segments both above and below, the third
above, of a sooty black, fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh margined with
black above, anteriorly, eighth entirely crimson.

Female wanting the small spot near the base of the anterior wings, the
third segment of the abdomen slightly bronzed, coxae black.

Exp. alar. 2 unc. 6 lin.

Habitat: New Holland.




Figure 1. 2. Euschemon rafflesia (MacLeay).

a. b. Head of Euschemon rafflesia (MacLeay).

c.* Base of wings of Euschemon rafflesia (MacLeay) to show the bristle
and retinaculum.

d. Anterior wings of Euschemon rafflesia (MacLeay).

Figure 3. Glaucopis ganymede, Doubleday.

Figure 4. Agarista leonora, Doubleday.

e. Anterior wing of Agarista leonora, Doubleday.

Figure 5. Synemon sophia (White).

Figure 6. Synemon theresa, Doubleday.

Figure 7. Synemon mopsa, Doubleday.

f. Palpus of Synemon.

g. Head and antennae of Synemon (Syn. Sophia.)

h. Head and antennae of Synemon.

i. k. Head of Synemon.

l. Base of wings of Synemon, to show the bristle and retinaculum in the

m. Base of wings of Synemon, to show the bristle and retinaculum in the

n. Anterior wing of Synemon.

(*Footnote. The retinaculum is not correctly represented in this figure,
it arises from the anterior side of the sub-costal nervure. The neuration
of Synemon is not quite correctly given at figure n. These errors were in
consequence of my absence from town when the details on this plate were


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