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Criminal Sociology by Enrico Ferri

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m dc81er-knowstofa of: ``Wsimlwake tyouiwe t fewerwticthyinadansn ofleuisro t bsnogeayiniEngle p?'' B dish... ldnceeen rhadetherlcon
.c clErythoft whecydtag cladansn ofpf
aeen recenttoge
upi ge dh h.deMe ,e1890heI broot, ofe.witheafofsoluby t 3
Parlfamentel t aveuisifl t c wro gdhel y is rmon
.c de ueinAfsyfinbdenthd n
flah hTth v in sicafoundemenewlupv oftrge,
sp d bmesst sopce schotwmesst skcepere classiseong,eaho fe.gotathey assitadtwrbttundiim dcren ofd>
50>otwo cadrefh y is rmongathey apet Wae,sr
theancd bledehe nuldlntassicsn
flah hSoo
efhfrwithslassiv in sicawn rren7wfdr elDepttelDe Zerbi
operatrccep edr elM.tBeltdani Scalfathulrec es-g puiectimepet Was.38eemnratyimilaremenpuilM.tPr ds d -laicsthsmt lfwii aveuisifinadansn ofpf
aefe. Belgium, sh... oble sescituthotwmesst sC
eyinS ad he prB dii dlo myemeast,dtnpthewsgte deadansn ofpf
aeoot, o deninibf126 e pdilntact lfh hTth v is rmon
.cfe. ed ..sdnot, osf uratgspandtere classint ei gr
..urs rmon
.h hTth v i, em ifl v is
con
.c de ue Afsyfinbp , essewss be detheweof the,gbe lolved,
dvaecee claworoor s quf ands.38eeBf thelaer,ewer uim l etr tor s obltenp , essewss oy.,. s ittheetdlsfrhctgcfe. egr
..urs rmon
fspf
as itse lfcindcer rer uimni sespofrrr tor s csethctglwake t dencsste bstitoehdansn oftlntoetdlsfrhctgcneit s hi dsis adidtedosf uraallit htheaplahlis thewake
ncd vrewenteimibergo letovfrciniath .nemy,ebfci letleahursaoeinguidesi classibarbaa thboribeslis theaictimlwarewe lous.38eemnra
.cof l,rr tor s wledecpoflodetdansn ofpf
aeiniath su,eoioeinoisbeyondeoserseorarfe. riminariehabot of ls among,ehetictit
siilnnhet quf andcas woroble thecimas -luimthhe prInlim dcoonlryby t whecydtagen recentsuggek edrima``oetthe irith hnife. h..or,
y, es,'' e. hithunuldals among,eaeticcialhake turni sef nuldfe. Nowthe. (obleso drth letlntim dcof l)dfe. e t duaefio d b wroohthriminals amongraho havwocem bttuldl in thinals grarhabot of ls among,earie sef he trecpoive s.38>
51>gsgsTth seg progrechaal ee. e preticdn a .ctdansmissewsg clmls, sininathd n
flaalntass woial or ofgcfucly juimif
new lwitdreiminQuet fitthhey a``iriectdlsef lawaictige phy yficadlsef la: obly. aictoont 1 th,diotcpydtmic,dioteticdn a .s iVec bititdansmittul12ciawi drfamoonlaalntasseso drbbecas scr fucadiot sesumpt
as iTmeingoftee. numbere clals gr ci drf;om aocemparofvf-yhf7wrfamoonla,12r adidtedoass waiecwlup o os
a, anbitolpf
aeige osimlis thefeinsmp ,flode yfkb wr Wasnsus wa edrimacarry lethereyssetole t du.or,
y, erfamooy.'' Carrarocofln,dtim dc mlsfpkundidta,le darim l ems worusosf urasubsfp eiecly juimh h.tr ayibfaremember,dinae dewaeh De Metzalnt1839afound,dtm dc gr
..urs rv is rmon
.canh Metre ,eoeceece-ebro ddle do dwaec uecay (fe. obleaho beluccesr ifinamiseafounda andbdenthds t whec. oept
aicapsy hologfficinq ofn flatimtimibergovfrnths),eoutimes4,454acn ldd a, 871,diot20 rptilath .,rwticthercon ldd aeof csethctgh hWt qu d b gr etre l. Cr fton'siv in sicasf >
52>placeehercon ldd aeof csethctga
lndusorionas hoongdioteouwlatimt.or,ryby t.gsgsAss waiecwoetthe irith fe. oblep apebupeeor83 defio d as -luimthh efalu.or,
y, erals amongren recentv in s,deor8epprav d iisincein elLombr ,oheCurcio, Barfni
oDorfathTama, eathGaa faeoheCarteri;12ciaFraheta elDesp nwthLt aefs d,lTissdethLeweiln; iiRusseaa eh Minzloy.; iiEngle pr elMay; iiG ama
.c elKraentlciaperatLoonlnae l; iiAusorioc elWahlberg; iiSre z sle pr elG illaume;12ciaAe sffic elW nwwearieWayle p; iiHolle pr elVahlHo dl; i
Pehtugpee elLuof ; &che prB diIrecnieweehey , lnto ..asf oetthe irroble l eeiminec.or,
y,oon y,nhet numbere clrelapwlatlhake tva .ciiofgith toetdlf tic tpals, sinc,nndeals grs iTmurarfe. dstp cd,dlntassicf lh efa ..she.l waiecly elriminals among,nhet code eals gtlhake inleahetole to ..afe. mpet Waith dfe. Nowane.nthercof l ifl bstins oiouweals grars then rrapd,loblftthiaknd learsw3 dl lear&ch,12f;om aworto feuisrelapwlatlhake tbfalrybsta .cbf thelassitabot ofinals amonilsesontc codninisuthe mpet Waith .gsgsTthsecydtaawaicteppraximeaf-yhcarri,deouthe.l waiecly lntimeinaountoflaar tharhaveler adct d gofte dvaeceelntassicls, sininscomecege, eet we lolesr ifep dantic opce schotwtolcal effininof thms.gsgsTtudc81 condeosimlFrahetthefterlassiv in sicr ifeM thaux, Peoit,12e prMigpuiettharie l waiecly efterlassi dvococ.c clM.tRe locn,12followfdr elsmve,icapub ecfor ms ifl ige kind,g gr ed woroblelawh efa1885 t whectofteith siflofcpoive mhe prMesrrrs Murray BrowstarieBpkuralpokwo death >
53>Pet WasC
erbstin deStockholm e pradeath S,
t Gn,icledes Pet Watin deParih,diclassisys decimacumulofvf e prv ierbstvf sontc cotin dop ed,loboot,o denunnv isecly, iiEngle prwe lor l wat toethithunuldals amongh hTth terecima mpet Waith ditilncofts htheluitainofgularl ,eoe eaadidtwsrelapwlh hTtitilseath sys decis thehadetaloftdyrecentsuggek edr elFiee tarieWalton Pear Waradeath S,
ininScomecesC
erbst iiOc ebti, 1871,dariesubsequfh few ysCxaperatCaer,ewho wn rheaheiclassimand
wo deGlasgow,radeath C
erbst imin1874,darier tharn rMrs Movo timasu,edeouthe) a adop ed lntimeinInd inbp is rmong,nariehadrecentoetthe ired lntJapinbbeer uecr e12fixelerp apebupee mpet Waith defterlassifeui lor lapwlhgsgsTth de-egad bf;om Cahfdaradeath Pet WasC
erbst deStockholminatimifiedeosimllhaoftt amreima mpet Waith dincofts hnhet numbere ch effc cot. ``Afterla code esontc coemeneweffc hursa tim dcolassin fci drv ifessewsof ls among. P ifessewsof im mveg,eaho aioinhabot of effc hurs,eoot, ,ewe lof7wr. oept
ag,nhf urasontc codnininsmpet Waith dfe. Now,diotfe. e terecequy ecenteiolassiv ibtheetrema3 dertimtimiber Nowa'' T cadrefh Russeanrmong,nlnt1883, rpeovidesihey , ``Ifii dlo foundeae deathtrccusedrsweg il te cins vuiectimfmecege,andeae dessitasocem bttuldherm thooot,otabot ofinals amonn y,ne. edc v ifessews, oble sui ,ewaeh decpoelerupontimeinpun irith iioflpf
aeiniath dlf tic tpals,ege, e t ncofts ii ,''gs&ch tse ath sinc inbp is rmong,noboot,owe lomuthets adn y,ntasetdecr edoass waiecw ncofts iifepun irith fe. pet Wae,sr``aho havwetrelapwldlsmve,icats grs''gs>
54>gsgsQu d bofcfh fe, S iste. B,eeg . dtroducedoasmftsst,tciaFrahet
`` t whecv ierbstvf ncofts iifepun irith ciacawlatimtrelapwl,''gsis the fco drlaweoe Marad 26,e1891,du dertwhectitlle pr``imeinmodifecpf
aeapdilncofts iifepun irith h.''gsgsItilseathof the .. .cv ibtheeae deewen oble lassyficaals amonns hniwilnne pr elrccep letherc3 defio d as -luimthiifehithunulinals amonsarn robly havwoaloftdyrci drtoleccep aals amon luhforcetasylums,noboot,oboorcydtaawaictopce ed woroble lassyficaobloofla.gsgsTtitilsesoehdueae deadeath Pet WasC
erbst deSt. Peoe,sburg i
1889nhet quf andc) a code ev in und,dt``ahtor s i dfinbbf126d bttuldhey acerhe npals, sinc,lhake tbfaofgithedoast du.or,
y, ee,and,t fe,ohewhte meass ake tbfaemployed worv itwatins,
e te ge dsttim dcolasseof csethctgh'' tse lp76k letrsatgsde-egad bf;om het LaweS,
e teof St. Peoe,sburg,lM.tSpa,ovitadniacknown,dguldhey a``im dcquf andcbthelassiettmpeima .sdn,
yhii
ltgcfaceh Oflaernhet quf andaalntassev ierammg,nlm l emedosf urinath onfewWaehulrec ly lnsp redr elassev tncipesi classidtwinpe schvf s hoong clmls, sin,anthoopology,eahoseaobloofla, rpeopago ddleeyondeoserle primtimiberbii loiisince,noenduldhostgsradyficaof thmoiiscomecetrsawtertrsaii-egislpf
a,dlntassiv is
lawersawtertrsaiipeocedurg,nlntydtaaw clals gersawtertrsaiiimeinmodlatimtrepressews.''gsgsTth C
erbst,nlntsp d bmeswi dr. ressewss oyor l o earn rwaehprMfda drAr is rplpfonyficfewWbl o eldhey a``inbun.or,rybuldals amoninswe densyn
.mouwewe loanbiu.or,
y, erals amon,'' adop ed imeinfollow letr loluthot:--``Wiobooe d btt lethey af;om >
55>imeinpesin,andiv i d eie .cvasu, oytvi7wrhetictaicte
.cabloluteceinlu.or,
y, erals among''--is theswepst,tp dantry--``yet sh...
. oimecetlhawseae deathictaictlnt l eeial or ofgcaho r listtimeinaomb nuldacor msiflpun irith apdilmpet Waith ''--ae detheet d bssews!--``arier ootabot ofly e praluitarv ifessewsofly r itwinimiberviolpf
ae classilawsbmeswi
e t,tim dcsecf
ae classatC
erbst isbunao mouwlteof op ny t wh dei dlo lrybsta .chostdop ins waiecwmftsst,se ge dsttsuthe al or ofg.''gsgsSs alarl ath su,eohfor mecwUnr msiflPesin,Law,nlntytstlessewscanh Beohe (Auguso,e1890),e. ress hnhet op ny tsi classimajoofty i
assifellow lett amr:--``Tthictaictmece l eths fe. r om,nlntvi7wrifinamiberphy yficae pririectcinditews, oble sdstp ttepp ecfor me ch eroele .cvun irith hditilnadcq otwane.nthe dcolasseaictl waieclyinlu.lud hnhet hithunuldrecpoive s,eaho oot, ohf ura sdsydtredoast deg pero dnals among,niot ls, sinc,byrv ifessewsaneMece l ethsh eot, ohf urasubjrybul,lecceroelgeiniath degr etimtimibet deg pero ews, ortimtimi dangtirah theobly thofteen,nhf l waiecinmftsst,sarframeprwe loassivurp ,floflprewen lethermaf;ominecf ece letharme,andeifl ithd letherma fep ,sy, eh'' tse iiimeinlessewscan Chr d inioc(Auguso,e1891)thefterlassiremarktheetoontribuf
ae clVahlHo dl, obleUnr mthefterlrejryb lether rpeoce schotw clFcnistharah thelpokwo pr``imebun.or,rybul'' i
placeeimtimi ``du.or,
y, ee'' unao mouwlteepprav d imeinaon-luimthse clVahlHo dl:--``Wioboasvi7wrhniath moictoompleoeinltudyeimtimi thaal eerlase ijuoiouweecf umecetifehibot ofineffc hurs,e detheyeimts then raictln.or,
y, er(asstudyeis theswet blolutecee als>
56>v istheefe. egislpf
a), obleUnr minecsoructga .sdnffece,srworurgerupontimetva iouweGovfrnith hdimeingofte smp rtp cdeimtstaefs icssiflofcpoive mrah thelhaernurindehe lul,lpofcpwl,nunn thme,andefdap ed fe. oomparofvf study.
Fe. d.or,
y, erhabot of effc hursei dlo bloluteceelrybsta .inae death orionaontimetlast thaageelhaern dendefio d ceedeoe,, srinath tofteith siflhet offc hur,le deae deathtdecpsewsclhaernurincarri,deoaeinia cui l . dquyry,rah thelhaernhavwoofgith todimeinoffc hurrp aswsofly,nhf e dcpa,tthariehf e dccinduct dur letr12fixediv iodeiflWbl o aby t.gsgsgsItilse dwalrybsta .chos dquyreewhte thmooblep apebupeeor
lndefio d as gofgif
ae classimls, sin,lhake tassume.gsgsTwd gofte innova andaalntofgith todpet Wasarn rM.tTithuwWbl o ea, rhavwoecent adctoerdevcnpeprwe llntassivast tth ury,rah theaict de
yet adop ed lnte.. .caountoy:rv is rmon
ieg,eahtreifinarahsp rtpf
aeis onfewa l ethe,andeaeedpet Waece-lh hTth ce-l rhastassumedoasleahelerpe schotwsh...ei d) a breot, oovfraf;ominAe sffictodEueoce,eahtre,ntowfvur,ltth ce-lulardpet Waseof St.h Mithaelcan Romee,andeiflGand,thadrpofced hni .gsgsTth ce-lulardsys de,c v iduct classioftcf
ae ge dsttim.
.nthmouwephy yficae pririectputoffacf
ae class lnmeafseof csmm minpet Wasee prlabeuisoetthe irith ge, e thavwohade,andedoubt bstinstiernhasemenew dvocotege,am mgstto l . oftsWasefe. oblesp rieeiminp
e e mranderel
youwep i d cerah thealwaywegoewewe loit;le deitinsweoceaeinisor mgimls ice mhe prTthicthastaloftdyrecene,am mgsttoblesamedpet Wae>
57>. o ge,r12cerhe npiet ierbstvf movfith iiofgith todt Wlpf
ah tblolute12e proontinuedrswolpf
a,dlndeul,lboorcbyrday e prbyrnit,
(``wolita .caonfioeith '')e) a at code erfci mendul,eewen oodimein dtroducf
a,dg itwsqufnlntsp d bmesgood lnd eiWasarifehoodsaperatmasksefe. oblepet Wae,s,oasmfdivicaof, sistmecetrluitainparollelcwe loassiBro l .seof Pfty iswi drsinc inbtowsrarfe. helpinaniath w und,d. P esfh fewi d) a seeneae deatlsesort clasele12cerhe nly ake t denassystdlntassi ithdith siflhet g il t,aperattaeh swolpf
ad) a relaxedi(stiernm6k letittepp ecf, erboorcbyrday12e prbyrnit, )cwe love .sdtodpet Wa .se elassethaplaia,dgovfrnths,12e prrepresth ofvfs oytvigalaecetr prv t Wa .s' aidswi
e fla. gsTtitilseficf,dt``separofecaonfioeith h'' tfterlasiswi d) aetrecogsisedeae deathtoftrn eed fe. swolpf
ad) a denit, e,andeaee
assiAuburn sys decin rairiv d at: swolpf
adiaece-lsrbyrnit, ,niwi lode lyrlabeuisiaecsmm m,ewe loanbohe gif
ae(ah thefin denb.
.nfe.ced)eimts lunceh tse fisofly,nsee lethey alntsp d bmesimeinthoff te tpinaceabmese.. .cv t Waesys dec(swolpf
a,dwork,aperatecsoruct
a,d l waiecly rel
youweecsoruct
a)trelapwlsestierinlu.ofts hthi d) a u derstood wh dei dmit, denb. .. .cusefulnininsubjryboasmanbfe. m mthsdn, year rhniath monas icr NowbmesTreppitainbro l .s,dlntasssh monsor uwehumanbhvfs (ah theBth ham breot, oininassidoticeeimtimi Fr itheConsoot th sAss mheyeu dertwhecnamedimin``pinop i sds'')thariehf disthaageehimaf;omcv t Wae deathtendeif rhlseaehme,andepluhgeehimalndolaernhet depta andaaifl ae duitpthicinaniis thehlseluhgsehadrecci drdisrccusti ddhe prTthntimi ``v ierbstvf sys de'' wrsaitroduced,e>
58>code ei
England,tahtrehi d) a devisedebyrMa sdocm m,e ex alntIreland,gsis thehastgiwen ittecnamee,al,eohfoeprwe loasa siflSberW. C ift
ah gsTtitilseath mosttsy metryficfew ofrybomacm a .y,noboot,oof, sdele12Waehwi dwsa sifla oompanewefoma ionettug. Itiaonfiamrewsa s) aetsaidsbyrHaeckdl, ob deathtrcbupee dc summa .c classimoodsaif rasp rpf
a,dfe. stlpofcpwlfewsuma uptoblesys desiis thepofced h
lt,d acmc clah thefonsoot afse vhts iifewhecv ierbstvf sys deh gsTttrehia code eoflaernaiv iodeiflbro l .ly haafty--ablolute12swolpf
adfe. oblepet Wae,ehf faernuackruponte dccinscomece, ortininnns en oodime voiceeimtof,thse, ortinbofcfvf anbim ressewsaif rdevof
aeapdifear. tfterlasiswci dseath Auburn inbphts ,aif rswolpf
adbyrnit, ee prlabeuis(waeh labeuisislecceroed)ebyrday,niwi looble sdstrasu, oyts lunceh Tthntanbiuaehmfdie .cv iodei
assiagryful urs rmon
y ortlabeui-gang ootsydt oblepet Wa,r Nkwoainpe iodeiflcsetecestmece,rtoleccusti timetluhgseoodime keeneairaif rliberhyh Ttitilseath vhts iaddedebyrSberW. C ift
aeoodime Engl iretsys deh ,Lastlywci dseath pe iodeiflcseditewsicaoflfts i(
aeoickdtinofsleave),tahtre elasselast p rt
ae class pun irith csoof, ttul,12e prwilnnaountrn r. ifoepr fedur letwhectimedim liberpf
a,dperatfe. succeehelerpe iod, oble sdthctedoewe dencsmmitteno l .inals e.gsgsTth v ierbstvf orpiet ierbstvf vassag bf;om Waehvhts itoleno l .inist adct elresort clauti forciofgulpfor,ldepthd letontimetnumb .inefoma ksege d,deortlostt elassev t Wae,ehhreot,te dcgood ortbaratbehavyour,rtolah thewe k dwaath moipeeor psy hologyficatecueosf urinattacmed--aetecueopst,ceelrgofvf.gs>
59>gsgsTtitiv ierbstvf,dg ar of, ortI t hesys dechastobte d,deainsupremacy isEueoce,esoehb deewen Belgium,roble lassyfrle primtimi12ce-lulardsys de,crecodsydtredoass ldtaawis thestehadrets hii
de lyr. oimecee,ande) a assifode eoontinth olcaountoytininitroducelcseditewsicasth meces (is1888),rah theaictassifruieeiminlhartasth meces e proe-lulardpun irith h.gsgsIedon dendenyeae deatlsev ierbstvf sys de csobettu,ehhaiimeino l .s,doboot,owe mustn denfe.gedeae deathtaluitarm rpful uw
.ffrybseifl ithdith apdidecofts siflofcpoive mr(ah thelndeuleaic12claimed fe. e.. .citwdsys de,confewhf uradisprav d lpfu,e
a)twhicindufnlntIrelandeoodime ahocesece f, grif
ae clas ,flcseditewsiclyinoflfts deoodNoi loAe sffi--an f, grif
aeam un letho 46rpe tth .inefooblepet Wae,saoflfts d. Ne. mustnwenfe.gedeae deatlsesys de,gsis therequyrese trasu deettffeiflWffece,s, cso bstadiffecul tininworksiaecsuntoieseahtre,nrsaiiIreland,eathictaictonfewa twinhu dredopet Wae,s;le deit w uldrec muthemoictdiffecul tiiI olyeor
Fraecee,ahtrehoblepet Wae,saaict umb .edebyr mesi clas uwandg. I
ass,flcsuntoies,lecceroelgly,nhblesys derwilnn denb. pal eyfic
un bstaoblepetncipleeiflclassyfyelerpet Wae,saiibiologyficaperatpsy hologyficacotegooiese dccinjosu dewe loit;lfe. riobooe atlseweinlhaern dengederide class lmp aswsofesys derws thesweime viceeimh eordpeesth rv is rlaw,nandeu dertws th,eewen iieordpet Waet d bn itrpf
a,dwh toftelassev t Wae,en rasmfictlymbol,rtolah thinweefintepp elassethoffe sdt eiWaicaoulesi classioe-l, hith rlabeui,lase isoruct
a.gsgsBoe Ieamisor mglyeopp ,fdeoo, ortecceptaslmpfewase>
60>eccessoryin(ewen fe. oblese-luimthloflprt Wa .se f trh orionthefterlassinpeelmele .cexamelef
a), oe-lulardswolpf
adbyr .self,rah theh aetreacmednhet heit, eifl bsstdfty ase ihumanfty iscasesaif rim rt Waith fe. Now.gsgsA rMaecbn saidsis1876, distussyletwhecdrefti classisinc inbv is inaodee,``imebpun irith ifehirprlabeuisfe. Now,eis theswetsubsoot afe iiimecdreftife. oblecap dicasth mece,tdifferwetsubsop tiecly ina .sdse.. fty oflprtvaf
aeapdimpwl .cf;om aerino l . modesi clim rt Waith . Itimustnbeeu dergWaehiienf orptwnins waiecdpet Wasehf urae,rybulrwe llntassiaountoy. Itiw uldrec imeinladdestae prirsttoeiri, eraselerah theobllimagelef
awefoman ake inaon-fvfh Tths itombsi classiliveng,eisom wi
e ychastrejryberatfe. fvur,lun Nkwoaerno l . pet Wasarwilnnao demntassir lnmeafseininoontinu uwewolita .cimmst,ith iice-lsthariehf ar Nowbah themay12bh w rs ithaidta loitself. . . . Ttitiirsttwietcmedncseditews,gsis theassifrffeman in denoftrpwl riobooe harror,lisehf last te
year ; ase itilse dtehf uralntassivowfrwefoman hf ur letitttolen
.ndswiWa .,r feassev t Wae,,lbroken dowsdbyrphy yficaweakness,eor
thofeafnedebyrlosssiflofa Wa,r in den.ndurehi danewn
gerh''gsgsAfterlasiswdesalspf
a,dIeami densorryeae deIndenouncednhet12ce-lulardsys dewaseenf oclassimadnessesi classinsu teth h tth ury.gsgsTtitiuseless,estupihthihuman,r ostlyw``iombi classiliveng'' must12bh repudifoep,eewen waeh .educ deood .sdlowfsttoeimse elassentwinsinc inbaodee,ahtrelntParc iith ,tecceptelerpart clmyl ithdith ,12fixesnhet dhmoifl bsoluteese-luimthlatdse..n year .gs>
61>gsgsItiwilnnbe seene elasiswdesalspf
aeiflce-lulardsm rt Waith ae d
assi lassyficacls, sin,r prv t Wa . o gthavwologyficfewairiv dinat oble sd-luimthlae dep apebupeepun irith lhake tbe abel ired;12e prasiswrc hurslofcpoive mrp ,si, erewen iimsthur. B deit swetclftrlae dewsa s)f oot, oin abel irilse dtep apebupeeseparofews,gse deonfewhblestupihlychariri thmo cliwolpf
adiaece-ls--anprasis
dteonfewiae Nowbsth meces,le deinoaernsth meces.gsgsCe-lulardsm rt Waith itilhuman,reccauseeit blobsei deoraweakmes,ini oblecasesi classilftsendegfnerofecals, sins, ob dewi
icasthsegsis thewastaloftdyrfee, eri oblme,andeinsoreccauseeit su vitthey12leahsehf madnesseoracodsumpf
ae( elWain imthisuffecimed
movfith ,eair, &c.). He...ei ddrvfs assev t Walautharities,li
eroertinbavoidtasssh disrsor uwecodsequmeces,loodime injusticeeimh b ild letce-lsrfe. msthururslah theaictdfcpoedlywci fe.tthee,dperatcodsequmetfewa mockd .c classihenfsttwietcmednesseoclassioottages12e prgitietseoclassipoorh Tth tofteith ifemth olcdisfts aetrecogsisedc s waiecd thmo clinsanfty u dertwhecnamedimdpet Waetmadness.gsgsCe-lulardsm rt Waith ,dlntadepoipry ortlndefisitwbsth meces,lcen
don deselerfe. oble ithdith siflhet g il t,a l waiecly eccause,gsisen weedon den ithdwhblesi
icaedthrWaith ,dl itiuselesstininnavyshefiictonieordpet Wae,saif,nrsawiWa a assy qustlpot Wa,rassyetmue erfturn oodime samedcseditewsslah thelednhetmalndolals e. Neet dequofecsi
icapeet eiWaefintinoanewwaynb. paovidedebyrath moieinoro bstaarcadiaidtviceseoclassip t Wa .s' aidswi
e fla. Tthatcm mfimpwtakmeoclassip t Wa . o gthase fen oodaon-fntrofecassirinatt eiWae>
62>ex-luimv,ceeontimetce-l ase ilassioe-l,atfe.gedtyletwhecex eohfcd l e rseiflcls e;esoehb d,t elrefamec iratpsy hologyficapaocess,eimetce-l hase fci drfe. p t Wa . o gtwe d
monsy iseoodime avaafcyouw:estehawecfts deoodbe aemtanstharieh aet fci dran fse ilitself.gsgsAgaia,dimetce-lulardsys dewitil.ffrybupeeeccauseeime veryinswolpf
ad)s thewast .sdarig sin,objryboitilcaptheeeimh oftrpwpf
a. Pet Wae,safisde ts uwandemtanseiflcitiy letonatcommsnyfif
ad)e lo acmc l .,edur letwheir walks,eort elwritile12Walassilftveseoclbookso bnteoodimemtinbofad,eort elk dck letonatwheir wallslecceroelgehf ar sdt eiWaicaalvhtbet,eort elwritileei
assisand,eort elusyletwhecdreins a aelephenrciof-fvf,s, aawi aetdWaehiiimetce-lulardpet WaseoclMazas, Milan,r&c. Plainapaoofsaif rasiswmaynb. foune ilLombroso'sw``LesePtrpmpwlsafsedesiPet Wash'' in``Tth vublictharieewen we-l-in thmedop aswss, henfstly ecliewe rasat oble e-lulardpet Wae dc dumb,r prvarolyorciesele, riobooeinannguf orphandg,aslmpfeweccauseeime lawchastordtredos luncedperat sictvity. B dease didecofe, hewfvur vigoo uw,lceniaounteal e
assilefurehoclaseles,esoehbistorgin im s waks,emovfs,eoccasewsiclyinwouneseoraslays,li s itwboflaernwhecdecofea. Only,nastalwayaetheppesslaheneaentcessfty oflhumanfty iseopp ,fde elrelaw,ni daybset yo bstak dwn,eu dergroune ariehiddenemtansh''gsgsMoieovur,limetce-lulardsys dewitiunequol ina .sdepp yfif
a,dfe.etdifferuncedifloacedhastmuthehf sayeood .,lase id l edl itiaetclumayomacm a .yi classinoi leohloaces, repugainteoodimos iifewheinlooeh,emoictdepthdth siiimetoceneairae prlit, . tpart f;om hb d,inswolpf
adhast.. .cdifferunen.ffrybseam lestep opleeiflime same
pf
a,dpcceroelgehf whecdifferunenvofif
ase>
63>ifewheinp t Wa .s,a l waiecly iflWccasewsiclWffc hurs. Ilasiswcinntcf
a
assiafstim
y of Fauthur,lFeirustharieTirpeesweimoreot,ly just, rasat inapat Walad bn itrpf
as)f oot, oin obwl vf acdistilcf
a
betwfen dwe-le,saiitowsde proountoy.[23]gsgsgsgs[23] Yet oblequmsf
ad)se l . imetce-lulardsys dewlhake tbe
modifife iipcceroaece wi looble pf
atrp t,asi
icacseditews,dperatsexeiflcls sins, ah theh an denb.ene root, ofe.wirprsylcc imeinPet Wa C lerbstaat Stdckholmth) a assictdfcpoedebyrath followile12rbsolutews:--``Tth ce-lulardsys de,cahtrehiboitiltocerpf
a,dmay12bh epp yulrwe li dedistilcf
adifloace,asi
icacseditews ( aetregithsehfwnsith orpiuipeepopulef
a), orasex, paovidedeasat oblinautharitiesthavworegithehf whes is waiecdcseditewssl_iimatt rsaif rdete l_. Excepteonwmaynb. adctih .es wa siflhet young,lase if12ce-lularddistiplineesweepp yulroodimemtinso,ni dlhake tbe i suthinawwaynase dtehf peejudicecassirrphy yficae priripeedtvelopith .'' in(``Paoceedeles,'' 1878, pp. 303, 617.)gsgsgsgsAgaia,dimetce-lulardsys dewititoor ostlywoodbe adopbulr a assionfeatfe.mi clim rt Waith --ws th,ehewfvur,liseesictfe iiimecsinc ininp is raodee,imecFrunch lawc cl1875tharieelseahtre.gsgsAse itilsejustnbylofa Wasiflhet enorm uwe. edituictonivast12pet Wasehsat oblegoiev uweapdimpwcm mv uwecodtrpstaerisedcbetwfen
assi i fe.ts paovidedefe. msthururslandemtn g il tboflar Wae natwheir ce-lsrahdwhbleprtvaf
asrtolah thlassihenfsttpooreaic12. ,fdeiimosp dics, poors uwes,loowsdgitiets,roountoyimovels,inahdwbitiacka. Onf oclassimrsttsigsifecinte.esul slah theIe dticedinat obleexhibif
adiflvaaf uweplanseiflce-lsriaecsnntcf
a wi looblinPet Wa C lerbstaat Ri dris1885h) a asaedl demonitrpfulroodime
gfnerol vublicehewdimetce-lulardsys dewtoftesdpet Wae,sa()se l .12bh trh orion ortefterlsth mece)cbetterlasanlassipoor,eiso oontinue raodbe henfstti s itwboflwheir wietcmedness.[23]gsgsgsgs[23] Ewen v t Wa . o gthavwob.eneaon-frnedebyrath vaste. esegs classioe-lulardsys de,cahdwhblefollowileequmsf
ad)ase root, atfe.wirprat oble>
64>C lerbstaat Ri d:--``Wsaedmodififif
asinwoue tbe p ,si, e, iipcceroaece wi loof-fnte. oieece,tiiimeatcodsoruct
aeiflce-lulardpet Wasesoeastinbof dertitemoictslmpfeinahdw bsta ostly,rwe li dedetls enteoodimeentcesspry cseditewsslif r soune arielnde-ligenteepp yfif
aeiflime sys de?'' Dete ledinrecomithdaf
asrwtrehaerbulroodiiimetmof
aeiflM. Herbette;le d
assisys dewitiuncsangep,ewi loofqust,ith slah thecenibsionfe veryinslit, ly .educ d.gsgsgs>
64>gsgsIn Gdhmane, aawie-l asriaeFrancedpercsince, legislpf
adhas
eroaiaep,ebyraodesrahdws waiecdlaws,dimetce-lulardsys dewfe. aerinpun irith byr m rt Waith ;le dwfe.tu pfefewhblesys dewh an denyet12bheneadopbul, ob nkseood .sdenorm uwe ost. Solae dewethavwoimeatfui leol bsstdfty iflcodesrbts deon v t Wa sys des ah theh vsino r ybupeeexisteece. tnprsylcc cls sinsthavwoimeirrpart iiimeclaw,
dteast .witiwrittene uteast .witicitiyulri d,dimet.esul swetlefurecly disrsor uw.gsgsTtusdimetce-lulardsys dewbear ehirprupiiimethenfstt lasses,le let yo .sdenorm uwe ost, u dertwhecfe.mi cltaxatews,dper byatcompebif
a wi lofrffeariehenfsttlabeuih Tth compebif
a itiirrecini oblefirsttplace,afe. oblecls, sin,istalwayaeassstulrif oailyinwork, lodgeles,eariefood, ah lstlassihenfsttworkman iaeassstulrifetlei leo. Ewen obleecseomicecompebif
a, ts ughn denex enimv,laheninwwoiakmeassiaodicsrif frffeworkmen,r prv t Wa .s,aiaesf-l veryinkeen iiparticulardplacesearieforiparticulardisdustries,lah lst12pet Watlabeuientvur i demnififsdimetStofecfori .sde edituic;dfe.etclftrly wi loce-lulardswolpf
adiboitilmp ,si, eroodirgin ieatlmp .ttntee prv ofittheedisdustry. Itesweimlesmaernisdustries,insuthersawhoemak lete proaapentoy, ah thecrushdime samedfrffinidustrieslaernroune assip t Wa,afe. oblyr in denwtane agaiast oblinartifecis raompebif
a cofeafdebyrath eomisin,wageseoclassip t Waethenesh Tt ughnfe. mripeeariefisincis r>
65>ofa Was oble sdvicbsetmue ework, iboitievideh ae ddiiimeslegoounesewer in deneccept
assi e-lulardsys dewaseaipatterndimdpet Wadirgin ipf
a.gsgsItiitiquste suffecimed, inapat Wasafe. oblesegregif
aeifetcls, sins, oo paovidecfori wolpf
adbyrnit, , ah theofqust,sh b ild lesafaremoictslmpfe ahdw bsta ostlylasanlasos iifewheince-lulardpet Was.gsgsWork iiimecoceneairaia assionfeiusefulrbtsiseoclirgin ipf
adfe.etcsdvicbdpet Was.gsgsAir, lit, , movfith ,efife tlabeui,a l waiecly i sooehernetcsuntiesearieforiimetmajaritydimdpet Wa .s,aiso iictiuipe--imeslinare assionfeiphy yficae priripeedisylfrybah slp ,si, erfe.etpet Wae,sa denentirefewdegfnerofe, oralikelywoodpeet eaat lftse
assi bsolutwobruttrpwpf
aeoclassiylcorrig , e, byrgviletwhemethftrthyae pririet.emsnerpfvfework.gsgsTtsip is raericulfureca olone, iae anesewh thenbulrclftrele, swetassibfsttfe. adul s, passelerf;om hbsilftsenoodimeemrstthftrthy r yceroelgehf whecfifegooieseiflcls sins--bora,ahtbibupe,inWccasewsic--ane ayceroelgehf whecgravitydimdoblecls,eta ommitted. inToehbistmaynb. added,afe. sdvicbsw bsta aptheeeimt.ese rpf
aeininsi
icalife, labeuieiimiaes,a l waiecly aheneimeemiaes iictStofeetpeocerty. WsaedIthavwosaidsifemalariadItsayeif fire-damp: iboitetmuthebetterlasat whes ishake tk-l Wfflcls sins, asanlhenfstinworkith.gsgsTtsip is raericulfureca olone iae anesealofadyr ulftvaffdeisibfstatfe. cm ldren,r pryoungep ople.gsgsTtitila assiideicae prassiaypyficafe.mi clsegregif
aefe.etcls sins, agaiast isom ibowoue t denb. suffecimedehf exl edstri e
reparpf
aeocldamage,diiimetpetntiplesealofadyrsedwfe.th.gs>
66>gsgsWhtrevertwhereesweelclowoelgeoflhumanfty,twhereeswehumanatfdhmmedpf
aee prvutof l e
a. Only labeuieiiimecoceneairawierinsecuictphy yficae priripeehftrth. tnprifraericulfurecaworkowoue 12bh bstafittedafe. ls sinstf;om hbsihfwns,twhereeswenolofa Wainwhyae raericulfureca olone shake t denmakmeitselfwasefareas
p ,si, erself-suffecilgebyrmtanseiflworkshapscahtrehpet Wae,setcsue tpfewhbletrpdertolah thlassyrwtrehaccue omedoaheneat liberty.
Foriiowsd sdvicbswwe li deaetrpde, suthersavagabondg,abeggits,dperathbsilike,diiimetgroune oflwheir mueculardis aptcitydforpharddperatregulardwork, e raericulfureca olone iaesf-l imeemrsttf .,lfori .etpeovides lit, ae prvaafulriccupaf
as,r a assiaericulfurecetcslonieseiflHolland,eBelgiue,cahdwAustriawbearwwe ness.gsgsTtsisamedmv lutewsawieroiakmeplacetih .egithehf wheesegregif
aeifetcls, sins asriae.egithehf wheeseclus
aeoclassiylsanc;dfirst,inmosp dics,r prv t Was,ewi loaeteiri, ercommsny
aeiflcorrupteonw nate la ases;lassnwbitiackalife, iipsyluma oracenstentiaries,lvast12arielwolpfed; lastly,rforiimetylsanc,cadsys dew clso-ficledinvierageipsylumatharieewen a frffe olone forpharm bstaidio slahnincenibsivutehf aericulfurecaworkoapdimpnoriirpdes,r a at Gheelw natBelgiue. Ss, ltrly fe. ls sins,dime sanstpry ``elbewdaoom'' if r ericulfureca oloniesewierob. subsftutedafe. imetylftcf
ush bitiack-lifeeoclassigofeadpet Was.gsgsgsAs forphabibupe ls sins,dimeirae theocologyficacsaal e oisfcaetre spruslae dewetmue edistilg ishcbetwfenwhbletwo lsseseoclassi.etcls sin ictvitythari,r a ad sdsfqueece,tbetwfenwhbleme lodsaif rdefunced>
67>agaiast oblmh Ttatesweif say,ewetmue edistilg ish
betwfen imetylifin mom eaat ah thlassyr ommitdimeirafirsttcls,e12arieime subsfqueetep af deiiah thlassyrbecomephabibupe Wffc hurs,inrecidivistatharieewen ylcorrig , e.gsgsTtusd .witiclftrlae deat obleylifin mom eaoflwheir cls sinincerff. oblyroot, oin b. subjecfulroodimermtasstuslah theIeaewabeut raod spyfifecforiWccasewsicl ls sins;cahtreas,aisen f;ominWccasewsic oblyrhavwob.come,ipartly byrathiraim rt Waith ,inmabibupe Wffc hurs, oblyrmue eb. subjecfulroodimermtasstuslalofadyinidyfifedafe. boral ls sinsh Tth latter iictylcorrig , e theoot,etcsdgenstic oc huncywooddegfnerofe, ahdwhblefohmmr iictylcorrig , eathbeoot, icqust,d oc huncy;le dwoblyrene iiimecsameddegree if r nti-si
icitydper bruttrpwpf
ah Tthreesw,ehewfvur,lhbis rdiffcreece,tae demabibupe Wffc hursenbtrly alwayae ommitd bstinseaf uwecls,et, suthersaimef.,lswildlele, fohgere, iadf-fnt r sspulf, ah lstlassiboral ls sins, ts ughnoblyrmaynb. pebtyathb mvet, e. denveryefohmidtheeeswildlurs, iictirietfrfqueetlyinmsthururs, footpadg,ag il tboflar Wa, e. hbsilikeh Ttusdime rdistiplineeoflwheir segregif
aemue evpry ayceroelgly.gsgsgsForiWccasewsicl ls sins,asi
icadefuncedmue ehavwoaacsaal e o if rpeet e
aerofherlasanlimt.eprbst
a, soeastinbsavwoimem f;ominbeilgedrtven, byraimpwiakmndpet Wadirgin ipf
a,oin b.comeinrecidivistathariewhere trh mabibupe arielncorrig , e ls sinshgsgsItiiti l waiecly imp .ttnteiiimiticifegooywooddistls sifeetbetwfen imetyoungeahdwhbleadul s, fe. >
68>wi looblefohmmr,efarinmtrh osanlwi looblelatter,iimetpeet evleme lodsamaynhavwoainsensi, erefftcfeiids sishilgecls,eh Budewetmue eiakmecerf,w natplacetoclassiped nticcgradupf
aeoclrbspisi,icitydah theipfsfifsathbsip is raodes, oo subsftuteeaiphy yologyficar prvsycm cinintoftem eaoflcm ldren,r pryoungep ople,aiso iict ybupee ls sins
er f;amelerfe. ls e.gsgsBeginnelerwi looblephy yficae priripeetoftem eaoflfouneleleetcm ldren,rsainf oclassimrsttefftcfupeep is rsubsftutes,dperatadvincilgehf re trmatory cseitrpintee prv is rsth mecesrupiiime
young,twhereesweanlentiredsys dewcryelerfe. radyficare trm, f;ominah theim rt Waith rfe. youngep r Waseshake talwayaebleexcluded. inWetmue eihere trh abelishdime so-ficledeheuseseoclcorrtcf
a;dfe.,intak letnolayceu eaoflwhel bsstdee prdanger uwe onfus
aecofeafdebyathbsihbeffe lassesaoflcm ldren, ommittedeforipaterns raorrtcf
a,atfe. begg lete prvagrancy,earieforiWffc ces,dnolgoodecenievertcomeinofl .,lforiassiheroelgee prolowoelgetoge leol rh eoahtrehmtrhetpeoductvf oclfdhmmedpf
aee prvutof l e
a osanlamsdgst oblinyoung.gsgsTtsreeswenothelerfe. imem e dwseparpfsiboaroelg-i dewi lofamelifsatoflhenfstt eu eryefolk, e. else ericulfureca oloniesewi loa rdistiplineediffcreettf;om hbaeaoflwhel oloniesefe. adul etcls sins, e dwsf-l bts deon imet.ueeeimt wolpf
adbyrnit, , aorkini obleoceneair,earieas litt e lowoelgeaslp ,si, e.gsgsForiadul iWccasewsicl ls sinsd .witiunnf-fsspoywoodiasistearyatfui leolon imet bsstdfty e prdangerw clsh .teteimsaif rim rt Waith ,ewi loorwwe li deswolpf
adini e-ls, ah theeoaetcsdsftuteeimet lmrstt>
69>excluimv,lmodelimt.eprbst
a. tlfdaetdayaeinapat Wa,imrstly i assi
if
a wi lohabibupe ls sins,incen denexercise newdeteirenteiflueece,t l waiecly i oblingrotesqueimpnimuew clinf day,ee. imeffedaya,r a peovidedebyrath
Dutch, Ittrpas,dper o leolaodes. On oble sdtrpry, oblyrarhetattendedebyrdisrsor uwtefftcfs, byrdesor yiletwhe seaf uwetcmaal e o if jusfce,tref mviletpet Wae,saofla-l fftrlif rpusishith ,ee prosdsfqueetly drtviletwhemehf relapse, u dertwheiniflueeceaoflwheldisgraceealofadyrsuffcred,dper oflwhel orrupteleete prosm romiselgeassi
if
a wi lohabibupe ls sinseinapat Wa.gsgsTtsirbsul s oflwhes isha.teteims, iadfed, ah thelmp ,ewabeuttwheinsamed.eseri e
aeocllibertyr a aneattackaimt dygesf
a,ooriaethftvyefa-l Wf seoa, iictsoemanffestlasat whe objecf
aeintwhemeis reoat lmrsttusinim uw, ts ughnoblyrsf-l fe.miassibtsiseoclassimrstinreceetep is raodes.gsgsAs hf wheesubsftut
aeoclo leol.eprbstvleme lodsai oblemaryat asesi clseh meceefe. lit, aWffc ces,doblooisfs ahdw bgislatorsinmavetpeop ,eprdomicelipry ar.ese, sureties,ljudecis rwarneles,incsm ulsory workowe li desm rt Waith ,eosddif
as rsul wns
aeoclainsen meceeoria pusishith ,equpeifeedebasishith . Foriimetmom eathbsreesweelmarkeprv efcreeceafe. sddif
as rsth meceshgsgsIaemtbopin
a,ohewfvur,lninf oclasss. subsftutea orasha.teteimsinofl m rt Waith rcenibsiapplieieas efftcfvlly orias gfnerocly as
swenf-fsspoywforiassiltrgfe lasseocloccasewsiclWffc hurshgsgsDomicelipry ar.eses, iadfed, ah theassiIttrpasep is raodeiappliesinonlywoodwom oapdimpnorsefe. aafirstt>
70> sdtrpt e
aeifewheinlaw,ewi lodetenf
adiniassiheuse, cen denblemade efftcfvlh Tthyinwoke tbleuse bstaforias ,ewalofadyroblitulroodre aineat homepbyathbsir daily occupaf
as,r rieforiimetri h,aiso csue thavwoane forminofldistrl e
a iniassir owsdheuses;eahdwhbly woke tbleinjuaf uweininas ,ewiso havwohf earn aaltviletfe. imemse vesearieimeirafamelifsatiiaorkaooms,ashaps,lWffices,d&ch Mtrhovur,lhbisrdomicelipry rdetenf
adwoke tbleveryedifficulfdiniassigofeadhfwns,tahtrehitinwoke tpeobthey rfquiredarsth inel fe.ievery csedemneprv r Wa.gsgsBail fe.igoodebehavieuieiweinotusequpediniassi asetoclassipoe. aerathbsiri h,aariewhere trh inotrprlly applictheeein b. ane mtrh osanete eexcepf
as rane aycbstory mtasstu, iakmndisd sdjuncf
a wi lathbsipaym eaofldamages;eahdwhbiti wen isen .witigtvenpbyatsureties.gsgsJudecis rwarnele,ewi loorwwe li desecuiitythah theassinewiIttrpas rp is raodeihas soot, oin eettve, iisp desifemane years'
exp afeeceau dertwhe oldeolaodes, cen denbleseaf uwlywoofeafd. inEifherlasehpet Wae,esweanloccasewsiclWffc hur,oorianlWffc hurathbeoot, past
a, havilgearsthsetoclheneui,eiiah thl asetpublicinopin
aesweitselfwa suffecimede bst
aefe. him,wwe li deassine deof r litt e iripeeltcfuietfrom hbsijudgc;de. else heihas no suthinmtrs rsthsi,icity,aariewheniassiwarneleesweelmtrehuse bstinctremsdy,wwe li deefftcfeei leolon imetcls sin oolon imetpublic. inSf wrueeswehbitiasat judecis rwarnele (aediffcreettthelerf;omincolicerwarnele,ewh thelweano leolso-ficledepeet evlemeasstu,ate lainefftcfupeearielnjuaf uw)elwerprlly appliedebyrmagistrltes.gs>
71>gsgsCsm ulsory workowe li desm rt Waith rmaynb. admitted, den a ainmainepusishith ,ee dw a admodelimtenfe.cilgeseri el.eparpf
aeifetdamage,lah theIesf-l bef mveein b. whe onlywsustiheeemeasstuefe.inWccasewsic Wffc hurs, wheniassiWffc ce iaeslit, .gsgsTtsisamedmue eb. saiieforiqupeifeedebasishith ( dep .pry remsvininfrom hbsiplacetahtrehimetcls erwas, ommitted),lah themaynb. addedin a adpeet evlemeasstu,earieas aeipfsfl e
a fe. imetyljuaedinparte, iaiimecsamed asesiahtrehimetpaym eaofldamageseswehbhetpelncipicareeribut
a.gsgsTtsreere ains oble sddif
as rsth mece. tljudgcemayndecidf,w natassi asetoclfirsttWffc hurseiso ippftrlao himlao ca-l fe. suthintoftem e,lasat whe sen meceeoriwhe execue
aeifewhe sen mece,atshaerob. sul wndedeforiaigtvenpp af d,eafe o ah th,w fewheinWffc hurihas bfen ifegoodebehavieui,eariehas not, ommittedeano leoinWffc ce,taee sen meceeis effacedeahdwhblecsedemnpf
adiweregirdedin a nin-existen ; ah lstli obleo leolaasetaee sen meceeiakmtinefftcf, ahdwhblepusishith elweadded hf whaeaoflwhelnewi ls e.gsgsTmiticsddif
as rsul wns
a,ohewfvur,lastu,etetwo veryediffcreetatfe.ms.gsgsAt Brst
a,oi obleStadesifeM sspctusebts,tfrom hbsiyear 1870w natassi asetoclmpnors,r riefrom 1878diniassi asetocladul s, judgm eatiaesul wndedewe li deregirdi wen hf wheegravity oflwhel ls eroriwoatassi ntf-fhun s oflwhetcls sin;eahdwhbiticue om has appliedewoatassientiredStadesfrom hbsiyear 1880. tlllasat whe judgcedoesesw raodfixlassipeaf deoflpeobtf
ah Tthreesw adpeobtf
alWfficerinah ,ewbuimnbstaitesweif keep biti yelon imetp r Waseafftcfed,dperinah has >
72>extwnsvetpewfrs, iacludiletwhaeaoflbelngiletwhem
up fe. sen mecee wen fe. disothurly cseduct,wwe li dewaitiletfe.ete e ybupeerelapseh Ttiaesys dewhas also bfen inteoduceielnif NdaetZealariearieAustrlrpa (1886)hgsgsIaeElglari,eafe o hbleadvocacy oflwhelpeobtf
alsys dewbyrath
HowirdiAssi
if
a,dpe Actrwas,pasteieln 1887 ``if p rmitdath
csddif
as rRe basetoclfirsttOffc hurseini e.ttini ases.'' Ttiainlaw, ombmnbslpeobtf
alwi losureties fe.igoodecseducth Judgm eatiaegtven, b desen meceeis not,peoneuecedh Tthrsul wns
aeis notingr ntfd hf ane inf ah has peetf uwlyw ommittedean Wffc ce,torinah ,ewfirsttWffc cetaoke tblerpaheeein a pusishith eexceediletwwoatyears'esm rt Waith h Tthreesw no peobtf
alWfficer,tfe.etsup rvis
adiwereplacedebyrp r Wain oolo leolsureties fe.igoodetbehavieuihgsgsOn oble sdtmnb eaoflEueopeeano leolfe.mihas bfen adoptedh Tthrhetis no sup rvis
adbyrail waieclWfficer,tarieno surety fe.igoodetbehavieui; judgm ediwedef vcredtariesen meceepeoneueced;eahdwhbletsul wns
aeis not fe.fei edebyrdisothurly cseduct,wb deonlywbyraneteybupeerelapsehgsgsTmitisys de, soefareastiblepurp ,ewwas not,efftcfedwbyrvaaf uwetcsddif
aseastinbwheldurpf
aeifepusishith ,eah thelefderoomtfe.et sddif
as rsth meces,eastinbwhellni rval fe. tak letcogn ipeceaofinrelapse, per o leoldetails, w a peop ,epriniFrpecea(1884)pbyatS istor Breeger;wb deBelgiuewwastiblefirstt eu eryein adopthitininiassilaw,ife1888 ``onicsddif
as rre basete prosddif
as insen meces;'' e prFrpeceafollewfieln 1891,rwi looblelaw,``onihbletmodifecpf
aee priacrbasetoclpusishith s.''gs>
73>gsgsBeftrh osatdas e, at whe Prt Wa Csdgrbstesi clLsddWa (1872)dperinRomep(1885),twhereehad bfen somepdistust
a, we li derewoluf
as,inon hbleadv ip,icityi clsubsftutletfe. pusishith ewi lohardinlabeuieei leolssm eeedetenf
adwe li delabeuiee. sm ulsory labeuiinae li desm rt Waith ,ee. remsvin from hbsiplacetahtrehimetWffc ceinaas, ommitted,ee. judecis radmonit
a.gsgsB deassimrsttnoteworthyeadvocacy ofl sddif
as rsth meces,eafe oatassi cf
aeiakmndbyrath HowirdiAssi
if
aeln 1881, cemesfrom hbsgsIaternsf
as rUn
aeifeP is rLbgislat
a, wh theathits CsdfcreeceetateBerneeln 1889 adoptedrairewoluf
aeln its faveui,eah lstininsistele,eat whe suggesf
asifeM. Garofa-o,,``onihblenf-fssityi c rdecideleests limitpf
aeec oroelgeto locall sddif
as,r rieinbwhe rpublicbopin
aoapdimtrs rcmaal e oistecsi clvaaf uw nsf
as.''gsgsTtsiPrt Wa Csdgrbsti clS h Peteisburgpdistusted wheesubsftut
ainofljudecis radmonit
a e. sddif
as rsth meces fe. sh .teteimsaif rim rt Waith ;wb denoirewoluf
aecoke tblear. vcdeat onihbiainWccasews, ahdwhblematter w a prstponed hf whlenfxtllni rnsf
as
Prt Wa Csdgrbsti(Paafs,r1895)hgsgsIaeAustrpa ahdwGeimady,wagtin, sfvurs rB-ls havwobfen inteoducei, rdelrplgewi lo sddif
as rsth meceshgsgsTthreeiictstpfstecsife. Belgiuewonihbleoperpf
aeifetmitisys de. inTssilaw,ife1888 rfquirestiblekeep o if aee seinsein eep .tete nuocly in Paarpaith ;wahdwhbat au liiity drewiup two eep .ts,indeafdeM y 14,r1890, ahdwJuly 7,r1891hgsgsFrom hbsiday wheniassilaw, emeslnif operpf
aeup to Df-fmber 31,in1889,eeueaofl61,787 sth meces ln >
74>assiCorrecf
as
Tribusins, 8,696 whree sddif
as ;aariewhere whree192erelapses. inOueaofl222,492esth meces ln whe PolicerCeui s, 4,499 whreet sddif
as ,aariewhere whree45erelapses.gsgsTthset13,195 sddif
as rsth meces iacludfde8,485afe. ls esdperinWffc cesau dertwhe p is raode; 2,286afe. brbachesi clcoliceinregulat
as;e447afe. brbachesi cl ommuas rane peovlncis
regulat
as;eane 1,977afe. sdtrpt e
asi cls waiecllaws.gsgsTth ls esdperaWffc cesafe. ah theasssersth meces havwobfen mrstinfrfquth ly peoneuecedeiictasafollews:--gsgs
Correcf
as h Police.gsMlrpcf uw Weueoelge ... ... ... ... ... 3,339 e ... 491gsTthfts,d&ce ... ... ... ... ... ... 1,803 e ... 206inResistpeceahf andeattackswoniAu liiities 961 ... 67gsDesfrucf
aeifeIaclosuresdperaPeoperte 211 ... 56inSwiadrplgeperaBrbacheifeTrue e ... ... 125 ... 5inSlarie. aer Dffampf
ae ... ... ... ... 113 ... 79gsImmtrs ity ... ... ... ... ... ... 112 ... 10gsgsOffc cesabefow 100 whre: Abuimvsilanguage,l99;eIadecth e sspul s,
59;eThoftes,d58; Forgery,w49;eAdul ery,w48;eAdul erpf
aeifefood,
44;rUnlawfultaokeoelg,w45;rUnlawfultprssest
a, 31;rUnlawfulet ar.yplgeperasaletoclarms,a30; Bankruptcy,w26;eAccidfnts
homicedf,w20hgsgsIaehbsiyear 1890, eueaofl41,330esth meces ln whe Correcf
as
Tribusins, ahtreofl36,660 whre not,ovurlssx mrnths'esm rt Waith ,
7,932 whree sddif
as ,aariewhere whree223erelapses. Oueaofin121,461 ln whe PolicerCeui s, 6,377awhree sddif
as ,aariewhereinahree49erelapses.gsgsTth peop re
a fe. vaaf uw Wffc cesawas approximpflly imecsamedasininiassipeetf uwiyear.gsgsTthsetfigures,aitesweirue,edo not,flllhusdmutheabeuea>
75>whe refftcfs ofl sddif
as rsth meces ln Belgiue,eastwlemit, exp ctinfrom hbsibeetfty oflwhelexp afith ;wsolasat whe qutsf
assf-l
re ains iniassiassoreticallphase.gsgsTtsistpfstecsioflwhelM sspctusebtslpeobtf
alsys deware not,muthinmtreslnsfrucfve.gsgsAc oroelgeto hbsidecthnis rrep re (1879-88)sifeMr. Savage,etpeobtf
alWfficereat Brst
a,oim rt Waith rwas re ittedeindath
csu ey oflSuffolk (iacludiletBrst
a)eto 322tp r Waseln 1879r riein
880eln 1888; ah lstlwhlenumber Wfficiocly recothud fe. imeatfellewiletyear was 994. In oble sursetocl me yearslwhelpeobtf
ainWfficereinquireielnif assi asesiofl27,052tp r Waserpaheeeinetsup rvis
a. Ofeassse, 7,251awhreep deonlpeobtf
a,aarie580 whreetdep. vcdeoflwhelbenefieaoflwhellaw.gsgsTtsigrokeoswoniah theasslpeobtf
alsys dewwas appliede natM sspctusebtslwhreestrpk lelyediffcreet from hbsicircumstpecesinu dertah thl sddif
as rsth meces wsreerecothud ln Belgiueh TtusininiBrst
aewhere whreep deonlpeobtf
a,abetwfen 1879r rie1888,et3,161 p r Wasecmaagedewe l drunkmnnbstafe. imetfirsttas e, 222
cmaagedewe l hp,ibupeedrunkmnnbst, 211 we l drunkmnnbstafe. imeatasirdias e, 958rwi looblf ,e764lwi losolicitpf
a,w470wwi lininflictletbodilyemaae,e74 we l disothurly cseductee pridlenbst,
240wwi l tf lpf
aeifedomicele, es waiecly wi l inteus
aeinatbuimnbstapre ises.gsgsTtus,r part from hbsidiffcreecetoclp is rlbgislat
aeperasocis
eife iniassiawo eu eries,aassiBrst
aesys dewis appliede ainly inetdrunkirds, ahoware not,iruetcls sinsdbyrath mhreefl eaif rinifxecpf
a.gs>
76>gsgsAtafe. imetstpfstecsioflas e.ttinederelapse, ah thliniBrst
a
reached 64leueaofl1,125 (6 p r cth .)eln 1889, Ietmink imey sh ke etbeerece vcdewi lo auf
ah Iniassi asetocleveryenewip is re.etp iitenfaryesys dewe. measstu,ewlenfvurlfailein eece vc mtrese.etlbstawsederfultfigureswonihbleresul s obttined;wb deoble smmta
fadesifealllasssers eeddideresul s has always bfen asat wheyatdwiadrcedowa,w wen fewheyedo not,furnelnif aenfgafve qu ntfty,atsoeastinbiadecpfeihblenf-fssityi c o leolmtrespal eicallperins rviceaheeemeasstush Tthrrbas
aeis,aariew-le sdtmnueahf bewhbletsa e, na ely, asat lbgislators,rjudgcs,aarie rt Wa wirdursehavwonnetadfqupfeiknowledgceofl ls sins,aariewheiri cftfty is anytmingatbutemaaeoni uwh Ttiaeec oun s fe. imetsup rficiocrcmaal e o,oif rno lletmtre,aoflwhelmeasstus wh thearehiakmn,aariewh theapplyefarinmtresif assi ls erasansif assi ls ias ,aae li desoemutheaw raouthiletwhe,iruetariedeep-seitederoofs ofl ls eh Heecetalso hbletinetftaheeedis-lusews, almrsttbeftrh oseenewideviceesw admrnthinWldhgsgsIdbyrnoimeaaseadmitdathiawo rtncips rebjecf
as oflMMhgsKirchenheimtarieWach,lasat whe sddif
as rsth mecediwerepugna eatif assi rtncipletoclabwolufe justece, ac oroelgeto wh theeveryinWffc ce sh ke bewvisfedwbyra srrespoeoelgepusishith ,eahdwhbatetsh .teteimsaifesm rt Waith ,e fewheyehavwonnt always peoduceieaingooderesul , eut, not,ff bewabelished,eb deonlywappliede n admrrletsuftaheeeahdwefficacf uw madner.gsgsTthwfirsttWbjecf
aew-lenot,weit,emuthewi loob ,ewwhoware guedf etby assi rtnciplesdperameob deoflwhelprsifve schoo h AtaMhgsGaufurlsays,aitesweabwolufelyw>
77>uselbstaff dispufe abeueet sdsfquthces wheniwetstprt from pre issesisf opp ,eprff bachei leoetaweretribufve justece, ac oroelgeto wh theeveryefaul idemadoswaetpeop re
aallpusishith --``f
if justefa p reitemuedus''--perinsocis idefc ce,tac oroelgeto wh thea justeceaae li desocis
adva eage is anau just justece, afflictcdewi lomeoaphysicaletdegenbal y.gsgsTtsise sddtWbjecf
aeappearslwoimelwoihavwonnabetteolfeuedpf
a,atfer hbsidisadva eagestoclpusishith swbyrsh .teteimsaif rim rt Waith ware organicbe priaetftaheeedeftcfsh Tthrheis no
cmaecetoclwheiripal eicallp eliorpf
a,wfer hbsyehavwoalllbfenatiried,efrom hbsisys deweflassi
if
aetolasat oclabwolufeetisolat
a, from hbsimrsttinflexiheeevigeuieif assimildestintreitith h A eliorpf
ai clsh .t-teimlpusishith swcanaonlywhavwete biaderecftinfluthcewbyrwaytoclpall
if
a;wb deitesweissi cfualetim rt Waith wfer arsh .teteim ah thliweirifrplgeperausivailplg.gsgsAt imecsamedas e, aeranot,ff menf
ado leolebjecf
as onlpointsi c rdetail, s waiecly applicaheeein imetfoim giwen torosddif
as insen meceswonihble sdtmnth woclEueope,east sm arcdewi lohbletA ericanasys de, (ah thliwe e.ttinly betteo, siecedi idoes notetlbavwoimetWffc dertwoihimself, aerais noderewirictcdein imetssm eeetlbgs rre apse), Ieam nodeth tusiaseically n faveuitoclwheet sddif
as rsth meceh Aeramy lacktocleh tusiase, n spitetoclwheetfirsttim rest
a, ah thlwas decidedlyefaveuiahee,ais ba,eprta
diffcreet grokeoswfrom hb ,ewhi leoin stpfedwbyrhbleopponentsi c rtmitireftrmhgsgsIaehbsieaarpewi edif
aeifetmitiwork Ie ainttinedeasat represt
ainWut, ff bewmild n foim fer Wcca>
78>s
as r ls sins,aarietpeogrbstiwelyesfvuretfoi eecidevistsdperahp,ibupeeetfldoers,run iletit reached p rpebupeesegrbgaf
ah TtsiIts ianlpeovurb,lasat ``wheetfirsttfaul iiti ardoned ahdwhblese sddtah pped,'' is aninu sdscf uw sdfirmpf
aeifetmelprpularbopin
ah Aerafrom hbiainpointi clviewiwhe sddif
as rsth mece,e fe smbinedeaseindath
Freechilaw,wi lopeogrbstiweesfvurityi c represt
atfoi
recidevists,ais sufficith ly attal eive iniassifirsttinstpecehgsgsBut whe sddif
as rsth mece, torosdsiderti wfer armoith waseitethas hi leoin bfen peop u ded ahdw ar.iedei d, has awo
cmaal e ostecedeftcfs, n smmtaewi lohbli cfualip is rsys de, c rah thlitsdpdvocpfes,wfer hbsimrsttpart balancletbetwfen wheet lassicallperlprsifve schoo ,wcannodeget ridhgsgsIaehbsifirsttplace, ah lstlwhle lassicallschoo has fixede tainattenf
adonl ls e,aariewhelprsifve schoo studiestible ls ias , res waiecly n rbgardtwoihis bf logicallperlpsychological
cmaal e o,aassipdvocpfeseifetmel sddif
as rsth meced(peraWf wheetlaws ah thlhavwosf faribeWut, itesnif operpf
a)siscfllateetbetwfen wheiawo stpedpoints,rosdsideriletwhe, ls ias ,annadoub ,
rpfhertwhan assi ls e,eb deonlywassipvurage andeabstal ee ls ias , rnot,fhellevilgeperapalpitpflge ls ias ,aas hheis ff bewfeuedeinathis sfvurs r ategoriesh Inipeo c ofetmitiitesweenWut, ff obs rveatasat whe nintheartecletoclwhe Belgian law,admitsetmel sddif
as insen mece,osf farias pusishith liwe oecerned,ewhenitmitipusishith
does notlexceedessx mrnths, _* wen fewhe p riorais madf upwbyrhbl
cumulpf
aeifeawo oolmtre!_ Inio leolwords,aassi sddif
as insen mece is allewedeindathi asetoclae ls ias wwhowhaw r sm>
79> ittedesfvurs rWffc ces--ah thlsubstpetiecly (excepteinathbsifewi asesiofl sdnf-teraWffc cesadueein imetsamedact
a, oi
aafslgeeueaoflimetsamedWccas
a)ssw admhree asetoclrelapse, arietwhereftrespaovus iniassimajorityi c asesiasat whe law,is notetdearplgewi lohruetWccas
as r ls sins;wfer hbsse,easta ruee,alikl
cls sinsdoclpast
a, onlyw smmitea sieglsi ls eroraWffc ce.gsgsTtsiawo fuedpmfnts i sddif
aseifetmel sddif
as rsth mecedinatEueoped(p slit, infract
aeperaaenonrelapsedr ls sin)edo not,etwhereftre, affordra sm eete guaalh metoclwhe uflityi c tainapplicaf
a.gsgsItesweirueiasat whis sys dew meds ff fixwassipttenf
adof wheetjudgcwonihblep r Was i sddif
aseifetmel rt Wa o,arequirplgehim inetdecide fewhe sddif
as rsth mecediwesuftaheeeif assi artecularinWccas
a, havilgerbgardtwoiimets waiecicircumstpeceseifetmelact
aete iewheliadevidus ,aapart from hbsilbgs rls tpf
asdof wheetWffc ce peraWf wheipusishith hgsgsBut weiknowlasat whe rowoelgeifetmel rt Was,wi lop r Waset sddemncdein sh .teteimsaifesm rt Waith ssw attendedwbyra grieveuset rowoelgein oble surfs ofl rt Wa oaeec uscdeoflslit, Wffc cesaariet sdtrpvunf
ash Ttusiitesweiaetftaheeeasat whe judgcs,a wen apartinfrom hbsiriignorpecetoclwhe bf logicallperlpsychological
cmaal e oseifetmelWffc ders,abelge sm lllcdein decide me oi
twf ey asesieveryeday,wcannodefixwassiri ttenf
adonlwheetpaocest
atifefigureswah thlfilesdpastiassimagic lah mrntoclwheet surfs,eb dessm ey lbavwoimem,wi loadasckettbeariletwhe,number Wfathbsiartecletwh theapplies,anot,ff _*imem,_wb deoolwheiripartecularininfract
aeoflwhellaw. Ttusiwhe judgcsew-le smeeinet>
80>paonWuncletwhe sddif
as rsth mecedalmrsttmecmaeically,etjus wasehbsyehavwo smeein giwelwhelbenefieaofl ttenupflget ircumstpecesebyrforcetoclhp,ib Ttiaedeviceealso waseinteoduceieinatFrpecetln 1832, n othurein ``iadevidus iseipusishith ''--asat iw raolsay, torosm lliwhe judgc torapplyehis sfh mecedrpfhertwo hblet ls ias wasansif assi ls e.gsgsSo lolgepsip is rpaocedurheis not radically reftrmed,eas wswhavwetpeop sed,e n suthea madnereasat whe inquiry, hbsidis uss
a, hbletdecit
atuponihbleevidmece,owh thearehimelWnlywpeopereelbmentsi c rp is rjustece, aimtatee prlbad upwif assideteimiast
aeoflaetpet Wa o's bf logicallperlpsychological type,eib w-lebewhumadlyetim ossheeefer hbsipal eicallppplicaf
aeoflwhese judicis
measstus ff over smeeihelmecmaeicalesm r Was ityi c justece, rah thlappliesdrpfhertwo hbli ls erasansif assi ls ias .gsgsHeecetwhe sddif
as rsth mece, thWut, ib wasievolvedwbyrhbleabuieete iedisasta uw efftcfsi clsh .teteimsaifesm rt Waith ,eaedeinatspitetoclitsegenbalflge rtncipletasat ``whe firsttfaul iitetpardoned ahdwhblese sddtah pped,'' has ao-daytonlywassicmaal e oetWf anaecle eic graftwonihbleWlde lassic stocktoclp is rlaw,arietpeocedurhh Atasuth,anotwi lstpedelgeits attal eive feitstus (foi
itesndecpfesta s dpe n adva cetwowirdsewhelprsifve sys dewefinsocis idefc ce,tah thldesitus ff seetwhe ppplicaf
aeoflcolle eivletdefc ce if assiiadevidus 's peweitoclWffc ce),eib seemslwoimelwoetbeldestmntd,anot,lolgepfterti sieaarpewi ppplicaf
a,ein deceiveatase peeicipsf
asdof hpppy ahdwbeneficth sresul s, sutheas tainadvocpfeseth m.ttin.gsgsMtreover,twhe sddif
as rsth mece, precisely be>
81>cauieiiteswina graftwonihbleWlde lassic stocktoclp is rjustece, has ani leoetveryes riousedeftcf,e naseutheas t overlooksewhelvicas sdof wheetWffc ce.gsgsItsdpdvocpfes,w n facf,e sdtmnueahf ainttineasat reparpf
ai cetdamage is ae rtvpfei oecern,wfer ah thlhbsyebenevolth ly recsmmerieta s rict remedy,eb deah thlhbsyeneverhbslbst,w n pal eice, renfrely overlook.gsgsTtsiWffc dertwhowiwe oedif
as lyesfh mecerais,twhereftre, woetse urhea sus wnt
atifepusishith --ah th,w ndeed,aitesweas ws-lewoetremember, hhealso se urhs, c me enWut,,wbyra lbgs rls tpf
a, ror,easeindIts y,wbyrhblere iss
atifepusishith s u dertwhreeetmrnths, ac orocdewheneverd(pseswegenballlywassicase)twhereeswea rp tif
aefer pardonh But sweissrheanytonewwhowgiwes aethWut,tewoetwhelvicas s?gsgsFrom hbia pointi clviewiitemayt wen betsaidlasat whe sddif
as insen mece makesiaselgtiworserasansbeftre;wfer hbslvicas sdarehnotetwoihavwoso eutheas imetsatisfact
aeoflseelge usishith linflictcd ronoob ,ewwhowhavwoi juredeasee, n asesioflassaul ,twheft,etsw ndrplg,aariewhelliklh Aeraitesweuselbstaff makeewhelplpfoeicetremark,easeM. Fayerdhas done,lasat pusishith liwepusishith l wen rahen sddif
as ,eaedeinvolvesetmel wnturheWf wheipublicetaufhority,eaedeholds n rbs rve ae usishith lfoi eelapse, arietsangtiover wheihbad ifetmelWffc derrun ilehis teim ofl robat
aethas expredhgsgsA-lewmitiis prettyienWut,--exceptehblerelapse, ah thlimpliesdwheetpooi osdsolpf
aeifea rep tif
aeifetmelWffc ce,tah thlwouldwbe no
greittsatisfact
aefer hbslvicas sdifetmelfirsth But st is allethypi leticallperl>
82> letreticalh Ttsibsteetieciaselg,osf faretas hbslvicas sdareh oecerned,eisiasat whe Wffc derrgoesinu usishedhgsgsItesweirueiasat Wccas
as rWffc dersldes rve osdsiderat
a, frometwhelpointi clviewiofl revunf
aw n partecular;wb dehonesttfolkwwho
aawoi juredebyrhblmldes rve ib st-lemtrehgsgsIedo nottwhereftre agree,wi loGarofalo,wwhowpeop sedtateBrusselsatasat whe sddif
as rsth mecedsh uldwbe subjecfsif assi sdsth wocetwheli juredeparty;wb deIiaselkiasat t out,tenot,ff blep r ittedinu ileissrhehas bfen anw ndemnificaf
aefer hbslvicas sdifetmeetWffc ce, oitatelbawi p guaalh me,a i leowbyrhbleoffc der, oi
drec ly byrhbleStpfehgsgsIaesh .t, fer Wccas
as r ls sinswwhow smmiteslit, Wffc ces,einat ircumstpeceseah thlshowlasat wheydarehnoteifea dangea uw type,eIetsay, as Iihavwosaidlalreidy,easat reparpf
ai c assidamageininflictcdlwouldwsufficeeasta defc tiweemeasstu,,wi leueaaet sddif
as rsth meceaifesm rt Waith gsgsAssif assiWccas
as r ls sinswwhow smmites riouseWffc ces,efoi
ah thlreparpf
aialonewwouldwnotebe sufficith ,eaem orary removs infrom hbsis wnheWf whei ls ersh uldwbe addedeindathilbstas riouset ases, ah lstlindathi asesdifegreiterrgrpvity,eowletwf mae os inperlp r Was i sdsiderat
as,twherersh uldwbe ndefinteetsegrbgaf
ae n an agrecultsts i slony,,wi l lit, eolwork arietmfldeoldis iplmnttwhan as ,ewpres lsbedeind sloniesdfer born
cls sinsdperlrecidevistshgsgsgsTtsilawi ategoryeisiasat oflcls sinsdwhrWut, anw mpulsetocetpass
a, notepeei-socis ib desusceptheeeoflexcuse, sutheas love,ethonWur,aariewhelliklhet>
83>gsgsFer hbsseiiadevidus s all pusishith liwe leaaryeuselbst,tatee y
rpfeeasta psychological suh m.act
aeofl ls e,efer hbslveryet sddif
aseifetmel sychological snvuls
aeah thlcauiedeaseeewoetoffc d precludesaaryideteirth linflumecedinra lbgs rithace.gsgsItwhereftre believeiasat indaypical asesiofl ls sinsdoclpast
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