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Contes Francais by Douglas Labaree Buffum

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Most of the literary work of these two men was done jointly, hence their
hyphenated signature. Erckmann did most of the writing, Chatrian most of
the editing and adapting for the stage. Their work consisted of short
stories, novels and plays, particularly with scenes laid along the
Franco-German (Alsatian) frontier, where they were both born. Their
stories usually deal with incidents of the French Revolution, the Empire
of Napoleon l and the Franco-Prussian War; they attacked war, and their
stories are generally of a fantastic or idyllic type.

Important works: _Madame Therese_ (1863), _Histoire d'un Conscrit de
1813_ (1864), _L'Ami Fritz_ (1864, their best known novel), _Le Juif
Polonais_ (1869, their best known play, known in English as _The
Bells_), _Les Rantzau_ (1882, a play), and several collections of
_Contes_. The _Montre du Doyen_ is from the _Contes Fantastiques_

Edition: Most of their work has been published by Hetzel.


141.--2. bourgmestre. This title is not applied to French
mayors, but to those of Belgium, Holland, Switzerland, Germany, etc.

142.--13. plus d'une demi-lieue. The use of _de_ instead
of _que_, "tldquo;than," occurs before numerals and is a survival of the Old
French construction, which employed _de_ (than) generally after a
comparative (cf. the more general use of _di_ in this sense in Italian).

27. grand concerto. Incorrect in Italian, where grande is usually
written _gran_ before a word beginning with a consonant (except _s_
followed by another consonant); before a vowel _grand'_ is used
(_grand'impero_, great empire).

29. theologiens... philosophes. A playful reference to the
students of Heidelberg University.

145.--10. jusque passe minuit. Note that _jusque_ and not
_jusqu'a_ is here used; besides a following preposition (_jusque
sur_, etc.), certain following adverbs may have the same construction
(_jusqu'ici, jusque-la, jusqu'aujourd'hui_, etc.).

20. ce disant. A survival of the Old French construction where
_ce_ could be used as object without a noun. In modern French _ce_ is
usually either an adjective pronoun or it is the impersonal subject of
a verb or it is the antecedent of a relative; the other uses have been
taken over by _ceci_ and _cela_. Another similar construction is _sur
ce_, used by sovereigns in closing letters.

148.--8. que. To avoid repetition of _comme_.

149.--14. soit. The tendency, although usage varies, is to
pronounce the _t_ in this exclamation.

23. comme tu voudras. Note the tense, a polite future, where in
English the present would be used; notice also, the tense on p. 148, l.

153.--15. et toute la salle de rire. An example of the
historical infinitive, which expresses the sudden result of a preceding
action and is accompanied by a new subject.

28. plus qu'un. Notice the difference between this phrase and
_plus d'une_ (p. 142, l. 13).

161.--29. pas un d'entre eux. Note the insertion of
_entre_; when spoken, _un d'eux_ would not be clear; note also that
_entre_ suffers no elision (see note to p. 77, l. 11).

164.--14. apres boire. An example of the present
infinitive used after _apres_ (cf. _il est parti apres avoir bu un verre

167.--6. a peine eus-je allume. Note that _a peine_ causes
inversion and that it is used with the past anterior (see notes to p.
136, l. 4 and p. 3, l. 25).

168.--29. et que mon histoire vous ait interesse. When que
is used to avoid the repetition of _si_, the subjunctive is employed.


Paris, 1842--Paris, 1908

Coppee is known as a poet and writer of short stories. His work usually
deals with the pathetic side of humble life. He has been accused of
sentimentality and superficiality; he is, however one of the most
popular and accomplished of the modern French poets, a dramatist of some
merit and the author of a number of _Contes_ relating to the life of the
_peuple_, particularly in and about Paris.

Important works: _Poesies_ (several collections, 1864-1890), _Theatre_
(best plays: _Le Passant_, 1869; _Le Luthier de Cremone_, 1876; _Les
Jacobites_, 1885; _Pour la Couronne_, 1895), and several volumes of
_Contes_ (the two stories given in this collection are from his _Longues
et Breves_, published in 1893).

Edition: Lemerre.


169.--12. abat-jour. This compound noun is invariable in
the plural because the plural idea does not really belong to the second
element, which is the only part capable of inflection.

17. Zaatcha. This oasis was captured in 1849, during what may be
termed the second period of the French occupation of Algeria; the first
period extends from the landing of French troops in 1830 until the
capture of Constantine in 1837, the second period, from 1837 to 1849,
was a period of resistance, the third period extending to 1901 was one
of partial insurrections; Algeria is now the most important French
colony. France now possesses the colonies of St. Pierre and Miquelon,
near Newfoundland; Guadaloupe, Martinique and French Guiana in the West
Indies and South America; New Caledonia, New Hebrides and about 116
other islands in Oceania; Indo-China (comprising Cochin-China, Annam
and Tonkin, with about 18,000,000 inhabitants); Madagascar, Reunion and
other near-by islands; Djibouti, an African port on the Gulf of Aden;
French Congo, French Soudan, French Guinea, French Senegal, on the
western coast of Africa; Tunis, Algeria and Morocco (the latter since
1912) on the Mediterranean, with strong influence in the country lying
between this territory and the Soudan. In addition the French language
is spoken by the descendants of French colonists in Canada, New Orleans,
the Mexican mountains, etc.

170.--3. mettant... ses souliers dans la cheminee. The
French children have this custom instead of hanging up their stockings.

171.--28. quelque espoir. The final vowel of _quelque_ is
elided only in _quelqu'un_ and _quelqu'une_.

172.--5. le dix-sept n'est pas sorti. The game of roulette
is played on a rectangular table with a revolving wheel in the center.
A ball is placed on the wheel which sends it into compartments; these
compartments (of which there are two series, one on each side of the
table) are numbered consecutively up to thirty-six and are arranged in
three parallel lines or columns. The players or punters stake their
money in various ways: on a single number or numero, which means
that if the ball rests on that number the player receives thirty-five
times the amount risked; on a colonne or row of numbers, in that case if
the ball remains on any number of the column the player receives three
times the amount risked; on a couleur (the numbers are half red,
half black), in this case he receives, if he is successful, the amount
he has risked; on the douzaine, that is, on the first, second or
third series of twelve numbers, in case he wins the player then receives
three times the amount he has risked; other combinations may also be
used and there are two compartments, and 00, which enable the bank to
maintain a constant advantage.


176.--11. sous le nom de Louis XIV. Louis XIV was also
known as le _Roi-Soleil_.

15. Conseil general de l'Eure. The old French provinces were
abolished during the Revolution, and the territory was redivided into
_departements_, of which there are at present 86 (if the territory
around Belfort be not counted); each department is governed by a
_prefet_, or prefect. These departments are subdivided into 362
arrondissements, with a sous-prefet at the head of each; these into
2899 _cantons_, governed by a council; and these in turn into 36,170
_communes_, governed by mayors. The chief magistrate of the modern
Republic (declared in 1870) is the President, elected for seven years by
the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. These latter legislative bodies
are composed respectively of 300 members elected for nine years (one
third every three years), and of 597 members elected for four years.
The President appoints a cabinet of ten ministers to aid him in his
executive duties. When a cabinet receives only a minority of votes of
confidence in the Chamber of Deputies, it resigns in a body and a new
cabinet is formed. The executive power is represented throughout France
by the prefets, sous-prefets and mayors. Each commune, canton and
arrondissement possesses a council which cannot treat of political
questions. There is also a conseil general which considers
departmental affairs. A deliberative body and a representative of
the executive are thus found side by side throughout the strongly
centralized Republic.

20. nous sommes donc autorise. The author is speaking for himself
alone, hence the participle is in the singular.

178.--7. zero. The French use the Centigrade thermometer
with zero at 32 deg. Fahrenheit; 1 4/5 deg. F. = 1 deg. C.

179.--28. un air de famille avec les Auvergnats. An
allusion to the custom in Auvergne of wearing the beard in this fashion.

180.--32. chaussons de lisiere et de la brosserie.
List-shoes and brushes are manufactured in French prisons.

181.--13. qui s'en faisait deux fois autant par la vertu de
l'anse du panier. Compare the phrase, faire danser l'anse du
panier, said of a cook who makes a profit on the supplies of the

24. son Allemande. Gouvernante is to be understood.

182.--7. joueur comme les cartes. Compare the phrase in
another of Coppee's stories (les Vices du Capitaine), joueur
comme feu Besigue, where the game (bezique) is spoken of as though
it were a person.

11. trop heureux de devenir. Notice the difference between this
phrase and _trop heureux pour devenir_.

31. Dauphin. When the province of Dauphine was added to French
territory, the last ruler of Dauphine, Humbert III, ceded the province
on condition that the title of Dauphin be given to the eldest son of the
French king; the province became a part of French territory in 1349.

183.--10. le trois pour cent. The reference is to
government bonds.

16. quatre bureaux de tabac. Tobacco is a government monopoly in
France, hence the management of the shops is sometimes turned over to
friends of politicians.

18. Deux Decembre. The date (December 2, 1851) on which Louis
Napoleon executed his _coup d'etat_, by which he was elected President
for ten years. There was a Parisian uprising against this act, but he
put this down and in the following year he became Emperor with the title
of Napoleon III (1808-1873).

19. P'pa, et le p'tit Noel... y mettra-ti' tet' chose. For _Papa,
etc. ...y mettra-t-il quelque chose_. See also note to p. 77, l. 32.

184.--1. blond albinos. Modified adjectives of color are
usually invariable.

185.--20. conquetes de 89. The French Revolution began in

27. l'air d'un marie du samedi. The working people are often
married on Saturday.

29. Republique parlementaire. A Republic has been proclaimed
three times in France: the first lasted from 1792 until Napoleon I
became Emperor in 1804; the second extended from the fall of King Louis
Philippe in 1848 until the _coup d'etat_ of 1851; the third and present
Republic was proclaimed on September 4, 1870 (the allusion in the text
is to the last).

186.--14. au chateau. That is, _au chateau du Louvre_, the
former residence of the French kings.

23. Port' siou p'ait. (_Ouvrez la_) _porte s'il vous plait_.

187.--12. sur les fortifications. The reference is to the
walls around Paris, formerly used as fortifications; the type of the
quarter is described in the text.

191.--19. ayez pas peur. The popular omission of _ne_ has
already been noted (note to p. 64, l. 19), as well as the other popular
phrases which follow.

192.--14. j'ai ete faire. The use of _etre_ for _aller_
when followed by an infinitive is inelegant, though the construction is
sometimes used by good writers.

195.--24. medaille. The reference is to the military
medal, conferred for meritorious military service (instituted in 1852).

THEOPHILE GAUTIER Tarbes, 1811--Paris, 1872

Born in Gascony, Gautier was educated, partly in his native town, partly
at the Lycee Charlemagne in Paris. Here he became a friend of Gerard de
Nerval, who was of such influence on the later decadent school. He was
a friend of the Romanticist, Victor Hugo, and the typical red waistcoat
which he wore at the first presentation of Hernani has become almost
historic. In 1830 he published a volume of verse, and two years later
_Albertus_ in the extreme Romantic style. A novelist and poet, he
traveled extensively and embodied his experiences and impressions in
many works on travel and art criticism. His work is characterized by a
remarkable esthetic appreciation, an almost flawless, ornate style, and
a strong tendency toward the fantastic. Faguet says of him: "Hldquo;He knew all
the resources of the French language and style." He stands above all for
form (cf. his poem, _L'Art_).

Important works: _Poesies_ (1830), _Albertus_ (1832), _Mademoiselle de
Maupin_ (1835), _Fortunio_ (1838), _Les Grotesques_ (1844), _Avatar and
Jettatura_ (1857), _Emaux et Camees_ (1858), _Le Roman de la Momie_
(1858), _Le Capitaine Fracasse_ (1863), besides descriptions of his

Edition: Charpentier, in 34 vols.


The title is borrowed from the _Mille et Une Nuits_, translated into
French by Galland (1704).

201.--1. favorite. This peculiar feminine form is due to
analogy with _petite_ (in the masculine _petit_ and _favori_ end with
the same sound, hence by analogy they have the same sound in the

13. ne sachant que faire. _Pas_ may be omitted: (1) in certain
fixed phrases (_n'importe_, etc.); (2) after _qui_ or _que_ expressing
a regret or a desire (_qui de nous n'a ses defauts?_); (3) before the
interrogative pronouns _que, quel, quoi_ (_je n'ai que faire de vos
dons, ne sachant que faire_, etc.); (4) with _ni_ (_il ne boit ni ne
mange_); (5) with _ne... que_, meaning "oldquo;only," or when another negative
follows (_point, rien_, etc.); (6) with certain verbs followed by an
infinitive (_pouvoir, savoir_, etc.); (7) with _si_ when expressing a
reservation in the sense of _a moins que_; (8) in certain subordinate
clauses (_je n'y vais jamais qu'il ne m'arrive quelque accident; c'est
vrai qu'il ne s'est jamais marie, mais ce n'est pas qu'il ne l'ait
voulu_, etc.). This list does not embrace the pleonastic uses of _ne_.
Notice further in regard to this phrase (ne sachant que faire)
that, although the indirect question usually becomes in French a
relative clause (_il ne sait pas ce qu'il fait_), with the infinitive
the old Latin construction is preserved (with _avoir, pouvoir_ and
_savoir_, when negative). _Ne_ (alone) to express negation is a survival
of the usage in Old French where _ne_ (without pas) could be used

216.--27. Ibnn-Ben-Omaz. There seems to have been no
celebrated poet of this name. Gautier's knowledge of Arabic was
apparently limited (a number of his errors have been indicated under
the proper words in the vocabulary). Omar Khayyam (eleventh and twelfth
centuries) is naturally suggested; Ibn al-Khattab Omar, the second
Caliph, who succeeded Abu-Bekr in 634 and who took part in writing the
Koran, is also suggested. Omaz is not an Arabic name.

218.--22. l'escarboucle magique, ou l'aigrette de plume de
heron. That is, she was neither a fairy nor of royal blood; the
carbuncle was formerly a magic stone and was credited with the power to
emit light; in regard to the heron, possibly Gautier had in mind the
ibis, the sacred bird of Egypt.

219.--29. la princesse... n'enverrait... que je
refuserais. For _si la princesse envoyait... je refuserais_.

220.--23. vous l'a fait preferer. Notice that in this
construction the object of the infinitive precedes _faire_.

221.--1. c'est tout au plus si je pourrais. In conditional
clauses the conditional is not allowed after _si_; this clause is
declarative, the meaning is: "aldquo;at the utmost I could do no more than."


Tours, 1799--Paris, 1850

Because of his father's circumstances Balzac was at an early age placed
in a law office; this work was especially irksome to him, and he soon
went over to literature. For a long time he suffered hardships from want
of money, which seems to have strongly colored much of his work. In 1850
he married a wealthy Polish lady, Madame Hanska, but he never was able
to enjoy the life of ease to which he had been looking forward for many
years; his death occurred a few months after his marriage. Balzac's
chief work is to be found in his _Comedie Humaine_, a collection of
stones filling some forty volumes. It is divided into: _(1) Scenes de
la Vie Privee, (2) Scenes de la Vie de Province, (3) Scenes de la
Vie Parisienne, (4) Scenes de la Vie Politique, (5) Scenes de la Vie
Militaire, (6) Scenes de la Vie de Campagne, (7) Etudes Philosophiques,
(8) Etudes Analytiques_. These novels are often connected by the
reappearance of certain characters, and especially by the analysis of
character which is always intimately connected with Balzac's name. Of
a robust, exuberant and vulgar nature, his style is poor; he lacked an
artistic sense and he was without poetic genius. He was unable to depict
a gentleman or a lady; but he excelled in the analysis of character,
especially among the middle and lower classes, and in the descriptions
of their surroundings; it is thus that he stands at the head of the

Important works: To the _Comedie Humaine_ (1829-1850) above mentioned
should be added the _Contes Drolatiques_ (in which he imitates the
style and the language of the sixteenth century) and several volumes
of _Contes_. In the _Comedie Humaine_ the following volumes should be
especially mentioned: _Le Pere Goriot_, _Le Colonel Chabert_, _Le Lys
dans la Vallee_, _Ursule Mirouet_, _Eugenie Grandet_, _Le Cure de Tours,
Illusions Perdues, Cesar Birotteau, Les Paysans, Le Cure de Village_.
_Un Drame au Bord de la Mer_ (written in 1834) is taken from the _Etudes
Philosophiques_ (published in 1835)

Edltlon: Calmann Levy, in 24 vols. and in 45 vols. (his works have been
published in several other editions).


222.--7. conceptions premieres. Numerals precede their
nouns; when _premier_ follows its noun, as here, the idea conveyed is
"cldquo;conceptions which form the basis of other conceptions."

12. durant. According to Littre, this preposition differs from
_pendant_ in that it means "dldquo;during the entire time," whereas pendant
may mean "aldquo;at a certain point during the time": _durant la campagne les
ennemis se sont enfermes dans leurs places_, and _c'est pendant la
campagne que s'est livree la bataille dont vous parlez_.

227.--27. sans mot dire. Note the position of _mot_ in
this phrase; cf. _sans rien dire_.

229.--4. faquir. The fakirs or ascetic Mohammedan monks
comprise various classes and orders; Balzac apparently has in mind
those known as yogis, who assume and maintain for a long time various
unnatural postures, their belief being that this will effect a union of
the human soul with the Supreme Being, whereby further migration will be
avoided (this is known as the yoga system of philosophy).

6. si le voulait la mer. Notice the inversion.

230.--24. mon cher oncle. A detailed account of Balzac's
family can be found in E. Bire, _Honore de Balzac_.

232.--28. bestiaux. This word is now used as the plural of
_betail_; it is, however, etymologically not the plural of betail, but
of the adjective _bestial_; the latter singular form is not now used as
a substantive in the literary language, although it occurs in works of
the seventeenth century and is still used in Normandy, meaning "aldquo;all the
cattle" (cf. Nyrop, _Grammaire historique de la langue francaise_, vol.
II, sec. 292, 2, remark).

235.--22. anachoretes. Anchorites differ from hermits in
that they live in the most absolute solitude and subject themselves to
the greatest privations.

237.--4. il ne se serait pas sacre comme ca, que la
frayeur ...That is, _quand meme il ne se serait pas sacre comme ca,
la frayeur..._ (the principal clause expresses a concession, and the
_que_ clause the conclusion).

11. qu'est. A popular error already noted (see note to p. 92, l.

18. que qui te dit. For _qu'est-ce qu'il te dit_; qu'elle
repond (l. 19), an example of the superfluous que used by the
uneducated; qu'a dit (l. 21) _= qu'elle dit = dit-elle_.

31. defunt ma mere. _Defunt_, as also the adjective _feu_, does
not agree with its noun when the latter follows.

238.--5. qu'a ecoute. For _qu'elle a ecoute_. 22. plus
du temps. For _plus que le temps_.

239.--20. fallait des especes. Popular omission of il.

26. mette. The dialects often other examples of the survival of
Old French words; _metal_ is the modern word for "mldquo;metal," it is
sometimes used in slang for "mldquo;money."

240.--27. des cent ecus, des cent francs. For _des
centaines d'ecus, des centaines de francs_.

241.--3. la fille au cadet. Popular for la _fille du
cadet_, another example of the survival of an Old French construction
among the common people.

10. qu'avait. For _qui avait_.

27. pour. Incorrect use of _pour_ without an object; the other
popular phrases have already been noted.

243.--18. malin. The feminine of this adjective, maligne,
is only apparently irregular; the Latin etyma are _malignum_ and
_malignam_ (French words, except those used in address, are derived
from the Latin accusative), these give regularly _malin_ and _maligne_,
because final Latin vowels fall except _a_ which becomes _e_ and final
_gn_ is reduced to _n_, whereas _gn_ between vowels gives the modern
French sound.

30. il pleurait du sang. Compare the English phrase "tldquo;to sweat

244.--18. il savait plus. Popular omission of _ne_.

ALFRED DE MUSSET Paris, 1810--Paris, 1857

De Musset at an early age became a member of the cenacle or inner circle
of the Romantic writers, with whom he is intimately connected. In 1829
he published a volume of verse of great merit; this and the _Spectacle
dans un Fauteuil_ made him famous at once. He had an extremely
excitable, poetic temperament and a weak will, which rendered him
incapable of entering any useful employment, such as a position in the
French Embassy at Madrid, or writing regularly for periodicals, both of
these positions having been offered him. He was elected to the French
Academy in 1852 and did little work thereafter. His best work was done
in verse and in the drama, but his short stories are of extraordinary
merit. His poems (especially the _Nuits_) possess preeminently the
lyric quality, genuineness, originality and passion; his dramas, having
usually some proverb as a title, show great delicacy, grace, ingenuity
and wit; his short stories are exquisite. His style, in contrast to that
of Gautier, shows little care for form, and in many respects he may be
compared with the English poet Byron.

Important works: _Contes d'Espagne et d'Italie_ (1829), _Spectacle dans
un Fauteuil_ (1829), _Rolla_ (1833), _Nuits_ (1835 ff.); _Lettre a
Lamartine_ (1836), _Confessions d'un Enfant du Siecle_ (1836), _Poesies
Nouvelles_ (1840), _Comedies et Proverbes_ (1850-1851, about
fifteen), besides several _Nouvelles and Contes (1837-1854), such
as: _Emmeline, Frederic et Bernerette, Fils du Titien, Margot, Le Merle
Blanc, Croisilles_ (published in 1841), etc.

Edition: Charpentier, in 9 vols.; Lemerre, in 10 vols.


250.--29. et quand je l'aurais. The apodosis (_qu'est-ce
que je ferais_) is omitted and only the protasis is expressed.

251.--13. que penserait-on de vous. Distinguish between
_penser a_, to think of, and _penser de_, to have an opinion of.

252.--29. fermes royales. The old monarchy, which existed
in France before 1789, used to farm out the taxes to private individuals
or to a company, on condition that a certain sum should be turned over
to the Government, anything above this sum being the profit of the

257.--9. de la sorte. Preservation of the old
demonstrative use of _illam_; the French article is the weakened Latin

259.--1. a peine... que. Notice that _que_, not _quand_,
is used after _a peine_; the inversion with _a peine_ has already been
mentioned (note to p. 136, l. 4).

260.--10. n'avoir pas dine. Both parts of the negative are
usually placed before the infinitive.

17. Monsieur aime-t-il. The third person is generally used by
French servants in addressing their masters.

263.--24. un Turc. De Musset has in mind the Turkish
custom of sending _selams_ (see this word in the vocabulary).

266.--4. Mademoiselle. _Cher, chere_ in the salutation of
a French letter expresses much greater intimacy than the corresponding
English word; it is omitted in formal letters.

268.--10. si on lui. _Si on_ and not _si l'on_ is used
when the letter _l_ immediately follows.

269.--18. plus d'une. Notice that, while the subject
contains a plural idea, the verb is singular because of the influence of

270.--16. profondement. Not an exception to the rule that
French adverbs are derived by adding _-ment_ to the feminine adjective;
adverbs of this type go back to past participles ending in _-ee_, the
final e having been lost (_aveuglement, commodement, conformement_,
etc.), or are formed on analogy with adverbs that are so derived (see
Darmesteter, _Historical French Grammar_, p. 382).

277.--26. grand'chose. See note to p. 87, l. 17 (cf. also
grand 'peine, l. 8).

279.--7. epouser... marier. Distinguish words.



The following abbreviations have been used in the vocabulary.

_adj._ adjective
_adv._ adverb
_art._ article
_c._ about (_circa_)
_card._ cardinal numeral
_cf._ compare (_confer_)
_conj._ conjunction
_conj._ pr. conjunctive pronoun
_dej._ definite
_dem._ demonstrative
_disj._ disjunctive pronoun
_f._ feminine substantive
_indef._ indefinite
_int._ interrogative
_interj._ interjection
_m._ masculine substantive
_m., f._ masculine and feminine substantive
_ord._ ordinal numeral
_p._ page
_pl._ plural
_poss._ possessive
_pr._ pronoun
_prep._ preposition
_q.v._ which see (_quod vide_)
_refl._ reflexive
_rel._ relative
_s._ substantive
_v._ verb


a, _prep._ ta, at, in, on, by, of, from, for, with, until;
solide--, strong enough to;--ce que, as.
abaisser, _v._ to lower, cast down; s'--, be lowered, sink,
abandon, _m._ abandon, abandonment, freedom.
abandonner, _v._ to abandon, give up.
abasourdir, _v._ to deafen, stun, daze.
abat-jour, _m._ shade (of a lamp, etc.).
abattre, _v._ to fell, throw down, bring or knock or strike down;
s'--, fall, fail prostrate; abattu, --e, cast down,
abbe, _m._ abbot, abbe (general title for Catholic priests).
abdomen, _m._ abdomen (en pronounced as in ennemi).
abdomin, represents the incorrect pronunciation of abdomen.
Abdul-Malek, perhaps Gautier was thinking of Abdalmalek, the name
of several noted Mohammedans (Gautier also uses the form Abdul-Maleck).
abime, _m._ abyss.
ablution, _f._ ablution.
aboiement, _m._ barking.
abominable, _adj._ abominable.
abominablement, _adv._ abominably.
abondamment, _adv._ abundantly.
abondance, _f._ abundance.
abonder, _v._ to abound.
abord, _m._ access, arrival, approach, landing; d'--, at
first, first.
aborder, _v._ to board, accost, land, arrive, reach, make
(a port).
Aboul-Casem, Abul Kasim Mansur, called also Ferdoussi, _q. v._
aboutir, _v._ to result, end.
aboyer, _v._ to bark.
abreger, _v._ to abridge.
abreuver, _v._ to givedrink to, quench the thirst of, drench.
abri, _m._ shelter; a l'-- de, sheltered from, safe from.
abriter, _v._ to shelter.
abrupt,--e, _adj._ abrupt, rugged (_pt_ pronounced).
abrutir, _v._ to stupefy; besot.
absence, _f._ absence (in this and in the next six words _b_ is
pronounced as _p_).
absent,--e, _adj._ absent.
absolu,--e, _adj._ absolute.
absolument, _adv._ absolutely.
absolution, _f._ absolution.
absorber, _v._ to absorb.
absorption, _f._ absorption.
Abu-Becker, this name suggests Abu-Bekr, father-in-law of
abus, _m._ abuse.
abuser, _v._ to abuse, take advantage; s'--, be mistaken,
be deceived.
accablement, _m._ prostration, dejection; accabler, _v._
to overwhelm, crush.
accent, _m._ accent, note.
accentuer, _v._ to accentuate, accent.
accepter, _v._ to accept.
acces, _m._ access, attack, burst, rush.
accident, _m._ accident.
accoler, _v._ to embrace.
accompagner, _v._ to accompany.
accomplir, _v._ to accomplish, perform.
accorder, _v._ to accord, grant; s'--, accord, agree.
accoster, _v._ to accost.
accouder (s'), _v._ to lean on one's elbow.
accourcir, _v._ to shorten.
accourir, _v._ to run up.
accoutumer, _v._ to accustom; s'--, become accustomed;
accoutume,--e, accustomed, used.
accrocher, _v._ to hang ur, hook; s'--, hang (on), lay hold,
hook oneself (to); accroche,--e, hung, caught.
accroupir (s'), _v._ to squat, crouch; accroupi,--e, adj.
crouching, squatting.
accueillir, _v._ to receive, greet, welcome.
accumuler, _v._ to accumulate.
accusation, _f._ accusation.
accuser, _v._ to accuse, acknowledge, show, reveal, initiate, bring
acharnement, _m._ animosity, blind fury, tenacity.
acharner, _v._ to enrage, madden; acharne,--e, adj.
infuriated, implacable, furiously intent upon.
acheter, _v._ to buy.
acheteur, _m._ buyer.
achever, _v._ to complete, finish, put the finishing touches to,
acier, _m._ steel.
acolyte, _m._ acolyte, attendant.
acquerir, _v._ to acquire, gain.
acquit, _m._ receipt, discharge; par--de conscience, to ease
one's conscience.
acquitter, _v._ to acquit, pay.
acrement, _adv._ sourly, sharply, bitterly.
acte, _m._ act.
action, _f._ action, stock, share.
adessias, _adv._ adieu, good-by (Provencal).
adieu, _adv._ and _m._ good-by, farewell, adieu.
adjoint, _m._ adjunct, associate, assistant, deputy (used
especially of the magistrate who takes the place of the mayor when absent).
admettre, _v._ to admit.
administrateur, _m._ administrator, manager, director.
administrer, _v._ to administer;
administre, _m._ person under one's administration, fellow-citizen.
admirable, _adj._ admirable.
admiration, _f._ admiration.
admirer, _v._ to admire.
adopter, _v._ to adopt.
adoptif,--ive, _adj._ adoptive, adopted.
adorable, _adj._ adorable.
adorer, _v._ to adore.
adosser, _v._ to lean against, back (by); s'--, lean one's
back against.
adoucir, _v._ to sweeten, soften.
adresse, _f._ address, skill.
adresser, _v._ to address.
adversaire, _m._ adversary.
aerer, _v._ to ventilate.
affabilite, _f._ affability.
affaiblir, _v._ to enfeeble, weaken; s'--, grow weaker or
affaire, _f._ affair, matter, case, business transaction,
engagement (military); _pl._ affairs, business; avoir -~ a,
to have dealings with, have to reckon with; homme d'affaires,
agent; faire nos affaires, to do well, succeed.
affaissement, _m._ weakening, diminution of strength, collapse,
affaisser, _v._ to sink; s'--, settle down, sink, collapse.
affaler, _v._ to lower; affale, -e, fallen, collapsed.
affamer, _v._ to starve; affame, -e, starved, famished.
affecter, _v._ to affect, assume.
affection, _f._ affection.
afferer, _v._ to tell (dialectic; _cf. averer_ in Old French).
affiche, _f._ hand-bill, poster.
afficher, _v._ to post (up).
affiner, _v._ to refine.
affirmer, _v._ to affirm, state.
affliction, _f._ affliction.
affliger, _v._ to afflict.
affoler, _v._ to madden, drive mad; affole, -e, adj.
distracted, crazed, beside oneself.
affreusement, _adv_. frightfully.
affreux, -euse, _adj._ frightful, dreadful.
affronter, _v._ to face, brave.
affut, _m._ gun-carriage, watch; a l'--, lying in wait.
afin (de _or_ que), _conj._ in order to, in order
africain, -e, _adj._ and _s._ African (written Africain when
Afrique, _f._ Africa.
agacer, _v._ to provoke, irritate.
agate, _f._ agate.
age, _m._ age; jeune --, youth.
age, --e, _adj._ aged, old.
agenda, _m._ memorandum-book, note-book (_en_ pronounced as in
agenouiller (s'), _v._ to kneel; se tenir agenouille,
remain on one's knees.
agent, _m._ agent, police agent, policeman, deputy; -- de
police, police agent, policeman.
agilite, _f._ agility.
agir, _v._ to act; s'- de, be a question of; il ne
s'agit pas
de perdre la tete, it is no time to lose your head.
agitation, _f._ agitation, commotion.
agiter, _v._ to agitate, stir, shake, wave, move, disturb, raise
(a question); s'--, be agitated, stir, toss about, play.
agneau, _m._ lamb.
agonie, _f._ death agony.
agrandir, _v._ to enlarge; s'--, be enlarged, become
agreable, _adj._ agreeable.
agrement, _m._ charm.
agres, _m. pl._ rigging, tackle.
agricole, _adj._ agricultural.
agriculture, _f._ agriculture.
agripper, _v._ to snatch up or away.
aguets, _m. pl._ watch.
ah, _interj._ ah!, ha!
ahurissement, _m._ bewilderment, amazement.
ai, _interj._ ouch!, oh!, oh my!
aide, _f._ aid; -- de camp, m. aide-de-camp; a
l'--! help!
aider, _v._ to aid, help, assist.
aieul, -e, _m., f._ grandfather, grandmother, ancestor.
aigle, _m._ eagle.
aigrement, _adv._ sharply, roughly, keenly.
aigrette, _f._ egret, aigrette, tuft, plume.
aigu, -e, _adj._ acute, sharp, shrill.
aiguille, _f._ needle, hand of a clock (_ui_ pronounced as in
aile, _f._ wing.
aileron, _m._ pinion, tip of a wing, small wing, fin, stump of an
arm (familiar in last sense).
ailleurs, _adv._ elsewhere; d'--, besides.
aimable, _adj._ kind, agreeable, amiable.
aimer, _v._ to love, like; -- mieux, prefer.
aine, -e, _adj. and s._ elder, eldest, senior.
ainsi, _adv. and conj._ thus, so, in this manner, as follows,
-- que, just as.
air, _m._ air, look, appearance, manner; en l'--, in the
air, up; -- de famille avec, family resemblance to; passer
sous son --, to pass to leeward of him; il n'y avait pas
d'--, there was no air stirring.
aise, _f._ case, pleasure; a son --, a l'--, at
one's ease, comfortable, well off.
aise, -e, _adj._ easy.
aisement, _adv._ easily.
aisselle, _f._ armpit.
Ajaccio, chief city of Corsica and birthplace of Napoleon I
(pronounced in French: _Ajaksio_).
ajonc, _m._ furze, thorn-broom.
ajouter, _v._ to add.
ajuster, _v._ to adjust, aim at.
ajusteur, _m._ mechanic, fitter, weigher (of coins at the mint).
alanguir, _v._ to make languid; s'--, languish, grow dim.
alarmer, _v._ to alarm.
albanais, -e, _adj._ and _s._ Albanian (written Albanais
when _s._).
albatre, _m._ alabaster.
albinos, _adj. and s._ albino (_s_ pronounced).
Al Borack, Al Borak, name of the legendary winged mule on which
Mohammed is said to have made a journey to heaven (= lightning, in
alcove, _f._ alcove.
Alep, Turkish city (Syria).
Alexandre, Alexander.
alezan, -e, _adj. and s._ chestnut color, chestnut horse; --
brule, dark chestnut.
Alger, Algiers (capital of Algeria).
Algerie, _f._ Algeria (conquered by France 1830-1871).
alibi, _m._ alibi.
alimenter, _v._ to feed.
aligner, _v._ to line up, lay out in line; s'--, line up,
be or fall in line, form a line.
Allah, Mohammedan name for God.
allee, _f._ going, passage, walk, path; -- et venue, going
and coming.
alleger, _v._ to buoy up, lighten.
allegresse, _f._ glee, joy.
Allemagne, _f._ Germany.
allemand, -e, _adj._ and _s._ German (written Allemand
when _s._).
aller, _v._ to go, go on or along, get on, suit; s'en --,
go away oralong; allons!, come!, there now!; allez!,
va!, go along, come, get out, that's sure, etc.; ca va-t-il?,
are you getting on all right?; -- et venir, come and go, rise and
fall, walk to and fro, etc.
allitere, -e, _adj._ alliterative.
allonger, _v._ to lengthen, stretch out; -- le pas,
lengthen one's stride, hasten on; allonge -e, lengthened,
allumer, _v._ to light; kindle, brighten; s'--, light up,
be brightened up, be kindled or lighted; l'oeil allume, with
bright eyes, allure, f. bearing, manner, style, gait, behavior.
allusion, _f._ allusion.
almee, _f._ Oriental dancer.
aloes, _m._ aloe, century-plant (_s_ pronounced).
alors, _adv._ then; -- que, _conj._ when, while.
alouette, _f._ lark.
alourdir, _v._ to make drowsy or heavy.
Alpes, _f. pl._ Alps.
Alsace, _f._ Alsace (_s_ pronounced as _z_).
Alsirat, Al Sirat, the bridge, narrower than a razor, leading to
the Mohammedan Heaven (=the way, in Arahic).
altier, -ere, _adj._ proud, lofty.
amande, _f._ almond.
amant, _m._ lover.
amarre, _f._ cable, hawser.
amasser, _v._ to amass, pile up, accumulate.
ambition, _f._ ambition.
ambre, _m._ amber; -- gris, ambergris (secretion of a whale
used in certain perfumes).
ame, _f._ soul, heart, spirit, mind.
amen, _interj._ amen (pronounced as in Latin).
amender, _v._ to improve; s'--, reform, mend one's ways.
amener, _v._ to lead, bring, bring forward.
amerement, _adv._ bitterly.
Amerique, _f._ America; -- du Sud, South America.
ami, -e, _m., f._ friend, sweetheart; mon --, my dear, my
dear fellow, my friend; bonne amie, good friend, sweetheart.
amitie, _f._ friendship.
amollir, _v._ to soften; s'--, become soft or slack.
amonceler, _v._ to pile ip; s'--, be piled up.
amour, _m._ love.
amoureux, -euse, _adj._ and _s._ in love, sweetheart, lover;
devenir --, to fall in love (to be distinguished from the
lower word amant).
amour-propre, _m._ self-respect, self-esteem.
amputer, _v._ to amputate; ampute, -e, with a limb
amuser, _v._ to amuse; s'--, amuse oneself, be amused,
have a good time.
an, _m._ year.
anachorete, _m._ anchorite, hermit (_ch_ pronounced as _k_).
analytique, _adj._ analytical.
ancetre, _m._ ancestor (more frequent in _pl._).
ancien, -ne, _adj._ ancient, former, of former times, of long
standing, old.
ancre, _f._ anchor.
Andelys (les), town in the department of Eure (Normandy).
andiamo mio ben, let us go, my beloved (Italian, aria from Mozart's
opera Don Giovanni).
ane, _m._ ass, donkey; il ne se trouve pas dans le pas d'un
--, it's not found every day.
aneantir, _v._ to annihilate, dumbfound.
anfractuosite, _f._ anfractuosity, inequality, unevenness.
ange, _m._ angel.
anglais -e, _adj._ and _s._ English, Englishman (written Anglais
when _s._).
angle, _m._ angle, corner.
Angleterre, _f._ England.
angoisse, _f._ anguish, great anxiety.
animal, _m._ animal, creature, beast.
animer, _v._ to animate.
ankyloser, _v._ to ankylose (cause stiffening of the joints);
ankylose,-e, ankylosed, stiff.
annales, _f. pl._ annals.
anneau, _m._ ring.
annee, _f._ year.
Annette, Annie.
annonce, _f._ announcement, advertisement.
annoncer, _v._ to announce.
anse, _f._ handle, inlet, cove.
antichambre, _f._ antechamber, anteroom.
anticlerical, -e, _adj._ anti-clerical.
antilope, _f._ antelope.
antique, _adj._ antique, ancient, old-fashioned.
Antoine, Anthony.
anxieux, -euse, _adj._ anxious.
aoh, represents the English pronunciation of oh.
aout, _m._ August (pronounced: _ou_).
apaisement, _m._ appeasement, relief.
apaiser, _v._ to appease, soothe; s'--, be calmed, subside.
apanage, _m._ appanage, lot, characteristic.
apercevoir, _v._ to perceive, notice, see; s'-- (de),
perceive, etc.
aplatir, _v._ to flatten.
aplomb, _m._ plumb, perpendicular position; d'--, straight,
perpendicularly (_b_ not pronounced).
Apollon, Apollo (Greek and Roman god of oratory, medicine, poetry,
the arts, the sun, etc.).
apoplexie, _f._ apoplexy.
apotheose, _f._ apotheosis.
apparaitre, _v._ to appear.
appareil, _m._ apparatus.
apparence, _f._ appearance, bearing, look.
apparent, -e, _adj._ apparent.
apparition, _f._ apparition, appearance.
appartement, _m._ apartment.
appartenir, _v._ to belong.
appel, _m._ call, roll-call, appeal; faire l'--, to call the
appeler, _v._ to call, call out; s'--, be named; il se
faisait --, he gave as his name.
appetit, _m._ appetite.
application, _f._ application.
appliquer, _v._ to apply, put one thing on another.
apporter, _v._ to bring, bring forward.
appreciable, _adj._ appreciable.
apprecier, _v._ to estimate, judge the value of, value, appreciate.
apprehension, _f._ apprehension.
apprendre, _v._ to learn, teach, tell, hear of, show.
apprenti, _m._ apprentice.
appret, _m._ preparation.
appreter, _v._ to prepare, get ready; s'--, prepare, get
approche, _f._ approach, coming; approches du jour, approach
of day.
approcher, _v._ to approach; s'-- (de), approach.
approprier, _v._ to appropriate, tidy up.
appui, _m._ support, sill; mur d'--, supporting wall,
appuyer, _v._ to support, lean, rest; s'--, lean, rest;
appuye, -e, leaned, leaning.
apres, _prep. and adv._ after, afterwards; -- que, _conj._
apres-midi, _f. (or m.)_ afternoon.
arabe, _adj. and s._ Arabic, Arabian, Arab (written Arabe when
araignee, _f._ spider; -- de mer, spider-crab.
arbre, _m._ tree.
arc, _m._ bow, arch.
arche, _f._ ark, arch (of a bridge).
archet, _m._ bow; avoir le plus magnifique coup d'--, to play
the finest bow.
ardent, -e, _adj._ ardent, burning, warm, fiery, glowing.
ardeur, _f._ ardor, fervor, spirit, heat.
ardoise, _f._ slate.
arete, _f._ fish-bone.
argent, _m._ silver, money.
argenterie, _f._ silverware, silver.
argentin, -e, _adj._ silvery.
argyronete, _f._ water-spider.
ariette, _f._ arietta, light air, tune.
aristo, slang for aristocrate.
aristocrate, _m., f._ aristocrat.
aristocratie, _f._ aristocracy (pronounced: aristocracie).
aristocratique, _adj._ aristocratic.
Arlesien, -ne, _m., f._ native of Arles (in Provence).
arme, _f._ arm, weapon.
armee, _f._ army.
armer, _v._ to arm, fit, tip, cock, fit out.
armoire, _f._ cupboard, press, closet.
armoiries, _f. pl._ arms, coat of arms.
armurier, _m._ gunsmith.
arpenter, _v._ to measure (land), stride along or over.
arracher, _v._ to snatch, tear off, pull out.
arranger, _v._ to arrange, treat, "fldquo;fix"; s'--, be arranged,
make arrangements, manage.
arrestation, _f._ arrest.
arret, _m._ stop, pause, decision.
arreter, _v._ to stop, arrest, decide, draw up; s'--, stop.
arriere, _v._ and m. back, rear, stern; en --, back,
backwards, behind, on the back (of the head, etc.).
arriere-boutique, _f._ back shop.
arriere-pensee, _f._ mental reservation, thought not expressed.
arrivee, _f._ arrival.
arriver, _v._ to arrive, happen, come; pour en -- la, to reach
that point (figurative).
arrondir, _v._ to round.
arrondissement, _m._ district, ward, arrondissement (subdivision of
a department).
arroser, _v._ to water, sprinkle.
art, _m._ art.
Artaban, proverbially proud hero of La Calprenede's novel,
_Cleopatre_ (17th century).
articuler, _v._ to pronounce, state.
artillerie, _f._ artillery.
artilleur, _m._ artilleryman, gunner.
artiste, _m., f._ artist.
as, _m._ ace (_s_ pronounced).
asiatique, _adj._ Asiatic.
asile, _m._ asylum, shelter, refuge.
Asnieres (la porte d'), gate in northwestern wall of Paris
(pronounced: _aniere_).
aspect, _m._ aspect, appearance, sight (pronounced: _aspe_).
asphalte, _m._ asphalt.
aspiration, _f._ aspiration, inspiration, breathing.
Asrael, Azrael (the angel who separates the soul from the body at
death, in Mohammedan and Jewish angelology).
assaillir, _v._ to assail.
assassin, _m._ assassin, murderer; a l'--!, murder!
assassinat, _m._ assassination, murder.
assassiner, _v._ to assassinate, murder.
assaut, _m._ assault; a l'--!, charge!
assembler, _v._ to assemble, gather, collect.
asseoir, _v._ to seat, set, s'--, sit, be seated, sit down;
assis, -e, seated, judicial.
assesseur, _m._ (also used adjectively), assistant (judge).
assez, _adv._ enough, sufficient, rather, well enough.
assieger, _v._ to besiege.
assiette, _f._ plate; se trouver dans son -- ordinaire, to
feel at home.
assise, _f._ court of assize, criminal court.
assistant, _m._ person present, bystander.
assister, _v._ to be present, attend, witness.
associe, -e, _m., f._ associate, partner.
assonance, _f._ assonance (rime with vowels, but not with
assonant, -e, _adj._ assonant.
assoupir, _v._ to make drowsy, lull; s'--, become drowsy;
assoupi, -e, drowsy.
assujettir, _v._ to subject, fasten, make firm.
assurance, _f._ assurance.
assurement, _adv._ assuredly.
assurer, _v._ to assure.
Astolphe, Astolfo (legendary English Prince in the Charlemagne
romances, Ariosto's Orlando Furioso, etc., noted for his hippogriff and
for his fairy horn of which the piercing sound could strike terror to
all who heard it).
atar-gull, _m._ attar of roses (Persian: atar-gul).
atavisme, _m._ atavism, inheritance.
atelier, _m._ workshop, factory, studio.
atmosphere, _f._ atmosphere.
atome, _m._ atom.
atour, _m._ attire, finery (usually _pl._).
atre, _m._ hearth.
atroce, _adj._ atrocious.
attabler, _v._ to seat or place at table.
attacher, _v._ to attach, fasten, bind, fix; s'--, attach
oneself, be or become attached, stick.
attaque, _f._ attack.
attaquer, _v._ to attack.
attarder, _v._ to delay; s'--, be delayed, tarry; attarde,
-e, delayed, belated.
atteindre, _v._ to attain, reach, attack.
atteler, _v._ to harness, put (horses) ta, hitch, yoke; attele
de, drawn by.
attendre, _v._ to await, wait for, wait, expect; s'-- a,
expect; c'etait la que je vous attendais, I was waiting for you
there, that was what I expected of you; attendu que, _conj._ seeing
that, in view of the fact that.
attendrir, _v._ to move, affect, touch; attendri, -e, _adj._
softened, tender.
attente, _f._ waiting, wait, expectation.
attentif, -ive, _adj._, attentive.
attention, _f. and interj._ attention, care, look out!
attentionne, -e _adj._ attentive.
attentivement, _adv._ attentively.
attenuer, _v._ to attenuate, soften.
atterrer, _v._ to strike down, cast down, overwhelm.
atterrir, _v._ to land, make land.
attirer, _v._ to attract, draw.
attitude, _f._ attitude.
attraper, _v._ to catch;
attribuer, _v._ to attribute.
attrister, _v._ to sadden.
attrouper, _v._ to assemble, collect (also _refl._).
au (aux) = a le (a les).
auberge, _f._ inn, tavern.
aubergiste, _m., f._ inn-keeper.
aucun, -e, _adj._ no, none, any.
audace, _f._ audacity.
audacieux, -ieuse, _adj._ audacious, daring.
audience, _f._ hearing, audience, court.
auditeur, _m._ auditor, hearer.
auditoire, _m._ audience.
augmenter, _v._ to increase.
augure, _m._ augury, omen.
auguste, _adj._ august.
aujourd'hui, _adv._ to-day.
aumone, _f._ alms, charity; faire l'-- a, to give alms to.
auparavant, _adv._ before, previously.
aupres (de), _prep._ near, with.
auquel (auxquels, etc.) = a lequel (a lesquels, etc.).
aurore, _f._ dawn.
aussi, _adv. and conj._ also, so, as, therefore; -- ... que,
as ... as.
aussitot, _adv._ straightway, at once; --- que, _conj._ as
soon as.
autant, _adv._ as much, as many, so many, as well; comme --,
as so many; d'-- plus (moins), so much the more (less).
autel, _m._ altar.
auteur, _m._ author.
autorisation, _f._ authorization, consent.
autoriser, _v._ to authorize.
autour, _adv._ and prep. (with de), around.
autre, _adj._ other, else, of another kind; d'autres, others;
avec nous autres, with the rest of us; vous autres, the rest
of you.
autrefois, _adv._ formerly, former times.
autrement, _adv._ otherwise.
autrichien, -ne, _adj. and s._ Austrian (written Autrichien
when _s._).
autruche, _f._ ostrich.
auvent, _m._ penthouse, awning (sometimes incorrectly used for
auvergnat, -e, _adj. and s._ of Auvergne (former province in
central France), native of Auvergne (written Auvergnat when _s._).
avalanche, _f._ avalanche.
avaler, _v._ to swallow.
avance, _f._ advance; d' (a l')--, in advance; la belle
--, a lot of good it would do.
avancement, _m._ advancement, promotion.
avancer, _v._ to advance, push forward; s'--, advance; poste
avance, outpost; avancee, _f._ spur (of a mountain).
avant, _prep., adv. and m._ before, forward part, bow; -- de,
before; en --, forward, in front; en -- de, before; --
que, _conj._ before.
avantage, _m._ advantage.
avant-bras, _m._ forearm.
avant-garde, _f._ vanguard, advance-guard.
avant-hier, _adv._ the day before yesterday.
avant-poste, _m._ outpost.
avant-veille, _f._ second day before, two days before.
avare, _adj. and s._ avaricious, miserly, miser.
avarie, _f._ damage;
avatar, _m._ incarnation, metamorphosis.
avec, _prep._ with (following noun should often be translated
adverbially: -- expression, expressively, etc.).
Aveline, name of a forest near Rethel (mentioned by de Maupassant).
avenir, _m._ future.
aventure, _f._ adventure; a l'--, at hazard.
aventurer (s'), _v._ to risk oneself, venture.
avenue, _f._ avenue, driveway.
averse, _f._ shower.
aversion, _f._ aversion.
avertir, _v._ to warn, give notice, inform, acquaint.
avertissement, _m._ warning, notification.
aveu, _m._ avowal, confession.
aveugle, _adj._ blind.
aveuglement, _m._ blindness.
aveuglement, _adv._ blindly.
aveugler, _v._ to blind.
avide, _adj._ greedy, voracious, eager.
avidite, _f._ avidity, eagerness.
Avignon, city on the Rhone, 75 miles north of Marseilles
(department of Vaucluse).
aviron, _m._ oar.
avis, _m._ opinion, notice.
aviser, _v._ to apprise, advise, see about, notice, espy, think
(of); s'--, take into one's head.
aviver, _v._ to brighten, enliven; s'--, become brighter.
avocat, _m._ lawyer, attorney, barrister.
avoine, _f._ oats.
avoir, _v._ to have, receive, be (age), take (care); -- faim,
peur, soif, froid, be hungry, afraid, thirsty, cold; il y a,
there is, there are, ago, for (of time); qu'avez-vous?, qu'as-tu?,
what is the matter with you?; qu'est-ce qu'il y a?, qu'y a-t-il?,
what is the matter?, what can I do?; -- soin, take cale; -- pitie
de, feel pity for, be sorry for; -- beau (with infinitive), in
vain; c'est ce que nous avons de mieux a faire, it is the best we
can do; -- a, have reason to; et n'eut-elle ete rien de tout
cela, and had she not been at all so; _m._ property (when _eu_
occurs in the forms of this verb, it is pronounced: _u_).
avoue, _m._ attorney, solicitor, lawyer (who does not plead, in
this case avocat is used).
avouer, _v._ to acknowledge, confess.
avril, _m._ April.
axiome, _m._ axiom, adage, saying.
Ayesha, popular Arabic name, because of Ayesha the favorite wife of
azur, -e, _adj. and m._ azure, sky-blue.


b..., abbreviation of bougre.
Babet, Bessie.
babiller, _v._ to prattle, chatter.
babouche, _f._ Turkish slipper.
badaud, _m._ idler, gaper, booby.
bagage, _m._ baggage, luggage (also in _pl._).
bagarre, _f._ scuffie, fray, hubbub.
bagatelle, _f._ mere trifle.
Bagdad, city of Asiatic Turkey on the Tigris.
bah, _interj._ ah!, pshaw!
bahut, _m._ chest.
bai, -e, _adj. and m._ bay, bay horse.
baigner, _v._ to bathe; se --, bathe.
baignoire, _f._ bath-tub.
bailler, _v._ to give.
bailler, _v._ to yawn.
bailli, _m._ bailiff.
bain, _m._ bath; bains de mer, sea bathing; bains froids,
cold baths, floating bath-bouses (on a river).
baionnette, _f._ bayonet.
baiser, _v._ to kiss; _m._ kiss.
baisse, _f._ rail, recline, decline.
baisser, _v._ to lower, drop; se --, stoop, bow down, be lowered.
bal, _m._ ball (dance).
balafre, _f._ gash, slash, scar.
balance, _f._ scale, scales (also in _pl._).
balancer, _v._ to balance, swing; se --, swing, rock;
balance, -e, balanced, swinging.
balancier, _m._ pendulum.
balayer, _v._ to sweep.
balbutier, _v._ to stammer (_t_ pronounced as _c_).
balcon, _m._ balcony.
baleine, _f._ whale.
ballade, _f._ ballad.
balle, _f._ ball, bullet.
ballon, _m._ balloon; le -- d'Alsace, a mountain with rounded
summit on the western border of Alsace.
ballot, _m._ bale.
ballotter, _v._ to toss about.
Baltique, _f._ Baltic.
balustrade, _f._ balustrade.
banal, -e, _adj._ hackneyed, commonplace.
banc, _m._ bench, scat.
bande, _f._ band, strip, stripe, Bock.
bander, _v._ to bandage, bind up.
bandit, _m._ bandit, ruffian.
bank-note, _f._ bank-note.
banlieue, _f._ outskirts, suburbs.
banque, _f._ bank.
banqueroute, _f._ bankruptcy; faire --, to go into bankruptcy;
faire -- a, cheat.
banquette, _f._ bench (upholstered).
banquier, _m._ banker.
bapteme, _m._ baptism, christening; nom de --, Christian name
(_p_ not pronounced).
baptiser, _v._ to baptize, christen (_p_ not pronounced).
baraque, _f._ booth, shack.
barbe, _f._ beard.
barbiche, _f._ small beard on the chin, imperial.
bardeau, _m._ shingle, thin board (over the rafters).
Bariatynski (Prince Alexander), Prussian field-marshal with
distinguished service in the Caucasus and in the Crimean war (1815-1879).
baril, _m._ barrel.
barioler, _v._ to variegate, color diversely.
baron, -ne, _m., f._ baron, baroness.
barque, _f._ bark, small boat.
barre, _f._ bar, tiller, rudder, helm; jouer aux barres, to play
at prisoners' base.
barrette, beretta, cardinal's cap, scullion's cap.
barricader, _v._ to barricade.
barriere, _f._ barrier, city wall, fence, railing.
barrique, _f._ barrel, cask.
bas, _m._ stocking.
bas, -se, _adj., adv. and m._ low, in a low tone, down, lower side,
bottom; en --, below, downstairs; la---, yonder, over there;
a --, down, down with, off; a -- de, down from; par le
--, along the bottom; mettre --, to take off (a coat, etc.).
bassin, _m._ basin.
bassiner, _v._ to warm (a bed), bathe.
bataille, _f._ battle, line of battle.
bataillon, _m._ battalion; chef de --, major.
bateau, _m._ boat.
batiment, _m._ building, vessel.
batir, _v._ to build.
batisse, _f._ building (of masonry).
baton, _m._ stick, staff, club.
battant, _m._ leaf (of a folding door); le portail s'ouvre a deux
battants, the large folding door opens wide.
battement, _m._ beating.
batterie, _f._ battery.
battre, _v._ to beat, strik, flap, churn; se --, fight;
battant neuf, brand new.
battue, _f._ battue (hunting), beating (of a horse's feet), chase.
Batz, village near le Croisic (pronounced as written, or: _Ba_).
bazar, _m._ bazaar, Oriental market.
beant, -e, _adj._ gaping, wide open.
beau (bel before vowels), belle, _adj._ beautiful, fair,
handsome, fine; de plus belle, harder (deeper, etc.) than ever;
belle, _f._ beauty (woman).
beaucoup, _adv._ much, many, very much, a good deal.
beau-frere, _m._ brother-in-law.
beau-pere, _m._ father-in-law.
beaute, _f._ beauty.
bebe, _m._ baby.
bec, _m._ beak, prow, mouth (slang in last sense); -- de gaz,
bedaine, _f._ paunch, belly.
Bedredin, Bedreddin, name borrowed by Gautier from the Arabian Nights.
begayer, _v._ to stammer.
ben, familiar for _bien_ (_en_ pronounced as in _bien_).
Ben, Hebrew word for son.
benefice, _m._ profit.
benir, _v._ to bless.
benjoin, _m._ benzoin (an aromatic resin; _en_ pronounced as in
bequille, _f._ crutch.
bercail, _m._ sheepfold, fold.
berceau, _m._ cradle.
bercer, _v._ to rock, soothe; lull, weigh (an idea).
berger, -ere, _m., f._ shepherd, shepherdess; _f._ easy-chair.
berlinois, -e, _adj._ of Berlin.
bernicle, _f._ barnacle (popular form of bernacle).
Bertha, German form of Berthe.
Berthe, Bertha.
Berthine, diminutive of Berthe.
besace, _f._ wallet.
besicles, _f. pl._ spectacles.
besogne, _f._ work, occupation, business.
besoin, _m._ need, necessity; avoir -- de, to need, must.
bestiole, _f._ little animal.
betail (_pl._ bestiaux), _m._ cattle.
bete, _f. and adj._ beast, animal, foolish, silly, stupid; faire
la --, to pretend to be a fool; petites betes, little animais,
insects, worms, etc.
betise, _f._ nonsense, silly thing, stupidity.
beugler, _v._ to bellow..
beurre, _m._ butter.
Bezieres, name perhaps suggested by Beziers (in southern France) or
by Mezieres (department of Ardennes).
biais, _m._ bias, slope, way.
bibliotheque, _f._ library, bookcase.
bicarbonate, _m._ bicarbonate.
bien, _adv. and m._ well, very, quite, many, much, fully, nicely,
properly, comfortable, all right, indeed; _m._ good, goods, property,
possession; -- du (etc.), much, -- des, many; homme de
--, good or honest man; -- que, _conj._ although.
bien-aime, -e, _adj. and s._ well beloved, dearly loved,
bien-etre, _m._ comfort.
bienheureux, -euse, _adj. and s._ blessed, one of the blest.
Bienne (lac de), Swiss lake northeast of Neuchatel.
bientot, adv. soon; a --, good-by, I'll see you again soon,
bienveillance, _f._ goodwill, friendliness, kindliness.
bienveillant, -e, _adj._ friendly, kindly, benevolent.
biere, _f._ beer.
bigre, _interj._ the deuce, etc;
bijou, _m._ jewel.
billard, _m._ billiard-table, billiards, billiard-room.
bille, _f._ billiard-ball, ball, marble.
billet, _m._ note, ticket, slip.
bise, _f._ north wind
Bismarck (Otto, Prince von), German statesman and chancellor,
founder of German unity, considered by the French largely responsible
for the Franco-Prussian war of 1870-1871 (1815-1898).
bistre, -e, _adj._ bistre-colored, dusky, swarthy.
bivac, _m._ bivouac (now usually written bivouac).
bizarre, _adj._ bizarre, odd, strange.
blague, _f._ humbug, bosh.
blaguer, _v._ to make fun of, tease, draw the long bow.
blanc, blanche, _adj._ and m. white; argent --, silver.
blancheur, _f._ whiteness, white.
blanchir, _v._ to whiten, make white, become white or light.
blanchisseuse, _f._ washerwoman, laundress.
blason, _m._ coat of arms.
ble, _m._ wheat, grain.
bleme, _adj._ pale, wan.
blesser, _v._ to wound, offend;
blesse, -e, _m., f._ injured or wounded persan, etc.; blessant,
-e, _adj._ offensive, shocking.
blessure, _f._ wound.
bleu, -e, _adj. and m._ blue; -- gris, blue-gray.
bleuatre, _adj._ bluish.
bloc, _m._ block.
blond, -e, _adj. and s._ blond, fair, light.
blondin, -e, _adj. and s._ fair, persan with fair hair.
bloquer, _v._ to blockade.
blottir (se), _v._ to crouch; blotti, -e, crouched, squatting,
cowering, nestling.
blouf, _interj._ splash!
blouse, _f._ blouse.
boeuf, _m._ ox, beef.
Boheme, _f._ Bohemia.
boheme, _m._ tramp.
bohemien, -ne, _adj. and s._ Bohemian, gipsy, vagrant.
boire, _v._ to drink.
bois, _m._ wood.
boiserie, _f._ wainscoting.
boisson, _f._ drink.
boite, _f._ box.
boitiller, _v._ to hobble (not recognized by standard dictionaries).
bombance, _f._ feasting, high living.
bon, -ne, _adj._ good, kind, pleasant, agreeable; pour de --,
really, heartily, for good and all; bonne place, good place, right
spot; bonne, _f._ maid, servant; quel -- vent?, what lucky
Bonaparte (Napoleon), the French Emperor (1769-1821); see note to
p. 2, l. 5.
bonasse, _adj._ soft (applied to persons), good-natured, silly,
bonbon, _m._ bonbon, candy.
bond, _m._ bound, leap, jump.
bondir, _v._ to bound, leap.
bonheur, _m._ happiness, good fortune.
bonhomme, _m._ good-natured or worthy old fellow, old fellow,
fellow, little fellow, worthy man.
Bonifacio, town and port of southern Corsica.
bonjour, _m._ good day, good morning.
bonnement, _adv._ simply.
bonnet, _m._ bonnet, cap; -- de police, foraging or fatigue
cap; gros --, big man; important person (familiar).
bonsoir, _m._ good evening.
bonte, _f._ goodness, kindness.
bonzou, baby's pronunciation of bonjour.
bord, _m._ edge, border, bank, shore, brim, rail, side, sill, tip;
a --, on board; -- a --, side by side; a son --, on board
bis boat; vie de --, life on board ship; sur le -- des levres,
on the tip of the tongue; par-dessus --, overboard.
border, _v._ to border.
bordereau, _m._ account, note, memorandum.
borne, _f._ limit, mile-stone, stone post (at the corner of a
house, etc.), stepping-stone, horse-block.
bosse, _f._ hump, bump.
bossuer, _v._ to dent, bruise; bossue, -e, bruised, knotted.
botte, _f._ boat, hoof, bundle.
bottine, _f._ shoe (high).
bouche, _f._ mouth.
bouchee, _f._ mouthful.
boucher, _m._ butcher.
boucher, _v._ to stop up.
bouchon, _m._ stopper, cork, pothouse, tavern.
boucle, _f._ buckle, curl.
boucler, _v._ to buckle.
boudin, _m._ blood pudding.
boudoir, _m._ boudoir.
Boudroulboudour, the Full Moon of the Full Moons (in Arabic:
boue, _f._ mud.
boueux, -euse, _adj._ muddy.
bouffee, _f._ puff, whiff.
bouffi -e, _adj. and s._ puffed up, puffy, swollen, puffed up or
bloated fellow.
bouffon, -ne, _adj._ clownish, ludicrous, farcical.
bouge, _m._ dirty hole, hovel.
bouger, _v._ to move, budge.
bougie, _f._ wax candle.
bougre, _m._ fellow (slang); b... de teigneux, scurvy devil.
bouillie, _f._ pap, pulp.
bouillon, _m._ bubble, broth.
boulanger, _m._ baker.
Boulanger (Georges), French general involved in political intrigue
to overthrow the Government (1837-1891).
boule, _f._ ball.
boulet, _m._ cannon-ball, ball.
boulevard, _m._ boulevard.
bouleverser, _v._ to upset, overthrow.
Boulogne-sur-Mer, city and port on the English Channel (department
of Pas-de-Calais).
bouquet, _m._ bouquet, cluster.
bourbeux, -euse, _adj._ muddy, miry.
bourdonnement, _m._ buzzing.
bourdonner, _v._ to buzz, hum.
bourengredel, _f. pl._ (= German Bauerngredel) peasant girls
(Gredel = Grete = Maggie).
bourg, _m._ borough, country town, town.
bourgeois, -e, _adj._ and s. bourgeois, member of the middle class,
citizen, master, boss (language of the working class); sa
bourgeoise, his old woman.
bourgeonner, _v._ to bud, put out shoots.
bourgmestre, _m._ burgomaster, mayor (g pronounced).
bourg-pourri, _m._ rotten borough.
bourrasque, _f._ squall.
bourrer, _v._ to cram, stuff.
bourse, _f._ purse; la Bourse, the Stock-Exchange.
bousculade, _f._ jostling, bustling.
bouse, _f._ cow-dung.
bout, _m._ end, bit, limit; au -- de, at the end of, after;
venir a -- de, to manage to, succeed in.
bouteille, _f._ bottle.
boutique, _f._ shop.
bouton, _m._ button.
boutonner, _v._ to button.
bouvier, _m._ cowherd.
bouvreuil, _m._ bullfinch.
bracelet, _m._ bracelet.
braconnier, _m._ poacher.
braise, _f._ embers, live coals.
branchage, _m._ branches.
branche, _f._ branch.
brandir, _v._ to brandish.
branle, _m._ swinging, jogging motion; en --, swinging; etre
mis en --, to be set in motion, start.
bras, _m._ arms; les -- leur tomberaient, they would throw up
their hands in astonishment.
brasier, _m._ brazier, clear bright fire, fire of red-hot coals.
brasserie, _f._ brewery, beer-saloon, cafe.
brasseur, _m._ brewer; -- d'argent, money-maker, scheming
brave, _adj._ brave, worthy, fine, good; un -- garcon, un --
homme, a fine fellow, a good man; ce -- homme de soleil, this
good old sun.
bravement, _adv._ bravely, worthily.
braver, _v._ to brave.
bravo, _interj._ bravo!, fine!
bravoure, _f._ bravery.
bredouiller, _v._ to splutter, stutter.
bref, -eve, _adj. and adv._ brief, short, curt, in short.
breloque, _f._ bauble, trinket, charm.
Bremer, _cf._ German Bremer, of Bremen.
Bretagne, _f._ Brittany.
bretelle, _f._ brace, suspender.
breton, -ne, _adj. and s._ of Brittany, Breton (written Breton
when _s._).
bride, _f._ bridle, rein, string (of a bonnet).
brigadier, _m._ corporal, police sergeant.
brigand, _m._ brigand, ruffian.
briller, _v._ to shine; brillant, -e, adj. and m. brilliant,
shining, brilliancy, luster.
brin, _m._ blade, sprig, grain, bit; espere un --, wait a bit.
brindille, _f._ twig, sprig, bit.
brique, _f._ brick.
brisant, _m._ reef, breaker, surf.
brise, _f._ breeze.
brise-lames, _m._ breakwater.
briser, _v._ to break, break down, shatter; se --, be broken,
be dashed to pieces.
britannique, _adj._ British.
brocanteur, _m._ second-band dealer, dealer in curiosities.
brocart, _m._ brocade.
brocher, _v._ to figure, brocade, sew (books).
brodequin, _m._ high laced shoe.
broder, _v._ to embroider, embellish with designs in relief.
bronze, _m._ bronze.
brosse, _f._ brush.
brosser, _v._ to brush.
brosserie, _f._ brush-trade or manufactory, brushes.
brouette, _f._ wheelbarrow; huiler la roue de sa --, to help
oneself to other people's property, "gldquo;graft" (the idea being that the
wheel was oiled so well that the garden could be plundered without
brouillard, _m._ fog, mist.
Brouin, family name, perhaps Balzac derived it from the dialectic
form brouine.
brouine, dialectic for bruine.
broussailles, _f. pl._ brambles, briars, thorny undergrowth,
underbrush (rare in singular).
broyer, _v._ to crush, grind.
bru, _f._ daughter-in-law.
bruine, _f._ drizzling rain, drizzle.
bruire, _v._ to make a confused noise, rustle.
bruit, _m._ noise, report.
bruler, _v._ to burn; brule, m. burning.
brulot, _m._ fire ship, firebrand, burning brandy with sugar.
brulure, _f._ burning, burn, scalding.
brume, _f._ mist.
brumeux, -euse, _adj._ misty, foggy.
brun, -e, _adj._ brown, dark.
brusque, _adj._ blunt, abrupt, brusk.
brusquement, _adv._ bruskly, rudely, quickly.
brut, -e, _adj._ raw, rough, crude.
brutalite, _f._ brutality.
brute, _f._ brute.
bruyant -e, _adj._ noisy.
buche, _f._ log, stick of wood.
bucheron -ne, _m., f._ wood-cutter.
buffet, _m._ sideboard, refreshment-room.
Bulbul, a kind of thrush in the Orient, sometimes called the
nightingale of the East (Arabic).
bulletin, _m._ bulletin.
bureau, _m._ desk, office; -- de tabac, tobacco shop.
burgau, _m._ mother-of-pearl (shell).
burlesque, _adj._ burlesque, ludicrous.
buste, _m._ bust.
but, _m._ goal, target, aim; dans un --, for an object.
buveur, _m._ drinker.


c' (c'), _see_ ce.
ca, _see_ cela.
ca, _adv. and interj._ here, now!, come now!; -- et la, here
and there.
caban, _m._ overcoat or cloak with hood.
cabaret, _m._ tavern, bar.
cabaretier -ere, _m., f._ tavern-keeper, tavern-keeper's wife.
cabestan, _m._ capstan.
cabinet, _m._ office, study, closet, cabinet, small room.
cable, _m._ cable.
cacher, _v._ to conceal, bide.
cachet, _m._ seal.
cacheter, _v._ to seal.
cachette, _f._ hiding-place; en --, on the sly.
cachot, _m._ dungeon.
cadavre, _m._ corpse, dead body.
cadeau, _m._ present.
cadet -te, _adj. and s._ younger, youngest, junior, younger brother
or sister.
cadran, _m._ dial, face of a clock.
cadre, _m._ frame.
cafe, _m._ coffee, cafe.
caftan, _m._ caftan (Turkish for coat).
cage, _f._ cage.
cahier, _m._ copy-book, exercise-book.
caillot, _m._ clot.
caillou, _m._ pebble.
Cailloux (rue des), this street is in Clichy rather than in
Caire (le), Cairo (capital of Egypt).
caisse, _f._ case, chest, box, till, cashier's office; garcon de
--, runner, collector, bank clerk.
caisson/, _m._ caisson, limber, ammunition-wagon.
calcul, _m._ calculation (final _l_ pronounced).
calculer, _v._ to calculate.
cale, _f._ wedge, prop, block, bold.
caleche, _f._ open carriage, barouche; -- de voyage,
traveling barouche.
calife, _m._ caliph (Mohammedan ruler).
calme, _adj. and m._ calm, quiet, calmness, tranquillity; du
--, be calm.
calmer, _v._ to calm, quiet; se --, become calm, quiet down.
calvaire, _m._ calvary, crucifix placed on a mound.
camarade, _m., f._ comrade.
Cambremer, name derived from cambrer and mer.
cambrer, _v._ to curve, bend.
camee, _m._ cameo.
camion, _m._ dray, truck.
camomille, _f._ camomile (plant).
camp, _m._ camp.
campagnard -e, _adj._ and s. country, rustic, countryman.
campagne, _f._ country, campaign; mis en --, set to work.
canaille, _f._ rabble, riffraff.
canard, _m._ duck.
canette, _f._ beer-bottle, jug.
Cannes, town and winter-resort on the French Riviera.
canon, _m._ cannon, gun-barrel.
canonnier, _m._ cannonier, gunner.
canot, _m._ small boat, ship's boat.
canotage, _m._ boating.
canton, _m._ canton (subdivision of an arrondissement).
cantonnement, _m._ cantonment, temporary quarters.
capable, _adj._ capable.
capitaine, _m._ captain.
capital, -e, _adj. and m._ capital, chief; capitale, _f._
capital (city).
capituler, _v._ to capitulate, surrender by treaty.
caporal, _m._ corporal.
capote, _f._ large cloak with hood, soldier's overcoat.
caprice, _m._ caprice, whim.
capsule, _f._ capsule, percussion cap.
captif -ive, _adj. and s._ captive.
captiver, _v._ to captivate.
capturer, _v._ to capture.
capuchon, _m._ cowl.
car, _conj._ for.
carabine, _f._ carbine, rifle.
caractere, _m._ character, disposition.
caravane, _f._ caravan.
caresse, _f._ caress.
caresser, _v._ to caress.
carnage, _m._ carnage, slaughter.
carnassier -ere, _adj. and s._ carnivorous, carnivorous animal.
Carnouf, name of a promontory near le Croisic, mentioned by Balzac.
caroubier, _m._ carob-tree (resembling the locust).
carre, -e, _adj._ and m. square.
carreau, _m._ flooring-tile, floor, pane (of glass), square
cushion, hassock.
carriere, _f._ career.
carrosse, _m._ coach.
carte, _f._ card, map.
cartel, _m._ challenge, case of a wall-clock, wall-clock.
cartouche, _f._ cartridge.
cas, _m._ case, event; si peu de --, so little importance.
cascade, _f._ cascade, waterfall.
case, _f._ cabin, but, compartment (in which the hall falls in
roulette, etc.), pigeon-hole.
casemate, _f._ casemate.
caserne, _f._ barracks.
casque, _m._ helmet.
casque, -e, _adj._ helmeted.
casquette, _f._ cap.
cassation, _f._ annulment, repeal, appeal (of a court).
casser, _v._ to break, split, crack, break down.
cataplasme, _m._ cataplasm, poultice.
catapulte, _f._ catapult.
Catarinet, Kitty (diminutive of Catarine).
catechisme, _m._ catechism.
cathedrale, _f._ cathedral.
catholique, _adj. and s._ Catholic.
cauchemar, _m._ nightmare.
cause, _f._ cause, reason; a -- de, because of; etre --
que, to cause.
causer, _v._ to cause, produce, chat; assez cause, enough
causerie, _f._ chat, chatting.
causette, _f._ chat, chatting; faire la --, to chat.
caustique, _adj._ caustic, biting.
cavalier, _m._ rider, horseman, cavalier, partner.
cave, _f._ cellar.
caveau, _m._ vault, small cellar, grave.
ce, _dem. pr._ this, that, it; -- qui, -- que, which,
what; -- disant, saying this.
ce, cette (ces, pl.), _dem. adj. pr._ this, that; cette nuit,
last night, to-night.
Ceard (Henry), French novelist, critic and playwright (1851--).
ceci, _dem. pr._ this, this thing.
ceder, _v._ to cede, yield.
cedrat, _m._ cedrate (kind of lemon).
cedre, _m._ cedar.
ceinture, _f._ belt, waist.
ceinturon, _m._ sword-belt.
cela, _dem. pr._ that, that thing, that fellow or he (familiar in last
sense); avec --, with that, besides; abbreviated: Ca.
celebre, _adj._ celebrated.
celebrer, _v._ to celebrate, extol.
celeste, _adj._ celestial, heavenly.
Celestin, Celestine.
celle, _see_ celui.
cellier, _m._ cellar, store-room, basement.
celui, celle (ceux, celles, _pl._); _dem. pr._ this, that,
This one, etc.; ---ci, ---la, the latter, the former, this one, that
one; -- qui, he who, etc.
cendre, _f._ ashes, cinders.
cendre, -e, _adj._ ash-colored.
cent, _card._ one hundred; pour --, percent.
centaine, _f._ about one hundred, hundred.
centieme, _ord._ hundredth.
centime, _m._ centime (fifth of a cent).
central, -e, _adj._ central, chief, of the central office.
centre, _m._ center.
cep, _m._ vine-stock, stalk (_p_ pronounced).
cependant, _adv. and conj._ however, yet, meantime.
cercle, _m._ circle, club.
cercueil, _m._ coffin, casket.
ceremonie, _f._ ceremony.
ceremonieusement, _adv._ ceremoniously.
cerf, _m._ stag, deer (_f_ pronounced).
cerise, _f._ cherry.
cerner, _v._ to surround, invest.
certain, -e, _adj._ certain.
certainement, _adv._ certainly.
certes, _adv._ certainly.
certitude, _f._ certainty, assurance.
ceruse, _f._ white-lead.
cerveau, _m._ brain.
cervelle, _f._ brains, brain, head; se bruler la --, to blow
one's brains out.
cervier, _see_ loup.
Cesar (Jules), Julius Caesar. the celebrated Roman general (101-44 B.C.).
cesse, _f._ ceasing, cessation.
cesser, _v._ to cease, stop.
ceux, _see_ celui.
chacun, -e, _pr._ each, each one.
chagrin, _m._ grief, vexation, shagreen (leather).
chaine, _f._ chain, drag-chain (on bottom of a stream); mettre a
la --, to put in chains.
chair, _f._ flesh, meat; _pl._ flesh.
chaire, _f._ pulpit, teacher's chair.
chaise, _f._ chair; -- longue, reclining-chair, chaise-longue;
-- a porteurs, sedan-chair; -- de poste, post-chaise; -- de
campagne, camp-chair.
chale, _m._ shawl.
chaleur, _f._ heat, warmth.
chalut, _m._ drag-net.
chalutier, _m._ trawler (fishing-boat with drag-net).
chamailler, _v._ to squabble; se --, squabble, wrangle.
chamarrer, _v._ to trim with lace, cover with gold or silver lace
or braid, braid, bedeck.
chambellan, _m._ chamberlain (officer presiding over a prince's
chambre, _f._ chamber, room; la Chambre, the Chamber of
chameau, _m._ camel.
champ, _m._ field.
Champagne, _f._ Champagne (Province).
champagne, _m._ champagne.
champetre, _adj._ rural; garde --, forester, keeper.
Champignet, name apparently coined by de Maupassant; perhaps he had
in mind Champigny, a village east of Paris, scene of a battle in the war
of 1870-1871.
chance, _f._ chance, luck.
chanceler, _v._ to totter, stagger, reel.
chanceux, -euse, _adj._ precarious, lucky.
Chandeleur, _f._ Candlemas-day (Feb. 2).
chandelier, _m._ candlestick.
chandelle, _f._ tallow candie.
change, _m._ exchange; donner le -- a, to put on the wrong
track, change.
changement, _m._ change.
changer, _v._ to change; changeant, -e, changing, changeable.
chanson, _f._ song.
chanter, _v._ to sing, sing of, crow.
chanvre, _m._ hemp.
chapeau, _m._ hat.
chapiteau, _m._ capital (of a column).
chaque, _adj._ each.
charabia, _m._ gibberish.
charbon, _m._ coal.
charbonnier, -ere, _m., f._ charcoal-burner, charcoal-burner's
wife, coal-man, coal-mine, colliery (J. in last sense).
charcutier, _m._ pork-butcher.
charge, _f._ charge, load, burden.
charger, _v._ to charge, load, fin, commission; se --, take
charge, take upon oneself; charge, -e, loaded, laden, full.
chariot, _m._ wagon.
charitable, _adj._ charitable.
charite, _f._ charity.
charlatan, _m._ charlatan, quack.
Charles, Charles.
charme, _m._ charm, delight.
charmer, _v._ to charm; charmant, -e, adj. charming.
charniere, _f._ hinge.
charrette, _f._ cart; -- a bras, push-cart.
charrue, _f._ plow.
chasse, _f._ hunt, hunting, chase.
chasse-mouche, _m._ fly-fan, fly-flap (now usually written
chasser, _v._ to chase, drive, drive away, hunt.
chasseur, _m._ hunter, light infantryman, light cavalryman.
chaste, _adj._ chaste.
chat, _m._ cat; chats a fouetter, fish to fry.
chateau, _m._ castle.
chat-huant, _m._ screech-owl (aspirate _h_).
chatiment, _m._ punishment.
chatouillement, _m._ tickling.
chaud, -e, _adj. and s._ warm, hot, heat.
chauffage, _m._ heating, fuel; bois de --, firewood.
chauffer, _v._ to warm.
chausser, _v._ to put on shoes or stockings; chausse, -e, shod.
chausson, _m._ felt shoe; -- de lisiere, list-shoe, plaited
cloth shoes manufactured in prisons.
chaussure, _f._ shoe, shoes (in general sense).
chauve, _adj._ bald.
chauve-souris, _f._ bat.
chaux, _f._ lime; blanchir a la --, to whitewash.
chef, _m._ chief, leader, director; commander en --, to have
the chief command.
chemin, _m._ way, road; -- de fer, railway.
cheminee, _f._ chimney, fireplace, mantel, funnel.
cheminer, _v._ to go on one's way, proceed, walk.
chemise, _f._ shirt, chemise.
chene, _m._ oak; -- vert, live oak.
chenille _f._ caterpillar.
cher, -ere, _adj., adv. and s._ dear, dearly.
cherement, _adv._ dearly, at a high price.
chercher, _v._ to search, seek, look for, try; -- des yeux, look for.
cheri, -e, _adj. and s._ beloved, darling.
cherubin, _m._ cherubin, cherub.
chetif, -ive, _adj._ thin, puny, sickly.
cheval, m. horse, horsemeat; a --, on horseback; a --
sur, astride.
chevaucher, _v._ to ride (on horseback).
chevelure, _f._ head of hair, hair.
Cheverino (or Chevardino), a Russian hillock west of Moscow.
cheveu, _m._ hair; pl. hair; arme jusqu'aux cheveux, armed to the teeth.
cheville, _f._ peg, ankle.
chevre, _f._ goat.
chez, _prep._ at or to the house or home of, with, in, in the room of, etc.
chiaoux, _m._ chiaous or chouse (Turkish attendant or interpreter).
chic, _adj. and m._ stylish, smart, style.
chien, -ne, _m., f._ dog.
chiffon, _m._ rag, piece.
chiffre, _m._ figure.
Chio, _f._ Chias (island in the Aegean Sea; pronounced: _kio_).
chipoter, _v._ to trille or toy with.
chirurgical, -e, _adj._ surgical.
chirurgien, _m._ surgeon.
choc, _m._ shock (final _c_ pronounced).
chocolat, _m._ chocolate.
choeur, _m._ choir, chorus (_ch_ pronounced as _k_).
choisir, _v._ to choose; choisi, -e, carefully chosen, choice.
choix, _m._ choice.
chope, _f._ beer-glass.
chopine, _f._ chopin (about one pint), glass.
chose, _f._ thing; autre --, something else, else; peu de
--, of little importance, a small matter; devenir tout --, to
become like I don't know what; _m._ (familiar), I don't know what,
what's his.
choquer, _v._ to shock (name), etc.
chou, _m._ cabbage.
choucroute, _f._ sauer-kraut.
chouette, _f._ kind of screech-owl, chough.
chretien, -ne, _adj. and s._ Christian (in this and in the next
word _ien_ is pronounced as in _bien_).
chretiente, _f._ Christendom.
christ, _m._ crucifix (pronounced: _krist_).
Christina, Christine.
chromo, _m._ chromo (colored lithographic reproduction).
chronique, _f._ chronicle.
chuchotement, _m._ whispering, whisper.
chuchoter, _v._ to whisper.
chut, _interj._ hush! (_t_ pronounced).
Chypre, _f._ Cyprus (English island in eastern Mediterranean).
ci, _adv._ here (frequent as suffix; celui- --, etc.);
---devant, formerly; une -- et une ca, hussy, etc.
ciboire, _m._ ciborium, pyx (vase for the host); saint- --,
holy pyx.
cicatrice, _f._ scar.
cidre, _m._ cider.
ciel, _m._ sky, heaven.
cierge, _f._ taper.
cigale, _f._ grassshopper.
cime, _f._ summit, top.
cimetiere, _m._ cemetery.
cingler, _v._ to sail.
cinq, _card._ five (_q_ pronounced).
cinquantaine, _f._ about fifty, age of fifty.
cinquante, _card._ fifty.
cinquieme, _ord._ fifth.
circonstance, _f._ circumstance.
circonvolution, _f._ circumvolution, coil.
circuit, _m._ circuit.
cirer, _v._ to wax, polish.
citadin, -e, _m., f._ citizen, townsman (also used adjectively).
cite, _f._ oldest part of a city, city.
citer, _v._ to cite.
citoyen, -ne, _m., f. and adj._ citizen.
citronnier, _m._ lemon-tree.
civette, _f._ civet (animal and perfume obtained from it).
civilisation, _f._ civilization.
clair, -e, _adj._ clear; light-colored, bright; -- de lune,
clairement, _adv._ clearly.
claire-voie, _f._ lattice, lattice gate; a --, with open sides
(of a cart).
Clairon, Clarinda, Clarissa (diminutive of Claire, Clara).
clairvoyant, -e, _adj._ clear-sighted, discerning.
clameur, _f._ clamor, uproar, outcry.
clan, _m._ clan, tribe.
clandestin, -e, _adj._ clandestine, secret.
clapoter, _v._ to splash, ripple.
claque, _m._ opera hat, chapeau (folding hat pointed in front and
behind used in U. S. army and by French officials, etc.).
Claretie (Jules), French novelist, dramatist and critic,
director of the Theatre Francais (1840-1914).
clarinette, _f._ clarinet, clarinettist.
clarte, _f._ light, splendor, brilliancy, glow.
classe, _f._ class, school.
classique, _adj._ classic, typical.
clef, _f._ key; fermer a --, to lock; reprendre la -- des
champs, escape again (pronounced: _cle_).
cligner, _v._ to wink; -- de l'oeil, wink.
cliquetis, _m._ clashing, jingling, clanking, rattling, tinkling.
cloche, _f._ bell (usually large).
clocher, _m._ belfry, steeple.
cloison, _f._ partition.
cloitre, _m._ cloister.
clopin-clopant, _adv._ limpingly, hobbling.
clore, _v._ to close (defective and little used); la nuit
close, nightfall.
clou, _m._ nail, boil.
clouer, _v._ to nail, fix.
club, _m._ club.
coasser, _v._ to croak.
cocasse, _adj._ funny, odd.
cocher, _m._ coach man.
cochon, _m._ pig, hog.
code, _m._ code.
coeur, _m._ heart, center; de bon --, heartily, cheerfully;
faire mal au --, to make sick at the stomach; faire le joli
--, to court; si le -- vous en dit, if you feel inclined; --
de chene, solid oak.
coffre, _m._ chest, coffer, box (slang for chest of the body).
cognac, _m._ cognac (brandy manufactured in the town of this name,
department of Charente).
cognee, _f._ ax, hatchet (for felling); jeter le manche apres la
--, to throw the helve after the hatchet, give up everything.
cohue, _f._ throng, crowd, mob.
coiffer, _v._ to put on the head, dress the hair; oiffe, -e,
(de), wearing on the head.
coiffure, _f._ head-dress, arrangement of the hair.
coin, _m._ corner; -- du feu, fireside.
coke, _m._ coke (coal after extraction of the gas).
col, _m._ neck, collar (in the sense of neck, col is old,
cou is now used).
colere, _f._ anger (also in _pl._).

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