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Composition-Rhetoric by Stratton D. Brooks

Part 8 out of 9

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_b._ If the major premise does not make a statement about every member
of the class denoted by the middle term.
_c._ If either premise is false.

8. Belief in a specific proposition may arise--
_a._ Because of the presentation of evidence which is true and
_b._ Because of a belief in some general principle or theory which
applies to it.

In arguing therefore we--
_a._ Present true and pertinent facts, or evidence; or
_b._ Appeal directly to general theories, or by means of facts, maxims,
allusions, inferences, or the quoting of authorities, seek to call
up such theories.

9. Classes of arguments:--
_a._ Arguments from cause.
_b._ Arguments from sign and attendant circumstances.
_c._ Arguments from example and analogy.

10. Arrangement.
_a._ Arguments from cause should precede arguments from sign, and
arguments from sign should precede arguments from example.
_b._ Inductive arguments usually precede deductive arguments.
_c._ Arguments should be arranged with reference to climax.
_d._ Arguments should be arranged, when possible, in a coherent order.

11. In making a brief the above principles of arrangement should be
observed. Attention should be given to unity so that the trivial and false
may be excluded.

12. Persuasion is argument that aims to establish the wisdom of a course
of action.

13. Persuasion appeals largely to the feelings.
_a._ Those feelings of satisfaction resulting from approval,
commendation, or praise, or the desire to avoid blame, disaster,
or loss of self-esteem.
_b._ Those feelings resulting from the proper and legitimate use of
one's powers.
_c._ Those feelings which arise from possession, either actual or

14. Persuasion is concerned with--
_a._ Questions of right.
_b._ Questions of expediency.



+1. Importance of Form.+--The suggestions which have been made for the
correction of the Themes have laid emphasis upon the thought. Though the
thought side is the more important, yet careful attention must also be
given to the form in which it is stated. If we wish to express our
thoughts so that they will be understood by others, we shall be surer to
succeed if we use the forms to which our hearers are accustomed. The great
purpose of composition is the clear expression of thought, and this is
aided by the use of the forms which are conventional and customary.

Wrong habits of speech indicate looseness and carelessness of thought, and
if not corrected show a lack of training. In speaking, our language goes
directly to the listener without revision. It is, therefore, essential
that we pay much attention to the form of the expression so that it may be
correct when we use it. Our aim should be to avoid an error rather than to
correct it.

Similarly in writing, your effort should be given to avoiding errors
rather than to correcting those already made. A misspelled word or an
incorrect grammatical form in the letter that you send to a business man
may show you to be so careless and inaccurate that he will not wish to
have you in his employ. In such a case it is only the avoidance of the
error that is of value. You must determine for yourself that the letter is
correct before you send it. This same condition should prevail with
reference to your school themes. The teacher may return these for
correction, but you must not forget that the purpose of this correction is
merely to emphasize the correct form so that you will use it in your next
theme. It will be helpful to have some one point out your individual
mistakes, but it is only by attention to them on your own part and by a
definite and long-continued effort to avoid them that you will really
accomplish much toward the establishing of correct language habits. In
this, as in other things, the most rapid progress will be made by doing
but one thing at a time.

Many matters of form are already familiar to you. A brief statement of
these is made in order to serve as a review and to secure uniformity in
class work.

1. _Neatness._--All papers should be free from blots and finger marks.
Corrections should be neatly done. Care in correcting or interlining will
often render copying unnecessary.

2. _Legibility._--Excellence of thought is not dependent upon penmanship,
and the best composition may be the most difficult to read. A poorly
written composition is, however, more likely to be considered bad than one
that is well written. A plain, legible, and rapid handwriting is so
valuable an accomplishment that it is well worth acquiring.

3. _Paper._--White, unruled paper, about 8-1/2 by 11 inches, is best for
composition purposes. The ability to write straight across the page
without the aid of lines can be acquired by practice. It is customary to
write on only one side of the paper.

4. _Margins._--Leave a margin of about one inch at the left of the sheet.
Except in formal notes and special forms there will be no margin at the
right. Care should be taken to begin the lines at the left exactly under
each other, but the varying length of words makes it impossible to end the
lines at the right at exactly the same place. A word should not be crowded
into a space too small for it, nor should part of it be put on the next
line, as is customary in printing, unless it is a compound one, such as
steam-boat. Spaces of too great length at the end of a line may be avoided
by slightly lengthening the preceding words or the spaces between them.

5. _Spacing._--Each theme should have a title. It should be placed in the
center of the line above the composition, and should have all important
words capitalized. Titles too long for a single line may be written as


With unruled paper some care must be taken to keep the lines the same
distance apart. The spaces between sentences should be somewhat greater
than those between words. Paragraphs are indicated by indentations.

6. _Corrections._--These are best made by using a sharp knife or an ink
eraser. Sometimes, if neatly done, a line may be drawn through an
incorrect word and the correct one written above it. Omitted words may be
written between the lines and the place where they belong indicated by a
caret. If a page contains many corrections, it should be copied.

7. _Inscription and Folding._--The teacher will give directions as to
inscription and folding. He will indicate what information he wishes, such
as name, class, date, etc., and where it is to be written. Each page
should be numbered. If the paper is folded, it should be done with
neatness and precision.

+2. Capitals.+--The use of capitals will serve to illustrate the value of
using conventional forms. We are so accustomed to seeing a proper name,
such as Mr. Brown, written with capitals that we should be puzzled if we
should find it written without capitals. The sentence, Ben-Hur was written
by Lew Wallace, would look unfamiliar if written without capitals. We are
so used to our present forms that beginning sentences with small letters
would hinder the ready comprehension of the thought. Everybody agrees that
capitals should be used to begin sentences, direct questions, names of
deity, days of the week, the months, each line of poetry, the pronoun I,
the interjection O, etc., and no good writer will fail to use them. Usage
varies somewhat in regard to capitals in some other places. Such
expressions as Ohio river, Lincoln school, Jackson county, state of
Illinois, once had both names capitalized. The present tendency is to
write them as above. Even titles of honor are not capitalized unless they
are used with a proper name; for example, He introduced General Grant The
general then spoke.

+3. Rules of Capitalization.+--1. Every sentence and every line of poetry
begin with capitals.

2. Every direct quotation, except brief phrases and subordinate parts of
sentences, begins with a capital.

3. Proper nouns and adjectives derived from proper nouns begin with
capitals. Some adjectives, though derived from proper nouns, are no longer
capitalized; _e.g._ voltaic.

4. Titles of honor when used with the name of a person begin with

5. The first word and every important word in the titles of books, etc.,
begin with capitals.

6. The pronoun I and the interjection O are always capitalized.

7. Names applied to the Deity are capitalized and pronouns referring
thereto, especially if personal, are usually capitalized.

8. Important words are often capitalized for emphasis, especially words in
text-books indicating topics.

+4. Punctuation.+--The meaning of a sentence depends largely on the
grouping of words that are related in sense to each other. When we are
reading aloud we make the sense clear by bringing out to the hearer this
grouping. This is accomplished by the use of pauses and by emphasis and
inflection. In writing we must do for the eye what inflection and pauses
do for the ear. We therefore use punctuation marks to indicate inflection
and emphasis, and especially to show word grouping. Punctuation marks are
important because their purpose is to assist in making the sense clear.
There are many special rules more or less familiar to you, but they may
all be included under the one general statement: Use such marks and only
such marks as will assist the reader in getting the sense.

What marks we shall use and how we shall use them will be determined by
custom. In order to benefit a reader, marks must be used in ways with
which he is familiar. Punctuation changes from time to time. The present
tendency is to omit all marks not absolutely necessary to the clear
understanding of the sentence.

There are some very definite rules, but there are others that cannot be
made so definite, and the application of them requires care and
judgment on the part of the writer. Improvement will come only by
practice. Sentences should not be written for the purpose of illustrating
punctuation. The meaning of what you are writing ought to be clear to you,
and the punctuation marks should be put in _as you write_, not inserted

+5. Rules for the Use of the Comma.+--1. The comma is used to separate
words or phrases having the same construction, used in a series.

Judges, senators, and representatives were imprisoned.

The country is a good place to be born in, a good place to die in, a
good place to live in at least part of the year.

If any conjunctions are used to connect the last two members, the comma
may or may not be used in connection with the conjunction.

The cabbage palmetto affords shade, kindling, bed, and food.

2. Words or expressions in apposition should be separated by a comma.

The native Indian dress is an evolution, a survival from long years of
wild life.

3. Commas are used to separate words in direct address from the rest of
the sentence.

Bow down, dear Land, for thou hast found release.
O, Sohrab, an unquiet heart is thine!

4. Introductory and parenthetical words or expressions are
set off by commas.

However, the current is narrow and very shallow here.

This, in a general way, describes the scope of the small parks or

If the parenthetical expression is long and not very closely related to
the rest of the sentence, dashes or marks of parenthesis are frequently
used. Some writers use them even when the connection is somewhat close.

5. The comma is frequently used to separate the parts of a long compound

Pine torches have no glass to break, and are within the reach of any man
who can wield an ax.

6. A comma is often used to separate a subject with several modifiers, or
with a long modifier, from the predicate verb.

One of the mistakes often made in beginning the study of birds with
small children, is in placing stress upon learning by sight and name
as many species of birds as possible.

7. Participial and adjective phrases and adverb phrases out of their
natural order should be separated from the rest of the sentence by commas.

A knight, clad in armor, was the most conspicuous figure of all.

To the mind of the writer, this explanation has much to commend it.

8. When negative expressions are used in order to show a contrast, they
are set off by commas.

They believed in men, not in mere workers in the great human workshop.

9. Commas are used in complex sentences to separate the dependent clause
from the rest of the sentence.

The great majority of people would be better off, if they had more money
and spent it.

While the flour is being made, samples are sent every hour to the
testing department.

If the connection is close, the comma is usually omitted, especially when
the dependent clause comes last.

I will be there when the train arrives.

10. When a relative clause furnishes an additional thought, it should be
separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma.

Hiram Watts, who has been living in New York for six years, has just
returned to England.

If the relative clause is restrictive, that is, if it restricts or
limits the meaning of the antecedent, the comma is unnecessary.

This is the best article that he ever wrote.

11. Commas are used to separate the members of a compound sentence when
they are short or closely connected.

Ireland is rich in minerals, yet there is but little mining done there.

Breathe it, exult in it,
All the day long,
Glide in it, leap in it,
Thrill it with song.

12. Short quotations should be separated from the rest of the sentence by
a comma.

"There must be a beaver dam here," he called.

13. The omissions of important words in a sentence should be indicated by

If you can, come to-morrow; if not, come next week.

+6. Rules for the Use of the Semicolon.+--1. When the members of a
compound sentence are long or are not closely connected, semicolons should
be used to separate them.

Webster could address a bench of judges; Everett could charm a
college; Choate could delude a jury; Clay could magnetize a senate,
and Tom Corwin could hold the mob in his right hand; but no one
of these men could do more than this one thing.

--Wendell Phillips.

We might as well decide the question now; for we shall surely be
obliged to soon.

2. When the members of a compound sentence themselves contain commas, they
should be separated from one another by semicolons.

As Caesar loved me, I weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at
it; as he was valiant, I honor him; but, as he was ambitious, I slew


3. The semicolon should be used to precede _as, namely, i.e., e.g., viz_.

Some adjectives are compared irregularly; as, good, bad, and little.

4. When a series of distinct statements all have a common dependence on
what precedes or follows them, they may be separated from each other by

When subject to the influence of cold we eat more; we choose more
heat-producing foods, as fatty foodstuffs; we take more vigorous
exercise; we put on more clothing, especially of the non-conducting

+7. Rules for the Use of the Colon.+--1. The colon is used
before long or formal quotations, before enumerations, and before
the conclusion of a previous statement.

Old Sir Thomas Browne shrewdly observes: "Every man is not only
himself. There have been many Diogeneses and many Timons
though but few of the name. Men are lived over again. The world
is now as it was in ages past. There were none then, but there has
been one since, that parallels him, and is, as it were, revived self."

--George Dana Boardman.

Adjectives are divided into two general classes: descriptive and
definitive adjectives.

The following members sent in their resignations: Mrs. William M.
Murphy, Mrs. Ralph B. Wiltsie, and Mrs. John C. Clark.

2. The colon is used to separate the different members of a compound
sentence, when they themselves are divided by semicolons.

It is too warm to-day; the sunshine is too bright; the shade, too
pleasant: we will wait until to-morrow or we will have some one else
do it when the busy time is over.

+8. Rules for the Use of the Period.+--1. The period is used at the close
of imperative and declarative sentences.

2. All abbreviations should be followed by a period.

+9. Rule for the Use of the Interrogation Mark.+--The interrogation mark
should be used after all direct questions.

+10. Rule for the Use of the Exclamation Mark.+--Interjections and
exclamatory words and expressions should be followed by the exclamation
mark. Sometimes the exclamatory word is only a part of the whole
exclamation. In this case, the exclamatory word should be followed by a
comma, and the entire exclamation by an exclamation mark.

See, how the lightning flashes!

+11. Rules for the Use of the Dash.+--1. The dash is used to show sudden
changes in thought or breaks in speech.

I can speak of this better when temptation comes my way--if it ever does.

2. The dash is often used in the place of commas or marks of parenthesis
to set off parenthetical expressions.

In the mountains of New York State this most valuable tree--the spruce--

3. The dash, either alone or in connection with the comma, is used to
point out that part of a sentence on which special stress is to be placed.

I saw unpruned fruit trees, broken fences, and farm implements, rusting in
the rain--all evidences of wasted time.

4. The dash is sometimes used with the colon before long quotations,
before an enumeration of things, or before a formally introduced

+12. Rules for the Use of Quotation Marks.+--1. Quotation marks are used
to inclose direct quotations.

"In all the great affairs of life one must run some risk," she remarked.

2. A quotation within a quotation is usually indicated by single quotation

"Can you tell me where I can find 'Rienzi's Address'?" asked a young lady
of a clerk in Brooklyn.

3. When a quotation is interrupted by parenthetical expressions, the
different parts of the quotation should be inclosed in quotation marks.

"Bring forth," cried the monarch, "the vessels of gold."

4. When the quotation consists of several paragraphs, the quotation marks
are placed at the beginning of each paragraph and at the close of the last

+13. Rule for the Use of the Apostrophe.+--The apostrophe is used to
denote the possessive case, to indicate the omission of letters, and to
form the plural of signs, figures, and letters.

In the teacher's copy book you will find several fancy A's and 3's which
can't be distinguished from engravings.



+14. English grammar+ is the study of the forms of English words and their
relationship to one another as they appear in sentences. A _sentence_ is a
group of words that expresses a complete thought.

+15. Elements of a Sentence.+--The elements of a sentence, as regards the
office that they perform, are the _subject_ and the _predicate_. The
_subject_ is that about which something is asserted, and the _predicate_
is that which asserts something about the subject.

Some predicates may consist of a single word or word-group, able in itself
to complete a sentence: [The thrush _sings_. The thrush _has been
singing_]. Some require a following word or words: [William struck
_John_ (object complement, or object). Edward became _king_ (attribute
complement). The people made Edward _king_ (objective complement)].

The necessary parts of a sentence are: some name for the object of thought
(to which the general term _substantive_ may be given); some word or group
of words to make assertion concerning the substantive (general term,
_assertive_); and, in case of an incomplete assertive, one of the above
given completions of its meaning (object complement, attribute complement,
objective complement).

In addition to these necessary elements of the sentence, words or groups
of words may be added to make the meaning of any one of the elements more
exact. Such additions are known as _modifiers_. The word-groups which are
used as modifiers are the _phrase_ and the _clause_.

[The thrush, sings _in the pine woods_ (phrase). The wayfarer _who hears
the thrush_ is indeed fortunate (clause).]

Both the subject and the predicate may be unmodified:

[Bees buzz]; both may be modified: [The honey bees buzz in the clover];
one may be modified and the other unmodified: [Bees buzz in the clover].

The unmodified subject may be called the _simple subject_, or, merely, the
_subject_. If modified, it becomes the _complete subject_.

The assertive element, together with the attribute complement, if one is
present, may be called the _simple predicate_. If modified, it becomes the
_complete predicate_.

Some grammarians call the assertive element, alone, the _simple
predicate_; modified or completed, the _complete predicate_.

+16. Classification of Sentences as to Purpose.+--Sentences are classified
according to purpose into three classes: _declarative_, _interrogative_,
and _imperative_ sentences.

A _declarative_ sentence is one that makes a statement or declares
something: [Columbus crossed the Atlantic].

An _interrogative_ sentence is one that asks a question: [Who wrote
_Mother Goose_?].

An _imperative_ sentence is one that expresses a command or entreaty:
["Fling away ambition"].

Each kind of sentence may be of an exclamatory nature, and then the
sentence is said to be an _exclamatory_ sentence: [How happy all the
children are! (exclamatory declarative). "Who so base as be a slave?"
(exclamatory interrogative). "Heap high the farmer's wintry hoard!"
(exclamatory imperative)].

Notice that the exclamation point follows the declarative and imperative
forms, but the interrogative form is followed by the question mark.


+17. The Individual Elements+ of which every sentence is composed are
_words_. Every word is the sign of some idea. Each of the words _horse,
he, blue, speaks, merrily, at_, and _because_, has a certain naming value,
more or less definite, for the mind of the reader. Of these, _horse, blue,
he, merrily_, have a fairly vivid descriptive power. In the case of _at_
and _because_, the main office is, evidently, to express a relation
between other ideas: ["I am _at_ my post"], ["I go _because_ I must"]. The
word _speaks_ is less clearly a relational word; at first thought it would
seem to have only the office of picturing an activity. That it also fills
the office of a connective will be evident if we compare the following
sentences: He _speaks_ in public. He _is_ a public _speaker_. It is
evident that _speaks_ contains in itself the _naming_ value represented in
the word _speaker_, but also has the _connecting_ office fulfilled in the
second sentence by _is_.

All words have, therefore, a naming office, and some have in addition a
connecting or relational office.


+18. Parts of Speech.+--When we examine the different words in sentences
we find that, in spite of these fundamentally similar qualities, the words
are serving different purposes. This difference in purpose or use serves
as the basis for dividing words into eight classes, called Parts of
Speech. Use alone determines to which class a word in any given sentence
shall belong. Not only are single words so classified, but any part of
speech may be represented by a group of words. Such a group is either a
_phrase_ or a _clause_.

A _phrase_ is a group of words, containing neither subject nor predicate,
that is used as a single part of speech.

A _clause_ is a group of words, containing both subject and predicate,
that is used as part of a sentence. If used as a single part of speech, it
is called a _subordinate_, or _dependent_, clause. Some grammarians use the
word _clause_ for a subordinate statement only.

+19. Classification.+--The eight parts of speech may be classified as

I. Substantives: nouns, pronouns.
II. Assertives: verbs.
III. Modifiers: adjectives, adverbs.
IV. Connectives: prepositions, conjunctions.
V. Interjections.

+20. Definitions.+--The parts of speech may be defined as

(1) A _noun_ is a word used as a name.

(2) A _pronoun_ is a word used in place of a noun, designating a person,
place, or thing without naming it.

(3) An _adjective_ is a word that modifies a substantive.

(4) A _verb_ is a word that asserts something--action, state, or being---
concerning a substantive.

(5) An _adverb_ is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, or another

(6) A _preposition_ is a word that shows the relation of the substantive
that follows it to some other word or words in the sentence.

(7) A _conjunction_ is a word that connects words or groups of words used
in the same way.

(8) An _interjection_ is a cry expressing emotion, but not forming part of
the sentence.


+21. Classes of Nouns.+--Nouns are divided into two general classes:
_proper_ nouns [Esther] and _common_ nouns [girl].

Common nouns include _abstract_ nouns [happiness] and _collective_ nouns

Any word mentioned merely _as a word_ is a noun: [_And_ is a conjunction].

+22. Inflection.+--A change in the form of a word to denote a change in
its meaning is termed _inflection_.

+23. Number.+--The most common inflection of the noun is that which shows
us whether the name denotes one or more than one. The power of the noun to
denote one or more than one is termed _number_. A noun that denotes but
one object is _singular_ in number. A noun that denotes more than one
object is _plural_ in number.

The plural number of nouns is regularly formed by adding _s_ and _es_ to
the singular [bank, banks; box, boxes].

Other points to be noted concerning the plural of nouns are as follows:--

1. The irregular plural in _en_ [child, children].

2. Formation of the plural by internal change [goose, geese].

3. Fourteen nouns ending in _f_ or _fe_ change the _f_ or _fe_ into _yes_
[leaf, leaves].

4. Nouns ending in _y_, preceded by a consonant, change the _y_ to _i_ and
add _es_ [enemy, enemies].

5. Letters, figures, signs, etc., form their plural by adding '_s_:[You
have used too many _i_'s].

6. Nouns taken from other languages usually form their plurals according
to the laws of those languages [phenomenon, phenomena].

7. A few nouns in our language do not change their form to denote number.
(_a_) Some nouns have the same form, for both the singular and the
plural [sheep, deer].
(_b_) Some nouns are used only in the plural [scissors, thanks].
(_c_) Some nouns have no plurals [pride, flesh].
(_d_) Some nouns, plural in form, have a singular meaning [measles,
news, politics].

8. Compound nouns usually form their plural by pluralizing the noun part
of the compound [sister-in-law, sisters-in-law]. If the words of the
compound are both nouns, and are of equal importance, both are given a
plural ending [manservant, menservants]. When the compound is thought of
as a whole, the last part only is made plural [spoonful, spoonfuls].

9. Proper names usually form their plurals regularly. If they are
preceded by titles, they form their plurals either by pluralizing the
title or by pluralizing the name [The Misses Hunter or the Miss Hunters.
The Messrs. Keene or the two Mr. Keenes. The Masters Burke. The Mrs.

10. A few nouns have two plurals differing in meaning or use [cloth,
cloths, clothes; penny, pennies, pence].

+24. Case.+--Case is the relation that a noun or pronoun
bears to some other word in the sentence.

Inflection of nouns or pronouns for the purpose of denoting
case is termed _declension_. There are three cases in the English
language: the _nominative_, the _possessive_, and the _objective_; but
nouns show only two forms for each number, as the nominative and
objective cases have the same form.

+25. Formation of the Possessive.+--Nouns in the singular, and those in
the plural not already ending in _s_, form the possessive regularly by
adding '_s_ to the nominative [finger, finger's; geese, geese's].

In case the plural already ends in _s_, the possessive case adds only the
apostrophe [girls'].

A few singular nouns add only the apostrophe, when the addition of the
'_s_ would make an unpleasant sound [Moses'].

Compound nouns form the possessive case by adding '_s_ to the last word.
This is also the rule when two names denoting joint ownership are used:
[Bradbury and Emery's Algebra].

Notice that in the following expression the '_s_ is affixed to the second
noun only: [My sister Martha's book].

Names of inanimate objects usually substitute prepositional phrases to
denote possession: [The hardness _of the rock_, not The rock's hardness].

+26. Gender.+--Gender is the power of nouns and pronouns to denote sex.
Nouns or pronouns denoting males are of the _masculine_ gender; those
denoting females are of the _feminine_ gender; and those denoting things
without animal life are of the _neuter_ gender.

+27. Person.+--Person is the power of one class of pronouns to show
whether the speaker, the person spoken to, or the person or thing spoken
of is designated. According to the person denoted, the pronoun is said to
be in the _first, second_, or _third_ person. Nouns and many pronouns are
not inflected for person, but most grammarians attribute person to them
because the context of the sentence in which they are used shows what
persons they represent.

+28. Constructions of Nouns.+--The following are the usual constructions
of nouns:--

(_a_) The _possessive_ case of the noun denotes possession.

(_b_) Nouns in the _nominative_ case are used as follows:--

1. As the subject of a verb: [The western _sky_ is all aflame]

2. As an attribute complement: [Autumn is the most gorgeous _season_ of
the year].

3. In an exclamation: [Alas, poor _soul_, it could not be!].

4. In direct address: [O hush thee, my _baby_!].

5. Absolutely: [The _rain_ being over, the grass twinkled in the

6. As a noun in apposition with a nominative: [Columbus; a _native_ of
Genoa, discovered America].

(_c_) Nouns in the _objective_ case are used as follows:--

1. As the direct object of a verb, termed either the direct object or the
object complement: [I saw a _host_ of golden daffodils].

2. As the objective complement: [They crowned him _king_].

3. As the indirect object of a verb: [We gave _Ethel_ a ring].

4. As the object of a preposition: [John Smith explored the coast of _New

5. As the subject of an infinitive: [He commanded _the man_ (_him_)to go
without delay].

6. As the attribute of an expressed subject of the infinitive _to be_: [I
thought it to be _John_ (_him_)].

7. As an adverbial noun: [He came last _week_].

8. As a noun in apposition with an object: [Stanley found Livingstone,
the great _explorer_].

+29. Equivalents for Nouns.+

1. Pronoun: [John gave _his_ father a book for Christmas].

2. Adjective: [The _good_ alone are truly great].

3. Adverb: [I do not understand the _whys_ and _wherefores_ of the

4. A gerund, or infinitive in _ing_: [_Seeing_ is _believing_].

5. An infinitive or infinitive phrase: [With him, _to think_ is _to

6. Clause: [It is hard for me to believe _that she took the money_]. Noun
clauses may be used as subject, object, attribute complement, and

7. A prepositional phrase: [_Over the fence_ is out].


+30. Antecedent.+--The most common equivalent for a noun is the pronoun.
The substantive for which the pronoun is an equivalent is called the
_antecedent_, and with this antecedent the pronoun must agree in _person,
number_, and _gender_, but not necessarily in _case_.

+31. Classes of Pronouns.+--Pronouns are commonly divided into five
classes, and sometimes a sixth class is added: (1) personal pronouns, (2)
relative pronouns, (3) interrogative pronouns, (4) demonstrative pronouns,
(5) adjective pronouns,(6) indefinite pronouns (not always added).

+32. Personal Pronouns.+--Personal pronouns are so called because they
show by their form whether they refer to the first, the second, or the
third person. There are five personal pronouns in common use: _I, you, he,
she_, and _it_.

+33. Constructions of Personal Pronouns.+--The personal pronouns are used
in the same ways in which nouns are used. Besides the regular uses that the
personal pronoun has, there are some special uses that should be

1. The word _it_ is often used in an indefinite way at the beginning of a
sentence: [It snows]. When so used, it has no antecedent, and we say it is
used _impersonally_.

2. The pronoun _it_ is often used as the _grammatical_ subject of a
sentence in which the _logical_ subject is found after the predicate verb:
[_It_ is impossible for us to go]. When so used the pronoun _it_ is called
an _expletive. There_ is used in the same way.

+34. Cautions and Suggestions.+

1. Be careful not to use the apostrophe in the possessive forms _its,
yours, ours_, and _theirs_.

2. Be careful to use the nominative form of a pronoun used as an attribute
complement: [It is _I_; it is _they_].

3. Be sure that the pronoun agrees in number with its antecedent. One of
the most common violations of this rule is in using _their_ in such
sentences as the following:--Every boy and girl must arrange _his_ desk.
Who has lost _his_ book? The use of _every_ and the form _has_ obliges us
to make the possessive pronouns singular.

_His_ may be regarded as applying to females as well as males, where it is
convenient not to use the expression _his or her_.

4. The so-called subject of an infinitive is always in the objective case:
[I asked _him_ to go].

5. The attribute complement will agree in case with the subject of the
verb. Hence the attribute complement of an infinitive is in the objective
case: [I knew it (obj.) to be _him_]; but the attribute complement of the
subject of a finite verb is in the nominative case: [I knew it (nom.) was

6. Words should be so arranged in a sentence that there will be no doubt
in the mind concerning the antecedent of the pronoun.

7. Do not use the personal pronoun form _them_ for the adjective _those_:
[_Those_ books are mine].

+35. Compound Personal Pronouns.+--To the personal pronouns _my, our,
your, him, her, it_, and _them_, the syllables _self_ (singular) and
_selves_ (plural) may be added, thus forming what are termed _compound
personal_ pronouns. These pronouns have only two uses:--

1. They are used for emphasis: [He _himself_ is an authority on the

2. They are also used reflexively: [The boy injured _himself_].

+36. The Relative or Conjunctive Pronouns.+--The pronouns _who, which,
what_ (= that which), _that_, and _as_ (after _such_) are more than
equivalents for nouns, inasmuch as they serve as connectives. They are
often named _relative pronouns_ because they relate to some antecedent
either expressed or implied; they are equally well named _conjunctive
pronouns_ because they are used as connectives. They introduce subordinate
clauses only; these clauses are called _relative clauses_, and since they
modify substantives, are also called _adjective clauses_.

+37. Uses of Relative Pronouns.+--_Who_ is used to represent persons, and
objects or ideas personified; _which_ is used to represent things; _that_
and _as_ are used to represent both persons and things.

When a clause is used _for the purpose_ of pointing out some particular
person, object, or idea, it is usually introduced by _that_; but when the
clause supplies an additional thought, _who_ or _which_ is more frequently
used. The former is called a _restrictive clause_, and the latter, a
_non-restrictive clause_.

[The boy that broke his leg has fully recovered (restrictive).] Note the
omission of the comma before _that_. [My eldest brother, who is now in
England, will return by June (non-restrictive).] Note the inclosure of the
clause in commas. See Appendix 5, rule 10.

In the first sentence it is evident that the intent of the writer is to
separate, in thought, _the boy that broke his leg_ from all other boys.
Although the clause does indeed describe the boy's condition, it does so
_for the purpose_ of _limiting_ or _restricting_ thought to one especial
boy among many. In the second sentence the especial person meant is
indicated by the word _eldest_. The clause, _who is now in England_, is
put in for the sake of giving an additional bit of information.

+38. Constructions of Relative Pronouns.+--Relative pronouns may be used
as subject, object, object of a preposition, subject of an infinitive, and
possessive modifier.

The relative pronoun is regarded as agreeing in person with its
antecedent. Its verb, therefore, takes the person of the antecedent: [_I_,
who _am_ your friend, will assist you].

The case of the relative is determined by its construction in the clause
in which it is found: [He _whom_ the president appointed was fitted for
the position].

+39. Compound Relative Pronouns.+--The compound relative pronouns are
formed by adding _ever_ and _soever_ to the relative pronouns _who,
which_, and _what_. These have the constructions of the simple relatives,
and the same rules hold about person and case: [Give it to _whoever_
wishes it. Give it to _whomever_ you see].

+40. Interrogative Pronouns.+--The pronouns _who, which_, and _what_ are
used to ask questions, and when so used, are called _interrogative_
pronouns. _Who_ refers to persons; _what_, to things; and _which_, to
persons or things. Like the relatives _who_ has three case forms; _which_
and _what_ are uninflected.

The implied question in the sentence, I know whom you saw, is, Whom did
you see? The introductory _whom_ is an interrogative pronoun, and the
clause itself is called an _indirect question_.

The words _which, what_, and _whose_ may also be used as modifiers of
substantives, and when so used they are called _interrogative adjectives_:
["_What_ manner of man is this?" _Whose_ child is this? _Which_ book
did you choose?].

+41. Demonstrative Pronouns.+--_This_ and _that_, with their plurals
_these_ and _those_, are called _demonstrative pronouns_, because they
point out individual persons or things.

+42. Indefinite Pronouns.+--Some pronouns, as _each, either, some, any,
many, such_, etc., are indefinite in character. Many indefinites may be
used either as pronouns or adjectives. Of the indefinites only two, _one_
and _other_, are inflected.


NOM. AND OBJ. one ones other others

POSS. one's ones' other's others'

+43. Adjective Pronouns or Pronominal Adjectives.+--Many words, as has
been noted already, are either pronouns or adjectives according to the
office that they perform. If the noun is expressed, the word in question
is called a _pronominal adjective_; but if the noun is omitted so that the
word in question takes its place, it is called an _adjective pronoun_.
[_That_ house is white (adjective). _That_ is the same house (pronoun).]


+44. Classes of Adjectives.+--There are two general classes of adjectives:
the _descriptive_ [blue, high, etc.], so called because they describe, and
the _limiting_ or _definitive_ adjectives [yonder, three, that, etc.], so
called because they limit or define. It is, of course, true that any
adjective which describes a noun limits its meaning; but the adjective is
named from its descriptive power, not from its limiting power. A very
large per cent of all adjectives belong to the first class,--_descriptive_
adjectives. Proper adjectives and _participial_ adjectives form a small
part of this large class: [_European_ countries. A _running_ brook].

+45. Limiting or Definitive Adjectives.+--The _limiting_ adjectives
include the various classes of _pronominal adjectives_ (all of which have
been mentioned under pronouns), the _articles_ (_a_, _an_, and _the_),
and adjectives denoting _place_ and _number_.

+46. Comparison of Adjectives.+--With the exception of the words _this_
and _that_, adjectives are not inflected for number, and none are
inflected for case. Many of them, however, change their form to express a
difference in degree. This change of form is called _comparison_. There
are three degrees of comparison: the _positive_, the _comparative_, and
the _superlative_. Adjectives are regularly compared by adding the
syllables _er_ and _est_ to the positive to form the comparative and
superlative degrees. In some cases, especially in the case of adjectives
of more than one syllable, the adverbs _more_ and _most_ are placed before
the positive degree in order to form the other two degrees [long, longer,
longest; beautiful, more beautiful, most beautiful].

+47. Irregular Comparison of Adjectives.+--A few adjectives are compared
irregularly. These adjectives are in common use and we should be familiar
with the correct forms.


bad }
evil } worse worst
ill }

far farther farthest

good } better best
well }

fore former { foremost
{ first

late { later { latest
{ latter { last

little less least

many } more most
much }

near nearer { nearest
{ next

old { older { oldest
{ elder { eldest

The following words are used as adverbs or prepositions in the positive
degree, and as _adjectives_ in the other two degrees:--

(forth) further furthest

(in) inner { innermost
{ inmost

(out) { outer { outermost
{ utter { utmost
{ uttermost

(up) upper { upmost
{ uppermost

+48. Cautions concerning the Use of Adjectives.+

1. When two or more adjectives modify the same noun, the article is
placed only before the first, unless emphasis is desired: [He is an
industrious, faithful pupil].

2. If the adjectives refer to different things, the article should be
repeated before each adjective: [She has a white and a blue dress].

3. When two or more nouns are in apposition, the article is placed only
before the first: [I received a telegram from Mr. Richards, _the_ broker
and real estate agent].

4. _This, these, that_, and _those_ must agree in number with the noun
they modify: [_This kind_ of flowers; _those sorts_ of seeds].

5. When but two things are compared, the comparative degree is used:
[This is the more complete of the two].

6. When _than_ is used after a comparative, whatever is compared should
be excluded from the class with which it is compared: [I like this house
better than any other house; not, I like this house better than any

7. Do not use _a_ after _kind of, sort of_, etc.: [What kind of man is
he? (not, What kind of _a_ man)]. _One_ man does not constitute a class
consisting of many kinds.

+49. Constructions of Adjectives.+--Adjectives that merely describe or
limit are said to be _attributive_ in construction. When the adjective
limits or describes, and, at the same time, adds to the predicate, it is
called a _predicate adjective_.Predicate adjectives may be used either as
attribute or objective complements: [The sea is _rough_ to-day (attribute
complement), He painted the boat _green_ (objective complement)].

+50. Equivalents for Adjectives.+--The following are used as equivalents
for the typical adjective:--

1. A noun used in apposition: [Barrie's story of his mother, "_Margaret
Ogilvy_," is very beautiful].

2. A noun used as an adjective: [A _campaign_ song].

3. A prepositional phrase: [His little, nameless, unremember'd acts _of
kindness_ and _of love_].

4. Participles or participial phrases: [We saw a brook _running_ between
the alders. Soldiers _hired to serve a foreign country_ are called

5. Relative clauses: [This is the house _that Jack built_].

6. An adverb (sometimes called the _locative_ adjective): [The book _here_
is the one I want].


+51. Uses of Verbs.+--A _verb_ is the word or word-group that makes an
assertion or statement, and it is therefore the most important part of the
whole sentence. It has been already shown that such a verb as _speaks_
serves the double purpose of suggesting an activity and showing relation.
The most purely _relational_ verb is the verb _to be_, which is called the
_copula_ or _linking verb_, for the very reason that it joins predicate
words to the subject: [The lake _is_ beautiful]. _To be_, however, is not
always a pure _copula_. In such a sentence as, "He that cometh to God must
believe that He _is_," the word _is_ means _exists_.Verbs that are like
the copula, such as, _appear, become, seem_, etc., are called _copulative_
verbs. Verbs that not only are relational but have descriptive power, such
as _sings, plays, runs_, etc., are called _attributive_ verbs. They
attribute some quality or characteristic to the subject.

+52. Classes of Verbs.+--According to their uses in a sentence verbs are
divided into two classes: _transitive_ and _intransitive_.

A _transitive_ verb is one that takes a following substantive, expressed
or implied, called the _object_, to designate the receiver or the product
of the action: [They seized the _city_. They built a _city_]. The
transitive verb may sometimes be used _absolutely_:[The horse eats]. Here
the object is implied.

An _intransitive_ verb is one that does not take an object to complete its
meaning; or, in other words, an intransitive verb is one that denotes an
action, state, or feeling that involves the subject only: [He ran away.
They were standing at the water's edge].

A few verbs in our language are always transitive, and a few others are
always intransitive. The verbs _lie_ and _lay, rise_ and _raise, sit_ and
_set_, are so frequently misused that attention is here called to them.
The verbs _lie, rise_, and _sit_ (usually) are intransitive in meaning,
while the verbs _lay, raise_, and _set_ are transitive. The word _sit_ may
sometimes take a reflexive object: [They sat _themselves_ down to rest].

The majority of verbs in our language are either transitive or
intransitive, according to the sense in which they are used.

[The fire _burns_ merrily (intransitive).
The fire _burned_ the building (transitive).
The bird _flew_ swiftly (intransitive).
The boy _flew_ his kite (transitive).]

Some intransitive verbs take what is known as a _cognate object_: [He died
a noble _death_.] Here the object repeats the meaning of the verb.

+53. Complete and Incomplete Verbs.+--Some intransitive verbs make a
complete assertion or statement without the aid of any other words. Such
verbs are said to be of _complete predication_: [The snow melts].

All transitive verbs and some intransitive verbs require one or more words
to complete the meaning of the predicate. Such verbs are said to be
incomplete. Whatever is added to complete the meaning of the predicate is
termed a _complement_. The complement of a transitive verb is called the
_object complement_, or simply the _object_: [She found the _book_].
Some transitive verbs, from the nature of their meaning, take also an
_indirect_ object: [I gave _her_ the book]. When a word belonging to
the subject is added to an intransitive verb in order to complete the
predicate, it is termed an _attribute complement_. This complement may be
either a noun or an adjective: [He is our _treasurer_ (noun). This rose is
_fragrant_ (adjective)]. Among the incomplete intransitive verbs the most
conspicuous are the copula and the copulative verbs.

+54. Auxiliary Verbs.+--English verbs have so few changes of form to
express differences in meaning that it is often necessary to use the
so-called _auxiliary_ verbs. The most common are: _do, be, have, may,
must, might, can, shall, will, should, would, could_, and _ought_. Some of
these may be used as principal verbs. A few notes and cautions are added.

_Can_ is used to denote the ability of the subject.

_May_ is used to denote permission, possibility, purpose, or desire. Thus
the request for permission should be, "May I?" not "Can I?"

_Must_ indicates necessity.

_Ought_ expresses obligation.

_Had_ should never be used with _ought_. To express a moral obligation in
past time, combine _ought_ with the perfect infinitive: [I ought _to have
done_ it].

_Should_ sometimes expresses duty: [You should not go].

_Would_ sometimes denotes a custom: [He would sit there for hours].
Sometimes it expresses a wish: [Would he were here!]. For other uses of
_should_ and _would_, see Appendix 60.

+55. Principal Parts.+--The main forms of the verb--so important as to be
called the _principal parts_ because the other parts are formed from them--
are the _root infinitive_, the _preterite_ (_past_) _indicative_, and the
_past participle_ [move, moved, moved; sing, sang, sung; be, was, been].
The _present_ participle is sometimes given with the principal parts.

+56. Inflection.+--As is evident from the preceding paragraph, verbs have
certain changes of form to indicate change of meaning. Such a change or
_inflection_, in the case of the noun, is called _declension;_ in the
case of the verb it is called _conjugation_. Nouns are _declined_; verbs
are _conjugated_.

+57. Person and Number.+--In Latin, or any other highly inflected
language, there are many terminations to indicate differences in person
and number, but in English there is but one in common use, _s_ in the
third person singular: [_He runs_], _St_ or _est_ is used after _thou_ in
the second person singular: [_Thou lovest_].

+58. Agreement.+--Verbs must agree with their subjects in
person and number. The following suggestions concerning
agreement may be helpful:--

1. A compound subject that expresses a single idea takes a singular verb:
[Bread and milk _is_ wholesome food].

2. When the members of a compound subject, connected by _neither ... nor_,
differ as regards person and number, the verb should agree with the nearer
of the two: [Neither they nor I _am_ to blame].

3. When the subject consists of singular nouns or pronouns connected by
_or, either ... or, neither ... nor_, the verb is singular: [Either this
book or that _is_ mine].

4. Words joined to the subject by _with, together with, as well as_, etc.,
do not affect the number of the verb. The same is true of any modifier of
the subject: [John, as well as the girls, _is_ playing house. One of my
books _is_ lying on the table. Neither of us _is_ to blame].

5. When the article _the_ precedes the word _number_, used as a subject,
the verb should be in the singular; otherwise the verb is plural: [_The_
number of pupils in our schools _is_ on the increase. _A_ number of
children _have_ been playing in the sand pile].

6. The pronoun _you_ always takes a plural verb, even if its meaning is
singular: [You _were_ here yesterday].

7. A collective noun takes a singular or plural verb, according as the
collection is thought of as a whole or as composed of individuals.

+59. Tense.+--The power of the verb to show differences of time is called
_tense_. Tense shows also the completeness or incompleteness of an act or
condition at the time of speaking. There are three _primary_ tenses:
_present, preterite_ (_past_), and _future_; and three _secondary_ tenses
for completed action:_present perfect, past perfect_ (_pluperfect_), and
_future perfect_.

English has only two simple tenses, the present and the preterite: _I
love, I loved_. All other tenses are formed by the use of the auxiliary
verbs. By combining the present and past tenses of _will, shall, have,
be_, or _do_ with those parts of the verb known as infinitives and
participles, the various tenses of the complete conjugation of the verb
are built up. The formation of the _preterite_ tense, and the consequent
division of verbs into _strong_ and _weak_, will be discussed later.

+60. The Future Tense.+--The future tense is formed by combining _shall_
or _will_ with the root infinitive, without _to_.

The correct form of the _future tense_ in assertions is here given:--


1. I shall fall 1. We shall fall
2. Thou wilt fall 2. You will fall
3. He will fall 3. They will fall

_Will_, in the _first_ person, denotes not simple futurity, but
determination: [I will (= am determined to) go].

_Shall_, in the _second_ and _third_ persons, is not simply the sign of
the future tense in declarative sentences. It is used to denote the
determination of the speaker with reference to others.


1. In clauses introduced by _that_, expressed or understood, if the noun
clause and the principal clause have _different_ subjects, the same
auxiliary is used that would be used were the subordinate clause used
independently: [I fear we _shall_ be late. My friend is determined that
her son _shall_ not be left alone].

2. In all other subordinate clauses, _shall_, for all persons, denotes
simple futurity; _will_, an expression of willingness or determination:
[He thinks that he _shall_ be there. He promises that he _will_ be there].

3. In questions, _shall_ is always used in the first person; in the second
and third persons the same auxiliary is used which is expected in the

(NOTE.--_Should_ and _would_ follow the rules for _shall_ and _will_.)

+61. Tenses for the Completed Action.+

1. To represent an action as completed at the _present_ time, the past
participle is used with _have_ (_hast, has_). This forms the _present
perfect_ tense: [I _have finished_].

2. To represent an action as completed in _past_ time, the past participle
is combined with _had_ (_hadst_). This forms the _past perfect_, or
_pluperfect_, tense: [I _had finished_].

3. To represent action that will be completed _in future_ time, _shall
have_ or _will have_ is combined with the past participle. This forms the
_future perfect_ tense: [I _shall have finished_].

+62. Sequence of Tenses.+--It is, in general, true that the tense of a
subordinate clause changes when the tense of the main verb changes. This
is known as the Law of the Sequence (or _following_) of Tenses: [I know he
means well. I knew he meant well].

The verb in the main clause and the verb in the subordinate clause are not
necessarily in the same tense.

[I think he _is_ there. I thought he was there.
I think he _was_ there. I thought he had been there.
I think he _will be_ there. I thought he would be there.]

In general, the principle may be laid down that in a complex sentence the
tense for both principal and subordinate clauses is that which the sense

General truths and present facts should be expressed in the
present tense, whatever the tense of the principal verb: [He
believed that truth _is_ unchangeable. Who did you say _is_ president
of your society?].

The _perfect infinitive_ is used to denote action completed at
the time of the main verb: [I am sorry _to have wounded_ you].

+63. Mode.+--A statement may be regarded as the expression of a fact, of a
doubt or supposition, or of a command. The power of the verb to show how
an action should be regarded is called _mode (mood_). In our language
there is but a slight change of form for this purpose. The distinction of
mode which we must make is a distinction that has regard to the thought or
attitude of mind of the speaker rather than to the form of the verb.

The _indicative_ mode is used to state a fact or to ask questions of fact:
[I shall write a letter. Shall I write a letter?].

The _subjunctive_ mode indicates uncertainty, unreality, and some forms of
condition: [If she were here, I should be glad].

The _imperative_ mode expresses a command or entreaty: [Come here].

+64. The Subjunctive Mode.+--The subjunctive is disappearing from
colloquial speech, and the indicative form is used almost entirely.

The verb _to be_ has the following indicative and subjunctive forms in the
present and preterite:--

{ I am I be { I was I were
{ Thou art Thou be { Thou wast Thou were
PRESENT { He is He be PRETERITE { He was He were
{ We are We be { We were We were
{ You are You be { You were You were
{ They are They be { They were They were

In other verbs the indicative and subjunctive forms are the same, except
that the second and third persons singular subjunctive have no personal

INDICATIVE Thou learnest He learns
SUBJUNCTIVE Thou learn He learn

The subjunctive idea is sometimes expressed by verb phrases, containing
the auxiliary verbs _may (might), would_, or _should_. _May, would_, and
_should_ are not, however, always subjunctive. In "I _may_ go" (may = am
allowed to), _may_ is indicative. In "you _should_ go" (= ought to),
_should_ is indicative.

The subjunctive mode is used most frequently to express:--

1. A wish: [The Lord be with you].

2. A condition regarded as doubtful: [If it be true, what shall we
think?], or a condition regarded as untrue: [If I were you, I should go].
When condition is expressed by the subjunctive without _if_, the verb
precedes the subject: [Were my brother here, he could go with me].

3. A purpose: [He studies that he may learn].

4. Exhortations: [Sing we the song of freedom].

5. A concession,--supposed, not given as a fact: [Though he be my enemy, I
shall pity him].

6. A possibility: [We fear lest he be too late].

The tenses of the subjunctive require especial notice. In conditional
clauses, the _present_ refers either to present or future time: [Though
the earth be removed, we shall not fear].

The _preterite_ refers to present time. It implies that the supposed case
is not a fact: [If he were here, I should be much pleased].

The _pluperfect_ subjunctive expresses a false supposition in past time:
[If you had been here, this would not have happened].

The phrases with _may, might, can, must, could, would_, and _should_ are
sometimes called the _potential mode_, but the constructions all fall
within either the indicative or the subjunctive uses, and a fourth mode is
only an incumbrance.

+65. The Imperative Mode.+--The imperative is the mode of command and
entreaty. It has but one form for both singular and plural, and but one
tense,--the present. It has but one person,--the second. The subject is
usually omitted. The case of direct address, frequently used with the
imperative, should not be confused with the subject. In, "John, hold my
books," the subject is _you_, understood. Were _John_ the subject, the
verb must be _holds_. _John_ is, here, a compellative, or vocative.

+66. Voice.+--Verbs are said to be in the _active_ voice when they
represent the subject as acting, and in the _passive_ voice when they
represent the subject as being acted upon. Intransitive verbs, from their
very nature, have no passive voice. Transitive verbs may have both voices,
for they may represent the subject either as acting or as being acted

The direct object in the active voice generally becomes the subject in the
passive; if the subject of the active appears in the passive, it is the
object of the preposition _by_: [My dog loves me (active). I am loved by
my dog (passive)].

Verbs of calling, naming, making, and thinking may take two objects
referring to the same person or thing. The first of these is the direct
object and the second is called the objective complement: [John called him
_a coward_]. The objective complement becomes an attribute complement when
the verb is changed from the active to the passive voice: [He was called
_a coward_ by John].

Certain verbs take both a direct and an indirect object in the active:
[John paid him nine _dollars_]. If the indirect object becomes the subject
in the passive voice, the direct object is known as the _retained object:_
[He was paid nine _dollars_ by John].

+67. Infinitives.+--The infinitive form of the verb is often called a
verbal noun, because it partakes of the nature both of the verb and of the
noun. It is distinguished from the _finite_, or true, verb because it does
not make an assertion, and yet it assumes one. While it has the modifiers
and complements of a verb, it at the same time has the uses of a noun.

There are two infinitives: the _root infinitive_ (commonly preceded by
_to_, the so-called _sign_ of the infinitive), and the _gerund_, or
_infinitive in -ing_.

1. Root infinitive: [_To write_ a theme requires practice].

2. Gerund: [_Riding_ rapidly is dangerous]. In each of these sentences
the infinitive, in its capacity as noun, stands as the subject of the
sentence. In 1, _to write_ shows its verb nature by governing the object
_theme;_ in 2, _riding_ shows its verb nature by taking as a modifier the
adverb _rapidly_.

Each form of the infinitive is found as the subject of a verb, as its
object, as an attribute complement, and as the object of a preposition.
The root infinitive, together with its subject in the objective case, is
used as the object of verbs of knowing, telling, etc.: [I know _him to be
a good boy_]. See also Appendix 85 for adjective and adverbial uses.

The infinitive has two tenses: the _present_ and the _perfect_. The
_present_ tense denotes action which is not completed at the time of the
principal verb: [He tries _to write_. He tried _to write_. He will try _to
write_]. The _perfect_ infinitive denotes action complete with reference
to the time of the principal verb: [I am glad _to have known_ her].

+68. Participles.+--Participles are verbal adjectives: [The girl _playing_
the piano is my cousin]. _Playing_, as an _adjective_, modifies the noun
_girl_; it shows its _verbal_ nature by taking the object _piano_.

The _present participle_ ends in _-ing_. When the _past participle_ has an
ending, it is either _-d, -ed, -t_, or _-en_. The _perfect participle_ is
formed by combining _having_ with a past participle; as, _having gone_.

There is danger of confusing the present participle with the gerund, or
infinitive in _-ing_, unless the adjective character of the one and the
noun character of the other are clearly distinguished: [The boy, _driving_
the cows to pasture, was performing his daily task (participle). _Driving_
the cows to pasture was his daily task (gerund)].

Participles are used to form verb-phrases. The present participle is used
for the formation of the progressive conjugation; the past participle, for
the formation of the compound or perfect tenses. Participles are also used
in all the adjective constructions.

One especial construction requires notice,--the _absolute_ construction,
or the _nominative absolute_, as it is called: [_The ceremony having been
finished_, the people dispersed]. The construction here is equivalent to a
clause denoting _time_ or _cause_ or some _circumstance_ attendant on the
main action of the sentence. The participle is sometimes omitted, but the
substantive must not be, lest the participle be left apparently belonging
to the nearest substantive; as, Walking home, the rain began to fall. As
the sentence stands, _walking_ modifies _rain_.

+69. Conjugation.+--The complete and orderly arrangement of the various
forms of a verb is termed its conjugation. Complete conjugations will be
found in any text-book on English grammar.

The passive voice must not be confused with such a form as the progressive
conjugation of the verb. The passive consists of a form of _to be_ and a
_past participle_: [I am instructed]. The progressive tenses combine some
form of _to be_ with a _present_ participle: [I am instructing].

It may be well to distinguish here between the passive voice and a past
participle used as an attribute complement of the verb _be_. Both have the
same form, but there is a difference of meaning. The passive voice always
shows action received by the subject, while the participle is used only as
an adjective denoting condition: [James _was tired_ by his day's work
(passive voice). James was _tired_ (attribute complement)].

+70. Weak and Strong Conjugations.+--Verbs are divided into two classes as
regards their conjugations. It has been the custom to call all verbs which
form the preterite and past participle by adding _-d_ or _-ed_ to the
present, _regular_ verbs [love, loved, loved], and to call all others
_irregular_. A better classification, based on more careful study of the
history of the English verb, divides verbs into those of the _weak_ and
those of the _strong_ conjugations.

The _weak verbs_ are those which form the preterite by adding _-ed, -d_,
or _-t_ to the present: _love, loved_. There is also infrequently a change
of vowel: _sell, sold_; _teach, taught_.

All verbs which form the preterite without the addition of an ending are
_strong verbs_. There is usually a change of vowel. The termination of the
past participle in _-n_ or _-en_ is a sure indication that a verb is
_strong_. Some verbs show forms of both conjugations.

A complete list of _strong_ verbs cannot be given here, but a few of the
most common will be given, together with a few _weak_ verbs, in the use of
which mistakes occur.

am was been
arise rose arisen
bear bore borne, born[1]
begin began begun
bid (command) bade bidden
bite bit bitten
blow blew blown
break broke broken
bring brought brought
burst burst burst
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
climb climbed climbed
come came come
do did done
drink drank drunk[2]
drive drove driven
drown drowned drowned
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
fly flew flown
freeze froze frozen
get got got
give gave given
go went gone
grow grew grown
have had had
hide hid hidden
hurt hurt hurt
know knew known
lay laid laid
lie (recline) lay lain
lead led led
read read read
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
run ran run
see saw seen
shake shook shaken
show showed shown
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
slay slew slain
speak spoke spoken
spring sprang sprung
steal stole stolen
swell swell { swelled
{ swollen
swim swam swum
take took taken
tear tore torn
throw threw thrown
wear wore worn
wish wished wished
write wrote written

[Footnote 1: Used only in the passive sense of "born into the world."]
[Footnote 2: _Drunken_ is an adjective.]

CAUTION.--Do not confuse the preterite with the past participle. Always
use the past participle form in the compound tenses.


+71. Classes of Adverbs.+--Adverbs vary much as to their use and meaning.
It is therefore impossible to make a very accurate classification, but we
may divide them, according to use, into _limiting, interrogative_, and
_conjunctive_ adverbs.

_Limiting_ adverbs modify the meaning of verbs, etc.: [He rows _well_].

_Interrogative_ adverbs are used to ask questions: [_When_ shall you come?
He asked _where_ we were going (indirect question)].

_Conjunctive_ adverbs introduce clauses: [We went to the seashore, _where_
we stayed a month]. Here _where_ is used as a connective and also as a
modifier of _stayed_.

Conjunctive adverbs introduce the following kinds of clauses:

1. Adverbial clauses: [Go _where_ duty calls].

2. Adjective clauses: [This is the very spot _where_ I put them].

3. Noun clause: [I do not know _how_ he will succeed].

Adverbs may also be classified, according to meaning, into adverbs of
_manner, time, place_, and _degree_. The classification is not, however, a
rigid one.

Adverbs of _manner_ answer the question How? Most of these terminate in
_-ly_. A few, however, are identical in form with adjectives of like
meaning: [She sang very loud].

Adverbs of _time_ answer the question When?

Adverbs of _place_ answer the question Where? This class, together with
the preceding two classes, usually modify verbs.

_Adverbs of degree_ answer the question To what extent? These adverbs
modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.

+72. Phrasal Adverbs.+--Certain phrases, adverbial in character, cannot
easily be separated into parts. They have been called _phrased adverbs;_
as, arm-in-arm, now-a-days, etc.

+73. Inflection.+--Some adverbs, like adjectives, are compared for the
purpose of showing different degrees of quality or quantity.

The comparative and superlative degrees may be formed by adding the
syllables _er_ and _est_ to the positive degree. The great majority of
adverbs, however, make use of the words _more_ and _most_ or _less_
and _least_ to show a difference in degree: [Fast, faster, fastest;
skillfully, more skillfully, most skillfully; carefully, less carefully,
least carefully].

Some adverbs are compared irregularly:--

badly } worse worst
ill (evil)}
far } { farther { farthest
forth } { further { furthest
late later { latest
{ last
little less least
much more most
nigh nigher { nigher
{ next
well better best

+74. Suggestions and Cautions concerning the Use of Adverbs.+

1. Some words, as _fast, little, much, more_, and others, have the same
form for both adjective and adverb, and use alone can determine what part
of speech each is.

(Adjective) He is a fast driver. She looks well (in good health).

(Adverb) How fast he walks! I learned my lesson well.

2. Corresponding adjectives and adverbs usually have different forms which
should not be confused.

(Adjective) She is a good student.

(Adverb) He works well.

3. The adjective, and not the adverbial, form should be used after a
copulative verb, since adverbs cannot modify substantives: [I feel bad;
not, I feel badly].

4. Two negatives imply an affirmative. Hence only one should be used to
denote negation: [I have nothing to say. I have no patience with him].

+75. Equivalents for Adverbs.+

1. A phrase: [The child ran away _with great glee_].

2. A clause: [I will go canoeing _when the lake is calm_].

3. A noun: [Please come _home_. I will stay five _minutes_].


+76. Classes of Prepositions.+--The _simple_ prepositions are: _at, after,
against, but, by, down, for, from, in, of, off, over, on, since, through,
till, to, under, up_, and _with_.

Other prepositions are either derived or compound: such as, _underneath,
across, between, concerning_, and _notwithstanding_.

+77. Suggestions concerning the Use of Prepositions.+--Mistakes are
frequently made in the use of the preposition. This use cannot be fully
discussed here, but a partial list of words with the required preposition
will be given.

afraid _of_.
agree _with_ a person.
agree _to_ a proposal.
bestow _upon_.
compare _to_ (to show similarity).
compare _with_ (to show similarity or difference).
comply _with_.
conform _to_.
convenient _for_ or _to_.
correspond _to_ or _with_ (a thing).
correspond _with_ (a person).
dependent _on_.
differ _from_ (a person or thing).
differ _from_ or _with_ (an opinion).
different _from_.
disappointed _in_.
frightened _at_ or _by_.
glad _of_.
need _of_.
profit _by_.
scared _by_.
taste _of_ (food).
taste _for_ (art).
thirst _for_ or _after_.

_Like_, originally an adjective or adverb, is often, in some of its uses,
called a preposition. It governs the objective case, and should not be
used as a conjunction: [She looks like _me;_ not, She looks like I do].
The appropriate _conjunction_ here would be _as_: [She speaks _as_ I do].

The prepositions _in_ and _at_ denote rest or motion _in_ a place; _into_
denotes motion _toward_ a place: [He is _in_ the garden. He went _into_
the garden].

+78. Prepositional Phrases.+--The preposition, with its object, forms what
is termed a prepositional phrase. This phrase is _adjective_ in force when
it modifies a substantive; and _adverbial_, when it modifies a verb,
adjective, or other adverb: [In the cottage _by the sea_ (adjective). He
sat _on the bench_ (adverb)].

Some prepositions were originally adverbs; such as, _in, on, off, up_, and
_to_. Many of them are still used adverbially or as adverbial suffixes:
[The ship lay to. A storm came on].


+79. Classes of Conjunctions.+--Conjunctions are divided according to
their use into two general classes: the _cooerdinate_ and the _subordinate_

_Cooerdinate_ conjunctions are used to connect words, phrases, and clauses
of equal rank; _subordinate_ conjunctions connect clauses of unequal rank.

The principal cooerdinate conjunctions are _and, but, or, nor_, and _for_.
_And_ is said to be _copulative_ because it merely adds something to what
has just been said. Other conjunctions having a copulative use are _also,
besides, likewise, moreover_, and _too_; and the correlative conjunctions,
_both ... and, not only ... but also_, etc. These are termed _correlative_
because they occur together. _But_ is termed the _adversative_ cooerdinate
conjunction because it usually introduces something adverse to what has
already been said. Other words of an adversative nature are _yet, however,
nevertheless, only, notwithstanding_, and _still_. _Or_ is alternative in
its force. This conjunction implies that there is a choice to be made.

Other similar conjunctions are _either ... or, neither ... nor, or, else_.
_Either ... or_ and _neither ... nor_ are termed _correlative_
conjunctions, and they introduce alternatives. _For, because, such_, and
as are _cooerdinate_ conjunctions only in such a case as the following:
[She has been running, for she is out of breath].

Some of the most common conjunctions of the _subordinate_ type are those
of place and time, cause, condition, purpose, comparison, concession, and
result. _That_ introducing a subordinate clause may be called a
_substantive_ conjunction: [I knew _that_ I ought to go].

There are a number of subordinate conjunctions used in pairs which are
called _correlatives_. The principal pairs are _as ... so, as ... as, so
... as, if ... then, though ... yet_.

+80. Simple and Compound Sentences.+--In the first section of this review
the parts of a sentence were named as the _subject_ and _predicate_.

The _subject_ may itself consist of two parts joined by one of the
cooerdinating conjunctions: [Alice _and_ her cousin are here]. The
predicate may be formed in a similar fashion: [John played _and_ made
merry all day long]. Both subject and predicate may be so compounded:
[John _and_ Richard climbed the ladder _and_ jumped on the hay].

In all these cases the sentence, consisting as it does of but one subject
and one predicate, is said to be _simple_.

When two clauses--that is, two groups of words containing each a subject
and predicate--are united by a cooerdinate conjunction, the sentence is
said to be _compound_: [John wished to play Indian, _but_ Richard
preferred to play railroad].

The cooerdinating conjunction need not actually appear in the sentence. Its
omission is then indicated by the punctuation: [John wished to play
Indian; Richard preferred another game].

+81. Subordinate Conjunctions and Complex Sentences.+--A _subordinate_
conjunction is used to join a subordinate clause to a principal clause,
thus forming a _complex_ sentence. The test to be applied to a clause in
order to ascertain whether it is a subordinate clause, is this: if any
group of words in a sentence, containing a subject and predicate, fulfills
the office of some single part of speech, it is a _subordinate_ clause. In
the sentence, "I went because I knew that I must," the clause, "because I
knew that I must" states the reason for the action named in the main
clause. It, therefore, stands in _adverbial_ relation to the verb "went."
"That I must" is the object of "knew." It, therefore, stands in a
_substantive_ relation to the verb.

Subordinate clauses are often introduced by subordinate conjunctions
(sometimes by relative pronouns or adverbs); but, whenever such a
clause appears in a sentence, otherwise simple, the sentence is _complex_.
If it appears in a sentence otherwise compound, the sentence is

The different types of subordinate clauses will be discussed later.


+82. Phrases.+--Phrases are classified both as to structure and use.

From the standpoint of structure, a phrase is classified from its
introductory word or words, as:--

1. _Prepositional_: [They were _in the temple_].

2. _Infinitive_: [He tried _to make us hear_].

3. _Participial_: [_Having finished my letter_].

Classified as to use, a phrase may be--

1. A _noun_: [_To be good is to be truly great_].

2. An _adjective_: [The horse is an animal _of much intelligence_].

3. An _adverb_: [He lives _in the city_].

+83. Clauses.+--It has been already shown that clauses may be either
principal or subordinate. A principal clause is sometimes defined as "one
that can stand alone," and is therefore independent of the rest of the
sentence. This statement is misleading, for, although true in most cases,
it does not hold in cases like the following:--

1. As the tree falls, so it must lie.

2. That sunshine is cheering, cannot be denied.

The genuine test for the subordinate clause is the one already given in
connection with the study of the subordinate conjunction. It must serve
the purpose of some single part of speech. All other clauses are principal

+84. Classification of Subordinate Clauses.+--_A._ Subordinate clauses may
be classified into _substantive_ and _modifying_ clauses.

_Substantive clauses_ show the various substantive constructions. Thus:--

1. Subject: ["_Thou shalt not covet_," is the tenth commandment].

2. Object: [I know _what you wish_].

3. Appositive: [The truth _that the earth is spherical_ is generally

4. Attribute complement: [The truth is _that she is not well_].

_Modifying clauses_ show adjective and adverbial constructions.


1. Adjective: [The house _which you see_ is mine].

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