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Character Sketches of Romance, Fiction and the Drama, Vol 1 by The Rev. E. Cobham Brewer, LL.D.

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have a novel called _Roman d'Alexandre_, by Lambert-li-cors (twelfth
century), and a tragedy by Racine (1665).

_Alexander an Athlete_. Alexander, being asked if he would run a
course at the Olympic games, replied, "Yes, if my competitors are all

_The Albanian Alexander_, George Castriot _(Scanderbeg_ or _Iscander
beg_, 1404-1467).

_The Persian Alexander_, Sandjar (1117-1158).

_Alexander of the North_, Charles XII. of Sweden (1682-1718).

_Alexander deformed_.

Ammon's great son one shoulder had too high.

Pope, _Prologue to the Satires_, 117.

_Alexander and Homer_. When Alexander invaded Asia Minor, he offered
up sacrifice to Priam, and then went to visit the tomb of Achilles.
Here he exclaimed, "O most enviable of men, who had Homer to sing thy

Which made the Eastern conqueror to cry,

"O fortunate young man! whose virtue found
So brave a trump thy noble deeds to sound."

Spenser, _The Ruins of Time_ (1591).

_Alexander and Parme'nio._ When Darius, king of Persia, offered
Alexander his daughter Stati'ra in marriage, with a dowry of 10,000
talents of gold, Parmenio said, "I would accept the offer, if I
were Alexander." To this Alexander rejoined, "So would I, if I were

On another occasion the general thought the king somewhat too lavish
in his gifts, whereupon Alexander made answer, "I consider not what
Parmenio ought to receive, but what Alexander ought to give."

_Alexander and Perdiccas_. When Alexander started for Asia he divided
his possessions among his friends. Perdiccas asked what he had
left for himself. "Hope," said Alexander. "If hope is enough for
Alexander," replied the friend, "it is enough for Perdiccas also;" and
declined to accept anything.

_Alexander and Raphael_. Alexander encountered Raphael in a cave
in the mountain of Kaf, and being asked what he was in search of,
replied, "The water of immortality." Whereupon Raphael gave him a
stone, and told him when he found another of the same weight he would
gain his wish. "And how long," said Alexander, "have I to live?" The
angel replied, "Till the heaven above thee and the earth beneath thee
are of iron." Alexander now went forth and found a stone almost of the
weight required, and in order to complete the balance, added a little
earth; falling from his horse at Ghur he was laid in his armor on the
ground, and his shield was set up over him to ward off the sun. Then
understood he that he would gain immortality when, like the stone, he
was buried in the earth, and that his hour was come, for the earth
beneath him was iron, and his iron buckler was his vault of heaven
above. So he died.

_Alexander and the Robber_. When Dion'ides, a pirate, was brought
before Alexander, he exclaimed, "Vile brigand! How dare you infest
the seas with your misdeeds?" "And you," replied the pirate, "by what
right do you ravage the world? Because I have only one ship, I
am called a brigand, but you who have a whole fleet are termed a
conqueror." Alexander admired the man's boldness, and commanded him to
be set at liberty.

_Alexander's Beard_, a smooth chin, or a very small beard. It is said
that Alexander the Great had scarcely any beard at all.

Disgraced yet with Alexander's bearde.

G. Gascoigne, _The Steele Glas_ (died 1577).

_Alexander's Runner_, Ladas.

ALEXAN'DRA, daughter of Oronthea, queen of the Am'azons, and one of
the ten wives of Elba'nio. It is from this person that the land of the
Amazons was called Alexandra.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

ALEX'IS, the wanton shepherd in _The Faithful Shepherdess_, a pastoral
drama by John Fletcher (1610).

ALFA'DER, the father of all the Asen _(deities)_ of Scandinavia,
creator and governor of the universe, patron of arts and magic, etc.

ALFONSO, father of Leono'ra d'Este, and duke of Ferrara, Tasso the
poet fell in love with Leonora. The duke confined him as a lunatic for
seven years in the asylum of Santa Anna, but at the expiration of that
period he was released through the intercession of Vincenzo Gonzago,
duke of Mantua. Byron refers to this in his _Childe Harold_, iv. 36.

_Alfonso XI_ of Castile, whose "favorite" was Leonora de
Guzman.--Donizetti, _La Favorita_ (an opera, 1842).

_Alfon'so (Don)_, of Seville, a man of fifty and husband of donna
Julia (twenty-seven years his junior), of whom he was jealous without
cause.--Byron, _Don Juan_, i.

_Alfon'so_, in Walpole's tale called _The Castle of Otranto_, appears
as an apparition in the moonlight, dilated to a gigantic form (1769).

ALFRED AS A GLEEMAN. Alfred, wishing to know the strength of the
Danish camp, assumed the disguise of a minstrel, and stayed in the
Danish camp for several days, amusing the soldiers with his harping
and singing. After he had made himself master of all he required,
he returned back to his own place.--William of Malmesbury (twelfth

William of Malmesbury tells a similar story of Anlaf, a Danish king,
who, he says, just before the battle of Brunanburh, in Northumberland,
entered the camp of king Athelstan as a gleeman, harp in hand; and so
pleased was the English king that he gave him gold. Anlaf would not
keep the gold, but buried it in the earth.

ALGARSIFE (3 _syl_.), and Cam'ballo, sons of Cambuscan' king of
Tartary, and Elfeta his wife. Algarsife married Theodora.

I speak of Algarsife,
How that he won Theodora to his wife.

Chaucer, _The Squire's Tale_ AL'GEBAR' ("_the giant_"). So the
Arabians call the constellation Orion.

Begirt with many a blazing star,
Stood the great giant Algebar--
Orion, hunter of the beast.
Longfellow, _The Occultation of Orion_.

AL'I, cousin and son-in-law of Mahomet. The beauty of his eyes is
proverbial in Persia. _Ayn Hali_ ("eyes of Ali") is the highest
compliment a Persian can pay to beauty.--Chardin.

ALI BABA, a poor Persian wood-carrier, who accidentally learns the
magic words, "Open Sesame!" "Shut Sesame!" by which he gains entrance
into a vast cavern, the repository of stolen wealth and the lair of
forty thieves. He makes himself rich by plundering from these stores;
and by the shrewd cunning of Morgiana, his female slave, the captain
and his whole band of thieves are extirpated. In reward of these
services, Ali Baba gives Morgiana her freedom, and marries her to his
own son.--_Arabian Nights_ ("Ali Baba or the Forty Thieves").

AL'ICE (2 _syl_.), sister of Valentine, in _Mons. Thomas_, a comedy by
Beaumont and Fletcher (1619).

_Al'ice_ (2 _syl_.), foster-sister of Robert le Diable, and bride of
Rambaldo, the Norman troubadour, in Meyerbeer's opera of _Roberto
il Diavolo_. She comes to Palermo to place in the duke's hand his
mother's "will," which he is enjoined not to read till he is a
virtuous man. She is Robert's good genius, and when Bertram, the
fiend, claims his soul as the price of his ill deeds, Alice, by
reading the will, reclaims him.

_Al'ice_ (2 _syl_.), the servant-girl of dame Whitecraft, wife of the
innkeeper at Altringham.--Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time,
Charles II.).

_Al'ice_, the miller's daughter, a story of happy first love told in
later years by an old man who had married the rustic beauty. He was a
dreamy lad when he first loved Alice, and the passion roused him into
manhood. (See ROSE.)--Tennyson, _The Miller's Daughter_.

_Al'ice (The Lady_), widow of Walter, knight of Avenel (2 _syl_).--Sir
W. Scott, _The Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Al'ice_ [GRAY], called "Old Alice Gray," a quondam tenant of the lord
of Ravenswood. Lucy Ashton visits her after the funeral of the old
lord.--Sir W. Scott, _Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

_Alice Munro_, one of the sisters taken captive by Indians in Cooper's
_Last of the Mohicans_ (1821).

ALICHI'NO. a devil in Dante's _Inferno_.

ALICIA gave her heart to Mosby, but married Arden for his position. As
a wife, she played falsely with her husband, and even joined Mosby in
a plot to murder him. Vacillating between love for Mosby and
respect for Arden, she repents, and goes on sinning; wishes to get
disentangled, but is overmastered by Mosby's stronger will. Alicia's
passions impel her to evil, but her judgment accuses her and prompts
her to the right course. She halts, and parleys with sin, like Balaam,
and of course is lost.--Anon., _Arden of Feversham_ (1592).

_Alic'ia_, "a laughing, toying, wheedling, whimpering she," who once
held lord Hastings under her distaff, but her annoying jealousy,
"vexatious days, and jarring, joyless nights," drove him away from
her. Being jealous of Jane Shore, she accused her to the duke of
Gloster of alluring lord Hastings from his allegiance, and the lord
protector soon trumped up a charge against both; the lord chamberlain
he ordered to execution for treason, and Jane Shore he persecuted for
witchcraft. Alicia goes raving mad.--Rowe, _Jane Shore_ (1713).

_Alic'ia_ (_The lady_), daughter of lord Waldemar Fitzurse.--Sir W.
Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

ALICK [POLWORTH], one of the servants of Waverley.--Sir W. Scott,
_Waverley_ (time, George II.).

ALIFAN'FARON, emperor of the island Trap'oban, a Mahometan, the suitor
of Pentap'olin's daughter, a Christian. Pentapolin refused to sanction
this alliance, and the emperor raised a vast army to enforce his
suit. This is don Quixote's solution of two flocks of sheep coming
in opposite directions, which he told Sancho were the armies of
Alifanfaron and Pentapolin.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. iii. 4

Ajax the Greater had a similar encounter. (See AJAX.)

ALIN'DA, daughter of Alphonso, an irascible old lord of
Sego'via.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Pilgrim_ (1621).

(_Alinda_ is the name assumed by young Archas when he dresses in
woman's attire. This young man is the son of general Archas, "the
loyal subject" of the great duke of Moscovia, in the drama by Beaumont
and Fletcher, called _The Loyal Subject_, 1618.)

ALIPRANDO, a Christian knight, who discovered the armor of Rinaldo,
and took it to Godfrey. Both inferred that Rinaldo had been slain, but
were mistaken.--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

AL'IRIS, sultan of Lower Buchar'ia, who, under the assumed name of
Fer'amorz, accompanies Lalla Rookh from Delhi, on her way to be
married to the sultan. He wins her love, and amuses the tedium of the
journey by telling her tales. When introduced to the sultan, her joy
is unbounded on discovering that Feramorz the poet, who has won her
heart, is the sultan to whom she is betrothed.--T. Moore, _Lalla

ALISAUNDER (_Sir_), surnamed LORFELIN, son of the good prince Boudwine
and his wife An'glides (3 _syl_.). Sir Mark, king of Cornwall,
murdered sir Boudwine, who was his brother, while Alisaunder was a
mere child. When Alisaunder was knighted, his mother gave him his
father's doublet, "bebled with old blood," and charged him to revenge
his father's death. Alisaunder married Alis la Beale Pilgrim, and
had one son called Bellen'gerus le Beuse. Instead of fulfilling his
mother's charge, he was himself "falsely and feloniously slain" by
king Mark.--Sir T. Malory, _History of King Arthur_, ii. 119-125

AL'ISON, the young wife of John, a rich old miserly carpenter.
Absolon, a priggish parish clerk, paid her attention, but she herself
loved a poor scholar named Nicholas, lodging in her husband's house.
Fair she was, and her body lithe as a weasel. She had a rouguish eye,
small eyebrows, was "long as a mast and upright as a bolt," more
"pleasant to look on than a flowering pear tree," and her skin "was
softer than the wool of a wether."--Chaucer, "The Miller's Tale,"
_Canterbury Tales_, (1388).

_Al'ison_, in sir W. Scott's _Kenilworth_, is an old domestic in the
service of the earl of Leicester at Cumnor Place.

AL'KEN, an old shepherd, who instructs Robin Hood's men how to find a
witch, and how she is to be hunted.--Ben Jonson, _The Sad Shepherd_

ALL'S WELL THAT ENDS WELL, a comedy by Shakespeare (1598). The hero
and heroine are Bertram of Rousillon, and Hel'ena a physician's
daughter, who are married by the command of the king of France, but
part because Bertram thought the lady not sufficiently well-born for
him. Ultimately, however, all ends well.--(See HELENA.)

The story of this play is from Painter's _Gilletta of Narbon_.

ALL THE TALENTS Administration, formed by lord Grenville, in 1806, on
the death of William Pitt. The members were lord Grenville, the earl
Fitzwilliam, viscount Sidmouth, Charles James Fox, earl Spencer,
William Windham, lord Erskine, sir Charles Grey, lord Minto, lord
Auckland, lord Moira, Sheridan, Richard Fitzpatrick, and lord
Ellenborough. It was dissolved in 1807.

On "all the talents" vent your venal spleen.

Byron, _English Bards and Scotch Reviewers_.

ALLAN, lord of Ravenswood, a decayed Scotch nobleman.--Sir W. Scott,
_The Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

_Al'lan (Mrs.)_, colonel Mannering's housekeeper at Woodburne.--Sir W.
Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

_Al'lan_ [Breck Cameron], the sergeant sent to arrest Hamish Bean
McTavish, by whom he is shot. Sir W. Scott, _The Highland Widow_
(time, George II.).

ALLAN-A-DALE, one of Robin Hood's men, introduced by sir W. Scott in
_Ivanhoe_. (See ALLIN-A-DALE.)

ALLAN QUARTERMAIN, hunter and traveller whose adventures are recorded
in _She, King Solomon's Mines_, and _Allan Quartermain_, by W. Rider
Haggard (1886-1891).

ALLE'GRE (3 _syl_.), the faithful servant of Philip Chabot. When
Chabot was accused of treason, Allegre was put to the rack to make him
confess something to his master's damage, but the brave fellow was
true as steel, and it was afterwards shown that the accusation had no
foundation but jealousy.--G. Chapman and J. Shirley, _The Tragedy of
Philip Chabot_.

ALLEN (_Ralph_), the friend of Pope, and benefactor of Fielding.

Let humble Allen, with an awkward shame,
Do good by stealth, and blush to find it fame.


_Allen (Long)_, a soldier in the "guards" of king Richard I.--Sir W.
Scott, _The Talisman_.

_Allen (Major)_, an officer in the duke of Monmouth's army.--Sir W.
Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

ALL-FAIR, a princess, who was saved from the two lions (which guarded
the Desert Fairy) by the Yellow Dwarf, on condition that she would
become his wife. On her return home she hoped to evade this promise
by marrying the brave king of the Gold Mines, but on the wedding day
Yellow Dwarf carried her off on a Spanish cat, and confined her in
Steel Castle. Here Gold Mine came to her rescue with a magic sword,
but in his joy at finding her, he dropped his sword, and was stabbed
to the heart with it by Yellow Dwarf. All-Fair, falling on the body of
her lover, died of a broken heart. The syren changed the dead lovers
into two palm trees.--Comtesse D'Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ ("The Yellow
Dwarf," 1682). ALLIN-A-DALE or ALLEN-A-DALE, of Nottinghamshire,
was to be married to a lady who returned his love, but her parents
compelled her to forego young Allin for an old knight of wealth. Allin
told his tale to Robin Hood, and the bold forester, in the disguise of
a harper, went to the church where the wedding ceremony was to take
place. When the wedding party stepped in, Robin Hood exclaimed, "This
is no fit match; the bride shall be married only to the man of her
choice." Then, sounding his horn, Allin-a-Dale with four and twenty
bowmen entered the church. The bishop refused to marry the woman to
Allin till the banns had been asked three times, whereupon Robin
pulled off the bishop's gown, and invested Little John in it, who
asked the banns seven times, and performed the ceremony.--_Robin Hood
and Allin-a-Dale_ (a ballad).

ALL'IT. Captain of Nebuchadrezzar's guards in _The Master of the
Magicians_, by Elizabeth Stuart Phelps and Herbert D. Ward. He is
flattered and content to be the queen's favorite until he meets
Lalitha, a Jewish damsel. He braves death to save her from runaway
horses attached to a chariot, is captivated by her beauty, and forgets
his royal mistress in an honorable love (1890).

ALLNUT (_Noll_), landlord of the Swan, Lambythe Ferry (1625).

_Grace Allnut_, his wife.

_Oliver Allnut_, the landlord's son.--Sterling, _John Felton_ (1852).

ALLWORTH (_Lady_), stepmother to Tom Allworth. Sir Giles Overreach
thought she would marry his nephew Wellborn, but she married lord

_Tom Allworth_, stepson of lady Allworth, in love with Margaret
Overreach, whom he marries.--Massinger, _A New Way to pay Old Debts_

ALL'WORTHY, in Fielding's _Tom Jones_, a man of sturdy rectitude,
large charity, infinite modesty, independent spirit, and untiring
philanthropy, with an utter disregard of money or fame. Fielding's
friend, Ralph Allen, was the academy figure of this character.

ALMA (_the human soul_) queen of a Castle, which for seven years was
beset by a rabble rout. Arthur and sir Guyon were conducted by Alma
over this castle, which though not named is intended to represent the
human body.--Spenser, _The Faerie Queene_, ii. 9 (1590).

ALMANSOR ("_the invincible_"), a title assumed by several Mussulman
princes, as by the second caliph of the Abbasside dynasty, named Abou
Giafar Abdallah (_the invincible_, or _al mansor_). Also by the
famous captain of the Moors in Spain, named Mohammed. In Africa,
Yacoubal-Modjahed was entitled "_al mansor_," a royal name of dignity
given to the kings of Fez, Morocco, and Algiers.

The kingdoms of Almansor, Fez, and Sus,
Marocco and Algiers.
Milton, _Paradise Lost_, xi. 403 (1665).

ALMANZOR, the caliph, wishing to found a city in a certain spot, was
told by a hermit named Bag dad that a man called Moclas was destined
to be its founder. "I am that man," said the caliph, and he then told
the hermit how in his boyhood he once stole a bracelet and pawned it,
whereupon his nurse ever after called him "Moclas" (_thief_).
Almanzor founded the city, and called it Bag dad, the name of the

_Alman'zor_, in Dryden's tragedy of _The Conquest of Grana'da_.

_Alman'zor_, lackey of Madelon and her cousin Cathos, the affected
fine ladies in Moliere's comedy of _Les Precieuses Ridicules_ (1659).

ALMAVI'VA, (_Count_), in _The Marriage of Figaro_ and _The Barber
of Seville_ by Beaumarchais. _The Follies of a Day_ by T. Holcroft
(1745-1809) is borrowed from Beaumarchais.

ALME'RIA, daughter of Manuel king of Grana'da. While captive of
Valentia, prince Alphonso fell in love with her, and being compelled
to fight, married her; but on the very day of espousal the ship in
which they were sailing was wrecked, and each thought the other had
perished. Both, however, were saved, and met unexpectedly on the coast
of Granada, to which Alphonso was brought as a captive. Here Alphonso,
under the assumed name of Osmyn, was imprisoned, but made his escape,
and at the head of an army invaded Granada, found Manuel dead, and
"the mournful bride" became converted into the joyful wife.--W.
Congreve, _The Mourning Bride_ (1697).

ALMES'BURY (3 _syl_.). It was in a sanctuary of Almesbury that queen
Guenever took refuge, after her adulterous passion for sir Lancelot
was made known to the king. Here she died, but her body was buried at

ALMEY'DA, the Portuguese governor of India. In his engagement with
the united fleets of Cambaya and Egypt, he had his legs and thighs
shattered by chain-shot, but instead of retreating to the back, he had
himself bound to the shipmast, where he "waved his sword to cheer on
the combatants," till he died from loss of blood.

Similar stories are told of admiral Benbow, Cynaegeros brother of the
poet AEschylos, Jaafer who carried the sacred banner of "the prophet"
in the battle of Muta, and of some others.

Whirled by the cannons' rage, in shivers torn,
His thighs far scattered o'er the waves are borne;
Bound to the mast the godlike hero stands,
Waves his proud sword and cheers his woeful hands:
Tho' winds and seas their wonted aid deny,
To yield he knows not; but he knows to die.
Camoens, _Lusiad_, x. (1569).

ALMIRODS (_The_), a rebellions people, who refused to submit to prince
Pantag'ruel after his subjugation of Anarchus king of the Dipsodes (2
_syl_). It was while Pantagruel was marching against these rebels that
a tremendous shower of rain fell, and the prince, putting out his
tongue "halfway," sheltered his whole army.--Rabelais, _Pantagruel_,
ii. 32 (1533).

ALNAS'CHAR, the dreamer, the "barber's fifth brother." He invested all
his money in a basket of glassware, on which he was to gain so much,
and then to invest again and again, till he grew so rich that he would
marry the vizier's daughter and live in grandeur; but being angry with
his supposed wife, he gave a kick with his foot and smashed all the
ware which had given birth to his dream of wealth.--_The Arabian
Nights' Entertainments_.

_The Alnaschar of Modern Literature_, S.T. Coleridge, so called
because he was constantly planning magnificent literary enterprises
which he never carried out (1772-1834).

ALOA'DIN (4 _syl_.), a sorcerer, who made for himself a palace and
garden in Arabia called "The Earthly Paradise." Thalaba slew him with
a club, and the scene of enchantment disappeared.--Southey, _Thalaba
the Destroyer_, vii. (1797).

ALON'SO, king of Naples, father of Ferdinand and brother of Sebastian,
in _The Tempest_, by Shakespeare (1609).

ALONZO _the brave_, the name of a ballad by M.G. Lewis. The fair
Imogene was betrothed to Alonzo, but during his absence in the wars
became the bride of another. At the wedding-feast Alonzo's ghost sat
beside the bride, and, after rebuking her for her infidelity, carried
her off to the grave.

Alonzo the brave was the name of the knight;
The maid was the fair Imogene.
M.G. Lewis.

_Alon'zo_, a Portuguese gentleman, the sworn enemy of the vainglorious
Duarte (3 _syl_.), in the drama called _The Custom of the Country_, by
Beaumont and Fletcher (1647).

_Alonzo_, the husband of Cora. He is a brave Peruvian knight, the
friend of Rolla, and beloved by king Atali'ba. Alonzo, being taken
prisoner of war, is set at liberty by Rolla, who changes clothes with
him. At the end he fights with Pizarro and kills him.--Sheridan,
_Pizarro_ (altered from Kotzebue).

_Alonzo (Don)_, "the conqueror of Afric," friend of don Carlos, and
husband of Leonora. Don Carlos had been betrothed to Leonora, but out
of friendship resigned her to the conqueror. Zanga, the Moor, out
of revenge, persuaded Alonzo that his wife and don Carlos still
entertained for each other their former love, and out of jealousy
Alonzo has his friend put to death, while Leonora makes away with
herself. Zanga now informs Alonzo that his jealousy was groundless,
and mad with grief he kills himself.--Edw. Young, _The Revenge_

ALONZO FERNANDEZ DE AVELLANEDA, author of a spurious _Don Quixote_,
who makes a third sally. This was published during the lifetime of
Cervantes, and caused him great annoyance.

ALP, a Venetian renegade, who was commander of the Turkish army in
the siege of Corinth. He loved Francesca, daughter of old Minotti,
governor of Corinth, but she refused to marry a renegade and
apostate. Alp was shot in the siege, and Francesca died of a broken
heart.--Byron, _Siege of Corinth_.

ALPHE'US (3 _syl_.), a magician and prophet in the army of
Charlemagne, slain in sleep by Clorida'no.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_

_Alphe'us_ (3 _syl_.), of classic story, being passionately in love
with Arethu'sa, pursued her, but she fled from him in a fright, and
was changed by Diana into a fountain, which bears her name.

ALPHON'SO, an irascible old lord in _The Pilgrim_, a comedy by
Beaumont and Fletcher (1621).

_Alphon'so_, king of Naples, deposed by his brother Frederick. Sora'no
tried to poison him, but did not succeed. Ultimately he recovered his
crown, and Frederick and Sorano were sent to a monastery for the rest
of their lives.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _A Wife for a Month_ (1624).

_Alphonso_, son of count Pedro of Cantabria, afterwards king of Spain.
He was plighted to Hermesind, daughter of lord Pelayo.

The young Alphonso was in truth an heir
Of nature's largest patrimony; rich
In form and feature, growing strength of limb,
A gentle heart, a soul affectionate,
A joyous spirit, filled with generous thoughts,
And genius heightening and ennobling all.
Southey, _Roderick, etc._, viii. (1814).

ALQUI'FE (3 _syl_.), a famous enchanter in _Amadis of Gaul_, by Vasco
de Lobeira, of Oporto, who died 1403.

La Noue denounces such beneficent enchanters as Alquife and Urganda,
because they serve "as a vindication of those who traffic with the
powers of darkness."--Francis de la Noue, _Discourses_, 87 (1587).

ALRINACH, the demon who causes shipwrecks, and presides over storms
and earthquakes. When visible it is always in the form and dress of a
woman.--_Eastern Mythology_.

ALSCRIP (_Miss_), "the heiress," a vulgar _parvenue_, affected,
conceited, ill-natured, and ignorant. Having had a fortune left her,
she assumes the airs of a woman of fashion, and exhibits the follies
without possessing the merits of the upper ten.

_Mr. Alscrip_, the vulgar father of "the heiress," who finds the
grandeur of sudden wealth a great bore, and in his new mansion,
Berkeley Square, sighs for the snug comforts he once enjoyed as
scrivener in Furnival's Inn.--General Burgoyne, _The Heiress_ (1781).

AL'TAMONT, a young Genoese lord, who marries Calista, daughter of lord
Sciol'to (3 _syl_). On his wedding day he discovers that his bride has
been seduced by Lotha'rio, and a duel ensues, in which Lothario is
killed, whereupon Calista stabs herself.--N. Rowe, _The Fair Penitent_
(1703). (Rowe makes Sciolto three syllables always.)

ALTAMO'RUS, king of Samarcand', who joined the Egyptian armament
against the crusaders. He surrendered himself to Godfrey (bk.
xx.).--Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

ALTASCAR (_Senor_). A courtly old Spaniard in Bret Harte's Notes by
_Flood and Field_. He is dispossessed of his corral in the Sacramento
Valley by a party of government surveyors, who have come to correct
boundaries (1878).

ALTEMERA. Typical far-southern girl, with a lovely face, creamy skin,
and a "lazy sweet voice," who takes the leading part in Annie Eliot's
_An Hour's Promise_ (1888).

ALTHAEA'S BRAND. The Fates told Althaea that her son Melea'ger
would live just as long as a log of wood then on the fire remained
unconsumed. Althaea contrived to keep the log unconsumed for many
years, but when her son killed her two brothers, she threw it angrily
into the fire, where it was quickly consumed, and Meleager expired at
the same time.--Ovid, _Metaph_. viii. 4.

The fatal brand Althaea burned.
Shakespeare, 2 _Henry VI_. act i. sc. 1 (1591).

ALTHE'A (_The divine_), of Richard Lovelace, was Lucy Saeheverell,
also called by the poet, _Lucasta_.

When love with unconfined wings
Hovers within my gates,
And my divine Althea brings
To whisper at my grates.

(The "grates" here referred to were those of a prison in which
Lovelace was confined by the Long Parliament, for his petition from
Kent in favor of the king.)

ALTHEETAR, one of the seven bridegrooms of Lopluel, condemned to die
successively, by a malignant spirit. He is young, beautiful, and
endowed with rare gifts of soul and mind. While singing to her, his
lyre falls from his hand and he dies in her arms, her loosened hair
falling about him as a shroud.

"So calm, so fair,
He rested on the purple, tapestried floor,
It seemed an angel lay reposing there."

_Lopluel, or the Bride of Seven_, by Maria del Occidente (Maria Gowen
Brooks) (1833).

ALTISIDO'RA, one of the duchess's servants, who pretends to be in love
with don Quixote, and serenades him. The don sings his response that
he has no other love than what he gives to his Dulcin'ea, and while he
is still singing he is assailed by a string of cats, let into the room
by a rope. As the knight is leaving the mansion, Altisidora accuses
him of having stolen her garters, but when the knight denies the
charge, the damsel protests that she said so in her distraction, for
her garters were not stolen. "I am like the man looking for his mule
at the time he was astride its back."--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, II.
iii. 9, etc.; iv. 5 (1615).

AL'TON (_Miss_), _alias_ Miss CLIFFORD, a sweet, modest young lady,
the companion of Miss Alscrip, "the heiress," a vulgar, conceited
_parvenue_. Lord Gayville is expected to marry "the heiress," but
detests her, and loves Miss Alton, her humble companion. It turns out
that L2000 a year of "the heiress's" fortune belongs to Mr. Clifford
(Miss Alton's brother), and is by him settled on his sister. Sir
Clement Flint destroys this bond, whereby the money returns to
Clifford, who marries lady Emily Gayville, and sir Clement settles the
same on his nephew, lord Gayville, who marries Miss Alton.--General
Burgoyne, _The Heiress_ (1781).

AL'TON LOCKE, tailor and poet, a novel by the Rev. Charles Kingsley
(1850). This novel won for the author the title of "The Chartist

ALVIRA ROBERTS, hired "girl" and faithful retainer of the Fairchild
family. For many years she and Milton Squires, the hired man, have
"kept company." In his prosperity he deserts her. When he is convicted
of murder, she kisses him. "Ef 'twas the last thing I ever done in
my life, I'd dew it. We was--engaged--once't on a time!"--_Seth's
Brother's Wife_, by Harold Frederic (1886).

ALZIR'DO, king of Trem'izen, in Africa, overthrown by Orlando in
his march to join the allied army of Ag'ramant.--Ariosto, _Orlando
Furioso_ (1516).

AM'ADIS OF GAUL, a love-child of king Per'ion and the princess
Elize'na. He is the hero of a famous prose romance of chivalry, the
first four books of which are attributed to Lobeira, of Portugal (died
1403). These books were translated into Spanish in 1460 by Montal'vo,
who added the fifth book. The five were rendered into French by
Herberay, who increased the series to twenty-four books. Lastly,
Gilbert Saunier added seven more volumes, and called the entire series
_Le Roman des Romans_.

Whether Amadis was French or British is disputed. Some maintain
that "Gaul" means _Wales_, not France; that Elizena was princess of
_Brittany_ (Bretagne), and that Perion was king of Gaul (_Wales_), not
Gaul _(France)._

Amadis de Gaul was a tall man, of a fair complexion,
his aspect something between mild and
austere, and had a handsome black beard. He
was a person of very few words, was not easily
provoked, and was soon appeased.--Cervantes,
_Don Quixote_, II. i. 1 (1615).

As Arthur is the central figure of British romance, Charlemagne of
French, and Diderick of German, so Amadis is the central figure of
Spanish and Portuguese romance; but there is this difference--the tale
of Amadis is a connected whole, terminating with his marriage with
Oria'na, the intervening parts being only the obstacles he encountered
and overcame in obtaining this consummation. In the Arthurian
romances, and those of the Charlemagne series, we have a number of
adventures of different heroes, but there is no unity of purpose; each
set of adventures is complete in itself.

AMA'DIS OF GREECE, a supplemental part of _Amadis of Gaul_, by
Felicia'no de Silva. There are also several other Amadises--as Amadis
of Colchis, Amadis of Trebisond, Amadis of Cathay, but all these are
very inferior to the original _Amadis of Gaul_.

The ancient fables, whose relickes doe yet remain, namely, _Lancelot
of the Lake, Pierceforest, Tristram, Giron the Courteous_, etc., doe
beare witnesse of this odde vanitie. Herewith were men fed for the
space of 500 yeeres, untill our language growing more polished, and
our minds more ticklish, they were driven to invent some novelties
wherewith to delight us. Thus came ye bookes of Amadis into light
among us in this last age.--Francis de la Noue, _Discourses_, 87

AMAI'MON (3 _syl_.), one of the principal devils. Asmode'us is one of
his lieutenants. Shakespeare twice refers to him, in 1 _Henry IV._ act
ii. sc. 4, and in _The Merry Wives of Windsor_, act ii. sc. 2.

AMAL'AHTA, son of Erill'yab the deposed queen of the Hoamen (2
_syl_.), an Indian tribe settled on the south of the Missouri. He is
described as a brutal savage, wily, deceitful, and cruel. Amalahta
wished to marry the princess Goer'vyl, Madoc's sister, and even seized
her by force, but was killed in his flight.--Southey, _Madoc_, ii. 16

AMALTHAE'A, the sibyl who offered to sell to Tarquin nine books
of prophetic oracles. When the king refused to give her the price
demanded, she went away, burnt three of them, and returning to the
king, demanded the same price for the remaining six. Again the king
declined the purchase. The sibyl, after burning three more of the
volumes, demanded the original sum for the remaining three. Tarquin
paid the money, and Amalthaea was never more seen. Aulus Gellius says
that Amalthaea burnt the books in the king's presence. Pliny affirms
that the original number of volumes was only three, two of which the
sibyl burnt, and the third was purchased by king Tarquin.

AMALTHE'A, a mistress of Ammon and mother of Bacchus. Ammon hid
his mistress in the island Nysa (in Africa), in order to elude the
vigilance and jealousy of his wife Rhea. This account (given by
Diodorus Sic'ulus, bk. iii., and by sir Walter Raleigh in his _History
of the World_, I. vi. 5) differs from the ordinary story, which makes
Sem'ele the mother of Bacchus, and Rhea his nurse. (Ammon is Ham or
Cham, the son of Noah, founder of the African race.)

... that Nyseian ile,
Girt with the river Triton, where old Cham
(Whom Gentiles Ammon call, and Libyan Jove)
Hid Amalthea and her florid son,
Young Bacchus, from his stepdame Rhea's eye.

Milton, _Paradise Lost_, iv. 275 (1665).

AMANDA, wife of Loveless. Lord Foppington pays her amorous attentions,
but she utterly despises the conceited coxcomb, and treats him with
contumely. Colonel Townly, in order to pique his lady-love, also
pays attention to Loveless's wife, but she repels his advances with
indignation, and Loveless, who overhears her, conscious of his own
shortcomings, resolves to reform his ways, and, "forsaking all
other," to remain true to Amanda, "so long as they both should
live."--Sheridan, _A Trip to Scarborough_.

_Aman'da_, in Thomson's _Seasons_, is meant for Miss Young, who
married admiral Campbell.

And thou, Amanda, come, pride of my song!
Formed by the Graces, loveliness itself.

"Spring," 480, 481 (1728).

_Amanda_, the victim of Peregrine Pickle's seduction, in Smollett's
novel of _Peregrine Pickle_ (1751).

_Amanda_, worldly woman in Julia Ward Howe's poem, _Amanda's
Inventory_, who sums up her wealth and honors, and is forced to
conclude the list with death (1866).

AMARAN'TA, wife of Bar'tolus, the covetous lawyer. She was wantonly
loved by Leandro, a Spanish gentleman.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The
Spanish Curate_ (1622).

AM'ARANTH (_Lady_), in _Wild Oats_, by John O'Keefe, a famous part of
Mrs. Pope (1740-1797).

AMARIL'LIS, a shepherdess in love with Per'igot (_t_ sounded), but
Perigot loved Am'oret. In order to break off this affection, Amarillis
induced "the sullen shepherd" to dip her in "the magic well," whereby
she became transformed into the perfect resemblance of her rival, and
soon effectually disgusted Perigot with her bold and wanton conduct.
When afterwards he met the true Amoret, he repulsed her, and even
wounded her with intent to kill. Ultimately, the trick was discovered
by Cor'in, "the faithful shepherdess," and Perigot was married to his
true love.--John Fletcher, _The Faithful Shepherd_ (1610).

AMARYLLIS, in Spenser's pastoral _Colin Clout's Come Home Again_, was
the countess of Derby. Her name was Alice, and she was the youngest of
the six daughters of sir John Spenser, of Althorpe, ancestor of the
noble houses of Spenser and Marlborough. After the death of the
earl, the widow married sir Thomas Egerton, keeper of the Great Seal
(afterwards baron of Ellesmere and viscount Brackley). It was for this
very lady, during her widowhood, that Milton wrote his _Ar'cades_ (3

No less praiseworthy are the sisters three,
The honour of the noble family
Of which I meanest boast myself to be ...
Phyllis, Charyllis, and sweet Amaryllis:
Phyllis the fair is eldest of the three,
The next to her is bountiful Charyllis,
But th' youngest is the highest in degree.

Spenser, _Colin Clout's Come Home Again_ (1594).

AM'ASISI, _Amosis_, or _Aah'mes_ (3 _syl_.), founder of the eighteenth
Egyptian dynasty (B.C. 1610). Lord Brooke attributes to him one of the
pyramids. The three chief pyramids are usually ascribed to Suphis (or
Cheops), Sen-Suphis (or Cephrenes), and Mencheres, all of the fourth

Amasis and Cheops how can time forgive.
Who in their useless pyramids would live?

Lord Brooke, _Peace_.

AMATEUR (_An_), Pierce Egan the younger published under this pseudonym
his _Real Life in London_, or _The Rambles and Adventures of Rob
Tally-ho, Esq., and his Cousin, the Hon. Tom Dashall, through the
Metropolis_ (1821-2).

AMAUROTS (_The_), a people whose kingdom was invaded by the Dipsodes
(2 _syl_.), but Pantag'ruel, coming to their defence, utterly routed
the invaders.--Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, ii. (1533).

AMA'VIA, the personification of Intemperance in grief. Hearing that
her husband, sir Mordant, had been enticed to the Bower of Bliss by
the enchantress Acra'sia, she went in quest of him, and found him so
changed in mind and body she could scarcely recognize him; however,
she managed by tact to bring him away, but he died on the road, and
Amavia stabbed herself from excessive grief.--Spenser, _Faery Queen_,
ii. 1 (1590).

AMAZO'NA, a fairy, who freed a certain country from the Ogri and the
Blue Centaur. When she sounded her trumpet, the sick were recovered
and became both young and strong. She gave the princess Carpil'lona a
bunch of gilly-flowers, which enabled her to pass unrecognized before
those who knew her well.--Comtesse D'Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ ("The
Princess Carpillona," 1682).

AMAZONS, a fabled race of women-warriors. It was said that in order to
use the bow, they cut off one of their breasts.

AMBER, said to be a concretion of birds' tears, but the birds were the
sisters of Melea'ger, called Meleag'rides, who never ceased weeping
for their dead brother.--Pliny, _Natural History_, xxxvii. 2, 11.

Around thee shall glisten the loveliest amber.
That ever the sorrowing sea-birds have wept.

T. Moore, _Fire-Worshippers_.

AM'BROSE (2 _syl_.), a sharper, who assumed in the presence of Gil
Blas the character of a devotee. He was in league with a fellow who
assumed the name of don Raphael, and a young woman who called herself
Camilla, cousin of donna Mencia. These three sharpers allure Gil Blas
to a house which Camilla says is hers, fleece him of his ring, his
portmanteau, and his money, decamp, and leave him to find out that the
house is only a hired lodging.--Lesage, _Gil Blas_, i. 15, 16 (1715).

(This incident is borrowed from Espinel's romance entitled _Vida de
Escudero, marcos de Obregon_, 1618.)

_Am'brose_ (2 _syl_.), a male domestic servant waiting on Miss
Seraphine and Miss Angelica Arthuret.--Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_
(time, George II.).

_Ambrose (Brother)_, a monk who attended the prior Aymer, of Jorvaulx
Abbey.--Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

_Am'brosius (Father)_, abbot of Kennaquhair, is Edward Glendinning,
brother of sir Halbert Glendinning (the knight of Avenel). He appears
at Kinross, disguised as a nobleman's retainer.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Abbot_ (time, Elizabeth).

AME'LIA, heroine of novel of same name. Young daughter of a German
inn-keeper, who rises to a high position in society, through native
merit, graces of mind and person.--Eliza Leslie (1843).

_Ame'lia_, a model of conjugal affection, in Fielding's novel so
called. It is said that the character was modelled from his own
wife. Dr. Johnson read this novel from beginning to end without once

_Amelia_ is perhaps the only book of which, being printed off betimes
one morning, a new edition was called for before night. The character
of Amelia is the most pleasing heroine of all the romances.--Dr.

_Ame'lia_, in Thomson's _Seasons_, a beautiful, innocent young woman,
overtaken by a storm while walking with her troth-plight lover,
Cel'adon, "with equal virtue formed, and equal grace. Hers the mild
lustre of the blooming morn, and his the radiance of the risen day."
Amelia grew frightened, but Celadon said, "'Tis safety to be near
thee, sure;" when a flash of lightning struck her dead in his
arms.--"Summer" (1727).

_Amelia_, in Schiller's tragedy of _The Robbers_.

Or they will learn how generous worth sublimes
The robber Moor, and pleads for all his crimes;
How poor Amelia kissed with many a tear
His hand, blood-stained, but ever, ever dear.

Campbell, _Pleasures of Hope_, ii. (1799).

_Amelia Bailey_, ambitious woman with "literary tastes," who in
pursuit of a suitable sphere, marries a rich Californian, and "shines
with the diamonds her husband has bought, and makes a noise, but it is
the blare of vulgar ostentation,"--William Henry Rideing, _A Little
Upstart_ (1885).

AMELOT (2 _syl_.), the page of sir Damian de Lacy.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

AM'GIAD, son of Camaralzaman and Badoura, and half-brother of Assad
(son of Camaralzaman and Haiatal'nefous). Each of the two mothers
conceived a base passion for the other's son, and when the young
princes revolted at their advances, accused them to their father of
designs upon their honor. Camaralzaman ordered his emir Giondar to put
them both to death, but as the young men had saved him from a lion he
laid no hand on them, but told them not to return to their father's
dominions. They wandered on for a time, and then parted, but both
reached the same place, which was a city of the Magi. Here, by a
strange adventure Amgiad was made vizier, while Assad was thrown into
a dungeon, where he was designed as a sacrifice to the fire-god.
Bosta'na, a daughter of the old man who imprisoned Assad, released
him, and Amgiad out of gratitude made her his wife. After which, the
king, who was greatly advanced in years, appointed him his successor,
and Amgiad used his best efforts to abolish the worship of fire and
establish "the true faith."--_Arabian Nights_ ("Amgiad and Assad").

AM'YAS, a squire of low degree, beloved by Aemylia. They agreed
to meet at a given spot, but on their way thither both were taken
captives--Amyas by Corflambo, and Aemylia by a man monster. Aemylia
was released by Belphoebe (3 _syl_.), who slew "the caitiff;" and
Amyas by prince Arthur, who slew Corflambo. The two lovers were then
brought together by the prince "in peace and joyous blis."--Spenser,
_Faery Queen_, iv. 7, 9 (1596).

AMI'DAS, the younger brother of Brac'idas, sons of Mile'sio; the
former in love with the dowerless Lucy, and the latter with the
wealthy Philtra. The two brothers had each an island of equal size and
value left them by their father, but the sea daily added to the island
of the younger brother, and encroached on that belonging to Bracidas.
When Philtra saw that the property of Amidas was daily increasing,
she forsook the elder brother and married the wealthier; while Lucy,
seeing herself jilted, threw herself into the sea. A floating chest
attracted her attention, she clung to it, and was drifted to the
wasted island. It was found to contain great riches, and Lucy gave its
contents and herself to Bracidas. Amidas claimed the chest as his own
by right, and the question in dispute was submitted to sir Ar'tegal.
The wise arbiter decided, that whereas Armidas claimed as his own all
the additions given to his island by the sea, Lucy might claim as her
own the chest, because the sea had given it to her.--Spenser, _Faery
Queen_, v. 4 (1596).

AM'IEL, in Dryden's _Absalom and Achitophel_, is meant for sir Edward
Seymour, Speaker of the House of Commons.

Who can Amiel's praise refuse?
Of ancient race by birth, but nobler yet
In his own worth, and without title great.
The sanhedrim long time as chief he ruled,
Their reason guided, and their passion cooled.

Part i.

A'MIN (_Prince_), son of the caliph Haroun-al-Raschid; he married
Am'ine, sister of Zobeide (3 _syl_.), the caliph's wife.--_Arabian
Nights' Entertainments_ ("The History of Amine").

_Am'ina_, an orphan, who walked in her sleep. She was betrothed to
Elvi'no, a rich farmer, but being found the night before the wedding
in the chamber of count Rodolpho, Elvino rightly refused to marry her.
The count remonstrated with the young farmer, and while they were
talking, the orphan was seen to get out of a window and walk along
the narrow edge of a mill-roof while the great wheel was rapidly
revolving; she then crossed a crazy old bridge, and came into the same
chamber. Here she awoke, and, seeing Elvino, threw her arms around
him so lovingly, that all his doubts vanished, and he married
her.--Bellini, _La Sonnambula_ (an opera, 1831).

AM'INE (3 _syl_.), half-sister of Zobei'de (3 _syl_.), and wife of
Amin, the caliph's son. One day she went to purchase a robe, and the
seller told her he would charge nothing if she would suffer him to
kiss her cheek. Instead of kissing he bit it, and Amine, being asked
by her husband how she came by the wound, so shuffled in her answers
that he commanded her to be put to death, a sentence he afterwards
commuted to scourging. One day she and her sister told the stories
of their lives to the caliph Haroun-al-Raschid, when Amin
became reconciled to his wife, and the caliph married her
half-sister.--_Arabian Nights'Entertainments_ ("History of Zobeide and
History of Amine").

AM'INE (3 _syl_.) or AM'INES (3 _syl_.), the beautiful wife of Sidi
Nouman. Instead of eating her rice with a spoon, she used a bodkin for
the purpose, and carried it to her mouth in infinitesimal portions.
This went on for some time, till Sidi Nouman determined to ascertain
on what his wife really fed, and to his horror discovered that she was
a ghoul, who went stealthily by night to the cemetery, and feasted on
the freshly-buried dead.--_Arabian Nights_ ("History of Sidi Nouman").

One of the Amines' sort, who pick up their
grains of food with a bodkin.--O.W. Holmes,
_Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table_.

AMIN'TOR, a young nobleman, the troth-plight husband of Aspatia, but
by the king's command he marries Evad'ne (3 _syl_.). This is the great
event of the tragedy of which Amintor is the hero. The sad story of
Evadne, the heroine, gives name to the play.--Beaumont and Fletcher,
_The Maid's Tragedy_ (1610).

(Till the reign of Charles II., the kings of England claimed the
feudal right of disposing in marriage any one who owed them feudal
allegiance. In _All's Well that Ends Well_, Shakespeare makes the king
of France exercise a similar right, when he commands Bertram, count
of Rousillon, to marry against his will Hel'ena, the physician's

AMIS THE PRIEST, the hero of a comic German epic of the 13th century,
represented as an Englishman, a man of great wit and humor, but
ignorant and hypocritical. His popularity excites the envy of the
superior clergy, who seek to depose him from the priesthood by making
public exposition of his ignorance, but by his quickness at repartee
he always manages to turn the laugh against them.--Ascribed to
Stricker of Austria.

AM'LET (_Richard_), the gamester in Vanbrugh's _Confederacy_ (1695).
He is usually called "Dick."

I saw Miss Pope for the second time, in the year 1790, in the
character of "Flippanta," John Palmer being "Dick Amlet," and Mrs.
Jordan "Corinna."--James Smith.

_Mrs. Amlet_, a rich, vulgar tradeswoman, mother of _Dick_, of whom
she is very proud, although she calls him a "sad scapegrace," and
swears "he will be hanged." At last she settles on him L10,000, and he
marries Corinna, daughter of Gripe the rich scrivener.

AMMO'NIAN HORN (_The_), the cornucopia. Ammon king of Lib'ya gave to
his mistress Amalthe'a (mother of Bacchus) a tract of land resembling
a ram's horn in shape, and hence called the "_Ammonian_ horn" (from
the giver), the "_Amalthe'an_ horn" (from the receiver), and the
"_Hesperian_ horn" (from its locality). Amalthea also personifies
fertility. (Ammon is Ham, son of Noah, founder of the African race.)

[Here] Amalthea pours,
Well pleased, the wealth of that Ammonian horn,
Her dower. Akenside, _Hymn to the Naiads_.

AM'MON'S SON. Alexander the Great called himself the son of the god
Ammon, but others call him the son of Philip of Macedon.

Of food I think with Philip's son, or rather
Ammon's (ill pleased with one world and one
Byron, _Don Juan_, v. 31.

(Alluding to the tale that when Alexander had conquered the whole
world, he wept that there was no other world to conquer.)

A'MON'S SON is Rinaldo, eldest son of Amon or Aymon marquis d'Este,
and nephew of Charlemagne.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

AM'ORET, a modest, faithful shepherdess, who plighted her troth to
Per'igot (_t_ sounded) at the "Virtuous Well." The wanton shepherdess
Amarillis, having by enchantment assumed her appearance and dress, so
disgusted Perigot with her bold ways, that he lost his love for the
true Amoret, repulsed her with indignation, and tried to kill her. The
deception was revealed by Cor'in, "the faithful shepherdess," and the
lovers being reconciled, were happily married.--John Fletcher, _The
Faithful Shepherdess_ (before 1611).

AMORET'TA or AM'ORET, twin-born with Belphoebe (3 _syl_.), their
mother being Chrysog'one (4 _syl_.). While the mother and her two
babes were asleep, Diana took one (Belphoebe) to bring up, and Venus
the other. Venus committed Amoretta to the charge of Psyche (2
_syl_.), and Psyche tended her as lovingly as she tended her own
daughter Pleasure, "to whom she became the companion." When grown to
marriageable estate, Amoretta was brought to Fairyland, and wounded
many a heart, but gave her own only to sir Scudamore (bk. iii. 6).
Being seized by Bu'sirane, an enchanter, she was kept in durance
by him because she would not "her true love deny;" but Britomart
delivered her and bound the enchanter (bk. iii. 11, 12), after which
she became the tender, loving wife of sir Scudamore.

_Amoret_ is the type of female loveliness and wifely affection, soft,
warm, chaste, gentle, and ardent; not sensual nor yet platonic, but
that living, breathing, warm-hearted love which fits woman for the
fond mother and faithful wife.--Spenser, _Faery Queen_, iii. (1590).

AMOUR'Y (_Sir Giles_), the Grand-Master of the Knights Templars, who
conspires with the marquis of Montserrat against Richard I. Saladin
cuts off the Templar's head while in the act of drinking.--Sir W.
Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

AM'PHIBAL (_St._), confessor of St. Alban of Verulam. When Maximia'nus
Hercu'lius, general of Diocle'tian's army in Britain, pulled down the
Christian churches, burnt the Holy Scriptures, and put to death the
Christians with unflagging zeal, Alban hid his confessor, and offered
to die for him.

A thousand other saints whom Amphibal had taught ...
Were slain where Lichfield is, whose name doth rightly sound
(There of those Christians slain), "Dead-field" or burying-ground.

Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xxiv. (1622).

AMPHI'ON is said to have built Thebes by the music of his lute.
Tennyson has a poem called _Amphion_, a skit and rhyming _jeu

Amphion there the loud creating lyre
Strikes, and behold a sudden Thebes aspire.

Pope, _Temple of Fame_.

AMPHIS-BAENA, a reptile which could go head foremost either way,
because it had a head at each extremity. Milton uses the word in
_Paradise Lost_, x. 524. (Greek, _ampi baino_, "I go both ways.")

The amphis-baena doubly armed appears,
At either end a threatening head she rears.

Rowe, _Pharsalia_, ix. 696, etc. (by Lucan).

AMPHITRYON, a Theban general, husband of Alcme'ne (3 _syl._). While
Amphitryon was absent at war with Pter'elas, king of the Tel'eboans,
Jupiter assumed his form, and visited Alcmene, who in due time became
the mother of Her'cules. Next day Amphitryon returned, having slain
Pterelas, and Alcmene was surprised to see him so soon again. Here a
great entanglement arose, Alcmene telling her husband he visited her
last night, and showing him the ring he gave her, and Amphitryon
declaring he was with the army. This confusion is still further
increased by his slave Sos'ia, who went to take to Alcmene the news of
victory, but was stopped at the door of the house by Mercury, who had
assumed for the nonce Sosia's form, and the slave could not make out
whether he was himself or not. This plot has been made a comedy by
Plautus, Moliere, and Dryden.

The scenes which Plautus drew, to-night we show,
Touched by Moliere, by Dryden taught to glow.

_Prologue to Hawksworth's version_.

As an Amphitryon _chez qui l'on dine_, no one knows better than Ouida
the uses of a _recherche_ dinner.--E. Yates, _Celebrities_, xix.

"_Amphitryon_": _Le veritable Amphitryon est l'Amphitryon ou l'on
dine_ ("The master of the feast is the master of the house"). While
the confusion was at its height between the false and true Amphitryon,
_Socie_ [Sosia] the slave is requested to decide which was which, and

Je ne me trompois pas, messieurs; ce mot termine
Toute l'irresolution;
Le veritable Amphitryon
Est l'Amphitryon ou l'on dine.

Moliere, _Amphitryon_, iii. 5 (1668).

Demosthenes and Cicero
Are doubtless stately names to hear,
But that of good Amphitryon
Sounds far more pleasant to my ear.

M.A. Desaugiers (1772-1827).

AMRAH, the faithful woman-servant of the household of Ben-Hur in Lew
Wallace's novel, _Ben-Hur_. Through her heroic services, Judah,
the son, finds the mother and sister from whom he has been so long
separated (1880).

AM'RI, in _Absalom and Achitophel_, by Dryden and Tate, is Heneage
Finch, earl of Nottingham and lord chancellor. He is called "The
Father of Equity" (1621-1682).

To whom the double blessing did belong,
With Moses' inspiration, Aaron's tongue.

Part ii.

AMUN'DEVILLE (_Lord Henry_), one of the "British privy council." After
the sessions of parliament he retired to his country seat, where he
entertained a select and numerous party, among which were the duchess
of Fitz-Fulke, Aurora Raby, and don Juan, "the Russian envoy."
His wife was lady Adeline. (His character is given in xiv. 70,
71.)--Byron, _Don Juan_, xiii. to end.

AM'URATH III., sixth emperor of the Turks. He succeeded his father,
Selim II., and reigned 1574-1595. His first act was to invite all his
brothers to a banquet, and strangle them. Henry IV. alludes to this
when he says--

This is the English, not the Turkish court;
Not Amurath an Amurath succeeds,
But Harry, Harry.

Shakespeare, 2 _Henry IV._ act v. sc. 2 (1598).

AMUSEMENTS OF KINGS. The great amusement of _Ardeltas_ of Arabia
Petraea, was currying horses; of _Artaba'nus_ of Persia, was
mole-catching; of _Domitian_ of Rome, was catching flies; of
_Ferdinand VII._, of Spain, was embroidering petticoats; of _Louis
XVI._, clock and lock making; of _George IV._, the game of patience.

AMY MARCH, the artist sister in Louisa M. Alcott's _Little Women_

AMY WENTWORTH, the high-born but contented wife of the "Brown Viking
of the Fishing-smack," in John Greenleaf Whittier's poem, _Amy

She sings, and smiling, hears her praise,
But dreams the while of one
Who watches from his sea-blown deck
The ice-bergs in the sun. (1860.)

AMYN'TAS, in _Colin Clout's Come Home Again_, by Spenser, is
Ferdinando earl of Derby, who died 1594.

Amyntas, flower of shepherd's pride forlorn.
He, whilst he lived, was the noblest swain
That ever piped on an oaten quill.

Spenser, _Colin Clout's Come Home Again_ (1591).


A'MYS and AMY'LION, the Damon and Pythias of mediaeval romance.--See
Ellis's _Specimens of Early English Metrical Romances_.

AMYTIS, the Median queen of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon.
Beautiful, passionate, and conscienceless, she condemns an innocent
rival to the worst of fates, without a pang of conscience, and dies a
violent death at the hands of one who was once her lover.

The gardens were well-watered and dripped luxuriantly.... At this time
of the morning, Amytis amused herself alone, or with a few favored
slaves. She dipped through artificial dew and pollen, bloom and
fountain, like one of the butterflies that circled above her small
head, or one of the bright cold lizards that crept about her feet. She
bathed, she ran, she sang, and curled to sleep, and stirred and bathed
again.--_The Master of the Magicians_, by Elizabeth Stuart Phelps and
Herbert D. Ward (1890).

ANACHARSIS [CLOOTZ]. Baron Jean Baptiste Clootz assumed the _prenome_
of Anacharsis, from the Scythian so called, who travelled about
Greece and other countries to gather knowledge and improve his own
countrymen. The baron wished by the name to intimate that his own
object in life was like that of Anacharsis (1755-1794).


CHAUCER, in his tale of _Troilus_, at the siege of Troy, makes
Pandarus refer to _Robin Hood_.

And to himselfe ful soberly he saied,
From hasellwood there jolly Robin plaied.

Book v.

GILES FLETCHER, in _Christ's Victory_, pt. ii. makes the Tempter
seem to be "a good old _hermit_ or _palmer_, travelling to see some
_saint_, and _telling his beads!!_"

LODGE, in _The True Tragedies of Marius and Sylla_ (1594), mentions
"the razor of Palermo" and "St. Paul's steeple," and introduces
Frenchmen who "for forty crowns" undertake to poison the Roman consul.

MORGLAY makes Dido tell AEneas that she should have been contented with
a son, even "if he had been a _cockney dandiprat_" (1582).

SCHILLER, in his _Piccolomini_, speaks of _lightning conductors_. This
was about 150 years before they were invented.

SHAKESPEAKE, in his _Coriolanus_ (act ii. sc. 1), makes Menenius refer
to _Galen_ above 600 years before he was born.

Cominius alludes to _Roman Plays_, but no such things were known for
250 years after the death of Cominius.--_Coriolanus_, act ii. sc. 2.

Brutus refers to the "_Marcian Waters_ brought to Rome by Censorinus."
This was not done till 300 years afterwards.

In _Hamlet_, the prince Hamlet was educated at _Wittemberg School_,
which was not founded till 1502; whereas Saxo-Germanicus, from whom
Shakespeare borrowed the tale, died in 1204. Hamlet was thirty years
old when his mother talks of his going back to school (act i. sc. 2).

In 1 _Henry IV._, the carrier complains that "the _turkeys_ in his
pannier are quite starved" (act ii. sc. 5), whereas turkeys came from
America, and the New World was not even discovered for a century
after. Again in _Henry V._, Grower is made to say to Fluellen, "Here
comes Pistol, swelling like a turkey-cock" (act v. sc. 1).

In _Julius Caesar_, Brutus says to Cassius, "Peace, count the clock."
To which Cassius replies, "The clock has stricken three."

Clocks were not known to the Romans, and striking-clocks were not
invented till some 1400 years after the death of Caesar.

VIRGIL places AEneas in the port Velinus, which was made by Curius

This list, with very little trouble, might be greatly multiplied. The
hotbed of anachronisms is mediaeval romance; there nations, times and
places, are most recklessly disregarded. This may be instanced by a
few examples from Ariosto's great poem, _Orlando Furioso_.

Here we have Charlemagne and his paladins joined by Edward king of
England, Richard earl of Warwick, Henry duke of Clarence, and the
dukes of York and Gloucester (bk. vi.). We have cannons employed by
Cymosco king of Friza (bk. iv.), and also in the siege of Paris (bk.
vi.). We have the Moors established in Spain, whereas they were not
invited over by the Saracens for nearly 300 years after Charlemagne's
death. In bk. xvii. we have Prester John, who died in 1202; and in the
last three books we have Constantine the Great, who died in 337.

ANAC'REON, the prince of erotic and bacchanalian poets, insomuch that
songs on these subjects are still called Anacreon'tic (B.C. 563-478).

_Anacreon of Painters_, Francesco Albano or Alba'ni (1578-1660).

_Anacreon of the Guillotine_, Bertrand Barere de Vieuzac (1755-1841).

_Anacreon of the Temple_, Guillaume Amfrye, abbe de Chaulieu

_Anacreon of the Twelfth Century_, Walter Mapes, "The Jovial Toper."
His famous drinking song, "Meum est prepositum ..." has been
translated by Leigh Hunt (1150-1196).

_The French Anacreon_. 1. Pontus de Thiard, one of the "Pleiad
poets" (1521-1605). 2. P. Laujon, perpetual president of the _Caveau
Moderne_, a Paris club, noted for its good dinners, but every member
was of necessity a poet (1727-1811).

_The Persian Anacreon_, Mahommed Hafiz. The collection of his poems is
called _The Divan_ (1310-1389).

_The Sicilian Anacreon_, Giovanni Meli (1740-1815).

ANACREON MOORE, Thomas Moore of Dublin (1780-1852), poet, called
"Anacreon," from his translation of that Greek poet, and his own
original anacreontic songs.

Described by Mahomet and Anacreon Moore.

Byron, _Don Juan_, i. 104.

ANAGNUS, Inchastity personified in _The Purple Island_, by Phineas
Fletcher (canto vii.). He had four sons by Caro, named Maechus
(_adultery_), Pornei'us (_fornication_), Acath'arus, and Asel'ges
(_lasciviousness_), all of whom are fully described by the poet. In
the battle of Mansoul (canto xi.) Anagnus is slain by Agnei'a (_wifely
chastity_), the spouse of Encra'tes (_temperance_) and sister of
Parthen'ia (_maidenly chastity_). (Greek, _anagnos_, "impure.")


CHARLES JAMES STUART (James I.). _Claims Arthur's Seat_.

DAME ELEANOR DAVIES (prophetess in the reign of Charles I.). _Never so
mad a ladie_.

HORATIO NELSON. _Honor est a Nilo_.

MARIE TOUCHET (mistress of Charles IX.). _Je charme tout_ (made by
Henri IV.).

Pilate's question, QUID EST VERITAS? _Est vir qui adest_.

Orton, biggest rascal here._

A'NAH, granddaughter of Cain and sister of Aholiba'mah. Japhet loved
her, but she had set her heart on the seraph Azaz'iel, who carried her
off to another planet when the Flood came.--Byron, _Heaven and Earth_.

Anah and Aholibamah are very different characters:
Anah is soft, gentle, and submissive; her
sister is proud, imperious, and aspiring; the one
loving in fear, the other in ambition. She fears
that her love makes her "heart grow impious,"
and that she worships the seraph rather than the
Creator.--Ed. Lytton Bulwer (Lord Lytton).

ANAK OF PUBLISHERS, so John Murray was called by lord Byron

AN'AKIM or ANAK, a giant of Palestine, whose descendants were terrible
for their gigantic stature. The Hebrew spies said that they themselves
were mere grasshoppers in comparison of them.

I felt the thews of Anakim,
The pulses of a Titan's heart.

Tennyson, _In Memoriam_, iii.

(The Titans were giants, who, according to classic fable, made war
with Jupiter or Zeus, 1 _syl_.)

ANAMNES'TES (4 _syl_), the boy who waited on Eumnestes (Memory).
Eumnestes was a very old man, decrepit and half blind, a "man of
infinite remembrance, who things foregone through many ages held," but
when unable to "fet" what he wanted, was helped by a little boy yclept
Anamnestes, who sought out for him what "was lost or laid amiss."
(Greek, _eumnestis_, "good memory;" _anamne'stis_, "research or
calling up to mind.")

And oft when things were lost or laid amiss,
That boy them sought and unto him did lend;
Therefore the Anamnestes cleped is,
And that old man Eumnestes.

Spenser, _Faery Queen_, ii. 9 (1590).

ANANI'AS, in _The Alchemist_, a comedy by Ben Jonson (1610).

("Wasp" in _Bartholomew Fair_, "Corbaccio" in _The Fox_, "Morose" in
_The Silent Woman_, all by B. Jonson.)

ANARCHUS, king of the Dipsodes (2 _syl_.), defeated by Pantag'ruel,
who dressed him in a ragged doublet, a cap with a cock's feather, and
married him to "an old lantern-carrying hag." The prince gave the
wedding-feast, which consisted of garlic and sour cider. His wife,
being a regular termagant, "did beat him like plaster, and
the ex-tyrant did not dare call his soul his own."--Rabelais,
_Pantagruel_, ii. 31 (1533).

ANASTA'SIUS, the hero of a novel called _Memoirs of Anastasius_, by
Thomas Hope (1770-1831), a most brilliant and powerful book. It is
the autobiography of a Greek, who, to escape the consequences of his
crimes and villainies, becomes a renegade, and passes through a long
series of adventures.

Fiction has but few pictures which will bear
comparison with that of Anastasius, sitting on
the steps of the lazaretto of Trieste, with his
dying boy in his arms.--_Encyc. Brit_. Art. "Romance."

ANASTASIUS GRUeN, the _nom de plume_ of Anton Alexander von Auersperg,
a German poet (1806-1876).

ANASTERAX, brother of Niquee [_ne.kay_], with whom he lives in
incestuous intercourse. The fairy Zorphee, in order to withdraw her
god-daughter from this alliance, enchanted her.--_Amadis de Gaul_.

AN'CHO, a Spanish brownie, who haunts the shepherds' huts, warms
himself at their fires, tastes their clotted milk and cheese,
converses with the family, and is treated with familiarity mixed with
terror. The Ancho hates church bells.

ANCIENT MARINER (_The_), by Coleridge. For the crime of having shot
an albatross (a bird of good omen to seamen) terrible sufferings are
visited upon him, which are finally remitted through his repentance;
but he is doomed to wander over the earth and repeat his story to
others as a warning lesson.

AN'DERSON (_Eppie_), a servant at the inn of St. Ronan's Well, held by
Meg Dods.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan's Well_ (time, George III.).

ANDRE (2 _syl_.). Petit-Andre and Trois Echelles are the executioners
of Louis XI. of France. They are introduced by sir W. Scott, both in
_Quentin Durward_ and in _Anne of Geierstein_.

_Andre_, the hero and title of a novel by George Sand (Mde. Dudevant).
This novel and that called _Consuelo_ (4 _syl_.) are considered her
best (1804-1876).

ANDRE'OS, Fortitude personified in _The Purple Island_, by Phineas
Fletcher (canto x.). "None fiercer to a stubborn enemy, but to the
yielding none more sweetly kind." (Greek, _andria_ or _andreia_,

ANDREW, gardener, at Ellangowan, to Godfrey Bertram the laird.--Sir W.
Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

ANDREWS, a private in the royal army of the duke of Monmouth.--Sir W.
Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

_Andrews (Joseph)_, the hero and title of a novel by Fielding. He is
a footman who marries a maid-servant. Joseph Andrews is a brother of
[Richardson's] "Pamela," a handsome, model young man.

The accounts of Joseph's bravery and good
qualities, his voice too musical to halloa to the
dogs, his bravery in riding races for the gentlemen
of the county, and his constancy in refusing
bribes and temptation, have something refreshing
in their _naivete_ and freshness, and prepossess
one in favor of that handsome young hero.--Thackeray.

ANDROCLUS AND THE LION. Androclus was a runaway Roman slave, who took
refuge in a cavern. A lion entered, and instead of tearing him to
pieces, lifted up its fore-paw that Androclus might extract from it a
thorn. The fugitive, being subsequently captured, was doomed to fight
with a lion in the Roman arena, and it so happened that the very same
lion was let out against him; it instantly recognized its benefactor,
and began to fawn upon him with every token of gratitude and joy. The
story being told of this strange behavior, Androclus was forthwith set

A somewhat similar anecdote is told of sir George Davis, English
consul at Florence at the beginning of the present century. One day
he went to see the lions of the great duke of Tuscany. There was one
which the keepers could not tame, but no sooner did sir George appear,
than the beast manifested every symptom of joy. Sir George entered
the cage, when the creature leaped on his shoulder, licked his face,
wagged its tail, and fawned like a dog. Sir George told the great
duke that he had brought up this lion, but as it grew older it became
dangerous, and he sold it to a Barbary captain. The duke said he
bought it of the same man, and the mystery was cleared up.

ANDROMACHE [_An. drom'. a. ky_], widow of Hector. At the downfall of
Troy both she and her son Asty'anax were allotted to Pyrrhus king
of Epirus, and Pyrrhus fell in love with her, but she repelled
his advances. At length a Grecian embassy, led by Orestes son of
Agamemnon, arrived, and demanded that Astyanax should be given up and
put to death, lest in manhood he should attempt to avenge his father's
death. Pyrrhus told Andromache that he would protect her son in
defiance of all Greece if she would become his wife, and she
reluctantly consented thereto. While the marriage ceremonies were
going on, the ambassadors rushed on Pyrrhus and slew him, but as he
fell he placed the crown on the head of Andromache, who thus became
the queen of Epirus, and the ambassadors hastened to their ships in
flight.--Ambrose Philips, _The Distressed Mother_ (1712).

ANDROMEDA, beautiful daughter of the king of Ethiopia. To appease
Neptune, she was bound to a rock to be devoured by Neptune. Perseus
slew the monster and made the maiden his wife.

ANDRONI'CA, one of Logistilla's handmaids, noted for her
beauty.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

ANDRONI'CUS (_Titus_), a noble Roman general against the Goths,
father of Lavin'ia. In the play so called, published among those of
Shakespeare, the word all through is called _Andron'icus_ (1593).

_Marcus Andronicus_, brother of Titus, and tribune of the people.

ANDROPH'ILUS, Philanthropy personified in _The Purple Island_,
by Phineas Fletcher (1633). Fully described in canto x. (Greek,
_Andro-philos_, "a lover of mankind.")

ANDY (_Handy_), Irish lad in the employ of Squire Egan. He has
boundless capacity for bulls and blunders.--Samuel Lover, _Handy

ANEAL (2 _syl_.), daughter of Maae'ni, who loves Djabal, and believes
him to be "hakeem'" (the incarnate god and founder of the Druses)
returned to life for the restoration of the people and their return to
Syria from exile in the Spo'rades. When, however, she discovers his
imposture, she dies in the bitterness of her disappointment.--Robert
Browning, _The Return of the Druses_.

_L'ange de Dieu_, Isabeau la belle, the "inspired prophet-child" of
the Camisards.

ANGELA MESSENGER, heiress to Messenger's Brewery and an enormous
fortune. In order to know the people of the East End she lives among
them as a dressmaker. She sees their needs, and to supply these in
part, builds _The People's Palace_--or Palace of Delights.--_All Sorts
and Conditions of Men_, by Walter Besant (1889).

ANGEL'ICA, in Bojardo's _Orlando Innamorato_ (1495), is daughter of
Gal'aphron king of Cathay. She goes to Paris, and Orlando falls in
love with her, forgetful of wife, sovereign, country, and glory.
Angelica, on the other hand, disregards Orlando, but passionately
loves Rinaldo, who positively dislikes her. Angelica and Rinaldo drink
of certain fountains, when the opposite effects are produced in their
hearts, for then Rinaldo loves Angelica, while Angelica loses all love
for Rinaldo.

_Angelica_, in Ariosto's _Orlando Furioso_ (1516), is the same lady,
who marries Medoro, a young Moore, and returns to Cathay, where Medoro
succeeds to the crown. As for Orlando, he is driven mad by jealousy
and pride.

The fairest of her sex, Angelica,
...Sought by many prowest knights,
Both painim and the peers of Charlemagne.

Milton, _Paradise Regained_, iii. (1671).

_Angelica (The Princess_), called "The Lady of the Golden Tower." The
loves of Parisme'nos and Angelica form an important feature of the
second part of _Parismus Prince of Bohemia_, by Emanuel Foord (1598).

_Angelica_, an heiress with whom Valentine Legend is in love. For a
time he is unwilling to declare himself because of his debts; but
Angelica gets possession of a bond for L4000, and tears it. The money
difficulty being adjusted, the marriage is arranged amicably.--W.
Congreve, _Love for Love_ (1695).

Mrs. Anne Bracegirdle equally delighted in melting tenderness and
playful coquetry, in "Statira" or "Millamant;" and even at an advanced
age, when she played "Angelica."--C. Dibden.

_Angelica_, the troth-plight wife of Valere, "the gamester." She
gives him a picture, and enjoins him not to part with it on pain of
forfeiting her hand. However, he loses it in play, and Angelica in
disguise is the winner of it. After much tribulation, Valere is
cured of his vice, and the two are happily united by marriage.--Mrs.
Centlivre, _The Gamester_ (1705).

ANGELI'NA, daughter of lord Lewis, in the comedy called _The Elder
Brother_, by Beaumont and Fletcher (1637).

_Angelina_, daughter of don Charino. Her father wanted her to marry
Clodio, a coxcomb, but she preferred his elder brother Carlos, a
bookworm, with whom she eloped. They were taken captives and carried
to Lisbon. Here in due time they met, the fathers who went in search
of them came to the same spot, and as Clodio had engaged himself to
Elvira of Lisbon, the testy old gentlemen agreed to the marriage of
Angelina with Carlos.--C. Cibber, _Love Makes a Man_.

Angelique' (3 _syl._), daughter of Argan the _malade imaginaire_. Her
lover is Cleante (2 _syl._). In order to prove whether his wife or
daughter loved him the better, Argan pretended to be dead, whereupon
the wife rejoiced greatly that she was relieved of a "disgusting
creature," hated by every one; but the daughter grieved as if her
heart would break, rebuked herself for her shortcomings, and vowed
to devote the rest of her life in prayer for the repose of his soul.
Argan, being assured of his daughter's love, gave his free consent to
her marriage with Cleante.--Moliere, _Malade Imaginaire_ (1673).

_Angelique_, the aristocratic wife of George Dandin, a French
commoner. She has a liaison with a M. Clitandre, but always contrives
to turn the tables on her husband. George Dandin first hears of a
rendezvous from one Lubin, a foolish servant of Clitandre, and lays
the affair before M. and Mde. Sotenville, his wife's parents. The
baron with George Dandin call on the lover, who denies the accusation,
and George Dandin has to beg pardon. Subsequently, he catches his wife
and Clitandre together, and sends at once for M. and Mde. Sotenville;
but Angelique, aware of their presence, pretends to denounce her
lover, and even takes up a stick to beat him for the "insult offered
to a virtuous wife;" so again the parents declare their daughter to be
the very paragon of women. Lastly, George Dandin detects his wife and
Clitandre together at night-time, and succeeds in shutting his wife
out of her room; but Angelique now pretends to kill herself, and when
George goes for a light to look for the body, she rushes into her room
and shuts him out. At this crisis the parents arrive, when Angelique
accuses her husband of being out all night in a debauch; and he is
made to beg her pardon on his knees.--Moliere, _George Dandin_ (1668).

AN'GELO, in _Measure for Measure_, lord deputy of Vienna in the
absence of Vincentio the duke. His betrothed lady is Maria'na. Lord
Angelo conceived a base passion for Isabella, sister of Claudio,
but his designs were foiled by the duke, who compelled him to marry
Mariana.--Shakespeare (1603).

_An'gelo_, a gentleman friend to Julio in _The Captain_, a drama by
Beaumont and Fletcher (1613).

ANGELS (_Orders of_). According to Dionysius the Areop'agite, the
angels are divided into nine orders: Seraphim and Cherubim, in the
_first_ circle; Thrones and Dominions, in the _second_ circle;
Virtues, Powers, Principalities, Archangels, and Angels, in the
_third_ circle.

Novem angelorum ordines dicimus, quia videlicet
esse, testante sacro eloquio, scimus Angelos,
Archangelos, Virtutes, Potestates, Principatus,
Dominationes, Thronos, Cherubim, atque Seraphim.--St.
Gregory the Great, _Homily_ 34.

(See _Hymns Ancient and Modern_, No. 253, ver. 2, 3.)

ANGER ... THE ALPHABET. It was Athenodo'rus the Stoic who advised
Augustus to repeat the alphabet when he felt inclined to give way to

Un certain Grec disait a l'empereur Auguste,
Comme une instruction utile autant que juste,
Que, lorsqu' une aventure en colere nous met,
Nous devons, avant tout, dire notre alphabet,
Afin que dans ce temps la bile se tempere,
Et qu'on ne fasse rien que l'on ne doive faire.

Moliere, _L'Ecole des Femmes_, ii. 4 (1662).

ANGIOLI'NA (4 _syl_.), daughter of Loreda'no, and the young wife of
Mari'no Faliero, the doge of Venice. A patrician named Michel Steno,
having behaved indecently to some of the women assembled at the great
civic banquet given by the doge, was kicked out of the house by order
of the doge, and in revenge wrote some scurrilous lines against the
dogaressa. This insult was referred to "The Forty," and Steno was
sentenced to two months' imprisonment, which the doge considered a
very inadequate punishment for the offence.--Byron, _Marino Faliero_.

The character of the calm, pure-spirited Angiolina
is developed most admirably. The great
difference between her temper and that of her
fiery husband is vividly portrayed, but not less
vividly touched is that strong bond of union
which exists in the common nobleness of their
deep natures. There is no spark of jealousy in
the old man's thoughts. He does not expect the
fervor of youthful passion in his young wife;
but he finds what is far better--the fearless confidence
of one so innocent that she can scarcely
believe in the existence of guilt.... She thinks
Steno's greatest punishment will be "the blushes
of his privacy."--Lockhart.

ANGLAN'TE'S LORD, Orlando, who was lord of Anglante and knight of
Brava.--Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

AN'GLIDES (3 _syl_.), wife of good prince Boud'wine (2 _syl_.),
brother to sir Mark king of Cornwall ("the falsest traitor that ever
was born"). When king Mark slew her husband, Anglides and her son
Alisaunder made their escape to Magounce (_i.e. Arundel_), where she
lived in peace, and brought up her son till he received the honor
of knighthood.--Sir T. Malory, _Hist, of Pr. Arthur_, ii. 117, 118

AN'GUISANT, king of Erin (_Ireland_), subdued by king Arthur fighting
in behalf of Leod'ogran king of Cam'eliard (3 _syl_.).--Tennyson,
_Coming of King Arthur_.

ANGULE (_St._), bishop of London, put to death by Maximia'nus
Hercu'lius, Roman general in Britain in the reign of Diocletian.

St. Angule put to death, one of our holiest men,
At London, of that see the godly bishop then.

Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xxiv. (1622).

ANGURVA'DEL, Frithiof's sword, inscribed with Runic characters, which
blazed in time of war, but gleamed dimly in time of peace.

ANICE, the woman who steals Fenn's fancy, rather than his heart, from
his wife, in George Parsons Lathrop's story, _An Echo of Passion_

ANIMULA, beauteous being revealed in a drop of water by a microscope
of extraordinary and inconceivable power.--_The Diamond Lens_, by
Fitz-James O'Brien (1854).

ANJOU (_The Fair Maid of_), lady Edith Plantagenet, who married David
earl of Huntingdon (a royal prince of Scotland). Edith was a kinswoman
of Richard Coeur de Lion, and an attendant on queen Berengaria.

[Illustration: symbol] Sir Walter Scott has introduced her in _The
Talisman_ (1825).

ANN (_The princess_), lady of Beaujeu.--Sir W. Scott, _Quentin
Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

_Ann_ (_The Lady_), the wife who, in John G. Saxe's ballad, _The Lady
Ann_, goes mad at the news of the death of sir John, her husband

ANNA (_Donna_), the lady beloved by don Otta'vio, but seduced by don
Giovanni.--Mozart's opera, _Don Giovanni_ (1787).

AN'NABEL, in _Absalom and Achitophel_, by

Dryden, is the duchess of Monmouth, whose maiden name was Anne Scott
(countess of Buccleuch). She married again after the execution of her
faithless husband.

With secret joy indulgent David [_Charles II_.]
His youthful image in his son renewed;
To all his wishes nothing he denied,
And made the charming Annabel his bride.
Part i.

ANNABEL LEE. Edgar A. Poe's poem of this name is supposed to be
a loving memorial to his young wife, Virginia Clemm, who died of
consumption at Fordham, N.Y., in 1847.

The angels, not half so happy in heaven
Went envying her and me;
Yes! that was the reason (as all men know,
In this kingdom by the sea)
That the wind came out of the cloud by night,
Chilling and killing my Annabel Lee. (1848.)

ANNA PASTORIUS, wife of Pastorius in Whittier's poem, _The
Pennsylvania Pilgrim_. At his cry "Help! for the good man faileth!"
she points to her aloe-tree, and reminds him that as surely as "the
century-moulded bud shall burst in bloom," love and patience will soon
or late conquer wrong (1872).

AN'NAPLE [BAILZOU], Effie Dean's "monthly" nurse.--Sir W. Scott,
_Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

_An'naple_, nurse of Hobbie Elliot of the Heugh-foot, a young
farmer.--Sir W. Scott, _The Black Dwarf_ (time, Anne).

ANNE (_Sister_), the sister of Fat'ima, the seventh and last wife of
Blue Beard. Fatima, having disobeyed her lord by looking into the
locked chamber, is allowed a short respite before execution. Sister
Anne ascends the high tower of the castle, with the hope of seeing
her brothers, who are expected to arrive every moment. Fatima, in her
agony, keeps asking "sister Anne" if she can see them, and Blue Beard
keeps crying out for Fatima to use greater despatch. As the patience
of both is exhausted, the brothers arrive, and Fatima is rescued from
death.--Charles Perrault, _La Barbe Bleue_.

_Anne_, own sister of king Arthur. Her father was Uther the pendragon,
and her mother Ygerna, widow of Gorlois. She was given by her brother
in marriage to Lot, consul of Londonesia, and afterwards king of
Norway.--Geoffrey, _British History_, viii. 20, 21.

[Illustration] In Arthurian romance this Anne is called Margawse
(_History of Prince Arthur_, i. 2); Tennyson calls her Bellicent
(_Gareth and Lynette_). In Arthurian romance Lot is always called king
of Orkney.

ANNE CATHERICK, half-witted girl, the natural sister of Laura Fairlie,
to whom she bears a strong resemblance. This circumstance suggests to
the villain of the book the deception of showing her dead body as that
of Laura, as a step toward securing the fortune of the latter.--_The
Woman in White_, by Wilkie Collins (1865).

ANNE DOUGLAS, heroine of _Anne_, a novel by Constance Fenimore Woolson
(1882). The scene laid on the Island of Mackinac, Mich.

ANNETTE, daughter of Mathis and Catherine, the bride of Christian,
captain of the patrol.--J.E. Ware, _The Polish Jew_.

ANNETTE AND LUBLIN, by Marmontel, imitated from the _Daphnis and
Chloe_ of Longos (_q.v._).

ANNIE KILBURN, the conscientious heiress who returns to a New England
homestead after long residence abroad, and endeavors to do her duty in
the station to which Providence has called her. Prim, pale, pretty,
and not youthful except in heart.--_Annie Kilburn_, by William Dean
Howells (1888).

AN'NIE LAU'RIE, eldest of the three daughters of sir Robert Laurie, of
Maxwelton. In 1709 she married James Fergusson, of Craigdarroch, and
was the mother of Alexander Fergusson, the hero of Burns's song _The
Whistle_. The song of _Annie Laurie_ was written by William Douglas,
of Fingland, in the stewardry of Kirkcud'bright, hero of the song
_Willie was a Wanton Wag_. (See WHISTLE.)

Bayard Taylor has used the ballad with thrilling effect in his poem
_The Song of the Camp_.

They sang of love, and not of fame,
Forgot was Britain's glory,
Each heart recalled a different name,
But all sang "Annie Laurie."
Voice after voice caught up the song
Until its tender passion
Rose, like an anthem, rich and strong,
Their battle-eve confession.

* * * * *

Dear girl! her name he dared not speak,
But as the song grew louder,
Something upon the soldier's cheek
Washed off the stain of powder.

* * * * *

AN'NIE WIN'NIE, one of the old sibyls at Alice Gray's death; the other
was Ailsie Gourlay.--Sir W. Scott, _The Bride of Lammermoor_ (time,
William III.).

ANNIR, king of Inis-thona (an island of Scandinavia). He had two sons
(Argon and Ruro) and one daughter. One day Cor'malo, a neighboring
chief, came and begged the honor of a tournament. Argon granted the
request, and overthrew him, which so vexed Cormalo that during a hunt
he shot both the brothers secretly with his bow. Their dog Runa ran
to the palace, and howled so as to attract attention; whereupon Annir
followed the hound, and found both his sons dead, and on his return he
further found that Cormalo had carried off his daughter. Oscar, son of
Ossian, led an army against the villain, and slew him; then liberating
the young lady, he took her back to Inis-thona, and delivered her to
her father.--_Ossian_ ("The War of Inis-thona").

AN'NOPHEL, daughter of Cas'silane (3 _syl_.) general of
Candy.--Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Laws of Candy_ (1647).

ANSELM, prior of St. Dominic, the confessor of king Henry IV.--Sir W.
Scott, _The Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

ANSELME (2 _syl_.), father of Valere (2 _syl_.) and Mariane (3
_syl_.). In reality he is don Thomas d'Alburci, of Naples. The family
were exiled from Naples for political reasons, and being shipwrecked
were all parted. Valere was picked up by a Spanish captain, who
adopted him; Mariane fell into the hands of a corsair, who kept her
a captive for ten years, when she effected her escape; and Anselme
wandered from place to place for ten years, when he settled in Paris,
and intended to marry. At the expiration of sixteen years they all met
in Paris at the house of Har'pagon, the miser. Valere was in love
with Elise (2 _syl_.), the miser's daughter, promised by Harpagon in
marriage to Anselme; and Mariane, affianced to the miser's son Cleante
(2 _syl_.), was sought in marriage by Harpagon, the old father. As
soon as Anselme discovered that Valere and Mariane were his own
children, matters were soon amicably arranged, the young people
married, and the old ones retired from the unequal contest.--Moliere,
_L'Avare_ (1667).

ANSELMO, a noble cavalier of Florence, the friend of Lothario. Anselmo
married Camilla, and induced his friend to try to corrupt her, that
he might rejoice in her incorruptible fidelity. Lothario unwillingly
undertook the task, and succeeded but too well. For a time Anselmo
was deceived, but at length Camilla eloped, and the end of the silly
affair was that Anselmo died of grief, Lothario was slain in battle,
and Camilla died in a convent.--Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. iv. 5, 6;
_Fatal Curiosity_ (1605).

AN'STER (_Hob_), a constable at Kinross village.--Sir W. Scott, _The
Abbot_ (time, Elizabeth).

ANSTISS DOLBEARE, heroine of Mrs. A.D.T. Whitney's novel, _Hitherto_,
a sensitive, imaginative, morbid, motherless girl who is "all the time
holding up her soul ... with a thorn in it" (1872).

ANTAE'OS, a gigantic wrestler of Libya (or _Irassa_). His strength was
inexhaustible so long as he touched the earth, and was renewed every
time he did touch it. Her'cules killed him by lifting him up from the
earth and squeezing him to death. (See MALEGER.)

As when earth's son Antaeus ... in Irassa strove
With Jove's Alcides, and oft foiled, still rose,
Receiving from his mother earth new strength,
Fresh from his fall, and fiercer grapple joined,
Throttled at length in the air, expired and fell.

Milton, _Paradise Regained_, iv. (563).

[Illustration] Similarly, when Bernardo del Carpio assailed Orlando or
Rolando at Roncesvalles, as he found his body was not to be pierced by
any instrument of war, he took him up in his arms and squeezed him to

N.B.--The only vulnerable part of Orlando was the sole of his foot.

ANTE'NOR, a traitorous Trojan prince, related to Priam. He advised
Ulysses to carry away the palladium from Troy, and when the wooden
horse was built it was Antenor who urged the Trojans to make a breach
in the wall and drag the horse into the city.--Shakespeare has
introduced him in _Troilus and Cressida_ (1602).

ANTHEA, beautiful woman to whom Herrick addresses several poems.

ANTHI'A, the lady beloved by Abroc'omas in the Greek romance called
_De Amoribus Anthiae et Abrocomae_, by Xenophon of Ephesus, who lived
in the fourth Christian century. (This is not Xenophon the historian,
who lived B.C. 444-359.)

ANTHONIO, "the merchant of Venice," in Shakespeare's drama so called
(1598). Anthonio borrows of Shylock, a Jew, 3000 ducats for three
months, to lend to his friend Bassanio. The conditions of the loan
were these: if the money was paid within the time, only the principal
should be returned; but if not, the Jew should be allowed to cut from
Anthonio's body "a pound of flesh." As the ships of Anthonio were
delayed by contrary winds, he was unable to pay within the three
months, and Shylock demanded the forfeiture according to the bond.
Portia, in the dress of a law-doctor, conducted the case, and when the
Jew was about to cut the flesh, stopped him, saying--(1) the bond gave
him no drop of blood; and (2) he must take neither more nor less than
an exact pound. If he shed one drop of blood or if he cut more or
less than an exact pound, his life would be forfeit. As it was quite
impossible to comply with these restrictions, the Jew was nonsuited,
and had to pay a heavy fine for seeking the life of a citizen.

_Antho'nio_, the ursuping duke of Milan, and brother of Pros'pero (the
rightful duke, and father of Miranda).--Shakespeare, _The Tempest_

_Antho'nio_, father of Protheus, and suitor of Julia.--Shakespeare,
_The Two Gentlemen of Verona_ (1594).

AN'THONY, an English archer in the cottage of farmer Dickson, of
Douglasdale.--Sir W. Scott, _Castle Dangerous_ (time, Henry I.).

_An'thony_, the old postillion at Meg Dods's, the landlady of the inn
at St. Ronan's Well.--Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan's Well_ (time, George

ANTID'IUS, bishop of Jaen, martyred by the Vandals in 411. One day,
seeing the devil writing in his pocket-book some sin committed by the
pope, he jumped upon his back and commanded his Satanic majesty to
carry him to Rome. The devil tried to make the bishop pronounce the
name of Jesus, which would break the spell, and then the devil would
have tossed his unwelcome burden into the sea, but the bishop only
cried, "Gee up, devil!" and when he reached Rome he was covered with
Alpine snow. The chronicler naively adds, "the hat is still shown at
Rome in confirmation of this miracle."--_General Chronicle of King
Alphonso the Wise_.

ANTIG'ONE (4 _syl._), daughter of Oe'dipos and Jocas'te, a noble
maiden, with a truly heroic attachment to her father and brothers.
When Oedipos had blinded himself, and was obliged to quit Thebes,
Antigone accompanied him, and remained with him till his death, when
she returned to Thebes. Creon, the king, had forbidden any one to bury
Polyni'ces, her brother, who had been slain by his elder brother in
battle; but Antigone, in defiance of this prohibition, buried the dead
body, and Creon shut her up in a vault under ground, where she killed
herself. Haemon, her lover, killed himself also by her side. Sophocles
has a Greek tragedy on the subject, and it has been dramatized for the
English stage.

_The Modern Antigone_, Marie Therese Charlotte duchesse d'Angouleme,
daughter of Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette (1778-1851).

ANTIG'ONUS, a Sicilian lord, commanded by king Leontes to take his
infant daughter to a desert shore and leave her to perish. Antigonus
was driven by a storm to the coast of Bohemia, where he left the
babe; but on his way back to the ship, he was torn to pieces by a
bear.--Shakespeare, _The Winter's Tale_ (1604).

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