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Captain Cook's Journal During the First Voyage Round the World by James Cook

Part 8 out of 11

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distance sail'd since Yesterday at Noon was first North-East by East, 27
Miles, then North 10 degrees East, 37 Miles; Longitude in 207 degrees 20
minutes West; Variation per morning Amplitude and Azimuth 9 degrees 10
minutes East.

Saturday, 12th. Winds Southerly, a Gentle breeze in the P.M. As we run
along Shore we saw several smokes a little way in land from the Sea, and
one upon the Top of a hill, which was the first we have seen upon
elevated ground since we have been upon the Coast. At sunset we were in
23 fathoms, and about a League and a half from the land, the Northermost
part of which we had in sight bore North 13 degrees East; and 3
remarkable large high hills lying Contigious to each other, and not far
from the shore, bore North-North-West. As these Hills bore some
resemblance to each other we called them the 3 Brothers. We steer'd
North-East by North all Night, having from 27 to 67 fathoms, from 2 to 5
and 6 Leagues from the Land, and at day light we steer'd North for the
Northermost land we had in sight. At noon we were 4 Leagues from the
Land, and by observation in the Latitude of 31 degrees 18 minutes South,
which was 15 miles to the Southward of that given by the Log. Our Course
and distance made good since Yesterday noon was North 24 degrees East, 48
miles. Longitude 206 degrees 58 minutes West; several smokes seen a
little way in land.

Sunday, 13th. In the P.M. stood in shore with the Wind at North-East
until 6, at which time we Tack'd, being about 3 or 4 miles from the land,
and in 24 fathoms. Stood off shore with a fresh breeze at North and
North-North-West until midnight, then Tack'd, being in 118 fathoms and 8
Leagues from the Land. At 3 a.m. the wind veer'd to the Westward, and we
Tack'd and stood to the Northward. At noon we were by Observation in the
Latitude of 30 degrees 43 minutes South, and Longitude 206 degrees 45
minutes West, and about 3 or 4 Leagues from the Land, the Northermost
part of which bore from us North 13 degrees West; and a point or head
land, on which were fires that Caused a great Quantity of smoke, which
occasioned my giving it the name of Smokey Cape, bore South-West, distant
4 Leagues; it is moderately high land. Over the pitch of the point is a
round hillock; within it 2 others, much higher and larger, and within
them very low land (Latitude 30 degrees 51 minutes, Longitude 206 degrees
5 minutes West). Besides the smoke seen upon this Cape we saw more in
several places along the Coast. The observed Latitude was only 5 Miles to
the Southward of the Log.

Monday, 14th. At the P.M. it fell Calm, and continued so about an hour,
when a breeze sprung up at North-East, with which we stood in shore until
6 o'Clock, when, being in 30 fathoms and 3 or 4 Miles from the land, we
Tack'd, having the wind at North-North-West. At this time Smoky Cape bore
South 3/4 degrees West, distant about 5 Leagues, and the Northermost land
in sight North 1/4 degrees East. At 8 we made a Trip in shore for an
hour; after this the wind came off Shore, with which we stood along shore
to the Northward, having from 30 to 21 fathoms, at the distance of 4 or 5
Miles from the Land. At 5 A.M. the Wind veer'd to North, and blow'd a
fresh breeze, attended with Squalls and dark cloudy weather. At 8 it
began to Thunder and Rain, which lasted about an Hour, and then fell
Calm, which gave us an opportunity to sound, and found 86 fathoms, being
about 4 or 5 Leagues from the Land; after this we got the wind Southerly,
a fresh breeze and fair weather, and we Steer'd North by West for the
Northermost land we had in sight. At noon we were about 4 Leagues from
the land, and by observation in the Latitude of 30 degrees 22 minutes
South, which was 9 Miles to the Southward of that given by the Log.
Longitude in 206 degrees 39 minutes West, and Course and distance made
good since Yesterday Noon North 16 degrees East, 22 miles; some Tolerable
high land near the Shore bore West. As I have not mentioned the Aspect of
the Country since we left Botany Bay, I shall now describe it as it hath
at different times appear'd to us. As we have advanced to the Northward
the land hath increased in height, in so much that in this Latitude it
may be called a hilly Country; but between this and Botany Bay it is
diversified with an agreeable variety of Hills, Ridges, and Valleys, and
large plains all Cloathed with wood, which to all appearance is the same
as I have before mentioned, as we could discover no Visible alteration in
the Soil. Near the shore the land is in general low and Sandy, except the
points which are rocky, and over many of them are pretty high hills,
which at first rising out of the Water appear like a Island.

Tuesday, 15th. Fresh Gales at South-West, West-South-West, and
South-South-West. In the P.M. had some heavy Squalls, attended with rain
and hail, which obliged us to close reef our Topsails. Between 2 and 4 we
had some small rocky Islands* (* The Solitary Islands.) between us and
the land; the Southermost lies in the Latitude of 30 degrees 10 minutes,
the Northermost in 29 degrees 58 minutes, and about 2 Leagues or more
from the land; we sounded, and had 33 fathoms about 12 Miles without this
last island. At 8 we brought too until 10, at which time we made sail
under our Topsails. Having the Advantage of the Moon we steer'd along
shore North and North by East, keeping at the distance of about 3 Leagues
from the land having from 30 to 25 fathoms. As soon as it was daylight we
made all the sail we could, having the Advantage of a fresh Gale and fair
weather.* (* During the night the entrance of the Clarence River, now the
outlet for the produce of a large and rich agricultural district, was
passed, and in the morning that of the Richmond River, which serves a
similar purpose.) At 9, being about a League from the Land, we saw upon
it people and Smoke in Several places. At noon we were by observation in
the Latitude of 28 degrees 39 minutes South, and Longitude 206 degrees 27
minutes West; Course and distance saild since Yesterday at Noon North 6
degrees 45 minutes East, 104 Miles. A Tolerable high point of land bore
North-West by West, distant 3 Miles; this point I named Cape Byron* (*
Captain John Byron was one of Cook's predecessors in exploration in the
Pacific, having sailed round the World in H.M.S. Dolphin, in company with
the Tamar, in 1764 to 1766.) (Latitude 28 degrees 37 minutes 30 seconds
South, Longitude 206 degrees 30 minutes West). It may be known by a
remarkable sharp peaked Mountain lying in land North-West by West from
it. From this point the land Trends North 13 degrees West. Inland it is
pretty high and hilly, but near the Shore it is low; to the Southward of
the Point the land is low, and Tolerable level.

[Off Point Danger, New South Wales.]

Wednesday, 16th. Winds Southerly, a fresh Gale, with which we steer'd
North along shore until sunset, at which time we discover'd breakers
ahead, and on our Larboard bow, being at this time in 20 fathoms, and
about 5 miles from the land. Haul'd off East until 8, at which time we
had run 8 Miles, and had increased our Depth of Water to 44 fathoms. We
then brought too with her head to the Eastward, and lay on this Tack
until 10 o'Clock, when, having increased our Soundings to 78 fathoms, we
wore and lay with her head in shore until 5 o'Clock a.m., when we made
Sail. At daylight we were surprized by finding ourselves farther to the
Southward than we were in the evening, and yet it had blown strong all
night Southerly. We now saw the breakers again within us, which we passed
at the distance of about 1 League; they lay in the Latitude of 28 degrees
8 minutes South, and stretch off East 2 Leagues from a point under which
is a small Island; their situation may always be found by the peaked
mountain before mentioned, which bears South-West by West from them, and
on their account I have named it Mount Warning. It lies 7 or 8 Leagues in
land in the Latitude of 28 degrees 22 minutes South. The land is high and
hilly about it, but it is Conspicuous enough to be distinguished from
everything else. The point off which these shoals lay I have named Point
Danger;* (* Point Danger is the boundary point on the coast between New
South Wales and Queensland.) to the Northward of it the land, which is
low, Trends North-West by North; but we soon found that it did not keep
that direction long before it turn'd again to the Northward. At Noon we
were about 2 Leagues from the land, and by observation in the Latitude of
27 degrees 46 minutes, which was 17 Miles to the Southward of the Log;
Longitude 206 degrees 26 minutes West. Mount Warning bore South 20
degrees West, distant 14 Leagues; the Northermost land in sight bore
North. Our Course and distance made good since yesterday North 1 degree
45 minutes West, 53 miles.

[Off Moreton Bay, Queensland.]

Thursday, 17th. Winds Southerly, mostly a fresh breeze, with which in the
P.M. we steer'd along shore North 3/4 East, at the distance of about 2
Leagues off. Between 4 and 5 we discover'd breakers on our Larboard bow;
our Depth of Water at this time was 37 fathoms. At sunset the Northermost
land in sight bore North by West, the breakers North-West by West,
distant 4 Miles, and the Northermost land set at Noon, which form'd a
Point, I named Point Lookout, bore West, distant 5 or 6 Miles (Latitude
27 degrees 6 minutes).* (* There is some mistake in this latitude. It
should be 27 degrees 26 minutes.) On the North side of this point the
shore forms a wide open bay, which I have named Morton's Bay,* (* James,
Earl of Morton, was President of the Royal Society in 1764, and one of
the Commissioners of Longitude.) in the Bottom of which the land is so
low that I could but just see it from the Topmast head. The breakers I
have just mentioned lies about 3 or 4 Miles from Point Lookout; at this
time we had a great Sea from the Southward, which broke prodigious high
upon them. Stood on North-North-East until 8, when, being past the
breakers, and having Deepned our water to 52 fathoms, we brought too
until 12 o'Clock, then made sail to the North-North-East. At 4 A.M. we
sounded, and had 135 fathoms. At daylight I found that we had in the
night got much farther to the Northward and from the Shore than I
expected from the Course we steer'd, for we were at least 6 or 7 Leagues
off, and therefore hauled in North-West by West, having the Advantage of
a Fresh Gale at South-South-West. The Northermost land seen last night
bore from us at this time South-South-West, distant 6 Leagues. This land
I named Cape Morton, it being the North point of the Bay of the same Name
(Latitude 26 degrees 56 minutes South, Longitude 206 degrees 28 minutes).
From Cape Morton the Land Trends away West, further than we could see,
for there is a small space where we could see no land; some on board
where of opinion that there is a River there because the Sea looked paler
than usual. Upon sounding we found 34 fathoms fine white sandy bottom,
which alone is Sufficient change, the apparent Colour of Sea Water,
without the Assistance of Rivers. The land need only to be low here, as
it is in a Thousand other places upon the Coast, to have made it
impossible for us to have seen it at the distance we were off. Be this as
it may, it was a point that could not be clear'd up as we had the wind;
but should any one be desirous of doing it that may come after me, this
place may always be found by 3 Hills which lay to the Northward of it in
the Latitude of 26 degrees 53 minutes South. These hills lay but a little
way inland, and not far from Each other; they are very remarkable on
account of their Singular form of Elivation, which very much resembles
Glass Houses,* (* The Glass houses form a well-known sea mark on entering
Moreton Bay, as the name is now written. Brisbane, the capital of
Queensland, stands on the river of the same name, which falls into
Moreton Bay.) which occasioned my giving them that Name. The Northermost
of the 3 is the highest and largest. There are likewise several other
peaked hills inland to the Northward of these, but they are not near so
remarkable. At Noon we were by Observation in the Latitude of 26 degrees
28 minutes South, which was 10 Miles to the Northward of the Log; a
Circumstance that hath not hapned since we have been upon the Coast
before. Our Course and distance run since Yesterday noon was North by
West 80 Miles, which brought us into the Longitude of 206 degrees 46
minutes. At this time we were about 2 or 3 Leagues from the land, and in
24 fathoms Water; a low bluff point, which was the Southern point of an
open Sandy bay,* (* Laguna Bay. The point is called Low Bluff.) bore
North 52 degrees West, distant 3 Leagues, and the Northermost point of
land in sight bore North 1/4 East. Several Smokes seen to-day, and some
pretty far inland.

Friday, 18th. In steering along shore at the distance of 2 Leagues off
our Soundings was from 24 to 32 fathoms Sandy bottom. At 6 P.M. the North
point set at Noon bore North 1/4 West; distant 4 Leagues; at 10 it bore
North-West by West 1/2 West, and as we had seen no land to the Northward
of it we brought too, not knowing which way to steer, having at this time
but little wind, and continued so for the most part of the night. At 2
P.M. we made sail with the wind at South-West, and at daylight saw the
land extending as far as North 3/4 East. The point set last night bore
South-West by West, distant 3 or 4 Leagues; I have named it Double Island
Point, on account of its figure (Latitude 25 degrees 58 minutes South,
Longitude 206 degrees 48 minutes West). The land within this point is of
a moderate and pretty equal height, but the point itself is of such an
unequal Height that it looks like 2 Small Islands laying under the land;
it likewise may be known by the white Clifts on the North side of it.
Here the land trends to the North-West, and forms a large open bay,* (*
Wide Bay.) in the bottom of which the land appear'd to be very low, in so
much that we could but just see it from the Deck. In crossing the mouth
of this bay our Depth of Water was from 30 to 32 fathoms, a white sandy
bottom. At Noon we were about 3 Leagues from the Land, and in the
Latitude of 25 degrees 34 minutes South, Longitude 206 degrees 45 minutes
West; Double Island Point bore South 3/4 West, and the Northermost land
in sight North 3/4 East. The land hereabouts, which is of a moderate
height, appears more barren than any we have yet seen on this Coast, and
the Soil more sandy, there being several large places where nothing else
is to be seen; in other places the woods look to be low and Shrubby, nor
did we see many signs of inhabitants.

Saturday, 19th. In the P.M. had Variable light Airs, and Calms; in the
night had a light breeze from the land, which in the A.M. veer'd to
South-West and South-South-West. In the evening found the Variation to be
8 degrees 36 minutes East, and in the Morning 8 degrees 20 minutes; as we
had but little wind we keept to the Northward all night, having from 23
to 27 fathoms fine sandy bottom, at the Distance of 2 or 3 Leagues from
the Land. At Noon we were about 4 Miles from it, and by observation in
the Latitude of 25 degrees 4 minutes, and in this situation had but 13
fathoms; the Northermost land in Sight bore North 21 degrees West,
distant 8 Miles; our Course and distance saild since yesterday at Noon
was North 13 degrees 15 minutes East, 31 Miles.

[Off Sandy Cape, Queensland.]

Sunday, 20th. Winds Southerly, Gentle breezes. At 10 p.m. we passed, at
the distance of 4 Miles, having 17 fathoms, a black bluff head or point
of land, on which a number of the Natives were Assembled, which
occasioned my naming it Indian Head; Latitude 25 degrees 0 minutes North
by West, 4 Miles from this head, is another much like it. From this last
the land Trends a little more to the Westward, and is low and Sandy next
the Sea, for what may be behind it I know not; if land, it must be all
low, for we could see no part of it from the Mast head. We saw people in
other places besides the one I have mentioned; some Smokes in the day and
fires in the Night. Having but little wind all Night, we keept on to the
Northward, having from 17 to 34 fathoms, from 4 Miles to 4 Leagues from
the Land, the Northermost part of which bore from us at daylight
West-South-West, and seem'd to End in a point, from which we discover'd a
Reef stretching out to the Northward as far as we could see, being, at
this time, in 18 fathoms; for we had, before it was light, hauld our Wind
to the Westward, and this course we continued until we had plainly
discover'd breakers a long way upon our Lee Bow, which seem'd to Stretch
quite home to the land. We then Edged away North-West and
North-North-West, along the East side of the Shoal, from 2 to 1 Miles
off, having regular, even Soundings, from 13 to 7 fathoms; fine sandy
bottom. At Noon we were, by Observation, in the Latitude of 24 degrees 26
minutes South, which was 13 Miles to the Northward of that given by the
Log. The extream point of the Shoal we judged to bear about North-West of
us; and the point of land above-mentioned bore South 3/4 West, distant 20
Miles. This point I have named Sandy Cape,* (* Sandy Cape is the northern
point of Great Sandy Island. A long narrow channel separates the latter
from the mainland, and opens at its northern end into Harvey Bay, a great
sheet of water 40 miles across. This channel is now much used by the
coasting trade, as it avoids the long detour round Breaksea Spit, a most
dangerous shoal.) on account of 2 very large white Patches of Sand upon
it. It is of a height Sufficient to be seen 12 Leagues in Clear weather
(Latitude 24 degrees 46 minutes, Longitude 206 degrees 51 minutes West);
from it the Land trends away West-South-West and South-West as far as we
could see.

Monday, 21st. In the P.M. we keept along the East side of the Shoal until
2, when, judging there was water for us over, I sent a Boat a Head to
sound, and upon her making the Signal for more than 5 fathoms we hauld
our wind and stood over the Tail of it in 6 fathoms. At this time we were
in the Latitude of 24 degrees 22 minutes South, and Sandy Cape bore South
1/2 East, distant 8 Leagues; but the Direction of the Shoal is nearest
North-North-West and South-South-East. At this time we had 6 fathoms; the
boat which was not above 1/4 of a mile to the Southward of us had little
more than 5 fathoms. From 6 fathoms we had the next Cast, 13, and then 20
immediately, as fast as the Man could heave the Lead; from this I did
suppose that the West side of the Shoal is pretty steep too, whereas on
the other side we had gradual Soundings from 13 to 7 fathoms. This Shoal
I called Break Sea Spit, because now we had smooth water, whereas upon
the whole Coast to the Southward of it we had always a high Sea or swell
from the South-East. At 6, the Land of Sandy Cape extending from South 17
degrees East to South 27 degrees East, distance 8 Leagues; Depth of
Water, 23 fathoms, which depth we keept all Night, as we stood to the
Westward with light Airs from the Southward; but between 12 and 4 A.M. we
had it Calm, after which a Gentle breeze sprung up at South, with which
we still keept on upon a Wind to the Westward. At 7 we Saw from the
Masthead the Land of Sandy Cape bearing South-East 1/2 East, distance 12
or 13 Leagues. At 9, we discover'd from the Mast head land to the
Westward, and soon after saw smooke upon it. Our depth of Water was now
decreased to 17 fathoms, and by Noon to 13, at which time we were by
observation in the Latitude of 24 degrees 28 minutes South, and about 7
Leagues from the Land, which extended from South by West to
West-North-West. Longitude made from Sandy Cape 0 degrees 45 minutes

For these few days past we have seen at times a sort of Sea fowl we have
no where seen before that I remember; they are of the sort called
Boobies. Before this day we seldom saw more than 2 or 3 at a time, and
only when we were near the land. Last night a small flock of these birds
passed the Ship and went away to the North-West, and this morning from
1/2 an hour before sun rise to half an hour after, flights of them were
continually coming from the North-North-West, and flying to the
South-South-East, and not one was seen to fly in any other direction.
From this we did suppose that there was a Lagoon, River, or Inlet of
Shallow Water to the Southward of us, where these birds resorted to in
the day to feed, and that not very far to the Northward lay some Island,
where they retir'd too in the night.

Tuesday, 22nd. In the P.M. had a Gentle breeze at South-East, with which
we stood in for the land South-West until 4, when, being in the Latitude
of 24 degrees 36 minutes South, and about 2 Leagues from land, in 9
fathoms, we bore away along shore North-West by West; at the same time we
could see the land extending to the South-South-East about 8 Leagues.
Near the Sea the land is very low, but inland are some moderately high
hills, and the whole appeared to be thickly Cloathed with wood. In
running along shore we shoalded our Water from 9 to 7 fathoms, and at one
time had but 6 fathoms, which determined me to Anchor for the Night, and
accordingly at 8 o'Clock we came too in 8 fathoms, fine gravelly bottom,
about 5 miles from the land. This evening we saw a Water Snake, and 2 or
3 evenings ago one lay under the Ship's Stern some time; this was about 1
1/2 Yards in length, and was the first we had seen. At 6 A.M. weighed
with a Gentle breeze Southerly, and Steer'd North-West 1/4 West, edging
in for the land until we got Within 2 Miles of it, having from 7 to 11
fathoms; we then steer'd North-North-West as the land laid. At Noon we
were by Observation in the Latitude of 24 degrees 19 minutes South;
Longitude made from Sandy Cape 1 degree 14 minutes West.

[At Anchor. Bustard Bay, Queensland.]

Wednesday, 23rd. Continued our Course alongshore at the distance of about
2 Miles off, having from 12 to 9, 8 and 7 fathoms, until 5 o'Clock, at
which time we were abreast of the South point of a Large open Bay,* (*
Bustard Bay.) wherein I intended to Anchor. Accordingly we hauld in Close
upon a Wind, and sent a boat ahead to sound; after making some Trips we
Anchored at 8 o'Clock in 5 fathoms, a Sandy bottom. The South point of
the bay bore East 3/4 South, distant 2 Miles; the North point North-West
1/4 North, about 2 Miles from the shore, in the bottom of the bay. Last
night, some time in the Middle watch, a very extraordinary affair hapned
to Mr. Orton, my Clerk. He having been drinking in the evening, some
Malicious person or persons in the Ship took Advantage of his being
Drunk, and cut off all the Cloaths from off his back; not being satisfied
with this, they some time after went into his Cabin and cut off a part of
both his Ears as he lay a Sleep in his Bed. The person whom he suspected
to have done this was Mr. Magra, one of the Midshipmen; but this did not
appear to me. Upon enquiry, however, as I had been told that Magra had
once or twice before this in their drunken Frolicks cut off his cloaths,
and had been heard to say (as I was told) that if it was not for the Law
he would Murder him, these things consider'd, induced me to think that
Magra was not Altogether innocent. I therefore for the present dismiss'd
him the Quarter deck, and Suspended him from doing any duty in the Ship,
he being one of those Gentlemen frequently found on board King's Ships
that can very well be spared; besides, it was necessary in me to show my
immediate resentment against the person on whom the suspicion fell, least
they should not have stop'd here. With respect to Mr. Orton, he is a man
not without faults; yet from all the inquiry I could make, it evidently
appear'd to me that so far from deserving such Treatment, he had not
designed injuring any person in the Ship; so that I do--and shall
always--look upon him as an injured man. Some reasons, however, might be
given why this misfortune came upon him, in which he himself was in some
measure to blame; but as this is only conjecture, and would tend to fix
it upon some people in the Ship, whom I would fain believe would hardly
be guilty of such an Action, I shall say nothing about it, unless I shall
hereafter discover the Offenders, which I shall take every method in my
power to do, for I look upon such proceedings as highly dangerous in such
Voyages as this, and the greatest insult that could be offer'd to my
Authority in this Ship, as I have always been ready to hear and redress
every complaint that have been made against any Person in the Ship.* (*
This history of Mr. Orton's misadventure is omitted from the Admiralty
copy. It is an illustration of the times to note that the fact of Orton
having got drunk does not seem to call for the Captain's severe censure.
In these days, though the practical joker receives punishment, the
drunkard would certainly come in for a large share also.)

In the A.M. I went ashore with a party of men in order to Examine the
Country, accompanied by Mr. Banks and the other Gentlemen; we landed a
little within the South point of the Bay, where there is a Channel
leading into a large Lagoon. The first thing that I did was to sound and
examine the Channell, in which I found 3 fathoms, until I got about a
Mile up it, where I met with a Shoal, whereon was little more than one
fathom; being over this I had 3 fathoms again. The Entrance into this
Channell lies close to the South point of this Bay, being form'd on the
East by the Shore, and on the West by a large Spit of sand; it is about a
1/4 of a Mile broad, and lies in South by West; here is room for a few
Ships to lay very secure, and a small Stream of Fresh Water. After this I
made a little excursion into the Woods while some hands made 3 or 4 hauls
with the Sean, but caught not above a dozen very small fish. By this time
the flood was made, and I imbarqued in the Boats in order to row up the
Lagoon; but in this I was hindred by meeting everywhere with Shoal Water.
As yet we had seen no people, but saw a great deal of Smook up and on the
West side of the Lagoon, which was all too far off for us to go by land,
excepting one; this we went to and found 10 Small fires in a very small
Compass, and some Cockle Shells laying by them, but the people were gone.
On the windward or South side of one of the fires was stuck up a little
Bark about a foot and a half high, and some few pieces lay about in other
places; these we concluded were all the covering they had in the Night,
and many of them, I firmly believe, have not this, but, naked as they
are, sleep in the open air. Tupia, who was with us, observed that they
were Taata Eno's; that is, bad or poor people. The Country is visibly
worse than at the last place we were at; the soil is dry and Sandy, and
the woods are free from underwoods of every kind; here are of the same
sort of Trees as we found in Bottany Harbour, with a few other sorts. One
sort, which is by far the most Numerous sort of any in the Woods, grow
Something like birch; the Bark at first sight looks like birch bark, but
upon examination I found it to be very different, and so I believe is the
wood; but this I could not examine, as having no axe or anything with me
to cut down a Tree. About the Skirts of the Lagoon grows the true
Mangrove, such as are found in the West Indies, and which we have not
seen during the Voyage before; here is likewise a sort of a palm Tree,
which grows on low, barren, sandy places in the South Sea Islands. All,
or most of the same sort, of Land and Water fowl as we saw at Botany
Harbour we saw here; besides these we saw some Bustards, such as we have
in England, one of which we kill'd that weighed 17 1/2 pounds, which
occasioned my giving this place the Name of Bustard Bay (Latitude 24
degrees 4 minutes, Longitude 208 degrees 22 minutes West); we likewise
saw some black and white Ducks. Here are plenty of small Oysters sticking
to the Rocks, Stones, and Mangrove Trees, and some few other shell fish,
such as large Muscles, Pearl Oysters, Cockels, etc. I measured the
perpendicular height of the last Tide, and found it to be 8 foot above
low water mark, and from the time of low water to-day I found that it
must be high Water at the full and Change of the Moon at 8 o'Clock.

Thursday, 24th. In the P.M. I was employ'd ashore in the Transactions
before related; at 4 a.m. we weighed with a Gentle breeze at South, and
made sail out of the Bay. In standing out our soundings were from 5 to 15
fathoms; when in this last Depth we were abreast of the North Point, and
being daylight we discover'd breakers stretching out from it about
North-North-East, 2 or 3 miles; at the Outermost point of them is a Rock
just above Water. In passing these rocks at the distance of 1/2 a mile we
had from 15 to 20 fathoms; being past them, we hauld along shore
West-North-West for the farthest land we had in sight. At Noon we were by
Observation in the Latitude of 23 degrees 52 minutes South; the North
part of Bustard Bay bore South 62 degrees East, distance 10 miles, and
the Northermost land in sight North 60 degrees West. Longitude in 208
degrees 37 minutes West, distance from the nearest shore 6 Miles; in this
situation had 14 fathoms water.

[Off Cape Capricorn, Queensland.]

Friday, 25th. In the P.M. had it calm until 5, when a light breeze sprung
up at South-East, and we steer'd North-West as the land lay until 10,
then brought too, having had all along 14 and 15 fathoms. At 5 A.M. we
made sail; at daylight the Northermost point of the Main bore North 70
degrees West, and soon after we saw more land making like Islands,
bearing North-West by North; at 9 we were abreast of the point, distant
from it 1 mile; Depth of Water 14 fathoms. I found this point to lay
directly under the Tropic of Capricorn, and for that reason call it by
that Name. Longitude 209 degrees 0 minutes West. It is of a Moderate
height, and looks white and barren, and may be known by some Islands
which lie to the North-West of it, and some small Rocks one League
South-East from it; on the West side of the Cape there appeared to be a
Lagoon. On the 2 Spits which form the Entrance were a great Number of
Pelicans; at least, so I call them. The most northermost land we could
see bore from Cape Capricorn North 24 degrees West, and appeared to be an
Island;* (* Hummocky Island.) but the Main land Trended West by North 1/2
North, which Course we steer'd, having from 15 to 16 fathoms and from 6
to 9, a hard sandy bottom. At Noon our Latitude by Observation was 23
degrees 24 minutes South; Cape Capricorn bore South 60 degrees East,
distance 2 Leagues; a small Island North by East 2 Miles. In this
Situation had 9 fathoms at the distance of 4 Miles from the Main land,
which is here low and Sandy next the Sea, except the points which are
moderately high and rocky; in land the Country is hilly, and affords but
a very indifferent prospect.* (* Between Bustard Bay and Cape Capricorn
is Port Curtis, in which stands the small town of Gladstone. Cape
Capricorn is the eastern point of Curtis Island, and to the northward is
Keppel Bay, into which falls the Fitzroy River. Up the latter, 35 miles
from the sea, is Rockhampton, the second largest town of Queensland. All
this coast is encumbered with shoals, outside of which Cook had so far
prudently kept. To seaward begins the long chain of islands and reefs
known as the Great Australian Barrier, which stretches up to Torres
Straits. Cook was unaware of their existence, as they were out of sight,
but he became painfully acquainted with them later, where the reefs
approach the land, and make navigation along the coast anxious work; but
he here began to get into difficulties with the shoals which stretch off
the coast itself.)

Saturday, 26th. In the P.M. light breezes at East-South-East, with which
we stood to the North-West until 4 o'Clock, when it fell calm, and soon
after we Anchored in 12 fathoms. Cape Capricorn bearing South 54 degrees
East, distant 4 Leagues, having the Main land and Islands in a manner all
around us. In the night we found the tide to rise and fall near 7 feet,
and the flood to set to the Westward and Ebb to the Eastward; which is
quite the reverse to what we found it when at Anchor to the Eastward of
Bustard Bay. At 6 a.m. we weigh'd with the Wind at South, a Gentle
breeze, and stood away to the North-West, between the Outermost range of
Islands* (* The Keppel Islands.) and the Main land, leaving several small
Islands between us and the Latter, which we passed Close by. Our
soundings was a little irregular, from 12 to 4 fathoms, which caused me
to send a Boat ahead to sound. At noon we were about 3 Miles from the
Main, about the same distance from the Islands without us; our Latitude
by Observation was 23 degrees 7 minutes South, and Longitude made from
Cape Capricorn 18 Miles West. The Main land in this Latitude is tolerable
high and Mountainious; and the Islands which lay off it are the most of
them pretty high and of a Small Circuit, and have more the appearance of
barrenness than fertility. We saw smookes a good way in land, which makes
me think there must be a River, Lagoon, or Inlet, into the Country, and
we passed 2 places that had the Appearance of such this morning; but our
Depth of Water at that Time was too little to haul in for them, where I
might expect to meet with less.

Sunday, 27th. We had not stood on to the Northward quite an hour before
we fell into 3 fathoms, upon which I anchor'd, and Sent away the Master
with 2 Boats to sound the Channell, which lay to Leeward of us between
the Northermost Island and the Main Land, which appear'd to me to be
pretty broad; but I suspected that it was Shoal, and so it was found, for
the Master reported to me upon his return that he found in many places
only 2 1/2 fathoms, and where we lay at Anchor we had only 16 feet, which
was not 2 feet more than the Ship drew.* (* This was between Great Keppel
Island and the Main. There is a mass of shoals here.) In the Evening the
wind veer'd to East-North-East, which gave us an opportunity to stretch 3
or 4 miles back the way we Came before the Wind Shifted to South, and
obliged us again to Anchor in 6 fathoms. At 5 o'Clock in the A.M. I sent
away the Master with 2 Boats to search for a Passage out between the
Islands, while the Ship got under sail. As soon as it was light the
Signal was made by the boats of their having found a Passage, upon which
we hoisted in the Boats, and made sail to the Northward as the land lay;
soundings from 9 to 15 fathoms, having still Some small Islands without
us.* (* The ship passed out between Great Keppel Island and North Keppel
Island.) At noon we were about 2 Leagues from the Main Land, and by
observation in the Latitude of 22 degrees 53 minutes South, Longitude
made from Cape Capricorn 0 degrees 20 minutes West. At this time the
Northermost point of Land we had in sight bore North-North-West, distance
10 Miles; this point I named Cape Manyfold, from the Number of high Hills
over it; Latitude 22 degrees 43 minutes South; it lies North 20 degrees
West, distant 17 Leagues from Cape Capricorn. Between them the shore
forms a large Bay, which I call'd Keppel Bay, and the Islands which lay
in and Off it are known by the same name; in this Bay is good Anchorage,
where there is a sufficient depth of Water; what refreshment it may
afford for Shipping I know not.* (* As before mentioned, the Fitzroy
River falls into Keppel Bay, and forms a good harbour, though much
encumbered with sand banks.) We caught no fish here, notwithstanding we
were at Anchor; it can hardly be doubted but what it afforded fresh Water
in several places, as both Mainland and Islands are inhabited. We saw
smokes by day and fires in the night upon the Main, and people upon one
of the Islands.

[Off Cape Townshend, Queensland.]

Monday, 28th. Winds at South-South-East, a fresh breeze. At 3 o'Clock in
the P.M. we passed Cape Manifold, from which the Land Trends
North-North-West. The land of this Cape is tolerable high, and riseth in
hills directly from the Sea; it may be known by 3 Islands laying off it,
one near the Shore, and the other 2 Eight Miles out at Sea; the one of
these is low and flat, and the other high and round.* (* Peak and Flat
Islands.) At 6 o'Clock we shortned sail and brought too; the Northermost
part of the Main we had in sight bore North-West, and some Islands lying
off it bore North 31 degrees West; our soundings since Noon were from 20
to 25 fathoms, and in the Night 30 and 34 fathoms. At day light we made
Sail, Cape Manifold bearing South by East, distance 8 Leagues, and the
Islands set last night in the same directions, distance from us 4 Miles.
The farthest point of the Main bore North 67 degrees West, distant 22
Miles; but we could see several Islands to the Northward of this
direction.* (* The easternmost of the Northumberland Islands.) At 9
o'Clock we were abreast of the above point, which I named Cape Townshend*
(* Charles Townshend was Chancellor of the Exchequer 1767.) (Latitude 22
degrees 13 minutes, Longitude 209 degrees 48 minutes West); the land of
this Cape is of a moderate and pretty even height, and is more barren
than woody. Several Islands lay to the Northward of it, 4 or 5 Leagues
out at Sea. 3 or 4 Leagues to the South-East the Shore forms a bay,* (*
Shoalwater Bay, a large inlet.) in the bottom of which there appeared to
be an inlet or Harbour to the Westward of the Coast, and Trends
South-West 1/2 South; and these form a very large Bay, which turns away
to the Eastward, and probably communicates with the Inlet above
mentioned, and by that Means makes the land of the Cape an Island. As
soon as we got round the Cape we hauld our wind to the Westward in order
to get within the Islands which lay scatter'd up and down in this bay in
great number, and extend out to Sea as far as we could see from the
Masthead; how much farther will hardly be in my power to determine; they
are as Various in their height and Circuit as they are numerous.* (* The
Northumberland islands, a very extensive group.) We had not stood long
upon a Wind before we meet with Shoal Water, and was obliged to Tack
about to avoid it; after which I sent a boat ahead, and we bore away West
by North, leaving many small Islands, Rocks, and Shoals between us and
the Main, and a number of Large Islands without us; soundings from 14 to
17 fathoms, Sandy Bottom. A little before noon the boat made the Signal
for meeting with Shoal Water, upon which we hauld close upon a Wind to
the Eastward, but suddenly fell into 3 1/4 fathoms water, upon which we
immediately let go an Anchor, and brought the Ship up with all sails
standing, and had then 4 fathoms Coarse sandy bottom. We found here a
strong Tide setting to the North-West by West 1/2 West, at the rate of
between 2 and 3 Miles an Hour, which was what Carried us so quickly upon
the Shoal. Our Latitude by Observation was 22 degrees 8 minutes South;
Cape Townshend bore East 16 degrees South, distant 13 Miles, and the
Westermost part of the Main Land in sight West 3/4 North, having a number
of Islands in sight all round us.* (* The ship was on the Donovan Shoal
in Broad Sound Channel.)

Tuesday, 29th. Fresh gales between the South-South-East and
East-South-East, Hazey weather, with some showers of rain. In the P.M.,
having sounded about the Ship, and found that their was Sufficient Water
for her over the Shoal, we at 3 o'clock weigh'd and made Sail, and stood
to the Westward as the Land lay, having first sent a boat ahead to sound.
At 6 we Anchor'd in 10 fathoms, Sandy bottom, about 2 Miles from the Main
Land, the Westermost part of which bore West-North-West, having still a
Number of Islands in sight a long way without us. At 5 a.m. I sent away
the Master with 2 Boats to sound the Entrance of an inlet, which bore
from us West, distance about 1 League, into which I intended to go with
the Ship to wait a few days, until the Moon increased, and in the
meantime to examine the Country. By such time as we had got the Ship
under Sail the Boats made the Signal for Anchorage, upon which we stood
in with the Ship, and Anchor'd in 5 fathoms, about a League within the
Entrance of the inlet, which we judged to be a River running a Good way
inland, as I observed the Tides to flow and Ebb something considerable.*
(* It is in reality a narrow channel which runs into Broad Sound.) I had
some thoughts of laying the Ship a Shore to Clean her bottom. With this
view both the Master and I went to look for a Convenient place for that
purpose, and at the same time to look for fresh Water, not one drop of
which we could find, but met with several places where a Ship might be
laid ashore with safety.

[At Anchor, Thirsty Sound.]

Wednesday, 30th. In the P.M. I went again in search of Fresh Water, but
had no better success than before; wherefore I gave over all thoughts of
laying the Ship a Shore, being resolved to spend as little time as
possible in a place that was likely to afford us no sort of refreshment.
But as I had observed from the Hills the inlet to run a good way in, I
thought this a good time to penetrate into the Country to see a little of
the inland parts. Accordingly I prepared for making that Excursion in the
morning, but the first thing I did was to get upon a pretty high Hill,
which is at the North-West entrance of the inlet, before Sunrise, in
order to take a view of the Sea Coast and Islands, etc., that lay off it,
and to take their bearings, having the Azimuth Compass with me for that
purpose, the Needle of which differ'd from its True position something
very considerable, even above 30 degrees, in some places more, and in
other less, for I try'd it in several places. I found it differ in itself
above 2 points in the space of about 14 feet. The loose stones which lay
upon the Ground had no effect upon the Needle; I therefore concluded that
it must be owing to Iron Ore upon the Hill, visible signs of which
appeared not only here, but in several other places. As soon as I had
done here I proceeded up the inlet. I set out with the first of the
flood, and long before high water got about 8 Leagues up it; its breadth
thus far was from 2 to 4 or 5 Miles upon a South-West by South direction;
but here it spread every way, and formed a Large lake, which communicated
with the Sea to the North-West. I not only saw the Sea in this direction,
but found the tide of flood coming strong in from the North-West. I
likewise observ'd an Arm of this Lake extending to the Eastward, and it
is not at all improbable but what it Communicates with the Sea in the
bottom of the bay, which lies to the Westward of Cape Townshend.* (* This
is exactly what it does.) On the South side of the Lake is a ridge of
pretty high hills, which I was desirous of going upon; but as the day was
far spent and high water, I was afraid of being bewilder'd among the
Shoals in the night, which promised to be none of the best, being already
rainy, dirty weather, and therefore I made the best of my way to the
Ship. In this little Excursion I saw only 2 people, and those at a
distance, and are all that we have seen in this place, but we have met
with several fire places, and seen smokes at a distance. This inlet,
which I have named Thirsty Sound, by reason we could find no fresh Water,
lies in the Latitude of 22 degrees 05 minutes South, and Longitude 210
degrees 24 West; it may be known by a Group of small Islands Laying under
the shore from 2 to 5 Leagues North-West from it.* (* Barren Islands.)
There is likewise another Group of Islands laying right before it between
3 and 4 Leagues out at Sea.* (* Duke Islands.) Over each of the Points
that form the Entrance is a pretty high, round Hill; that on the
North-West is a Peninsula, surrounded by the Sea at high water; the
distance from the one to the other is about 2 Miles bold to both Shores.
Here is good Anchoring in 7, 6, 5, and 4 fathoms water, and very
Convenient places for laying a Ship ashore, where at Spring Tides the
tides doth not rise less than 16 or 18 feet, and flows at full and Change
of the Moon about 11 o'Clock. We met with no fresh water, or any other
kind of refreshments whatever; we saw 2 Turtle, but caught none, nor no
sort of Fish or wild fowl, except a few small land birds. Here are the
same sort of Water Fowl as we saw in Botany Bay, and like them, so shy
that it is hardly possible to get within shott of them. No signs of
Fertility is to be seen upon the Land; the Soil of the up lands is mostly
a hard, redish Clay, and produceth several sorts of Trees, such as we
have seen before, and some others, and clear of all underwoods. All the
low lands are mostly overrun with Mangroves, and at Spring tides
overflow'd by the Sea; and I believe in the rainy Seasons here are large
land floods, as we saw in many places Gullies, which seem'd to have been
made by torrents of Water coming from the Adjacent hills, besides other
Visible signs of the Water having been a Considerable height above the
Common Spring Tides. Dr. Solander and I was upon a rising Ground up the
inlet, which we thought had at one time or another been overflow'd by the
Sea, and if so great part of the Country must at that time been laid
under Water. Up in the lakes, or lagoons, I suppose, are shell fish, on
which the few Natives subsist. We found Oysters sticking to most of the
Rocks upon the Shore, which were so small, as not to be worth the picking
off.* (* Cook was very unfortunate in his landing here. The channel is at
the end of a long headland between two bays, Shoalwater Bay and Broad
Sound, and was a very unlikely place either to find water or get any true
idea of the country.)

Thursday, 31st. Winds Southerly and South-East; Dark, Hazey weather, with
rain. In the P.M., finding no one inducement to stay longer in this
place, we at 6 a.m. Weighed and put to Sea, and stood to the North-West,
having the Advantage of a fresh breeze at South-South-East. We keept
without the Group of Islands which lay in Shore, and to the North-West of
Thirsty Sound, as there appear'd to be no safe passage between them and
the Main; at the same time we had a number of Islands without us
extending out to Sea as far as we could see; as we run in this direction
our depth of Water was 10, 8 and 9 fathoms.* (* The ship passed between
the Duke Islands and the maze of reefs and islands lying North-West of
Thirsty Sound.) At Noon the North-West point of Thirsty Sound, which I
have named Pier head, bore South 36 degrees East, distant 5 Leagues; the
East point of the other inlet, which Communicates with the former, as I
have before mentioned, bore South by West, distance 2 1/2 Leagues, the
Group of Islands above mentioned laying between us and the point. The
farthest part of the Main in sight, on the other side of the inlet, bore
North-West; our Latitude by Observation was 21 degrees 53 minutes South.

[June 1770.]

Friday, June 1st. At 1/2 an hour After Noon, upon the Boat we had ahead
sounding making the Signal for Shoal Water, we hauld our wind to the
North-East, having at that time 7 fathoms; the Next cast 5, and then 3,
upon which we let go an Anchor, and brought the Ship up. The North-West
point of Thirsty Sound, or Pier Head, bore South-East, distance 6
Leagues, being Midway between the Islands which lies off the East point
of the Western inlet and 3 Small Islands directly without them,* (* The
shoal is now known as Lake Shoal. The three Islands are the Bedwell
Islands.) it being now the first of the flood which we found to set
North-West by West 1/2 West. After having sounded about the Shoal, on
which we found not quite 3 fathoms, but without it deep water, we got
under Sail, and hauld round the 3 Islands just mentioned, and came to an
Anchor under the Lee of them in 15 fathoms, having at this time dark,
hazey, rainy weather, which continued until 7 o'Clock a.m., at which time
we got again under sail, and stood to the North-West with a fresh breeze
at South-South-East and fair weather, having the Main land in Sight and a
Number of Islands all round us, some of which lay out at Sea as far as we
could See. The Western Inlet before mentioned, known in the Chart by the
Name of Broad Sound, we had now all open. It is at least 9 or 10 Leagues
wide at the Entrance, with several Islands laying in and before, and I
believe Shoals also, for we had very irregular Soundings, from 10 to 5
and 4 fathoms. At Noon we were by Observation in the Latitude of 21
degrees 29 minutes South, and Longitude made from Cape Townshend 59
degrees West. A point of Land, which forms the North-West Entrance into
Broad Sound, bore from us at this Time West, distance 3 Leagues; this
Cape I have named Cape Palmerston* (* Henry Viscount Palmerston was a
Lord of the Admiralty, 1766 to 1778.) (Latitude 21 degrees 27 minutes
South, Longitude 210 degrees 57 minutes West). Between this Cape and Cape
Townshend lies the Bay of Inlets, so named from the Number of Inlets,
Creeks, etc., in it.* (* The name Bay of Inlets has disappeared from the
charts. Cook applied it to the whole mass of bays in this locality,
covering over 60 miles. A look at a modern chart causes amazement that
Cook managed to keep his ship off the ground, as the whole sea in his
track is strewed with dangers.)

[Off Cape Hillsborough, Queensland.]

Saturday, 2nd. Winds at South-South-East and South-East, a gentle breeze,
with which we stood to the North-West and North-West by North, as the
land lay, under an easey Sail. Having a boat ahead, found our Soundings
at first were very irregular, from 9 to 4 fathoms; but afterwards
regular, from 9 to 11 fathoms. At 8, being about 2 Leagues from the Main
Land, we Anchor'd in 11 fathoms, Sandy bottom. Soon after this we found a
Slow Motion of a Tide seting to the Eastward, and rode so until 6, at
which time the tide had risen 11 feet; we now got under Sail, and Stood
away North-North-West as the land lay. From the Observations made on the
tide last Night it is plain that the flood comes from the North-West;
whereas Yesterday and for Several days before we found it to come from
the South-East. This is neither the first nor second time that we have
observed the same thing, and in my Opinion easy accounted for; but this I
shall do in another place. At sun rise we found the Variation to be 6
degrees 45 minutes East. In steering along shore between the Island and
the Main, at the Distance of 2 Leagues from the Latter, and 3 or 4 from
the former, our soundings were Regular, from 12 to 9 fathoms; but about
11 o'Clock we were again embarrassed with Shoal Water,* (* Blackwood
Shoals.) but got clear without letting go an Anchor; we had at one time
not quite 3 fathoms. At Noon we were about 2 Leagues from the Main land,
and about 4 from the Islands without us; our Latitude by Observation was
20 degrees 56 minutes South, Longitude made from Cape Palmerston 16
degrees West; a pretty high Promontory, which I named Cape Hillsborough,*
(* Earl of Hillsborough was the First Secretary of State for the
Colonies, and President of the Board of Trade when the Endeavour sailed.)
bore West 1/2 North, distant 7 Miles. The Main Land is here pretty much
diversified with Mountains, Hills, plains, and Vallies, and seem'd to be
tollerably Cloathed with Wood and Verdure. These Islands, which lay
Parrallel with the Coast, and from 5 to 8 or 9 Leagues off, are of
Various Extent, both for height and Circuit; hardly any Exceeds 5 Leagues
in Circuit, and many again are very small.* (* The Cumberland Islands.
They stretch along the coast for 60 miles.) Besides the Chain of Islands,
which lay at a distance from the Coast, there are other Small Ones laying
under the Land. Some few smokes were seen on the Main land.

Sunday, 3rd. Winds between the South by East and South-East. A Gentle
breeze and Clear weather. In the P.M. we steer'd along shore North-West
1/2 West, at the distance of 2 Leagues from the Main, having 9 and 10
fathoms regular soundings. At sun set the furthest point of the Main Land
that we could distinguish as such bore North 48 degrees West; to the
Northward of this lay some high land, which I took to be an Island, the
North West point of which bore North 41 degrees West; but as I was not
sure that there was a passage this way, we at 8 came to an Anchor in 10
fathoms, muddy bottom. 2 hours after this we had a tide setting to the
Northward, and at 2 o'clock it had fallen 9 Feet since the time we
Anchored. After this the Tide began to rise, and the flood came from the
Northward, which was from the Islands out at Sea, and plainly indicated
that there was no passage to the North-West; but as this did not appear
at day light when we got under Sail, and stood away to the North-West
until 8, at this time we discover'd low land, quite a Cross what we took
for an Opening between the Main and the Islands, which proved to be a Bay
about 5 or 6 Leagues deep. Upon this we hauld our wind to the Eastward
round the Northermost point of the Bay, which bore from us at this time
North-East by North, distance 4 Leagues. From this point we found the
Main land trend away North by West 1/2 West, and a Strait or Passage
between it and a Large Island* (* Whitsunday Island.) or Islands laying
in a Parrallel direction with the Coast; this passage we Stood into,
having the Tide of Ebb in our favour. At Noon we were just within the
Entrance, and by observation in the Latitude of 20 degrees 26 minutes
South; Cape Hillsborough bore South by East, distant 10 Leagues, and the
North point of the Bay before mentioned bore South 19 degrees West,
distance 4 Miles. This point I have named Cape Conway* (* General H.S.
Conway was Secretary of State 1765 to 1768.) (Latitude 20 degrees 30
minutes, Longitude 211 degrees 28 minutes), and the bay, Repulse Bay,
which is formed by these 2 Capes. The greatest and least depth of Water
we found in it was 13 and 8 fathoms; every where safe Anchoring, and I
believe, was it properly examined, there would be found some good Harbour
in it, especIally on the North Side within Cape Conway, for just within
the Cape lay 2 or 3 Small Islands, which alone would shelter that side of
the Bay from the South-East and Southerly winds, which seem to be the
prevailing or Trade Winds. Among the many islands that lay upon this
Coast there is one more Remarkable than the rest,* (* Probably Blacksmith
Island.) being of a Small circuit, very high and peaked, and lies East by
South, 10 Miles from Cape Conway at the South end of the Passage above

[In Whitsunday Passage, Queensland.]

Monday, 4th. Winds at South-South-East and South-East, a Gentle breeze
and Clear weather. In the P.M. Steerd thro' the passage* (* Whitsunday
Passage. The aspect of the shores is very pleasing.) which we found from
3 to 6 or 7 Miles broad, and 8 or 9 Leagues in length, North by West 1/2
West and South by East 1/2 East. It is form'd by the Main on the West,
and by Islands on the East, one of which is at least 5 Leagues in length.
Our Depth of Water in running thro' was between 25 and 20 fathoms;
everywhere good Anchorage; indeed the whole passage is one Continued safe
Harbour, besides a Number of small Bays and Coves on each side, where
ships might lay as it where in a Bason; at least so it appear'd to me,
for I did not wait to Examine it, as having been in Port so lately, and
being unwilling to loose the benefit of a light Moon. The land, both on
the Main and Islands, especially on the former, is Tolerably high, and
distinguished by Hills and Vallies, which are diversified with Woods and
Lawns that looked green and pleasant. On a Sandy beach upon one of the
Islands we saw 2 people and a Canoe, with an outrigger, which appeared to
be both Larger and differently built to any we have seen upon the Coast.
At 6 we were nearly the length of the North end of the Passage; the North
Westermost point of the Main in sight bore North 54 degrees West, and the
North end of the Island North-North-East, having an open Sea between
these 2 points. [This passage I have named Whitsundays Passage, as it was
discover'd on the day the Church commemorates that Festival, and the
Isles which form it Cumberland Isles, in honour of His Royal Highness the
Duke of Cumberland.* (* Henry Frederick, Duke of Cumberland, was a
younger brother of George III.)] We keept under an Easey Sail and the
Lead going all Night, having 21, 22, and 23 fathoms, at the distance of 3
Leagues from the land. At daylight A.M. we were abreast of the point
above mentioned, which is a lofty promontory; that I named Cape
Gloucester* (* William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, a younger
brother of George III.) (Latitude 19 degrees 57 minutes South, Longitude
211 degrees 54 minutes West). It may be known by an Island which lies out
at Sea North by West 1/2 West, 5 or 6 Leagues from it; this I called
Holbourn Isle.* (* Admiral Francis Holbourne commanded the fleet in North
America in which Cook served in 1757.) There are also Islands laying
under the Land between it and Whitsundays Passage. On the West side of
the Cape the Land Trends away South-West and South-South-West, and forms
a deep bay. The Sand in the bottom of this bay I could but just see from
the Masthead; it is very low, and is a Continuation of the same low land
as is at the bottom of Repulse Bay. Without Waiting to look into this
bay, which I called Edgcumbe Bay,* (* In Port Denison, on the western
side of Edgcumbe Bay, is the rising town of Bowen, the port of an
agricultural district. There is good coal in the vicinity. Captain G.
Edgcumbe commanded the Lancaster in the fleet in North America in 1758 in
which Cook served. Afterwards Earl of Mount Edgcumbe.) we continued our
Course to the Westward for the Westermost land we had in sight which bore
from us West by North 1/2 North, and appeared very high. At Noon we were
about 3 Leagues from the Land, and by observation in the Latitude of 19
degrees 47 minutes South, Cape Gloucester bearing South 63 degrees East,
distant 7 1/2 Leagues.

Tuesday, 5th. Winds between the South and East, a Gentle breeze, and
Serene weather. At 6 a.m. we were abreast of the Western point of Land
above mentioned, distant from it 3 Miles, which I have named Cape
Upstart, because being surrounded with low land it starts or rises up
singley at the first making of it (Latitude 19 degrees 39 minutes South,
Longitude 212 degrees 32 minutes West); it lies West-North-West 14
Leagues from Cape Gloucester, and is of a height sufficient to be seen 12
Leagues; but it is not so much of a Promontory as it appears to be,
because on each side of it near the Sea is very low land, which is not to
be seen unless you are pretty well in with the Shore. Inland are some
Tolerable high hills or mountains, which, like the Cape, affords but a
very barren prospect. Having past this Cape, we continued standing to the
West-North-West as the land lay, under an easey Sail, having from 16 to
10 fathoms, until 2 o'Clock a.m., when we fell into 7 fathoms, upon which
we hauled our wind to the Northward, judging ourselves to be very near
the land; as so we found, for at daylight we were little more than 2
Leagues off. What deceived us was the Lowness of the land, which is but
very little higher than the Surface of the Sea, but in the Country were
some hills. At noon we were in 15 fathoms Water, and about 4 Leagues from
the land. Our Latitude by Observation was 19 degrees 12 minutes South;
Cape Upstart bore 38 degrees 30 minutes East, distant 12 Leagues. Course
and distance sail'd since Yesterday noon North 48 degrees 45 minutes, 53
Miles. At and before Noon some very large smokes were Seen rise up out of
the low land. At sun rise I found the Variation to be 5 degrees 35
minutes Easterly; at sun set last night the same Needle gave near 9
degrees. This being Close under Cape Upstart, I judged that it was owing
to Iron ore or other Magnetical Matter Lodged in the Earth.

[Off Cleveland Bay, Queensland.]

Wednesday, 6th. Light Airs at East-South-East, with which we Steer'd
West-North-West as the Land now lay; Depth of Water 12 and 14 fathoms. At
Noon we were by Observation in the Latitude of 19 degrees 1 minute South,
Longitude made from Cape Gloucester 1 degree 30 minutes West; Course and
distance saild since Yesterday noon West-North-West, 28 Miles. In this
situation we had the Mouth of a Bay all open extending from South 1/2
East to South-West 1/2 South, distance 2 Leagues. This bay, which I named
Cleveland Bay,* (* In Cleveland Bay is Townsville, the largest town in
Northern Queensland. Population 12,000.) appeared to be about 5 or 6
Miles in Extent every way. The East point I named Cape Cleveland, and the
West, Magnetical Head or Island, as it had much the appearance of an
Island; and the Compass did not traverse well when near it. They are both
Tolerable high, and so is the Main Land within them, and the whole
appeared to have the most rugged, rocky, and barren Surface of any we
have yet seen. However, it is not without inhabitants, as we saw smoke in
several places in the bottom of the bay. The Northermost land we had in
sight at this time bore North-West; this we took to be an Island or
Islands, for we could not trace the Main land farther than West by North.

Thursday, 7th. Light Airs between the South and East, with which we
steer'd West-North-West, keeping the Main land on board, the outermost
part of which at sun set bore from us West by North; but without this lay
high land, which we took to be Islands. At daylight A.M. we were the
Length of the Eastern part of this Land, which we found to Consist of a
Group of Islands* (* Palm Islands.) laying about 5 Leagues from the Main.
We being at this time between the 2, we continued advancing Slowly to the
North-West until noon, at which time we were by observation in the
Latitude of 18 degrees 49 minutes, and about 5 Leagues from the Main
land, the North-West part of which bore from us North by West 1/2 West,
the Island extending from North to East; distance of the nearest 2 Miles.
Cape Cleveland bore South 50 degrees East, distant 18 Leagues. Our
Soundings in the Course of this day's Sail were from 14 to 11 fathoms.

Friday, 8th. Winds at South-South-East and South; first part light Airs,
the remainder a Gentle breeze. In the P.M. we saw several large smokes
upon the Main, some people, Canoes, and, as we thought, Cocoa Nut Trees
upon one of the Islands; and, as a few of these Nutts would have been
very acceptable to us at this Time, I sent Lieutenant Hicks ashore, with
whom went Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, to see what was to be got. In the
Meantime we keept Standing in for the Island with the Ship. At 7 they
returned on board, having met with Nothing worth Observing. The Trees we
saw were a small kind of Cabbage Palms. They heard some of the Natives as
they were putting off from the Shore, but saw none. After the Boat was
hoisted in we stood away North by West for the Northermost land we had in
sight, which we were abreast of at 3 o'Clock in the Morning, having
passed all the Islands 3 or 4 hours before. This point I have named Point
Hillock,* (* Point Hillock is the east point of Hinchinbrook Island,
which is separated from the main by a narrow and tortuous channel.) on
account of its Figure. The Land of this point is Tolerable high, and may
be known by a round Hillock or rock that appears to be detached from the
point, but I believe it joins to it. Between this Cape and Cape Cleveland
the shore forms a Large bay, which I named Hallifax bay;* (* The Earl of
Halifax was Secretary of State 1763 to 1765.) before it lay the Groups of
Islands before mentioned, and some others nearer the Shore. These Islands
shelter the Bay in a manner from all Winds, in which is good Anchorage.
The land near the Shore in the bottom of the bay is very low and Woody;
but a little way back in the Country is a continued ridge of high land,
which appear'd to be barren and rocky. Having passed Point Hillock, we
continued standing to the North-North-West as the land Trended, having
the Advantage of a light Moon. At 6 a.m. we were abreast of a point of
Land which lies North by West 1/2 West, 11 Miles from Point Hillick; the
Land between them is very high, and of a craggy, barren surface. This
point I named Cape Sandwich;* (* Earl of Sandwich was First Lord of the
Admiralty 1763.) it may not only be known by the high, craggy land over
it, but by a small Island which lies East one Mile from it, and some
others about 2 Leagues to the Northward of it. From Cape Sandwich the
Land trends West, and afterwards North, and forms a fine, Large Bay,
which I called Rockingham Bay;* (* The Marquis of Rockingham was Prime
Minister 1765 to 1766.) it is well Shelter'd, and affords good Anchorage;
at least, so it appear'd to me, for having met with so little
encouragement by going ashore that I would not wait to land or examine it
farther, but continued to range along Shore to the Northward for a parcel
of Small Islands* (* The Family Islands.) laying off the Northern point
of the Bay, and, finding a Channel of a Mile broad between the 3
Outermost and those nearer the Shore, we pushed thro'. While we did this
we saw on one of the nearest Islands a Number of the Natives collected
together, who seem'd to look very attentively upon the Ship; they were
quite naked, and of a very Dark Colour, with short hair. At noon we were
by observation in the Latitude of 17 degrees 59 minutes, and abreast of
the North point of Rockingham Bay, which bore from us West 2 Miles. This
boundry of the Bay is form'd by a Tolerable high Island, known in the
Chart by the Name of Dunk Isle; it lays so near the Shore as not to be
distinguished from it unless you are well in with the Land. At this time
we were in the Longitude of 213 degrees 57 minutes. Cape Sandwich bore
South by East 1/2 East, distant 19 Miles, and the northermost land in
sight North 1/2 West. Our depth of Water in the Course of this day's Sail
was not more than 16, nor less than 7, fathoms.* (* About here the Great
Barrier Reefs begin to close in on the land. Cook kept so close to the
latter that he was unconscious as yet of their existence; but he was soon
to find them.)

[Anchored near Cape Grafton, Queensland.]

Saturday, 9th. Winds between the South and South-East, a Gentle breeze,
and Clear weather, with which we steer'd North by West as the land lay,
the northern extream of which at sunset bore North 25 degrees West. We
keept on our Course under an Easey sail all night, having from 12 to 16
fathoms, at the distance of about 3 or 4 Leagues from the Land. At 6 a.m.
we were abreast of Some small Islands, which we called Frankland Isles,
that lay about 2 Leagues from the Mainland, the Northern Point of which
in sight bore North by West 1/2 West; but this we afterwards found to be
an Island,* (* Fitzroy Island.) tolerable high, and about 4 Miles in
Circuit. It lies about 2 Miles from the Point on the Main between which
we went with the ship, and were in the Middle of the Channell at Noon,
and by observation in the Latitude of 16 degrees 55 minutes, where we had
20 fathoms of water. The point of land we were now abreast of I called
Cape Grafton* (* The Duke of Grafton was Prime Minister when Cook
sailed.) (Latitude 16 degrees 55 minutes South, Longitude 214 degrees 11
minutes West); it is Tolerable high, and so is the whole Coast for 20
Leagues to the southward, and hath a very rocky surface, which is thinly
cover'd with wood. In the night we saw several fires along shore, and a
little before noon some people.

Sunday, 10th. After hauling round Cape Grafton we found the land trend
away North-West by West; 3 Miles to the Westward of the Cape is a Bay,
wherein we Anchor'd, about 2 Miles from the Shore, in 4 fathoms, owsey
bottom. The East point of the Bay bore South 74 degrees East, the West
point South 83 degrees West, and a Low green woody Island laying in the
Offing bore North 35 degrees East. The Island lies North by East 1/2
East, distance 3 or 4 Leagues from Cape Grafton, and is known in the
Chart by the Name of Green Island. As soon as the Ship was brought to an
Anchor I went ashore, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander; the
first thing I did was to look for fresh Water, and with that View rowed
out towards the Cape, because in the bottom of the bay was low Mangrove
land, and little probability of meeting with any there. But the way I
went I found 2 Small streams, which were difficult to get at on account
of the Surf and rocks upon the Shore. As we came round the Cape we saw,
in a sandy Cove, a small stream of Water run over the beach; but here I
did not go in the boat because I found that it would not be Easey to
land. We hardly advanced anything into the Country, it being here hilly,
which were steep and rocky, and we had not time to Visit the Low lands,
and therefore met with nothing remarkable. My intention was to have
stay'd here at least one day, to have looked into the Country had we met
with fresh water convenient, or any other Refreshment; but as we did not,
I thought it would be only spending of time, and loosing as much of a
light Moon to little purpose, and therefore at 12 o'Clock at night we
weighed and stood away to the North-West, having at this time but little
wind, attended with Showers of rain.* (* In the next bay west of where
Cook anchored is Cairns, a small but rising town in the centre of a
sugar-growing district.) At 4 the breeze freshned at South by East, with
fair weather; we continued steering North-North-West 1/2 West as the Land
lay, having 10, 12, and 14 fathoms, at a distance of 3 Leagues from the
Land. At 11 we hauld off North, in order to get without a Small Low
Island* (* Low Isles. There is now a lighthouse on them.) which lay about
2 Leagues from the Main; it being about high Water, about the time we
passed it, great part of it lay under water. About 3 Leagues to the North
Westward of this Island, close under the Main land, is another Island,*
(* Snapper Island.) Tolerable high, which bore from us at Noon North 55
degrees West, distant 7 or 8 Miles; we being at this time in the Latitude
of 16 degrees 20 minutes South, Cape Grafton bore South 29 degrees East,
distant 40 Miles, and the Northermost point of Land in Sight North 20
degrees West, and in this Situation had 15 fathoms Water. The Shore
between Cape Grafton and the above Northern point forms a large but not
very deep Bay, which I named Trinity Bay, after the day on which it was
discover'd; the North point Cape Tribulation, because here began all our
Troubles. Latitude 16 degrees 6 minutes South, Longitude 214 degrees 39
minutes West.

[The Ship Aground on Endeavour Reef.]

Monday, 11th. Wind at East-South-East, with which we steer'd along shore
North by West at the distance of 3 or 4 Leagues off, having from 14 to 10
and 12 fathoms water. Saw 2 Small Islands in the Offing, which lay in the
Latitude of 16 degrees 0 minutes South, and about 6 or 7 Leagues from the
Main. At 6 the Northermost land in sight bore North by West 1/2 West, and
2 low, woody Islands,* (* Hope Islands.) which some took to be rocks
above Water, bore North 1/2 West. At this time we shortened Sail, and
hauld off shore East-North-East and North-East by East, close upon a
Wind. My intention was to stretch off all Night as well to avoid the
danger we saw ahead as to see if any Islands lay in the Offing,
especially as we now begun to draw near the Latitude of those discover'd
by Quiros, which some Geographers, for what reason I know not, have
thought proper to Tack to this land. Having the advantage of a fine
breeze of wind, and a clear Moon light Night in standing off from 6 until
near 9 o Clock, we deepned our Water from 14 to 21 fathoms, when all at
once we fell into 12, 10 and 8 fathoms. At this time I had everybody at
their Stations to put about and come to an Anchor; but in this I was not
so fortunate, for meeting again with Deep Water, I thought there could be
no danger in standing on.* (* The ship passed just northward of
Pickersgill Reef.) Before 10 o'Clock we had 20 and 21 fathoms, and
Continued in that depth until a few minutes before 11, when we had 17,
and before the Man at the Lead could heave another cast, the Ship Struck
and stuck fast. Immediately upon this we took in all our Sails, hoisted
out the Boats and Sounded round the Ship, and found that we had got upon
the South-East Edge of a reef of Coral Rocks, having in some places round
the Ship 3 and 4 fathoms Water, and in other places not quite as many
feet, and about a Ship's length from us on the starboard side (the Ship
laying with her Head to the North-East) were 8, 10, and 12 fathoms. As
soon as the Long boat was out we struck Yards and Topmast, and carried
out the Stream Anchor on our Starboard bow, got the Coasting Anchor and
Cable into the Boat, and were going to carry it out in the same way; but
upon my sounding the 2nd time round the Ship I found the most water a
Stern, and therefore had this Anchor carried out upon the Starboard
Quarter, and hove upon it a very great Strain; which was to no purpose,
the Ship being quite fast, upon which we went to work to lighten her as
fast as possible, which seem'd to be the only means we had left to get
her off. As we went ashore about the Top of High Water we not only
started water, but threw overboard our Guns, Iron and Stone Ballast,
Casks, Hoop Staves, Oil Jarrs, decay'd Stores, etc.; many of these last
Articles lay in the way at coming at Heavier. All this time the Ship made
little or no Water. At 11 a.m., being high Water as we thought, we try'd
to heave her off without Success, she not being afloat by a foot or more,
notwithstanding by this time we had thrown overboard 40 or 50 Tuns
weight. As this was not found sufficient we continued to Lighten her by
every method we could think off; as the Tide fell the ship began to make
Water as much as two pumps could free: at Noon she lay with 3 or 4
Streakes heel to Starboard; Latitude observed 15 degrees 45 minutes

Tuesday, 12th. Fortunately we had little wind, fine weather, and a smooth
Sea, all this 24 Hours, which in the P.M. gave us an Opportunity to carry
out the 2 Bower Anchors, one on the Starboard Quarter, and the other
right a Stern, got Blocks and Tackles upon the Cables, brought the falls
in abaft and hove taught. By this time it was 5 o'Clock p.m.; the tide we
observed now begun to rise, and the leak increased upon us, which obliged
us to set the 3rd Pump to work, as we should have done the 4th also, but
could not make it work. At 9 the Ship righted, and the Leak gain'd upon
the Pumps considerably. This was an alarming and, I may say, terrible
circumstance, and threatened immediate destruction to us. However, I
resolv'd to risque all, and heave her off in case it was practical, and
accordingly turn'd as many hands to the Capstan and Windlass as could be
spared from the Pumps; and about 20 Minutes past 10 o'Clock the Ship
floated, and we hove her into Deep Water, having at this time 3 feet 9
Inches Water in the hold. This done I sent the Long boat to take up the
Stream Anchor, got the Anchor, but lost the Cable among the Rocks; after
this turn'd all hands to the Pumps, the Leak increasing upon us.

A mistake soon after hapned, which for the first time caused fear to
approach upon every man in the Ship. The man that attended the well took
the Depth of water above the Ceiling; he, being relieved by another who
did not know in what manner the former had sounded, took the Depth of
water from the outside plank, the difference being 16 or 18 inches, and
made it appear that the leak had gained this upon the pumps in a short
time. This mistake was no sooner cleared up than it acted upon every man
like a Charm; they redoubled their vigour, insomuch that before 8 o'clock
in the morning they gained considerably upon the leak.* (* The
circumstance related in this paragraph is from the Admiralty copy.) We
now hove up the Best Bower, but found it impossible to save the small
Bower, so cut it away at a whole Cable; got up the Fore topmast and
Foreyard, warped the Ship to the South-East, and at 11 got under sail,
and stood in for the land, with a light breeze at East-South-East. Some
hands employ'd sewing Oakham, Wool, etc., into a Lower Steering sail to
fother the Ship; others employ'd at the Pumps, which still gain'd upon
the Leak.

[Fothering the Ship.]

Wednesday, 13th. In the P.M. had light Airs at East-South-East, with
which we keept edging in for the Land. Got up the Maintopmast and
Mainyard, and having got the Sail ready for fothering of the Ship, we put
it over under the Starboard Fore Chains, where we suspected the Ship had
suffer'd most, and soon after the Leak decreased, so as to be keept clear
with one Pump with ease; this fortunate circumstance gave new life to
every one on board.

It is much easier to conceive than to discribe the satisfaction felt by
everybody on this occasion. But a few minutes before our utmost Wishes
were to get hold of some place upon the Main, or an island, to run the
Ship ashore, where out of her Materials we might build a Vessel to carry
us to the East Indies; no sooner were we made sencible that the outward
application to the Ship's bottom had taken effect, than the field of
every Man's hopes inlarged, so that we thought of nothing but ranging
along Shore in search of a Harbour, when we could repair the Damages we
had sustained.* (* The foregoing paragraph is from the Admiralty copy.
The situation was indeed sufficiently awkward. When it is considered that
the coast was wholly unknown, the natives decidedly hostile, the land
unproductive of any means of subsistence, and the distance to the nearest
Dutch settlements, even if a passage should be found south of New Guinea,
1500 miles, there was ample cause for apprehension if they could not save
the ship. Knowing what we now know, that all off this coast is a
continuous line of reefs and shoals, Cook's action in standing off might
seem rash. But he knew nothing of this. There was a moon; he reduced sail
to double reefed topsails with a light wind, as the log tells us, and
with the cumbrous hempen cables of the day, and the imperfect means of
heaving up the anchor, he was desirous of saving his men unnecessary
labour. Cook was puzzled that the next tide did not, after lightening the
ship, take him off; but it is now known that on this coast it is only
every alternate tide that rises to a full height, and as he got ashore
nearly at the top of the higher of the two waters he had to wait
twenty-four hours until he got a similar rise. Lucky was it for them that
the wind was light. Usually at this season the trade wind is strong, and
raises a considerable sea, even inside the Barrier. Hawkesworth or Banks
makes the proposition to fother the ship emanate from Mr. Monkhouse; but
it is scarcely to be supposed that such a perfect seaman as Cook was not
familiar with this operation, and he merely says that as Mr. Monkhouse
had seen it done, he confided to him the superintendence of it, as of
course the Captain had at such a time many other things to do than stand
over the men preparing the sail. In 1886 the people of Cooktown were
anxious to recover the brass guns of the Endeavour which were thrown
overboard, in order to place them as a memento in their town; but they
could not be found, which is not altogether surprising.) In justice to
the Ship's Company, I must say that no men ever behaved better than they
have done on this occasion; animated by the behaviour of every Gentleman
on board, every man seem'd to have a just sence of the Danger we were in,
and exerted himself to the very utmost. The Ledge of Rocks, or Shoal, we
have been upon, lies in the Latitude of 15 degrees 45 minutes, and about
6 or 7 Leagues from the Main land; but this is not the only Shoal that
lay upon this part of the Coast, especially to the Northward, and one
which we saw to the Southward, the tail of which we passed over when we
had the uneven Soundings 2 hours before we Struck. A part of this Shoal
is always above Water, and looks to be white Sand; part of the one we
were upon was dry at low Water, and in that place consists of Sand and
stones, but every where else Coral Rocks. At 6 we Anchored in 17 fathoms,
about 5 or 6 Leagues from the land, and one from the Shoal. At this time
the Ship made about 15 Inches Water per hour. At 6 a.m. weigh'd and stood
to the North-West, edging in for the land, having a Gentle breeze at
South-South-East. At 9 we past close without 2 small low Islands, laying
in the Latitude of 15 degrees 41 minutes, and about 4 Leagues from the
Main; I have named them Hope Islands, because we were always in hopes of
being able to reach these Islands. At Noon we were about 3 Leagues from
the Land, and in the Latitude of 15 degrees 37 minutes South; the
Northermost part of the Main in sight bore North 30 degrees West, and the
above Islands extending from South 30 degrees East to South 40 degrees
East. In this situation had 12 fathoms water and several sandbanks
without us. The Leak now decreaseth, but for fear it should break out
again we got the Sail ready fill'd for fothering; the manner this is done
is thus: We Mix Oacham and Wool together (but Oacham alone would do), and
chop it up Small, and then stick it loosely by handfulls all over the
Sail, and throw over it Sheep dung or other filth. Horse Dung for this
purpose is the best. The Sail thus prepared is hauld under the Ship's
bottom by ropes, and if the place of the Leak is uncertain, it must be
hauld from one part of her bottom to another until one finds the place
where it takes effect. While the Sail is under the Ship the Oacham, etc.,
is washed off, and part of it carried along with the water into the Leak,
and in part stops up the hole. Mr. Monkhouse, one of my Midshipmen, was
once in a Merchant Ship which Sprung a Leak, and made 48 Inches Water per
hour; but by this means was brought home from Virginia to London with
only her proper crew; to him I gave the direction of this, who executed
it very much to my satisfaction.

[In Endeavour River, Queensland.]

Thursday, 14th. P.M., had a Gentle breeze at South-East by East. Sent the
Master, with 2 Boats as well, to sound ahead of the Ship, as to look out
for a Harbour where we could repair our defects, and put the Ship on a
proper Trim, both of which she now very much wanted. At 3 saw an Opening
that had the appearance of a Harbour; stood off and on while the Boats
were examining it, who found that there was not a sufficient depth of
Water for the Ship. By this time it was almost sun set, and seeing many
shoals about us we Anchored in 4 fathoms about 2 miles from the Shore,
the Main land extending from North 1/2 East to South by East 1/2 East. At
8 o'clock the Pinnace, in which was one of the Mates, return'd on board,
and reported that they had found a good Harbour* (* Cook Harbour,
Endeavour River.) about 2 Leagues to leeward. In consequence of this
information we, at 6 a.m., weigh'd and run down to it, first sending 2
Boats ahead to lay upon the Shoals that lay in our way; and
notwithstanding this precaution, we were once in 3 fathoms with the Ship.
Having pass'd these Shoals, the Boats were sent to lay in the Channell
leading into the Harbour. By this time it begun to blow in so much that
the Ship would not work, having missed stays Twice; and being entangled
among Shoals, I was afraid of being drove to Leeward before the Boats
could place themselves, and therefore Anchoredd in 4 fathoms about a Mile
from the Shore, and then made the Signal for the Boats to come on board,
after which I went myself and Buoy'd the Channell, which I found very
narrow, and the Harbour much smaller than I had been told, but very
convenient for our Purpose. At Noon Latitude observed 15 degrees 26
minutes South. [Note. This day I restor'd Mr. Magra to his Duty, as I did
not find him guilty of the crimes laid to his charge.]

Friday, 15th. A fresh Gale at South-East and Cloudy weather, attended
with Showers of Rain. In the Night, as it blow'd too fresh to break the
Ship loose to run into the Harbour, we got down the Topgallant yards,
unbent the Mainsail, and some of the Small sails; got down the
Foretopgallant mast, and the Jibb Boom and Spritsailyard in, intending to
lighten the Ship Forward as much as possible, in order to lay her ashore
to come at the Leak.

Saturday, 16th. Strong Gales at South-East, and Cloudy, hazey weather,
with Showers of Rain. At 6 o'Clock in the A.M. it moderated a little, and
we hove short, intending to get under sail, but was obliged to desist,
and veer away again; some people were seen ashore to-day.

Sunday, 17th. Most part strong Gales at South-East, with some heavy
showers of rain in the P.M. At 6 a.m., being pretty moderate, we weigh'd
and run into the Harbour, in doing of which we run the Ship ashore Twice.
The first time she went off without much Trouble, but the Second time she
Stuck fast; but this was of no consequence any farther than giving us a
little trouble, and was no more than what I expected as we had the wind.
While the Ship lay fast we got down the Foreyard, Foretopmast, booms,
etc., overboard, and made a raft of them alongside.

Monday, 18th. Fresh Gales and Cloudy, with Showers of Rain. At 1 p.m. the
Ship floated, and we warped her into the Harbour, and moor'd her
alongside of a Steep Beach on the South side; got the Anchors, Cables,
and all the Hawsers ashore. In the A.M. made a Stage from the Ship to the
Shore, Erected 2 Tents, one for the Sick, and the other for the Stores
and Provisions; Landed all the empty Casks and part of the Provisions,
and sent a boat to haul the Sean, which return'd without Success.

Tuesday, 19th. Fresh Gales at South-East and Cloudy weather, with
frequent showers of Rain. P.M., landed all the Provisions and Part of the
Stores; got the Sick ashore, which amounted, at this time, to 8 or 9,
afflicted with different disorders, but none very dangerously ill. This
afternoon I went upon one of the highest Hills over the Harbour, from
which I had a perfect View of the inlet or River, and adjacent country,
which afforded but a very indifferent prospect. The Low lands near the
River is all over run with Mangroves, among which the salt water flows
every tide, and the high land appear'd to be barren and Stoney. A.M., got
the 4 remaining Guns out of the hold, and mounted them on the Quarter
Deck; got a spare Anchor and Stock ashore, and the remaining part of the
Stores and ballast that were in the Hold; set up the Forge, and set the
Armourer and his Mate to work to make Nails, etc., to repair the Ship.

Wednesday, 20th. Winds at South-East, a fresh breeze, Fore and Middle
parts rainy, the Latter fair. This day got out all the Officers' stores
and the ground Tier of Water, having now nothing in the Fore and Main
Hold But the Coals and a little Stone ballast.

Thursday, 21st. P.M., landed the Powder, got out the stone ballast, wood,
etc., which brought the Ship's Draught of water to 8 feet 10 inches
Forward, and 13 feet abaft. This I thought, by trimming the Coals aft,
would be sufficient, as I find the Tides will rise and fall upon a
Perpendicular 8 feet at Spring tides; but after the Coals was trimm'd
away from over the Leak we Could hear the Water come Gushing in a little
abaft the Foremast about 3 feet from her Keel. This determin'd me to
clear the hold intirely; accordingly very early in the Morning we went to
work to get out the Coals, which was Employment for all hands.

[Ship Beached in Endeavour River.]

Friday, 22nd. Winds at South-East, fair weather. At 4 p.m., having got
out most of the Coals, cast loose the Ship's moorings, and warped her a
little higher up the Harbour to a place I had pitched upon to lay her
ashore to stop the Leak; draught of water Forward 7 feet 9 inches and
abaft 13 feet 6 inches. At 8, being high water, hauld her bow close
ashore, but Keept her stern afloat, because I was afraid of Neaping her,*
(* I.e., Having her so far on shore that they could not heave her off at
Neap tide.) and yet it was necessary to lay the whole of her as near the
ground as possible.* (* The town of Cooktown now stands where the
Endeavour was beached, and the (as near as can be judged) exact spot is
marked by a monument.) At 2 a.m. the Tide left her, which gave us an
Opportunity to Examine the Leak, which we found to be at her Floor Heads,
a little before the Starboard Fore Chains; here the Rocks had made their
way thro' 4 planks, quite to, and even into the Timbers, and wounded 3
more. The manner these planks were damaged--or cut out, as I may say--is
hardly credible; scarce a Splinter was to be seen, but the whole was cut
away as if it had been done by the Hands of Man with a blunt-edge Tool.
Fortunately for us the Timbers in this place were very close; other wise
it would have been impossible to have saved the Ship, and even as it was
it appeared very extraordinary that she made no more water than what she
did. A large peice of Coral rock was sticking in one Hole, and several
peices of the Fothering, small stones, etc., had made its way in, and
lodged between the Timbers, which had stopped the Water from forcing its
way in in great Quantities. Part of the Sheathing was gone from under the
Larboard bow, part of the False Kiel was gone, and the remainder in such
a Shatter'd Condition that we should be much better off if it was gone
also; her Forefoot and some part of her Main Kiel was also damaged, but
not Materially. What damage she may have received abaft we could not see,
but believe not much, as the Ship makes but little water, while the Tide
Keeps below the Leak forward. At 9 the Carpenters went to work upon the
Ship, while the Armourers were buisy making Bolts, Nails, etc.

Saturday, 23rd. Winds South Easterly, a fresh Gale and fair weather.
Carpenters employed Shifting the Damaged planks as long as the tide would
permit them to work. At low water P.M. we examined the Ship's bottom
under the Starboard side, she being dry as far aft as the After-part of
the Fore Chains; we could not find that she had received any other damage
on this side but what has been mentioned. In the morning I sent 3 Men
into the Country to shoot Pidgeons, as some of these birds had been seen
flying about; in the evening they return'd with about 1/2 a Dozen. One of
the Men saw an Animal something less than a greyhound; it was of a Mouse
Colour, very slender made, and swift of Foot.* (* Kangaroo.) A.M., I sent
a Boat to haul the Sean, who return'd at noon, having made 3 Hauls and
caught only 3 fish; and yet we see them in plenty Jumping about the
harbour, but can find no method of catching them.

Sunday, 24th. Winds and weather as Yesterday. P.M., the Carpenters
finished the Starboard side, and at 9 heeld the Ship the other way, and
hauld her off about 2 feet for fear of Neaping. In the A.M. they went to
work repairing the Sheathing under the Larboard bow, where we found 2
planks cut about half thro'. Early in the morning I sent a party of Men
into the Country under the direction of Lieutenant Gore to seek for
refreshments; they return'd about noon with a few Palm Cabbages and a
Bunch or 2 of wild Plantains; these last were much Smaller than any I had
ever seen, and the Pulp full of small Stones; otherwise they were well
tasted. I saw myself this morning, a little way from the Ship, one of the
Animals before spoke off; it was of a light mouse Colour and the full
size of a Grey Hound, and shaped in every respect like one, with a long
tail, which it carried like a Grey hound; in short, I should have taken
it for a wild dog but for its walking or running, in which it jump'd like
a Hare or Deer. Another of them was seen to-day by some of our people,
who saw the first; they described them as having very small Legs, and the
print of the Feet like that of a Goat; but this I could not see myself
because the ground the one I saw was upon was too hard, and the length of
the Grass hindered my seeing its legs.* (* These kangaroos were the first
seen by Europeans. The name was obtained from the natives by Mr. Banks.)

Monday, 25th. At low water in the P.M. While the Carpenters were buisey
in repairing the Sheathing and plank under the Larboard bow I got people
to go under the Ship's bottom, to examine all her Larboard side, she only
being dry Forward, but abaft were 9 feet water. They found part of the
Sheathing off abreast of the Mainmast about her floor heads, and a part
of one plank a little damaged. There were 3 people who went down, who all
agreed in the same Story; the Master was one, who was positive that she
had received no Material Damage besides the loss of the Sheathing. This
alone will be sufficient to let the worm into her bottom, which may prove
of bad consequence. However, we must run all risque, for I know of no
method to remedy this but by heaving her down, which would be a work of
Emence Labour and time, if not impractical in our present situation.

The Carpenters continued hard at work under her bottom until put off by
the Tide in the evening, and the morning Tide did not Ebb out far enough
to permit them to work upon her, for here we have only one Tolerable low
and high tide in 24 Hours. A.M., a party of Men were employ'd ashore
filling water, while others were employ'd overhauling the rigging.

Tuesday, 26th. Fair weather, a South-East wind, and a fresh Gale; at low
Water P.M. the Carpenters finished under the Larboard bow and every other
place the tide would permit them to come at. Lashed some Casks under the
Ship's bows in order to help to float her, and at high water in the Night
attempted to heave her off, but could not, she not being afloat partly
owing to some of the Casks not holding that were Lashed under her. A.M.,
employed getting more Casks ready for the same purpose; but I am much
afraid that we shall not be able to float her now the Tides are Taking

Wednesday, 27th. A fresh breeze of Wind at South-East and Cloudy weather.
P.M., lashed 38 empty Butts under the Ship's Bottom in order to float her
off, which proved ineffectual, and therefore gave over all hopes of
getting her off until the Next spring tides. At daylight we got a
Considerable weight of sundry Articles from Aft forward to ease the Ship;
the Armourer at work at the Forge repairing Iron work, etc., Carpenters
caulking and Stocking one of the Spare Anchors, Seamen employ'd filling
of Water and overhauling the rigging, and I went in the pinnace up the
Harbour, and made several hauls with the Sean, but caught only between 20
and 30 pound of fish, which were given to the sick and such as were weak
and Ailing.

Thursday, 28th. Fresh breezes and Cloudy. All hands employ'd as

Friday, 29th. Wind and weather as Yesterday, and the employment of the
People the same, Lieutenant Gore having been 4 or 5 miles in the Country,
where he met with nothing remarkable. He saw the footsteps of Men, and
likewise those of 3 or 4 sorts of wild beasts, but saw neither Man nor
beast. Some others of our people who were out Yesterday on the North side
of the River met with a place where the Natives have just been, as their
fires was then burning; but they saw nobody, nor have we seen one since
we have been in port. In these excursions we found some Wild Yamms or
Cocos growing in the Swampy grounds, and this Afternoon I sent a Party of
Men to gather some. The Tops we found made good greens, and eat
exceedingly well when Boil'd, but the roots were so bad that few besides
myself could eat them. This night Mr. Green and I observ'd an Emersion of
Jupiter's first Satellite, which hapned at 2 hours 58 minutes 53 seconds
in the A.M.; the same Emersion hapnd at Greenwich, according to
Calculation, on the 30th at 5 hours 17 minutes 43 seconds A.M. The
differance is 14 hours 18 minutes 50 seconds, equal to 214 degrees 42
minutes 30 seconds of Longitude,* (* This was an excellent observation.
The true longitude is 214 degrees 45 minutes.) which this place is West
of Greenwich, and its Latitude 15 degrees 26 minutes South. A.M., I sent
some hands in a Boat up the River to haul the Sean, while the rest were
employ'd about the rigging and sundry other Dutys.

Saturday, 30th. Moderate breezes at South-East, and clear serene weather.
P.M., the Boat returned from hauling the Sean, having caught as much fish
as came to a pound and a half a Man. A.M., I sent her again to haul the
Sean, and some hands to gather greens, while others were employ'd about
the rigging, etc., etc. I likewise sent some of the Young Gentlemen to
take a plan of the Harbour, and went myself upon the hill, which is near
the South point to take a view of the Sea.* (* Grassy Hill.) At this time
it was low water, and I saw what gave me no small uneasiness, which were
a Number of Sand Banks and Shoals laying all along the Coast; the
innermost lay about 3 or 4 Miles from the Shore, and the outermost
extended off to Sea as far as I could see without my glass, some just
appeared above water.* (* These were the innermost reefs of the Great
Barrier. There is a tolerably clear passage about 8 miles wide between
them and the shore, though this has some small shoals in it.) The only
hopes I have of getting clear of them is to the Northward, where there
seems to be a Passage, for as the wind blows constantly from the
South-East we shall find it difficult, if not impractical, to return to
the Southward.

[July 1770.]

Sunday, 1st July. Gentle breezes at South-East, and Cloudy weather, with
some Gentle Showers in the morning. P.M., the People return'd from
hauling the Sean, having caught as much fish as came to 2 1/2 pound per
Man, no one on board having more than another. The few Greens we got I
caused to be boil'd among the pease, and makes a very good Mess, which,
together with the fish, is a great refreshment to the people. A.M., a
party of Men, one from each Mess, went again a fishing, and all the rest
I gave leave to go into the Country, knowing that there was no danger
from the Natives. To-day at Noon the Thermometer in the Shade rose to 87
degrees, which is 2 or 3 Degrees higher than it hath been on any day
before in this place.

Monday, 2nd. Ditto weather. P.M., the fishing-party caught as much fish
as came to 2 pounds a Man. Those that were in the Country met with
nothing New. Early in the A.M. I sent the Master in the pinnace out of
the Harbour, to sound about the Shoals in the Offing and to look for a
Channel to the Northward. At this time we had a breeze of wind from the
land, which continued till about 9. What makes me mention this is, that
it is the first Land breeze we have had since we have been in this River.
At low water lashed empty Casks under the Ship's bows, being in some
hopes of floating her the next high Water, and sent some hands a fishing,
while others were employ'd in refitting the Ship.

Tuesday, 3rd. Winds at South-East, Fore and Middle part gentle breeze,
the remainder a fresh gale. In the evening the fishing Party return'd,
having got as much fish as came to 2 pounds a Man. At high water we
attempted to heave the Ship off, but did not succeed. At Noon the Master
return'd, and reported he had found a passage out to Sea between the
Shoals, which passage lies out East-North-East or East by North from the
River mouth. He found these Shoals to Consist of Coral Rocks; he landed
upon one, which drys at low Water, where he found very large cockles* (*
Tridacna.) and a Variety of other Shell fish, a quantity of which he
brought away with him. He told me that he was 5 Leagues out at Sea,
having at that distance 21 fathoms water, and judg'd himself to be
without all the Shoals, which I very much doubted.* (* Cook was right.
The shoals extend for four leagues farther.) After this he came in Shore,
and Stood to the Northward, where he met with a Number of Shoals laying a
little distance from the Shore. About 9 in the evening he landed in a Bay
about 3 Leagues to the Northward of this Place, where he disturbed some
of the Natives, whom he supposed to be at supper; they all fled upon his
approach, and Left him some fresh Sea Eggs, and a fire ready lighted
behind them; but there was neither House nor Hut near. Although these
Shoals lay within sight of the Coast, and abound very much with Shell
fish and other small fish, which are to be caught at Low water in holes
in the Rocks, yet the Natives never visit them, for if they did we must
have seen of these Large shells on shore about their fire places. The
reason I do suppose is, that they have no Boats that they dare Venture so
far out at Sea in.* (* Nevertheless the natives do get out to the islands
which lie farther from the shore than these reefs, as Cook himself
afterwards found.)

Wednesday, 4th. Strong gales at South-East and fair weather. P.M., the
fishing party return'd with the usual success; at High water hove the
ship Afloat. A.M., employ'd trimming her upon an even Kiel, intending to
lay her ashore once more, to come at her bottom under the Larboard Main

Thursday, 5th. Strong breezes at South-East and fair weather. P.M. Warped
the Ship over, and at high Water laid her ashore on the Sandbank on the
South side of the River, for I was afraid to lay her broad side to the
Shore where she lay before, because the ground lies upon too great a
decent, and she hath already received some Damage by laying there these
last Niep Tides, at least she still makes water.

[At Anchor, Endeavour River.]

Friday, 6th. Ditto weather. At low water in the P.M. had hardly 4 feet
water under the Ship; yet could not repair the Sheathing that was beat
off, the place being all under water. One of the Carpenter's crew, a Man
I could trust, went down and Examin'd it, and found 3 Streakes of the
Sheathing gone about 7 or 8 feet long, and the Main Plank a little
rubbed; this account agrees with the report of the Master and others that
were under her bottom before. The Carpenter, who I look upon to be well
skill'd in his profession, and a good judge in these matters, was of
Opinion that this was of little consequence; and as I found that it would
be difficult, if not impractical, for us to get under her bottom to
repair it, I resolved to spend no more time about it. Accordingly at high
water hove her off, and moor'd her alongside the beach, where the Stores,
etc., lay, and in the A.M. got everything in readiness for taking them on
board, and at the same time got on board 8 Tuns of Water, and stow'd in
the ground Tier in the after Hold. In the Morning Mr. Banks and
Lieutenant Gore with 3 Men went in a small Boat up the Harbour, with a
View to stay 2 or 3 days to try to Kill some of the Animals we have seen
about this place.

Saturday, 7th. Fresh breezes at South-East and fair weather. Employ'd
getting on board Coals, Ballast, etc., and caulking the Ship; a work that
could not be done while she lay aground. The Armourer and his Mate are
Still employ'd at the Forge making and repairing sundry Articles in the
Iron way.

Sunday, 8th. Gentle breeze and South-East, and clear weather. Early I
sent the Master in a Boat out to Sea to sound again about the Shoals,
because the account he had given of the Channell before mentioned was to
me by no means Satisfactory; likewise sent some hands to haul the Sean,
who caught near 80 pounds of fish; the rest of the people I gave leave to
go into the Country.

Monday, 9th. In the Day Ditto Winds, but in the night Calm. P.M., Mr.
Gore and Mr. Banks return'd, having met with nothing remarkable; they
were about 3 or 4 Leagues up in the Country without finding hardly any
Variation either in the Soil or Produce. In the Evening the Master
return'd, having been several Leagues out at Sea, and at that Distance
off saw Shoals without him, and was of opinion there was no getting out
to Sea that way. In his return he touched upon one of the Shoals, the
same as he was upon the first time he was out; he here saw a great number
of Turtle, 3 of which he Caught weighing 791 pounds. This occasion'd my
sending him out again this morning provided with proper gear for Striking
them, he having before nothing but a Boat Hook. Carpenters, Smiths, and
Coopers at their respective Employments, and the Seamen employed getting
on board stones, ballast, etc. This day all hands feasted upon Turtle for
the First time.* (* As they had had nothing fresh but a little fish for
four months, and scarcely any meat since they left the Society Islands,
eleven months before, we can imagine that this was a feast.)

Tuesday, 10th. Winds and weather as yesterday. Employ'd hoisting on board
and stowing away the ground Tier of Water. P.M., saw 7 or 8 of the
Natives on the South side of the River, and 2 of them came down upon the
Sandy point opposite the Ship; but as soon as I put off in a Boat in
order to speak with them they run away as fast as they could. At 11 Mr.
Banks, who had gone out to Sea with Mr. Molineux, the Master, return'd in
his own Small Boat, and gave but a Very bad account of our
Turtlecatchers. At the time he left them, which was about 6 o'Clock, they
had not got one, nor were they likely to get any; and yet the Master was
so obstinate that he would not return,* (* This seems rather hard upon
the Master.) which obliged me to send Mr. Gore out in the Yawl this
morning to order the Boat and People in, in Case they could not be
employ'd there to some Advantage. In the A.M. 4 of the Natives came down
to the Sandy point on the North side of the Harbour, having along with
them a small wooden Canoe with Outriggers, in which they seem'd to be
employed striking fish, etc. Some were for going over in a Boat to them;
but this I would not suffer, but let them alone without seeming to take
any Notice of them. At length 2 of them came in the Canoe so near the
Ship as to take some things we throw'd them. After this they went away,
and brought over the other 2, and came again alongside, nearer than they
had done before, and took such Trifles as we gave them; after this they
landed close to the Ship, and all 4 went ashore, carrying their Arms with
them. But Tupia soon prevailed upon them to lay down their Arms, and come
and set down by him, after which most of us went to them, made them again
some presents, and stay'd by them until dinner time, when we made them
understand that we were going to eat, and asked them by signals to go
with us; but this they declined, and as soon as we left them they went
away in their Canoe. One of these Men was something above the Middle Age,
the other 3 were young; none of them were above 5 1/2 feet high, and all
their Limbs proportionately small. They were wholy naked, their Skins the
Colour of Wood soot, and this seem'd to be their Natural Colour. Their
Hair was black, lank, and cropt short, and neither wooly nor Frizled; nor
did they want any of their Fore Teeth, as Dampier has mentioned those did
he saw on the Western side of this Country. Some part of their Bodys had
been painted with red, and one of them had his upper lip and breast
painted with Streakes of white, which he called Carbanda. Their features
were far from being disagreeable; their Voices were soft and Tunable, and
they could easily repeat any word after us, but neither us nor Tupia
could understand one word they said.

Wednesday, 11th. Gentle land and Sea breezes. Employed Airing the Bread,
stowing away water, Stores, etc. In the night the Master and Mr. Gore
returned with the Long Boat, and brought with them one Turtle and a few
Shell fish; the Yawl Mr. Gore left upon the Shoal with 6 Men to endeavour
to strike more Turtle. In the morning 4 of the Natives made us another
Short Visit; 3 of them had been with us the preceeding day, the other was
a stranger. One of these men had a hole through the Bridge* (* The
cartilage of the nostril.) of his nose, in which he stuck a peice of Bone
as thick as my finger. Seeing this we examin'd all their Noses, and found
that they had all holes for the same purpose; they had likewise holes in
their Ears, but no Ornaments hanging to them; they had bracelets on their
Arms made of hair, and like Hoops of small Cord. They sometimes may wear
a kind of fillet about their Heads, for one of them had applied some part
of an old shirt which I had given them to this use.

Thursday, 12th. Winds and weather as Yesterday, and the Employment of the
People the same. At 2 A.M. the Yawl came on board, and brought 3 Turtle
and a large Skeat, and as there was a probability of succeeding in this
kind of fishery, I sent her out again after breakfast. About this time 5
of the Natives came over and stay'd with us all the Forenoon. There were
7 in all--5 Men, 1 Woman, and a Boy; these 2 last stay'd on the point of
Land on the other side of the River about 200 Yards from us. We could
very clearly see with our Glasses that the Woman was as naked as ever she
was born; even those parts which I always before now thought Nature would
have taught a woman to Conceal were uncovered.

Friday, 13th. Gentle breezes from the South-East in day, and Calm or
light Airs from the Land in the Night. Employ'd taking on board water,
Stores, etc. At Noon the Yawl return'd with one Turtle and a large Sting

Saturday, 14th. Gentle breezes at South-East and Hazey weather. In the
P.M. compleated our water; got on board all the Bread, and part of our
Stores; in the evening sent the Turtlers out again. A.M., employ'd
getting on board stone ballast and Airing the spare Sails. Mr. Gore,
being in the Country, shott one of the Animals before spoke of; it was a
small one of the sort, weighing only 28 pound clear of the entrails; its
body was ----* (* Blank in manuscript.) long; the head, neck, and
Shoulders very Small in proportion to the other parts. It was hair lipt,
and the Head and Ears were most like a Hare's of any Animal I know; the
Tail was nearly as long as the body, thick next the Rump, and Tapering
towards the End; the fore Legs were 8 Inches long, and the Hind 22. Its
progression is by Hopping or Jumping 7 or 8 feet at each hop upon its
hind Legs only, for in this it makes no use of the Fore, which seem to be
only design'd for Scratching in the ground, etc. The Skin is cover'd with
a Short, hairy furr of a dark Mouse or Grey Colour. It bears no sort of
resemblance to any European animal I ever saw; it is said to bear much
resemblance to the Jerboa, excepting in size, the Jerboa being no larger
than a common rat.

Sunday, 15th. Gentle breezes at South-East and East. P.M., got on board
the Spare Sails and sundry other Articles. In the A.M., as the people did
not work upon the Ship, one of the Petty Officers was desirous of going
out to Catch Turtles. I let him have the Pinnace for that purpose, and
sent the Long boat to haul the Sean, who caught about 60 fish.

Monday, 16th. Fore and Latter parts gentle breezes at East-North-East; in
the night had light Airs and Calm. In the evening the Yawl came in with 4
Turtle and a Large Sting ray, and soon after went out again; but the
Pinnace did not return as I expected. A.M., employ'd getting on board
Cables; at the same time I went upon one of the high hills on the North
side of the River, from which I had an extensive view of the inland
Country, which consisted of hills, Valleys, and Large plains, agreeably
diversified with Woods and Lawns.

Tuesday, 17th. Wind at South-East, a fresh breeze; people employed as
yesterday setting up the rigging. In the evening the Pinnace returned
with 3 Turtles, 2 of which the Yawl caught and sent in. At 7 hours 41
minutes 17 seconds p.m. observ'd the first Satellite of Jupiter to
Emerge, and the same Emersion hapned at Greenwich at 10 hours 00 minutes
52 seconds in the a.m.; the difference is 14 hours 19 minutes 35 seconds
equal to 214 degrees 53 minutes 45 seconds of Longitude. The observation
made on the 29th of last Month gave 214 degrees 42 minutes 30 seconds;
the mean is 214 degrees 48 minutes 7 1/2 seconds, which this place is
West of Greenwich.* (* As before mentioned, the true longitude is 214
degrees 45 minutes.)

Wednesday, 18th. Wind at East-South-East, a Gentle breeze. P.M., I sent
the Master and one of the Mates in the Pinnace to the Northward to look
for a Channell that way clear of the Shoal. Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and
myself took a turn into the woods on the other side of the water, where
we met with 5 of the Natives; and although we had not seen any of them
before, they came to us without showing any signs of fear. 2 of these
wore Necklaces made of Shells, which they seem'd to Value, as they would
not part with them. In the evening the Yawl came in with 3 Turtle, and
early in the A.M. she went out again. About 8 we were Visited by several
of the Natives, who now became more familiar than ever. Soon after this
Mr. Banks and I went over to the South* (* This should be North.) side of
the River, and Travel'd 6 or 8 miles along shore to the Northward, where
we ascended a high hill, from whence I had an extensive view of the Sea
Coast; it afforded us a melancholy prospect of the difficulties we are to
encounter, for in whatever direction we looked it was cover'd with Shoals
as far as the Eye could see; after this we return'd to the Ship without
meeting with anything remarkable, and found several of the Natives on
board. At this time we had 12 tortoise or Turtle upon our Decks, which
they took more Notice of than anything Else in the Ship, as I was told by
the officers, for their Curiosity was Satisfied before I got on board,
and they went away soon after.

Thursday, 19th. Gentle breezes and fair weather. Employ'd getting
everything in readyness for Sea. A.M., we were Visited by 10 or 11 of the
Natives; the most of them came from the other side of the Harbour, where
we saw 6 or 7 more, the most of them Women, and, like the men, quite
naked. Those that came on board were very desirous of having some of our
Turtles, and took the liberty to haul 2 of them to the Gangway to put
over the side; being disappointed in this, they grew a little
Troublesome, and were for throwing every thing overboard they could lay
their hands upon. As we had no Victuals dress'd at this time, I offer'd
them some bread to Eat, which they rejected with Scorn, as I believe they
would have done anything else excepting Turtle;* (* No doubt, in the
native view, the turtle belonged to them, and they considered the
strangers had annexed their property.) soon after this they all went
ashore, Mr. Banks, myself, and 5 or 6 of our people being their at same
time. Immediately upon their Landing one of tbem took a Handful of dry
grass and lighted it at a fire we had ashore, and before we well know'd
what he was going about he made a larger Circuit round about us, and set
fire to the grass in his way, and in an instant the whole place was in
flames. Luckily at this time we had hardly anything ashore, besides the
Forge and a Sow with a litter of young Pigs, one of which was scorched to
Death in the fire. As soon as they had done this they all went to a place
where some of our people were washing, and where all our nets and a good
deal of linnen were laid out to dry; here with the greatest obstinacy
they again set fire to the grass, which I and some others who were
present could not prevent, until I was obliged to fire a Musquet load
with small Shott at one of the Ring leaders, which sent them off. As we
were apprised of this last Attempt of theirs we got the fire out before
it got head, but the first spread like wild fire in the Woods and grass.
Notwithstanding my firing, in which one must have been a little hurt,
because we saw a few drops of blood on some of the linnen he had gone
over, they did not go far from us; for we soon after heard their Voices
in the woods, upon which Mr. Banks and I and 3 or 4 more went to look for
them, and very soon met them coming toward us. As they had each 4 or 5
Darts, and not knowing their intention, we seized upon 6 or 7 of the
first darts we met with. This alarm'd them so much that they all made
off, and we follow'd them for near 1/2 a Mile, and then set down and
called to them, and they stop'd also; after some little unintelligible
conversation had passed they laid down their darts, and came to us in a
very friendly manner. We now return'd the Darts we had taken from them,
which reconcil'd everything. There were 4 Strangers among them that we
had not seen before, and these were interduced to us by name by the
others; the Man which we supposed to have been Struck with small Shott
was gone off, but he could not be much hurt as he was at a great distance
when I fir'd. They all came along with us abreast of the Ship, where they
stay'd a short time, and then went away, and soon after set the woods on
fire about a Mile and a half or two Miles from us.

Friday, 20th. Fresh breezes at South-East and Cloudy weather. P.M., got
everything on board the Ship, new berth'd her, and let her swing with the
tide. In the night the Master return'd with the pinnace, and reported
that there was no safe Passage for the Ship to the Northward at low
water. A.M., I went and Sounded and buoy'd the Bar, being now ready to
put to sea the first opportunity.

Saturday, 21st. Strong breezes at South-East and Cloudy weather. P.M.,
sent a Boat to haul the Sean, which return'd with as much fish as came to
1 3/4 pounds per Man; the Yawl return'd with only one Turtle, which was
caught in the Net, for it blew too hard for the Boat to strike any. In
the morning I sent her out again, but she was obliged to return, not
being able to get to Windward. The Carpenters employ'd in repairing the
Boats and overhauling the Pumps, and as the Wind would not permit us to
sail, I sent the Boatswain with some hands ashore to make rope, and a
petty Officer with 2 Men to gather Greens for the Ship's Company.

Sunday, 22nd. Fresh breezes at South-East and East-South-East. Employ'd
as Yesterday. A.M., the weather would not permit us to Sail; sent the
Turtlers out again. In opening of one to-day we found sticking thro' both
Shoulder bones a wood Harpoon, or Turtle Peg, 15 Inches long, bearded at
the end, such as we have seen among the Natives; this proves to a
Demonstration that they strike Turtle, I suppose at the Time they come
ashore to lay their Eggs, for they certainly have no boat fit to do this
at Sea, or that will carry a Turtle, and this Harpoon must have been a
good while in, as the wound was quite heal'd up.

Monday, 23rd. Fresh breezes in the South-East quarter, which so long as
it continues will confine us in Port. Yesterday, A.M., I sent some people
in the Country to gather greens, one of which stragled from the rest, and
met with 4 of the Natives by a fire, on which they were broiling a Fowl,
and the hind leg of one of the Animals before spoke of. He had the
presence of mind not to run from them (being unarm'd), least they should
pursue him, but went and set down by them; and after he had set a little
while, and they had felt his hands and other parts of his body, they
suffer'd him to go away without offering the least insult, and perceiving
that he did not go right for the Ship they directed him which way to go.

Tuesday, 24th. Winds and weather continues. The Seamen employ'd making
ropes, Caulking the Ship, Fishing, etc.

Wednesday, 25th. Fresh gales at South-East and fair weather. In the
evening the Yawl came in, having not been able to Strike one Turtle on
account of the blowing weather, nor can we catch much fish with the Sean
in the Harbour.

Thursday, 26th. Winds and weather as Yesterday. Such people as can be
spared from the necessary Dutys of the Ship are employ'd fishing and
gathering greens and other refreshments.

Friday, 27th. Very fresh Gales at South-East by South and fair weather.
A.M., caught as much fish as served 3/4 pounds a man, and Mr. Gore shott
one of the Animals before spoke of, which weighed 80 pounds and 54
pounds, exclusive of the entrails, Skin, and head; this was as large as
the most we have seen.

Saturday, 28th. Winds and weather as above, without the least Variation
the whole of the 24 hours. The Carpenters finish'd caulking the Ship.

Sunday, 29th. Winds at South-East, a fresh breeze until 5 a.m., at which
time it fell calm, and soon after had a light breeze from the land. Upon
this I sent a Boat to see what water was upon the bar (it being 2 hours
Ebb), and hove up the Anchor in order to put to Sea; but upon the return
of the Boat came too again, as there were only 13 feet water on the Bar,
which was 6 Inches less water than what the Ship Draw'd. After this I
sent the Yawl to look for Turtle, as those we had got before were nearly
all expended. About 8 the Sea breeze set in again, which put an end to
our Sailing this day; after which I sent the Pinnace to haul the Sean;
she return'd with only 20 pounds of Fish.

Monday, 30th. Winds at South-East, a fresh Gale and fair weather in the
P.M., the remainder Hazey, with rain, but the winds, tho more moderate,
keept in the South-East quarter.

Tuesday, 31st. Fresh Gales at South-East, and hazey with rain all P.M.
and most part of the Night. At 2 a.m. I had thoughts of trying to Warp
the Ship out of the Harbour, but upon my going first out in a Boat I
found it blow too fresh for such an Attempt.

[August 1770.]

Wednesday, 1st August. Strong Gales from the South-East, with Squalls
attended with Rain. P.M., the Yawl came in with 2 Rays, which together
weighed 265 pounds; it blow'd too hard all the time they were out for
striking Turtle. Carpenters employ'd overhauling the Pumps, all of which
we find in a state of decay; and this the Carpenter says is owing to the
Sap having been left in, which in time has decay'd the sound wood. One of
them is quite useless, and was so rotten when hoisted up as to drop to
peices. However, I cannot complain of a Leaky Ship, for the most water
She makes is not quite an Inch an Hour.

Thursday, 2nd. Winds and weather as yesterday, or rather more Stormy; we
have now no Success in the Sein fishing, hardly getting above 20 or 30
pounds a day.

Friday, 3rd. Strong breezes, and hazey until 6 a.m., when it moderated,
and we unmoor'd, hove up the Anchor, and began to Warp out; but the Ship
tailing upon the Sand on the North side of the River, the Tide of Ebb
making out, and a fresh breeze setting in, we were obliged to desist and
moor the Ship again just within the Barr.

Saturday, 4th. In the P.M., having pretty moderate weather, I order'd the
Coasting Anchor and Cable to be laid without the barr, to be ready to
warp out by, that we might not loose the least opportunity that might
Offer; for laying in Port spends time to no purpose, consumes our
Provisions, of which we are very Short in many Articles, and we have yet
a long Passage to make to the East Indies through an unknown and perhaps
dangerous Sea; these Circumstances consider'd, make me very Anxious of
getting to Sea. The wind continued moderate all night, and at 5 a.m. it
fell calm; this gave us an opportunity to warp out. About 7 we got under
sail, having a light Air from the Land, which soon died away, and was
Succeeded by the Sea breezes from South-East by South, with which we
stood off to Sea East by North, having the Pinnace ahead sounding. The
Yawl I sent to the Turtle bank to take up the Net that was left there;
but as the wind freshen'd we got out before her, and a little After Noon
Anchor'd in 15 fathoms water, Sandy bottom, for I did not think it safe
to run in among the Shoals until I had well view'd them at low Water from
the Mast head, that I might be better Able to Judge which way to Steer;
for as yet I had not resolved whether I should beat back to the Southward
round all the Shoals, or seek a Passage to the Eastward or Northward, all
of which appeared to be equally difficult and dangerous. When at Anchor
the Harbour sail'd from bore South 70 degrees West, distant 4 or 5
Leagues; the Northermost point of the Main land we have in sight, which I
named Cape Bedford* (* Probably after John, 4th Duke, who had been First
Lord of the Admiralty, 1744 to 1747.) (Latitude 15 degrees 17 minutes
South, Longitude 214 degrees 45 minutes West), bore North 20 degrees
West, distant 3 1/2 Leagues; but we could see land to the North-East of
this Cape, which made like 2 high Islands;* (* Direction Islands.) the
Turtle banks bore East, distant one Mile. Latitude by Observation 15
degrees 23 minutes South; our depth of Water, in standing off from the
land, was from 3 1/2 to 15 fathoms.

[Description of Endeavour River.]

I shall now give a Short description of the Harbour, or River, we have
been in, which I named after the Ship, Endeavour River. It is only a
small Barr Harbour or Creek, which runs winding 3 or 4 Leagues in land,
at the Head of which is a small fresh Water Brook, as I was told, for I
was not so high myself; but there is not water for Shipping above a Mile
within the barr, and this is on the North side, where the bank is so
steep for nearly a quarter of a Mile that ships may lay afloat at low
water so near the Shore as to reach it with a stage, and is extreamly
Convenient for heaving a Ship down. And this is all the River hath to
recommend it, especially for large Shipping, for there is no more than 9
or 10 feet Water upon the Bar at low water, and 17 or 18 feet at high,
the Tides rises and falling about 9 feet at spring Tide, and is high on
the days of the New and full Moon, between 9 and 10 o'Clock. Besides,
this part of the Coast is barrocaded with Shoals, as to make this Harbour
more difficult of access; the safest way I know of to come at it is from
the South, Keeping the Main land close on board all the way. Its
situation may always be found by the Latitude, which hath been before
mentioned. Over the South point is some high Land, but the North point is
formed by a low sandy beach, which extends about 3 Miles to the
Northward, then the land is again high.

The refreshments we got here were Chiefly Turtle, but as we had to go 5
Leagues out to Sea for them, and had much blowing weather, we were not
over Stocked with this Article; however, what with these and the fish we
caught with the Sean we had not much reason to Complain, considering the
Country we were in. Whatever refreshment we got that would bear a
Division I caused to be equally divided among the whole Company,
generally by weight; the meanest person in the Ship had an equal share
with myself or any one on board, and this method every commander of a
Ship on such a Voyage as this ought ever to Observe. We found in several
places on the Sandy beaches and Sand Hills near the Sea, Purslain and
beans, which grows on a Creeping kind of a Vine. The first we found very
good when boiled, and the latter not to be dispised, and were at first
very serviceable to the Sick; but the best greens we found here was the
Tarra, or Coco Tops, called in the West Indies Indian Kale,* (* Colocasia
Macrorhiza.) which grows in most Boggy Places; these eat as well as, or
better, than Spinnage. The roots, for want of being Transplanted and
properly Cultivated, were not good, yet we could have dispensed with them
could we have got them in any Tolerable plenty; but having a good way to
go for them, it took up too much time and too many hands to gather both
root and branch. The few Cabage Palms we found here were in General
small, and yielded so little Cabage that they were not worth the Looking
after, and this was the Case with most of the fruit, etc., we found in
the woods.

Besides the Animals which I have before mentioned, called by the Natives
Kangooroo, or Kanguru, here are Wolves,* (* Probably Dingos.) Possums, an
Animal like a ratt, and snakes, both of the Venemous and other sorts.
Tame Animals here are none except Dogs, and of these we never saw but
one, who frequently came about our Tents to pick up bones, etc. The
Kanguru are in the greatest number, for we seldom went into the Country
without seeing some. The land Fowls we met here, which far from being
numerous, were Crows, Kites, Hawkes, Cockadores* (* Cockatoos.) of 2
Sorts, the one white, and the other brown, very beautiful Loryquets of 2
or 3 Sorts, Pidgeons, Doves, and a few other sorts of small Birds. The
Sea or Water fowl are Herns, Whisling Ducks, which perch and, I believe,
roost on Trees; Curlews, etc., and not many of these neither. Some of our
Gentlemen who were in the Country heard and saw Wild Geese in the Night.

The Country, as far as I could see, is diversified with Hills and plains,
and these with woods and Lawns; the Soil of the Hills is hard, dry, and
very Stoney; yet it produceth a thin Coarse grass, and some wood. The
Soil of the Plains and Valleys are sandy, and in some places Clay, and in
many Parts very Rocky and Stoney, as well as the Hills, but in general
the Land is pretty well Cloathed with long grass, wood, Shrubs, etc. The
whole Country abounds with an immense number of Ant Hills, some of which
are 6 or 8 feet high, and more than twice that in Circuit. Here are but
few sorts of Trees besides the Gum tree, which is the most numerous, and
is the same that we found on the Southern Part of the Coast, only here
they do not grow near so large. On each side of the River, all the way up
it, are Mangroves, which Extend in some places a Mile from its banks; the
Country in general is not badly water'd, there being several fine
Rivulets at no very great distance from one another, but none near to the
place where we lay; at least not in the Dry season, which is at this
time. However we were very well supply'd with water by springs which were
not far off.* (* Cooktown, which now stands on the Endeavour River, is a
thriving place, and the northernmost town on this coast. It has some 2000
inhabitants, and is the port for a gold mining district. A deeper channel
has now been dredged over the bar that gave Cook so much trouble, but it
is not a harbour that will admit large vessels.)

[At Anchor, Off Turtle Reef, Queensland.]

Sunday, 5th. In the P.M. had a Gentle breeze at South-East and Clear
weather. As I did not intend to weigh until the morning I sent all the
Boats to the Reef to get what Turtle and Shell fish they could. At low
water from the Mast head I took a view of the Shoals, and could see
several laying a long way without this one, a part of several of them
appearing above water; but as it appear'd pretty clear of Shoals to the
North-East of the Turtle Reef, I came to a Resolution to stretch out that

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