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Captain Cook's Journal During the First Voyage Round the World by James Cook

Part 6 out of 11

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some knowledge of it, on the Contrary, by Keeping the Sea with a Contrary
wind, we were sure of meeting with nothing new. These reasons induced me
to bear away for the Bay,* (* The Bay of Islands.) and at 11 o'Clock we
Anchor'd under the South-West side of one of the many Islands* (* Motu
Arohia.) that line the South-East side of it, in 4 1/2 fathoms; but as we
fell into this shoald water all at once, we Anchor'd sooner than was
intended, and sent the Master with 2 Boats to sound, who found that we
had got upon a Bank that spitted off from the North-West end of the
Island, and that on the outside of it was 8 and 10 fathoms Water.

Thursday, 30th. P.M., had the winds Westerly, with some very heavy
Showers of Rain. We had no sooner come to an Anchor than between 300 and
400 of the Natives Assembled in their Canoes about the Ship; some few
were admitted on board, and to one of the Chiefs I gave a piece of Broad
Cloth and distributed a few Nails, etc., among some others of them. Many
of these People had been off to the Ship when we were at Sea, and seem'd
to be very sencible of the use of Fire Arms, and in the Trade we had with
them they behaved Tolerable well, but continued so not long, before some
of them wanted to take away the Buoy,* (* The buoy on the anchor.) and
would not desist at the firing of several Musquets until one of them was
hurt by small Shott, after which they withdrew a small distance from the
Ship, and this was thought a good opportunity to try what Effect a Great
Gun would have, as they paid so little respect to a Musquet, and
accordingly one was fir'd over their Heads. This, I believe, would have
sent them quite off, if it had not been for Tupia, who soon prevail'd on
them to return to the Ship, when their behaviour was such as gave us no
room to suspect that they meant to give us any farther Trouble.

After the Ship was moved into Deeper Water I went with the Pinnace and
Yawl, mann'd and Arm'd, and landed upon the Island, accompanied by Mr.
Banks and Dr. Solander. We had scarce landed before all the Canoes left
the Ship and landed at different parts of the Island, and before we could
well look about us we were surrounded by 2 or 300 People, and,
notwithstanding that they were all Arm'd, they came upon us in such a
confused, straggling manner that we hardly suspected that they meant us
any harm; but in this we were very soon undeceived, for upon our
Endeavouring to draw a line on the sand between us and them they set up
the War dance, and immediately some of them attempted to seize the 2
Boats. Being disappointed in this, they next attempted to break in upon
us, upon which I fir'd a Musquet loaded with small Shott at one of the
Forwardest of them, and Mr. Banks and 2 of the Men fir'd immediately
after. This made them retire back a little, but in less than a minute one
of the Chiefs rallied them again. Dr. Solander, seeing this, gave him a
peppering with small Shott, which sent him off and made them retire a
Second time. They attempted to rally several times after, and only seem'd
to want some one of resolution to head them; but they were at last
intirely dispers'd by the Ship firing a few shott over their Heads and a
Musquet now and then from us. In this Skirmish only one or 2 of them was
Hurt with small Shott, for I avoided killing any one of them as much as
Possible, and for that reason withheld our people from firing. We had
observed that some had hid themselves in a Cave in one of the Rocks, and
sometime after the whole was over we went Towards them. The Chief who I
have mentioned to have been on board the Ship hapned to be one of these;
he, his wife, and another came out to meet us, but the rest made off.
Those 3 people came and sat down by us, and we gave them of such things
as we had about us. After this we went to another part of the Island,
where some of the inhabitants came to us, and were as meek as lambs.
Having taken a View of the Bay from the Island and Loaded both Boats with
Sellery, which we found here in great plenty, we return'd on board, and
at 4 A.M. hove up the Anchor in order to put to Sea, with a light breeze
at East, but it soon falling Calm, obliged us to come too again, and
about 8 or 9 o'Clock, seeing no probability of our getting to Sea, I sent
the Master to Sound the Harbour. But before this I order'd Matthew Cox,
Henry Stevens, and Emanl Parreyra to be punished with a dozen lashes each
for leaving their duty when ashore last night, and digging up Potatoes
out of one of the Plantations.* (* Cook's care to deal fairly with
natives is evinced by this punishment.) The first of the 3 I remitted
back to Confinement because he insisted that there was no harm in what he
had done. All this Forenoon had abundance of the Natives about the Ship
and some few on board. We Trafficked with them for a few Trifles, in
which they dealt very fair and friendly.

[December 1769.]

Friday, 1st December. Winds at North-North-West a Gentle breeze. At 3
p.m., the Boats having return'd from sounding, I went with them over to
the South side of the Harbour, and landed upon the Main, accompanied by
Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander. We met with nothing new or remarkable. The
place where we landed was in a small sandy Cove, where there are 2 small
Streams of Fresh Water and Plenty of Wood for fuel. Here were likewise
several little Plantations planted with Potatoes and Yams. The Soil and
Natural produce of the Country was much the same as what we have hitherto
met with. The people we saw behaved to us with great marks of friendship.
In the evening we had Some very heavy showers of rain, and this brought
us on board sooner than we intended. A.M., the wind being still contrary,
I sent some people ashore upon the Island to cut Grass for our Sheep, in
the doing of which the inhabitants gave them no sort of disturbance, and
in the same friendly manner did those behave that were alongside the
Ship. Punished Matthew Cox with 6 Lashes, and then dismiss'd him.

Saturday, 2nd. Winds at North-West and North. P.M. a Gentle breeze; the
remainder Strong Gales and hazey, with much rain towards Noon. At 8 a.m.
hoisted out the Long boat, and sent her ashore for water, and the Pinnace
to haul the Sean; but they had not got well ashore before it began to
blow and rain very hard. This occasioned them to return on board with one
Turn of water and but a very few fish.

Sunday, 3rd. P.M., Strong Gales at North, with rain; the remainder Gentle
breezes from the Westward. A.M., sent 2 Boats to sound the Harbour and
one to haul the Sean, the latter of which met with very little Success.

Monday, 4th. Gentle breezes at North-West, West-North-West, and West;
very fair weather. P.M., Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and myself landed upon
one of the Islands* (* Probably Motu-Rua.) on the North side of the one
the Ship lays under. This Island is about 3 Miles in Circuit, and hath
upon it 40 or 50 Acres of Land cultivated and planted with roots; here
are likewise several small streams of Excellent water. This Island, as
well as most others in this Bay, seem to be well inhabited. At 4 a.m.
sent the Long boat to the above Island for water and some hands to cut
Grass, and at 9, I went with the Pinnace and Yawl over upon the Main,
accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander. In our way we passed by a
point of land on which stood a Hippa or Fortified Village, the
inhabitants of which waved us to come ashore, and accordingly we landed,
which we had no sooner done than the People came about us with Quantitys
of various sorts of fish, which we purchased of them for meer Trifles.
After this they shew'd us the Village, which was a neat Compact place,
and its situation well Choose. There were 2 or 3 more near unto this, but
these we did not go to. We afterwards went a little way into the Country,
and had some of the Natives along with us; we met with a good deal of
Cultivated land, planted mostly with sweet potatoes. The face of the
Country appear'd Green and pleasant, and the soil seem'd to be pretty
rich and proper for Cultivation. The land is every where about this Bay
of a moderate height, but full of small Hills and Vallies, and not much
incumbered with wood. We met with about 1/2 a dozen Cloth plants, being
the same as the inhabitants of the Islands lying within the Tropics make
their finest Cloth on. This plant must be very scarce among them, as the
Cloth made from it is only worn in small pieces by way of Ornaments at
their ears, and even this we have seen but very seldom. Their knowing the
use of this sort of Cloth doth in some measure account for the
extraordinary fondness they have shew'd for it above every other thing we
had to give them. Even a sheet of white paper is of more value than so
much English Cloth of any sort whatever; but, as we have been at few
places where I have not given away more or less of the latter, it's more
than probable that they will soon learn to set a value upon it, and
likewise upon Iron, a thing not one of them knows the use of or sets the
least value upon; but was European commodities in ever such Esteem among
them, they have no one thing of Equal value to give in return, at least
that we have seen.

Tuesday, 5th. P.M., had the winds at South-West and West-South-West, a
fresh breeze. At 3 o'Clock we return'd on board, and after dinner Visited
another part of the Bay, but met with nothing new. By the evening all our
Empty Casks were fill'd with water, and had at the same time got on board
a large quantity of Sellery, which is found here in great Plenty. This I
still caused to be boild every morning with Oatmeal and Portable Soup for
the Ship's Company's breakfast. At 4 a.m. weigh'd with a light breeze at
South-East, but had Variable light Airs and sometimes Calm until near
Noon, when a Gentle breeze sprung up at North. At this time we had not
got out of the Bay; our Latitude by Observation was 35 degrees 9 minutes
South. This Bay I have before observed, lies on the West side of Cape
Brett: I have named it the Bay of Islands,* (* The principal settlement
in the Bay of Islands is Russell. A little higher up the Waikare River,
at Opua, coal obtained from mines in the vicinity is shipped. At Russell,
then called Kororarika, the first settlement of missionaries was formed
in 1814 by Samuel Marsden. Here also the Government of the Island was
first established in 1840, but was soon removed to Auckland.) on account
of the Great Number which line its shores, and these help to form Several
safe and Commodious Harbours, wherein is room and Depth of Water
sufficient for any number of Shipping. The one we lay in is on the
South-West side of South-Westermost Island, that lies on the South-East
side of the Bay. I have made no accurate Survey of this Bay; the time it
would have requir'd to have done this discouraged me from attempting it;
besides, I thought it quite Sufficient to be able to Affirm with
Certainty that it affords a good Anchorage and every kind of refreshment
for Shipping, but as this was not the Season for roots, we got only fish.
Some few we Caught ourselves with hook and line and in the Sean, but by
far the greatest part we purchased of the Natives, and these of Various
sorts, such as Sharks, Stingrays, Breams, Mullet, Mackerel, and several
other sorts. Their way of Catching them is the same as ours, viz., with
Hook and line and Seans; of the last they have some prodidgious large
made all of a Strong Kind of Grass. The Mackerel are in every respect the
same as those we have in England, only some are larger than any I ever
saw in any other Part of the World; although this is the Season for this
fish, we have never been able to Catch one with hook and line. The
inhabitants of this Bay are far more numerous than at any other place we
have yet been in, and seem to live in friendship one with another,
although it doth not at all appear that they are united under one head.*
(* This district was found to be very populous when the missionaries
came.) They inhabited both the Islands and the Main, and have a Number of
Hippas, or Strong Holds, and these are all built in such places as nature
hath in a great part fortified, and what she hath left undone the people
themselves have finished. It is high water in this Bay at full and change
of the Moon about 8 o'clock, and the tide at these times rises and falls
upon a perpendicular 6 or 8 feet. It appears, from the few Observations I
have been able to make of the Tides on the Sea-Coast, that the flood
comes from the Southward, and I have lately had reasons to think that
there is a current which comes from the Westward and sets along shore to
the South-East or South-South-East, as the Land lays.

[Sail from Bay of Islands, New Zealand.]

Wednesday, 6th. P.M., had a Gentle breeze at North-North-West, with which
we kept turning out of the Bay, but gain'd little or nothing; in the
evening it fell little wind; at 10 o'Clock it was Calm. At this time the
tide or Current seting the Ship near one of the Islands, where we were
very near being ashore; but, by the help of our Boats and a light Air
from the Southward, we got clear. About an hour after, when we thought
ourselves out of all danger, the Ship struck upon a Sunken rock* (*
Called Whale Rock, in Endeavour's chart.) and went immediately clear
without receiving any perceptible damage. Just before the man in the
Chains had 17 fathoms Water, and immediately after she struck 5 fathoms,
but very soon Deepned to 20. This rock lies half-a-mile West-North-West
from the Northermost or outermost Island that lies on the South-East side
of the Bay. Had light Airs from the Land and sometimes Calm until 9
o'Clock a.m.; at this time we had got out of the Bay, and a breeze
springing up at North-North-West, we stood out to Sea. At noon Cape Brett
bore South-South-East 1/2 South, distant 10 miles. Latitude observed, 34
degrees 59 minutes South.

Thursday, 7th. P.M., a fresh breeze from the Westward and Clear weather.
At 3 o'Clock took several Observations of the Sun and Moon; the mean
result of them gives 185 degrees 36 minutes West Longitude from the
Meridian of Greenwich. What winds we have had this 24 hours hath been
against us, so that at Noon we had advanced but very little to the

Friday, 8th. Forepart of P.M. had a Gentle breeze at North-North-West,
with which we stood in shore and fetched close under the Cavalle Islands.
They are a Group of Small Islands lying close under the Main land, and 7
Leagues North 60 West from Cape Brett, and 3 1/2 Leagues from Point
Rodney. From these Islands the Main land trends West by North. We were
here Visited by several Canoes, and the People in them seem'd desirous of
Trafficking with us, but at this time a breeze of wind sprung up at
South, they could not keep up with the Ship, and I would not wait for
them. The wind did not continue long at South before it veer'd to
South-West and West, a light breeze. Found the Variation in the Evening
to be 12 degrees 42 minutes East, and in the Morning 13 degrees East.
Keept standing to the West-North-West and North-West until 10 A.M., at
which time we tacked and stood in for the Shore, being about 5 Leagues
off, and in this situation had 118 fathoms Water. At Noon Cape Brett bore
South-East, distant 13 Leagues, and the Westermost land in sight bore
West by South, being at this time about 4 Leagues from Land. Latitude in
per Observation, 34 degrees 42 minutes South.

Saturday, 9th. P.M., had a Gentle Breeze at West, which in the Evening
came to South and continued so all night; this by daylight brought us
pretty well in with the land, 7 Leagues to the Westward of the Cavalle
Isles, and where lies a deep Bay running in South-West by West and
West-South-West, the bottom of which we could but just see, and there the
land appear'd to be low and level, the 2 points which form the Entrance
lie West-North-West and East-South-East 5 Miles from each other. This Bay
I have named Doubtless Bay;* (* There is a small settlement called
Mangonui in Doubtless Bay.) the wind not permitting us to look into this
Bay we steer'd for the Westermost land we had in sight, which bore from
us West-North-West, distant 3 Leagues, but before we got the length of it
it fell calm, and continued so until 10 o'Clock, when a breeze sprung up
at West-North-West, and with it we stood off North. While we lay
becalm'd, several of the Natives came off to the Ship in 5 Canoes, but
were fearful of venturing alongside. After these were gone, 6 more came
off; these last came boldly alongside, and sold us fish of different
sorts sufficient to give all hands a little.

At noon, the Cavalle Islands bore South-East by East, distant 8 Leagues,
and the Entrance of Doubtless Bay South by West distant 3 Leagues, and
the North-West Extremity of the Land in sight, which we judge to be the
Main, bore North-West by West. Our Latitude by observation was 34 degrees
44 minutes South.

[Off Rangaunu Bay, North Island, New Zealand.]

Sunday, 10th. Had the winds from the Western board all this day, a Gentle
breeze and clear weather. In the evening found the Variation to be 12
degrees 41 minutes East per Azimuth and 12 degrees 40 minutes by the
Amplitude; in the morning we stood Close in with the Land, 7 Leagues to
the westward of Doubtless Bay. Here the shore forms another large open
Bay; the Bottom of this and Doubtless Bay cannot be far from each other,
being to all appearance only seperated by a low neck of land from which
juts out a Peninsula or head land, which I have named Knockle Point. West
by South 6 Leagues from this point and about the Middle of the Bay is a
high Mountain or Hill standing upon a desart shore, on which account we
called it Mount Camel; Latitude 34 degrees 51 minutes; Longitude 186
degrees 50 minutes. In this Bay we had 24 and 25 fathoms Water, the
bottom good for Anchorage, but their seems to be nothing that can induce
Shipping to put into it for no Country upon Earth can look more barren
than the land about this bay doth. It is in general low, except the
Mountain just Mentioned, and the Soil to all appearance nothing but white
sand thrown up in low irregular hills, lying in Narrow ridges parrallel
with the shore; this occasioned me to name it Sandy Bay.* (* Rangaunu
Bay.) The first ridge behind the Sea beach is partly cover'd with Shrubs,
Plants, etc., but the second ridge hath hardly any green thing upon it,
which induced me to think that it lies open to the Western Sea.* (* This
is the fact.) As barren as this land appears it is not without
inhabitants. We saw a Village on this Side of Mount Camel and another on
the Eastern side of the Bay, besides 5 Canoes that were pulling off to
the Ship, but did not come up with us. At 9 a.m. we tacked and stood to
the Northward at Noon. Latitude in Per observation 34 degrees 38 minutes.
The Cavalle Isles bore South-East by East, distant 13 Leagues; the
Northern Extremity of the land in sight making like an Island bore
North-West 1/4 North, distant 9 Leagues, and Mount Camel bore South-West
by South, distant 6 Leagues. Tacked and stood in Shore.

Monday, 11th. Gentle breezes at North. M.d and pleasant weather. Keept
plying all the day, but got very little to Windward; at Noon was in the
Latitude of 34 degrees 32 minutes South, the Northermost inland set
yesterday at noon bore North-West by West, distant 6 or 7 Leagues.

Tuesday, 12th. Moderate breezes of Wind between the North-West and North
and Smooth Water, yet we gain'd very little in plying to Windward; at
Noon Mount Camel bore South by West 1/4, distant 4 or 5 Leagues. Latitude
observed 34 degrees 34 minutes South.

Wednesday, 13th. Fore part of P.M., Moderate breezes at North by West and
fair weather; stood in shore until 5 O'Clock, at which time we tack'd and
stood to the North-East being 2 Leagues to the Northward of Mount Camel
and 1 1/2 Mile from shore, and this situation had 22 fathoms water. At 10
it began to blow and rain, which brought us under double Reeft Top sails;
at 12 Tack'd and Stood to the Westward until 7 A.M. when we Tack'd and
stood again to North-East, being at this time about a Mile to windward of
the place where we tack'd last night. Soon after we Tack'd it came on to
blow very hard at North-North-West with heavy squalls attended with rain,
this brought us under our Courses and Split the Main Top sail in such a
manner that it was necessary to unbend it and bring another to the Yard.
At 10 it fell more moderate and we set the Top sails double reef'd. At
Noon had strong Gales and hazey weather, Tack'd and stood to the
Westward. No land in sight for the first time since we have been upon the

Thursday, 14th. Strong Gales at West and West-South-West with Squalls at
times attended with Rain. At 1/2 past 3 P.M. Tack'd and stood to the
Northward. A small Island lying off Knockle point, bore South 1/2 West,
distant half a League. In the evening brought the Ship under her Courses,
having first Split the Fore and Mizen Top sails; at Midnight wore and
Stood to the Southward until 5 a.m., then Tack'd and stood to the
North-West. At this time saw the land bearing South, distant 8 or 9
Leagues; by this we found we had fell very much to Leeward since
Yesterday morning. Set the Top sails close Reeft and the people to dry
and repair the Damaged Sails. At Noon a strong Gale and clear weather,
Latitude observ'd 34 degrees 6 minutes South. Saw land bearing South-West
being the same North-Westermost land we have seen before, and which I
take to be the Northern Extremity of this Country, as we have now a large
swell rowling in from the Westward which could not well be, was we
covered by any land on that point of the Compass.* (* The Endeavour was
now to the northward of the north point of New Zealand.)

[Off North Cape, New Zealand.]

Friday, 15th. Fresh Gales at South-West, and for the most part clear
weather with a large Swell from the Westward. At 8 P.M. Tack'd and Stood
to the South-East until 8 a.m., and then Tack'd and stood to the Westward
with as much sail as the Ship could bear. At Noon we were in the Latitude
of 34 degrees 10 minutes South, and Longitude 183 degrees 45 minutes
West, and by Estimation about 15 Leagues from the Land notwithstanding we
used our utmost Endeavours to keep in with it.

Saturday, 16th. Fresh breezes between the South by West and South-West.
Clear weather with a Swell from the Westward. At 6 A.M. saw the land from
the Mast Head bearing South-South-West. Got Top Gallant Yards up and set
the Sail, unbent the Foresail to repair and brought another to the Yard.
At Noon, Latitude observ'd 33 degrees 43 minutes South; Course made since
Yesterday Noon North 60 degrees West; distance 56 Miles. The Land in
sight bearing South by West, distant 14 Leagues.

Sunday, 17th. A Gentle breeze between the South-West by West and West
with Clear weather. In standing in Shore sounded several times and had no
ground with 90 fathoms of line. At 8 a.m. Tack'd in 108 fathoms 3 or 4
miles from the Shore, being the same point of Land as we had to the
North-West of us before we were blown off. At Noon it bore South-West,
distant about 3 Miles. Mount Camel bore South by East, distant 11
Leagues, and the Westermost land in sight bore South 75 degrees West;
Latitude observ'd 34 degrees 20 minutes South. The people at work
repairing the Sails, the most of them having been Split in the late
blowing weather.

Monday, 18th. Moderate breezes at West and West-North-West and Clear
weather. At 4 p.m. Tack'd and stood in shore, in doing of which we meet
with a Strong rippling, and the Ship fell fast to leeward, occasioned, as
we thought, by a Current setting to the Eastward. At 8 Tack'd and stood
off North until 8 a.m., when we Tack'd and stood in, being about 10
Leagues from the Land. At Noon the Point of Land we were near to
yesterday at noon bore South-South-West, distant 5 Leagues. Latitude
observed 34 degrees 8 minutes South.

Tuesday, 19th. The wind still continues at West. P.M., a moderate breeze
and Clear weather. At 7 Tack'd in 35 fathoms; the point of land before
mentioned bore North-West by North, distant 4 or 5 Miles, having not
gained one inch to windward this last 24 hours, which is a great proof
that there must be a Current setting to the Eastward.* (* This strong
easterly current is now well known.) The Point of Land above mentioned I
have called North Cape, judging it to be the Northermost Extremity of
this Country. It lies in the Latitude of 34 degrees 22 minutes South and
Longitude 186 degrees 55 minutes West from Greenwich,* (* This position
is very correct.) and North 63 degrees West 31 Leagues from Cape Brett;
it forms the North Point of Sandy Bay, and is a peninsula juting out
North-East about 2 Miles, and Terminates in a Bluff head which is flatt
at Top. The Isthmus which joins this head to the Mainland is very low, on
which account the land off the Cape from several situations makes like an
Island. It appears still more remarkable when to the Southward of it by
the appearance of a high round Island at the South-East Point of the
Cape; but this is likewise a deception, being a round hill join'd to the
Cape by a low, narrow neck of Land; on the South-East side of the Cape
there appears to be anchorage, and where ships must be covered from
South-East and North-West winds. We saw a Hippa or Village upon the Cape
and some few inhabitants. In the night had some Squalls attended with
rain, which obliged us to take another Reef in our Topsails. At 8 a.m.
Tack'd and stood in Shore, and being moderate loosed a Reef out of each
Topsail and set the small sails. At noon we were in the Latitude of 34
degrees 2 minutes South, and being hazey over the land we did not see it.

Wednesday, 20th. P.M., Fresh breezes at West by North, and Clear weather.
At 6 Tack'd and stood off, North Cape bore South, distant 3 or 4 Miles.
At 4 a.m. Tack'd and stood in, Wind at West-North-West a fresh breeze,
but at 9 it increased to a Strong Gale with heavy squalls attended with
Thunder and Rain, which brought us under our Courses. At 11 it Cleared up
and the Wind came to West-South-West; we set the Topsails, double Reef'd
and Tack'd and stood to the North-West. At Noon, a Stiff Gale and Clear
weather; Latitude observed 34 degrees 14 minutes South. North Cape
South-South-West, distant 3 Leagues.

Thursday, 21st. Fresh breezes at South-West and clear weather with a
heavy swell first from the West, then from the South-West. At 8 a.m.
loosed the 2nd Reef out of the Topsails; at noon clear weather, no land
in sight. The North Cape bore South 25 degrees East, distant 24 Leagues.
Latitude observed 33 degrees 17 minutes South.

Friday, 22nd. A moderate Gale at South by West and South-South-West and
Cloudy weather. At 8 a.m. got up Top Gallant Yards and set the sails. At
Noon Latitude observ'd 33 degrees 2 minutes South. Course and distant
since Yesterday at Noon is North 69 1/2 West, 37 Miles. The North Cape
bore South 39 degrees East, distant 38 Leagues.

Saturday, 23rd. Gentle breezes between the South by West and South-West,
and Clear settled weather, with a swell from the South-West. Course and
distance sailed since Yesterday at Noon is South 60 degrees East, 30
Miles. Latitude observed 33 degrees 17 minutes South. North Cape South 36
minutes East, distant 27 Leagues.

Sunday, 24th. Light Airs next to a Calm all this 24 Hours. At 7 p.m. saw
the land from the Mast head bearing South 1/2 East; at 11 a.m. saw it
again bearing South-South-East, distant 8 Leagues. At Noon Latitude
observed 33 degrees 48 minutes South.

Monday, 25th. A Gentle breeze at South-East, the weather a little hazey.
P.M., stood to the South-West. At 4 the land above mentioned bore
South-East by South, distant 4 Leagues. It proves to be a small Island,
which we take to be the 3 Kings discover'd by Tasman; there are several
Smaller Islands or Rocks lying off the South-West end and one at the
North-East end. It lies in the Latitude of 34 degrees 10 minutes South,
and Longitude 187 degrees 45 minutes West and West 14 degrees North, 14
or 15 Leagues from the North Cape. At Midnight Tack'd and stood to the
North-East until 6 a.m., then Tack'd and stood to the Southward. At Noon
the Island of the 3 Kings bore East 8 degrees North, distant 5 or 6
Leagues. Latitude observed 34 degrees 12 minutes South, Longitude in 188
degrees 5 minutes West; variation per Azimuth taken this morning 11
degrees 25 minutes East.

Tuesday, 26th. Moderate breezes, Easterly and hazey weather; standing to
the Southward close upon a wind. At Noon was in the Latitude of 35
degrees 10 minutes South and Longitude 188 degrees 20 minutes West. The
island of the 3 Kings North 26 degrees West, distant 22 Leagues. In this
situation had no land in sight, and yet by observation we are in the
Latitude of the Bay of Islands, and by my reckoning but 30 Leagues to the
Westward of the North Cape, from whence it appears that the Northern part
of this land must be very narrow, otherwise we must have seen some part
of the West side of it.

Wednesday, 27th. Winds at East. P.M., a fresh Gale, with which we stood
to the Southward until 12 at Night, then Tack'd and Stood to the
Northward. At 4 a.m. the wind began to freshen, and increased in such a
manner that at 9 we were obliged to bring the Ship too under her
Mainsail, it blowing at this time excessive hard with heavy Squalls
attended with rain, and at the same time thick hazey weather. Course made
good since Yesterday at Noon South-South-West 1/2 West, distance 11
Miles. Latitude in 35 degrees 19 minutes South, Longitude in 188 degrees
29 minutes West. The Island of the 3 Kings, North 27 degrees East,
distant 77 Miles.

[Off North End of New Zealand.]

Thursday, 28th. The Gale continued without the least intermission until 2
a.m., when the wind fell a little and began to veer to the Southward and
to the South-West where it fixed at 4, and we made Sail and steer'd East
in for the Land under the Foresail and Mainsail, but was soon obliged to
take in the latter as it began to blow very hard and increased in such a
manner that by 8 o'Clock it was a meer Hurricane attended with rain and
the Sea run prodidgious high. At this time we wore the Ship, hauld up the
Topsail, and brought her too with her head to the North-West under a
Reefed Mainsail, but this was scarcely done before the Main Tack gave way
and we were glad to take in the Mainsail and lay too under the Mizen
staysail and Ballanced Mizen, after which we reefd the Foresail and
furl'd both it and the Mainsail. At Noon the Gale was a little abated,
but had still heavy squalls attended with rain. Our Course made good
to-day is North, a little Easterly, 29 miles; Latitude in per Account 34
degrees 50 minutes South; Longitude in 188 degrees 27 minutes West; the 3
Kings North 41 East; distant 52 Miles.

Friday, 29th. Winds at South-West and South-West by West. A very hard
Gale with Squalls but mostly fair weather. At 7 p.m. wore and lay on the
other Tack. At 6 a.m. loosed the Reef out of the Foresail and Set it and
the Reefd Mainsail. At 11 unbent both Foresail and Mainsail to repair,
and bent others and made Sail under them. At Noon Latitude observed 34
degrees 45 minutes South. Course and distance saild since yesterday East
by North 29 miles.

Saturday, 30th. Winds at South-West. P.M., hard Gales with some Squalls
attended with rain. A.M., more moderate and fair. At 8 p.m. wore and
stood to the North-West until 5 a.m., then wore and stood to the
South-East and being pretty moderate we set the Topsails close Reef'd,
but the South-West Sea runs so high that the Ship goes Bodily to leeward.
At 6 saw the land bearing North-East distant about 6 Leagues which we
judge to be the same as Tasman calls Cape Maria Van Dieman; at Noon it
bore North-North-East 1/2 East and we could see the land extend to the
East and Southward as far as South-East by East. Our Latitude by
observation 34 degrees 50 minutes South.

Sunday, 31st. Fresh gales at South-West and South-West by South
accompanied by a large Sea from the same Quarter. At 1 p.m. Tack'd and
Stood to the North-West until 8, then stood to the South-East. At this
time the Island of the 3 Kings bore North-West by West, distant 11
Leagues, and Cape Maria Van Diemen North by East. At Midnight wore and
Stood to the North-West until 4 a.m., then wore and Stood to the
South-East; at Noon our Latitude by observation was 34 degrees 42 minutes
South. The land of Cape Maria Van Diemen bore North-East by North distant
about 5 Leagues.


[January 1770.]

Monday, January 1st. P.M., fresh breezes at South-West by South and
Squally, the remainder moderate breezes at South-West by South and
South-West clear weather. At 7 p.m. Tack'd and stood to the Westward. At
this time Mount Camel bore North 83 degrees East and the Northermost land
or Cape Maria Van Diemen North by West, being distant from the Nearest
Shore 3 Leagues; in this situation had 40 fathoms Water.

NOTE. Mount Camel doth not appear to lay little more than a Mile from the
Sea on this Side* (* It is, in fact, about six miles, but the coast in
front is so low that the mistake in estimation is very natural.) and
about the same distance on the other, so that the land here cannot be
above 2 or 3 Miles broad from Sea to Sea, which is what I computed when
we were in Sandy Bay on the other side of the Coast. At 6 a.m. Tack'd and
Stood to the Eastward, the Island of the 3 Kings North-West by North. At
Noon Tack'd again and stood to the Westward, being in the Latitude of 34
degrees 37 minutes South; the Island of the 3 Kings bore North-West by
North, distant 10 or 11 Leagues; and Cape Maria Van Diemen North 31 East,
distant 4 1/2 Leagues; in this situation had 54 fathoms. I cannot help
thinking but what it will appear a little strange that at this season of
the Year we should be 3 Weeks in getting 10 Leagues to the Westward and 5
Weeks in getting 50 Leagues, for so long it is since we pass'd Cape
Brett; but it will hardly be credited that in the midst of Summer and in
the Latitude of 35 degrees South such a Gale of wind as we have had could
have hapned which for its Strength and Continuance was such as I hardly
was ever in before. Fortunately at this time we were a good distance from
land, otherwise it would have proved fatal to us.* (* The north point of
New Zealand is celebrated for bad weather.)

Tuesday, 2nd. Fresh breezes at South-South-West and West accompanied with
a rowling Sea from the South-West. At 5 p.m. the wind Veering to the
Westward we Tack'd and Stood to the Southward. At this time the North
Cape bore East 3/4 North and was just open of a point that lies 3 Leagues
West by South from it, being now well assured that it is the Northermost
Extremity of this Country and is the East point of a Peninsula which
Stretches out North-West and North-West by North 17 or 18 Leagues, and as
I have before observed is for the most part low and narrow except its
Extremity where the land is Tollerable high and Extends 4 or 5 Leagues
every way. Cape Maria Van Diemen is the West point of the Peninsula and
lies in the Latitude of 34 degrees 30 minutes South; Longitude 187
degrees 18 minutes West from Greenwich.* (* This is extraordinarily
accurate, seeing that the ship was never close to the Cape, and the
observations were all taken in bad weather. The latitude is exact, and
the longitude is only three miles in error. The persistence with which
Cook clung to this point until he could resume his exploration and
examination of the coast is very characteristic of the man. He would not
willingly miss a mile of it, nor did he.) From this Cape the Land Trends
away South-East by South and South-East to and beyond Mount Camel, and is
everywhere a barren shore affording no better prospect than what ariseth
from white sand Banks. At 1/2 past 7 p.m. the Island of the 3 Kings bore
North-West by North and Cape Maria Van Diemen North-East by East, distant
4 Leagues. At 5 a.m. Cape Maria Van Diemen bore North-North-East 1/2 East
and Mount Camel East. At Noon was in the Latitude of 35 degrees 17
minutes and Cape Maria Van Diemen by judgment bore North distant 16
Leagues; having no land in sight, not daring to go near it as the wind
blow'd fresh right on shore and a high rowling Sea from the Same Quarter,
and knowing that there was no Harbour that we could put into in case we
were Caught upon a lee shore.

Wednesday, 3rd. Winds at West-South-West and South-West; a fresh breeze
and Squally, the remainder moderate with frequent Squalls attended with
rain. In the evening shortned Sail and at Midnight Tack'd and made a Trip
to the North-West until 2 a.m., then wore and stood to the Southward. At
daylight made Sail and Edged away in order to make the Land; at 10 saw it
bearing North-East and appeared to be high land; at Noon it extended from
North to East-North-East distant, by Estimation, 8 or 10 Leagues, and
Cape Maria Van Diemen bore North 2 degrees 30 minutes West, distant 33
Leagues. Our Latitude by observation was 36 degrees 2 minutes South. A
high rowling swell from the South-West.

[Off Kaipara Harbour, North Island, New Zealand.]

Thursday, 4th. Winds at South-West and South-West by South; mostly a
fresh Gale accompanied with a rowling sea from the same Quarter. Being
desirous of taking as near a View of the coast as we could with safety we
keept Edging in for it until 7 o'Clock p.m., being at this time 6 Leagues
from the Land. We then hauld our wind to South-East and keept on that
Course close upon the wind all night, sounding several times but had no
ground with 100 and 110 fathoms. At 8 o'Clock a.m. was about 5 Leagues
from the Land and a place which lies in the Latitude of 36 degrees 25
minutes that had the Appearance of a Bay or inlet bore East.* (* This was
Kaipara Harbour, although, on a closer inspection, Cook thought he had
been deceived. It is the largest harbour on this part of the coast. The
town of Helensville stands on one of its arms.) In order to see more of
this place we kept on our Course until 11 o'Clock when we were not above
3 Leagues from it, and then found that it was neither a Bay nor inlet,
but low land bounded on each side by higher lands which caused the
deception. At this time we Tack'd and stood to the North-West. At Noon we
were between 3 and 4 Leagues from the Land and in the Latitude of 36
degrees 31 minutes and Longitude 185 degrees 50 minutes West. Cape Maria
Van Diemen bore North 25 West, distant 44 1/2 Leagues. From this I form
my judgment of the direction of this Coast, which is nearly
South-South-East 3/4 East and North-North-West 3/4 West, and must be
nearly a Strait Shore. In about the Latitude 35 degrees 45 minutes is
some high land adjoining to the Sea; to the Southward of that the land is
of a moderate heigth, and wears a most desolate and inhospitable aspect.
Nothing is to be seen but long sand Hills, with hardly any Green thing
upon them, and the great Sea which the prevailing Westerly winds impell
upon the Shore must render this a very Dangerous Coast. This I am so
fully sencible of, that was we once clear of it I am determined not to
come so near Again, if I can possible avoid it, unless we have a very
favourable wind indeed.* (* The mingled audacity and caution of Cook's
navigation off this coast must awake the admiration of every seaman.)

Friday, 5th. Fresh gales at South-West with frequent Squalls attended
with rain. The South-West swell still keeping up we stood to the
North-West all this day with a prest Sail in order to get an Offing. At
Noon True Course made good North 38 West, distance 102 Miles. Latitude in
per Observation 35 degrees 10 minutes South. Cape Maria Van Diemen bore
North 10 degrees East; distant 41 Miles.

Saturday, 6th. First part a fresh breeze at South-West by South; in the
night had it at South. A.M., light Airs from the Southward next to a
Calm, and Clear weather. Course made good to-day is North 76 West;
distance 8 Miles; Latitude per Observation 35 degrees 8 minutes South.

Sunday, 7th. Variable light Airs and Sometimes Calm with Clear pleasant
weather. At daylight saw the land which we took to be Cape Maria Van
Diemen bearing North-North-East, distant 8 or 9 Leagues. At Noon Latitude
in per Observation 35 degrees 0 minutes South. Cape Maria Van Diemen bore
North, distant 11 Leagues.

Monday, 8th. Gentle breezes at North-East and pleasant weather. At 6 p.m.
saw the land bearing East, and sometime after saw a Turtle upon the
Water. At Noon the land Extending from North to East, distant 5 or 6
Leagues, being the high land before mentioned and which it intersected in
2 places each having the appearance of a Bay or inlet, but I believe it
is only low land.* (* These were Hokianga and False Hokianga.) Course and
distance made good since Yesterday at Noon is South 33 East, 53 miles.
Latitude per Observation 35 degrees 45 minutes South. Cape Maria Van
Diemen North 25 West, distant 30 Leagues.

Tuesday, 9th. Gentle breezes between the North-East and North-West,
Cloudy weather sailing along shore within sight of Land at Noon. Course
and distance Sailed South 37 East, 69 Miles. Latitude in per Observation
36 degrees 39 minutes South; the place we were abreast of the 4th
Instant, which we at first took for a Bay or Inlet* (* Kaipara.) bore
North-East by North, distant 5 1/2 Leagues, and Cape Maria Van Diemen
bore North 29 West, distant 47 Leagues.

[Off Kawhia Harbour, North Island, New Zealand.]

Wednesday, 10th. Winds at North-North-East and North, the first part a
Gentle breeze, the remainder a fresh breeze and Cloudy with rain towards
Noon. Continued a South-East Course until' 8 o'Clock p.m. at which time
we had run 7 Leagues since Noon, and were between 3 and 4 Leagues from
the Land which appear'd to be low and Sandy such as I have before
Discribed, and we then steer'd South-East by East in a Parrallel
direction with the Coast, our Depth of Water from 48 to 34 fathoms; a
black sandy bottom; at daylight found ourselves between 2 and 3 Leagues
from the land which was of a Moderate height and Cloathed with Wood and
Verdure. At 7 o'Clock steer'd South by East and afterwards South by West,
the land laying in that direction; at 9 was abreast of a Point of Land
which rises sloping from the Sea to a Considerable height; it lies in the
Latitude of 37 degrees 43 minutes South; I named it Woodyhead. South-West
1/2 West 11 Miles from this Head is a very small Island which we named
Gannet Island, on account of the Great Number of these Birds we saw upon
it. At Noon a high Craggy point bore East-North-East, distance 1 1/2
Leagues; this point I have named Albetross Point; it lies in the Latitude
of 38 degrees 4 minutes South, and Longitude 184 degrees 42 minutes West,
and from Woodyhead South 17 minutes West 7 Leagues. On the North side of
it the shore forms a Bay wherein there appears to be anchorage and
Shelter for Shipping against Southerly Winds;* (* Kawhia Harbour. There
is a settlement here.) our Course and distance saild since Yesterday at
Noon is South 37 East, distance 69 Miles. Cape Maria Van Diemen bore
North 30 West, distant 82 Leagues.

Thursday, 11th. At 1/2 past Noon the wind Shifted at Once from
North-North-East to South-South-West with which we stood to the Westward
until 4 p.m., then Tack'd and stood on Shore until' 7, when we again
stood to the Westward having but little wind. At this Time Albetross
Point bore North-East, distant near 2 Leagues, and the Southermost land
in sight bore South-South-West 1/2 West being a very high Mountain and
made very much like the Peak of Teneriff; in this Situation had 30
fathoms Water; had little wind all night; at 4 a.m. Tacked and stood in
Shore, but it soon after fell Calm and being in 42 fathoms Water; the
People caught about 10 or 12 Bream. At 11 a light breeze sprung up from
the Westward and we made Sail to the Southward. At Noon was by
Observation in the Latitude of 38 degrees 4 minutes South; Albetross
Point bore due East, distant 5 or 6 Leagues.

Friday, 12th. Gentle breezes from between the North-West and
North-North-East; Fore and Middle part Clear Weather; the Latter part
dark and Cloudy; steering along shore South by West and South-South-West
at the distance of 4 Leagues off. At 7 p.m. saw the top of the Peaked
Mountain to the Southward above the Clouds bearing from us South; at the
same time the Southermost land we had in Sight bore South by West. Took
several Azimuths both in the Evening and the Morning which gave the
Variation 14 degrees 15 minutes Easterly. At Noon had the winds very
Variable with dark cloudy weather attended with excessive heavy Showers
of rain; at this time we were about 3 Leagues from the Shore which lies
under the Peaked Mountain before mentioned. This Peak we did not see, it
being hid in the Clouds, but judged it to bear about South-South-East,
and some very remarkable peaked Islands, lying under the Shore, bore
East-South-East, distant 3 or 4 Leagues.

Saturday, 13th. Winds Variable. P.M., Cloudy weather. At 7 o'Clock
sounded and had 42 fathoms water, being distant from the Shore between 2
and 3 Leagues and the Peaked Mountain as near as I could judge bore East.
After it was Dark saw a fire upon the Shore, a sure sign that the Country
is inhabited. In the night had some Thunder, Lightning, and Rain; at 5
a.m. saw for a few Minutes the Top of the Peaked Mountain above the
Clouds bearing North-East. It is of a prodidgious height and its Top is
cover'd with Everlasting Snow; it lies in the Latitude of 39 degrees 16
minutes South, and in the Longitude of 185 degrees 15 minutes West. I
have named it Mount Egmont in honour of the Earl of Egmont.* (* The Earl
of Egmont was First Lord of the Admiralty from 1763 to 1766. Mount Egmont
is a magnificent conical mountain, surrounded on three sides by the sea,
from which it rises to a height of 8300 feet.) This mountain seems to
have a pretty large base and to rise with a Gradual Ascent to the Peak,
and what makes it more Conspicuous is its being situated near the Sea and
in the Midst of a flat Country which afforded a very good Aspect, being
Cloathed with Woods and Verdure. The shore under the foot of this
Mountain forms a large Cape which I have named Cape Egmont; it lies
South-South-West 1/2 West, 27 Leagues from Albetross Point. On the
North-East side of the Cape lay 2 Small Islands near to a very remarkable
Point of the Main that riseth to a good height in the very form of a
Sugar Loaf. To the Southward of the Cape the Land tends away South-East
by East and East-South-East, and seems to be every where a bold shore. At
Noon had variable light Airs and Clear weather. Latitude observ'd 39
degrees 32 minutes South. Cape Egmont bore about North-East, and we were
about 4 Leagues from the Shore in that direction; in this situation had
40 fathoms Water.

[In North Part of Cook's Strait.]

Sunday, 14th. P.M., had a Gentle Breeze at West. In the evening came to
North-West by West and Continued so all night and blow'd a fresh breeze;
we steer'd along shore East-South-East and South-East by East, keeping
between 2 and 3 Leagues off. At 1/2 past 7 p.m. Saw for a few Minutes
Mount Egmont which bore from us North 17 West, distant 10 Leagues. At 5
a.m. Steer'd South-East by South the land inclining more Southerly, but
half an hour after we saw land bearing South-West by South which we hauld
up for.* (* The north end of the South Island, New Zealand.) At this time
the weather was squally attended with showers of rain. At noon had a
Steady fresh breeze at West by North and Cloudy weather; the South-West
Extremity of the Land in sight bore South 63 degrees West and some high
land, which makes like an Island lying under the Main, bore
South-South-East, distant 5 Leagues. The bottom of the Bay* (* This was
the Northern part of Cook's Strait, but it was thought at the time to be
a bay.) we are now in, and which bears from us South we cannot see,
altho' it is very Clear in that Quarter. Our Latitude by Observation is
40 degrees 27 minutes South, Longitude 184 degrees 39 minutes West.* (*
The western side of the North Island, which Cook took such trouble to
follow, is 400 miles long, and is a most dangerous coast to explore, on
account of the winds being mostly on shore. This prevented him from
getting very close; and he missed the entrances to several harbours, such
as the Manukau, the Waikato River, Whaingaroa, and others. No canoes were
seen, as the coast is not favourable for such craft.)

Monday, 15th. Fore and Middle parts, fresh breezes between the West and
North-West and fair weather. At 8 p.m. we were within 2 Leagues of the
Land, we discover'd in the morning, having run 10 Leagues since Noon; the
land seen then bearing South 63 degrees West bore now North 59 degrees
West, distant 7 or 8 Leagues and makes like an Island. Between this land
or Island and Cape Egmont is a very broad and Deep Bay or inlet the
South-West side of which we are now upon, and here the Land is of a
Considerable height, distinguished by Hills and Valleys, and the Shore
seems to form several Bays, into one of which I intend to go with the
Ship in order to Careen her (she being very foul) and to repair some few
defects, recruit our Stock of Wood, Water, etc. With this View we Keept
plying on and off all Night, having from 80 to 63 fathoms Water; at
daylight stood in for an inlet which runs in South-West.* (* Queen
Charlotte's Sound, in the north-east part of the Middle Island.) At 8
a.m. we were got within the Entrance which may be known by a Reef of
Rocks stretching off from the North-West point, and some rocky Islands
lying off the South-East point. At 9 o'clock being little wind and
Variable we were carried by the Tide or Current within 2 Cables length of
the North-West Shore where we had 54 fathoms, but with the help of our
Boats we got Clear, at this time we saw rise up twice near the Ship a Sea
Lyon, the Head of which was Exactly like the head of the Male one
described by Lord Anson. We likewise saw a Canoe with some of the Natives
cross the Bay, and a Village situated upon a point of an Island, which
lies 7 or 8 miles with the Entrance. At Noon we were the length of this
Island, and being little wind had the Boats ahead Towing.


[January 1770. In Queen Charlotte's Sound, New Zealand.]

TUESDAY, 16th. Variable light Airs and Clear settled weather. At 1 p.m.
hauled close round the South-West end of the Island, on which stands the
Village before mention'd, the inhabitants of which were all in Arms. At 2
o'Clock we anchor'd in a very Snug Cove,* (* Ship Cove, in Queen
Charlotte's Sound.) which is on the North-West side of the Bay facing the
South-West end of the Island in 11 fathoms; soft Ground, and moor'd with
the Stream Anchor. By this time several of the Natives had come off to
the Ship in their Canoes, and after heaving a few stones at us and having
some Conversation with Tupia, some of them Ventur'd on board, where they
made but a very short stay before they went into their Canoes again, and
soon after left us altogether. I then went ashore in the bottom of the
Cove, accompanied by most of the Gentlemen on board. We found a fine
Stream of Excellent Water, and as to wood the land is here one intire
forest. Having the Sean with us we made a few hauls and caught 300 pounds
weight of different sorts of fish, which were equally distributed to the
Ship's Company. A.M., Careen'd the Ship, scrubb'd and pay'd the Larboard
side. Several of the Natives Visited us this Morning, and brought with
them some stinking fish, which, however, I order'd to be bought up to
encourage them in this kind of Traffick, but Trade at this time seem'd
not to be their Object, but were more inclinable to Quarrel, and as the
Ship was upon the Carreen I thought they might give us some Trouble, and
perhaps hurt some of our people that were in the Boats alongside. For
this reason I fir'd some small shott at one of the first Offenders; this
made them keep at a proper distance while they stay'd, which was not long
before they all went away. These people declared to us this morning, that
they never either saw or heard of a Ship like ours being upon this Coast
before. From this it appears that they have no Tradition among them of
Tasman being here, for I believe Murtherers bay, the place where he
anchor'd, not to be far from this place;* (* Tasman's Massacre Bay lies
70 miles to the West-North-West.) but this cannot be it from the
Latitude, for I find by an Observation made this day at Noon that we are
at an Anchor in 41 degrees 5 minutes 32 seconds South, which is 15 miles
to the Southward of Murtherers Bay.* (* The bay in Queen Charlotte's
Sound in which the Endeavour anchored, Ship Cove, lies 7 miles within the
entrance on the western shore.)

Wednesday, 17th. Light Airs, Calm and pleasant weather. P.M., righted
ship and got the other Side ready for heeling out, and in the Evening
Haul'd the Sean and caught a few fish. While this was doing some of us
went in the pinnace into another Cove, not far from where the Ship lays;
in going thither we meet with a Woman floating upon the Water, who to all
appearance had not been dead many days. Soon after we landed we meet with
2 or 3 of the Natives who not long before must have been regaling
themselves upon human flesh, for I got from one of them the bone of the
Fore arm of a Man or Woman which was quite fresh, and the flesh had been
but lately picked off, which they told us they had eat; they gave us to
understand that but a few days before they had taken, Kill'd, and Eat a
Boats Crew of their Enemies or strangers, for I believe they look upon
all strangers as Enemies. From what we could learn the woman we had seen
floating upon the Water was in this Boat and had been drowned in the
fray. There was not one of us that had the least doubt but what these
people were cannibals; but the finding this bone with part of the sinews
fresh upon it was a stronger proof than any we had yet met with, and, in
order to be fully satisfied of the truth of what they had told us, we
told one of them that it was not the bone of a man, but that of a dog;
but he, with great fervency, took hold of his Fore Arm, and told us again
that it was that bone: and to convince us that they had eat the flesh he
took hold of the flesh of his own Arm with his teeth and made Signs of
Eating. A.M., Careen'd, Scrub'd, and pay'd the Starboard side of the
Ship; while this was doing some of the Natives came alongside seemingly
only to look at us. There was a woman among them who had her Arms,
thighs, and Legs cut in several place's; this was done by way of Mourning
for her Husband who had very lately been Kill'd and Eat by some of their
Enemies as they told us and pointed towards' the place where it was done,
which lay somewhere to the Eastward. Mr. Banks got from one of them a
Bone of the fore Arm, much in the same state as the one before mentioned;
and to show us that they eat the flesh, they bit and Naw'd the bone and
draw'd it through their Mouths, and this in such a manner as plainly
Shew'd that the flesh to them was a Dainty Bit.

Thursday, 18th. Winds mostly from the South-West; a gentle breeze and
Clear settled weather. P.M., righted the Ship and sent on shore all or
most of our empty Casks, and in the Morning the Coopers went about
Trimming them, and the Carpenters went to work to Caulk the sides and to
repair other defects in the Ship, while the seamen are Employ'd in the
hold Cutting Wood, etc., etc. I made a little Excursion in the pinnace in
order to take a View of the Bay, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr.
Solander. We met with nothing remarkable, and as we were on the West side
of the Bay where the land is so closely cover'd with wood that we could
not penetrate into the country.

Friday, 19th. Winds and weather as yesterday, and the employment of the
people the same. In the P.M. some of our people found in the Skirts of
the Wood 3 hip Bones of Men; they lay near to a Hole or Oven, that is a
place where the Natives dress their Victuals; this Circumstance, trifling
as it is, is still a further proof that these people eat human flesh. In
the A.M. set up the Forge to repair the Braces of the Tiller and such
other Iron work as was wanting. The Natives came alongside and sold us a
quantity of large Mackrell for Nails, pieces of Cloth and paper, and in
this Traffick they never once attempted to defraud us of any one thing
but dealt as fair as people could do.

Saturday, 20th. Winds Southerly and fair, pleasant weather. Employ'd
wooding, Watering, etc., and in the A.M. sent part of the Powder ashore
to be Air'd. Some of the Natives brought alongside in one of their Canoes
4 of the heads of the Men they had lately kill'd; both the Hairy Scalps
and Skin of the faces were on. Mr. Banks bought one of the 4, but they
would not part with any of the other on any account whatever. The one Mr.
Banks got had received a blow on the Temple that had broke the Skull.
This morning I set out in the Pinnace accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr.
Solander, in order to Survey the West Coast of the Bay; we took our rout
towards the head of the Bay, but it was near noon before we had got
beyond the place we had been before.

Sunday, 21st. P.M., a Gentle breeze of Wind Southerly, the remainder
light Airs and Calm with clear, settled weather. P.M., the people
employ'd as usual, and at 8 o'Clock we return'd on board the Pinnace from
surveying the bay, in the doing of which I met with an Excellent Harbour,
but saw no inhabitants or any Cultivated land. In the A.M. after hauling
the Sean for fish, I gave every body leave to go ashore at the Watering
place to amuse themselves as they thought proper.

Monday, 22nd. P.M., and in the night had variable light Airs and Calms.
A.M., had a fresh breeze Southerly and Cloudy weather. In the morning the
people were set about the necessary business of the Ship, and I set out
in the Pinnace accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, with a view of
examining the head of the inlet, but after rowing between 4 and 5 Leagues
up it, and finding no probability of reaching it, or even seeing the
end,* (* The head of Queen Charlotte's Sound is 20 miles from where the
Endeavour was lying.) the wind being against us and the day already half
spent; we landed at Noon on the South-East side in order to try to get
upon one of the Hills, to view the inlet from thence.

Tuesday, 23rd. P.M., Winds Southerly, a fresh breeze. Agreeable to what
is mentioned above I took one hand with me and Climbed up to the Top of
one of the Hills, but when I came there I was hindered from seeing up the
inlet by higher hills, which I could not come at for impenetrable woods,
but I was abundantly recompensed for the trouble I had in assending the
Hill, for from it I saw what I took to be the Eastern Sea, and a Strait
or passage from it into the Western Sea; a little to the Eastward of the
Entrance of the inlet in which we now lay with the Ship. The Main land
which lies on the South-East side of this inlet appeared to me to be a
narrow ridge of very high hills, and to form a part of the South-West
side of the Strait;* (* Cook's Strait, which divides the two islands of
New Zealand.) the land on the opposite side seem'd to tend away East, as
far as the Eye could see. To the South-East appeared an Open Sea, and
this I took to be the Eastern. I likewise saw some Islands lying on the
East side of the inlet, which before I had taken to be a part of the main
land. As soon as I had desended the hill and we had refreshed ourselves,
we set out in order to return to the Ship, and in our way passed through
and Examin'd the Harbours, Coves, etc., that lay behind the Islands above
mentioned. In this rout we met with an old Village in which were a good
many Houses, but no Body had lived in them lately; we likewise saw
another that was inhabited, but the day being so far spent, that we had
not time to go to it, but made the best of our way to the Ship, which we
reached between 8 and 9 o'Clock. In the night had much rain with Cloudy,
Hazey weather, which continued by intervals until Noon.

Wednesday, 24th. P.M., had a fresh breeze southerly and cloudy weather.
After dinner I employ'd myself in carrying on the survey of the place,
and upon one of the Islands where I landed were a number of houses but no
inhabitants, neither had any been there lately. In the morning the Gunner
was sent ashore with the remainder of the powder to-day, and the Long
boat was sent with a Gang of hands to one of the Islands to cut Grass for
our Sheep, and the rest of the people were employ'd about the usual work
of the Ship. This forenoon some of us visited the Hippa which is situated
on the point of the Island mentioned on our first arrival;* (* Motuara.)
the inhabitants of this place shew'd not the least dislike at our coming,
but, on the contrary, with a great deal of seeming good nature shew'd us
all over the place. We found among them some human bones, the flesh of
which they told us they had eat; they likewise informed us that there was
no passage into the Sea thro' this inlet, as I had imagined their was,
because above where I was in the Boat it turn'd away to the Westward.
Leaving these people, we Travelled to the other end of the Island, and
there took Water and Crossed over upon the Main, where we met with
several Houses that were at present, or had very lately been, inhabited,
but we saw but very few of the inhabitants, and these were in their Boats
fishing; after Viewing this place we returned on board to Dinner.

Thursday, 25th. Winds at North West, a Gentle breeze and fair weather.
P.M. the Long boat having return'd with a Load of Grass, she was employ'd
bringing on board Wood and Water, and the Caulkers having finished
Caulking the Ship's sides (a thing they have been employ'd upon ever
since we came here), they were pay'd with Tar. Early in the A.M. the Long
boat was sent again for Grass, and return'd at Noon with a Load.

Friday, 26th. Gentle breezes and pleasant weather. In the P.M. I made a
little Excursion in the pinnace along shore towards the Mouth of the
inlet, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander. We found in a small
Cove several of the Natives, of whom we purchased a quantity of fresh
fish; and upon our return to the Ship found that the Sean had been
equally as Successfull, which we generally haul morning and evening, and
seldom fail of getting fish sufficient for all hands. In the A.M. I made
an Excursion into one of the Bays which lye on the East side of the
inlet, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander. Upon our landing we
assended a very high hill, from which we had a full View of the passage I
had before discovered, and the land on the opposite shore, which appeared
to be about 4 Leagues from us; but as it was hazey near the Horizon we
could not see far to the South-East. However, I had now seen enough of
this passage to Convince me that there was the Greatest probability in
the World of its running into the Eastern Sea, as the distance of that
Sea from this place cannot Exceed 20 Leagues even to where we where. Upon
this I resolved after putting to Sea to Search this passage with the
Ship. We found on the Top of the Hill a parcel of loose stones, of which
we built a Pyramid, and left in it some Musquet balls, small Shott,
beads, and whatever we had about us that was likely to stand the test of
Time; after this we descended the hill, and found along with Tupia and
the boat's Crew several of the Natives, setting in the most free and
friendly manner imaginable. Tupia always accompanies us in every
Excursion we make, and proves of infinate Service. In our return to the
Ship we visited the Hippa we had seen on Tuesday last, which is situated
on a small Island, or rather a Rock. The inhabitants of this place
invited us ashore with their usual Marks of Friendship, and shew'd us all
over the place; which indeed was soon done, for it was very small, yet it
contain'd a good number of people, and they had in it, Split and hanging
up to dry, a prodidgious quantity of various sorts of small fish, a part
of which they sold to us for such Trifles as we had about us.

Saturday, 27th. Fresh gales, Westerly. This day we got the Tiller
properly secured, which hath been the Employment of the Armourers and
part of the Carpenters since we Anchor'd at this place; the former in
repairing and making new Iron work, and the Latter in fixing a Transom,*
(* A transom is a curved piece of wood which supports the end of the
tiller.) for the want of which the Tiller has often been in danger of
being broke; the Iron braces that supply'd the want of a Transom have
broke every time they have been repair'd. Coopers still employ'd
repairing the Casks; some hands with the Long boat getting on board
Stones to put into the bottom of the bread room to bring the Ship more by
the Stern; while others were employ'd cutting wood, repairing the
rigging, and fishing.

Sunday, 28th. Strong Gales westerly. P.M. fair and Cloudy, the remainder
thick, hazey weather, with much rain.

Monday, 29th. Winds as yesterday. P.M. rainy weather, the remainder fair
and Cloudy. Pretty early in the A.M. an old man, who had made us several
visits upon our first Arrival here, came on board, and told us that one
of our boats had fir'd upon and wounded 2 of their people, one of which
was dead of his wounds. This affair hapned on Sunday was a week, and
never before now came to my Knowledge; on that day the Master and 5 Petty
officers desir'd to have a small boat to go a fishing; but instead of
Keeping within the usual bounds and under the protection of the Ship,
they went over to the Hippa on the Island, from which some of the
inhabitants put off in 2 Canoes, as they thought to attack them; this
Caused the Master to fire, and, according to the report of the old Man,
wounded 2, one of which is since dead; but this last circumstance was
soon after contradicted by another of the Natives, who Mr. Green and
Tupia saw ashore, and I wish this last report may be true, because I find
the reasons for firing upon them are not very Justifiable. This morning I
went out to the Mouth of the Inlet and landed upon the West point, and
from the Top of a pretty high hill which is there I had a view of this
Coast to the North-West. The farthest land I could see in that Quarter
was an Island* (* Stephens Island. Cape Stephens, off which it lies,
forms the western termination of the strait, Cook's, between the two
islands of New Zealand. The Coast between this and Cape Jackson, where
Cook was standing, is thickly indented with inlets of great extent. The
two Capes were named after the Secretaries of the Admiralty.) about 10
Leagues off, and lying pretty near the Main, and is the same as hath been
before mentioned. Between this Island and the place where I was lay some
other Islands close under the Shore, which forms several Bays, where
there appears to be safe Anchorage for Shipping. After I had set the
different points, etc., we Erected upon the Top of the Hill a Tower or
Pile of Stones, in which we left a Piece of Silver Coin, some Musquet
Balls, Beads, etc., and left flying upon it a piece of an old Pendant.
After this we return'd to the Boat, and in our way to the Ship visited
some of the Natives we met with along shore, and purchased of them a
small quantity of fish.

Tuesday, 30th. Winds at North-West, Gentle breezes, and fair weather.
Early in the A.M. a boat was sent to one of the Islands to get Sellery to
boil for the People's breakfasts. While our people were gathering it near
some empty huts about 20 of the Natives landed there--Men, Women, and
Children. They had no sooner got out of their Canoe than 5 or 6 Women set
down together, and cut and sacrificed themselves--viz., their Legs,
Shins, Arms, and Faces, some with Shells, and others with pieces of
Jaspar. So far as our people could understand them, this was done on
account of their husbands being lately killed and devoured by their
Enemies. While the women was performing this Ceremony, the Men went about
repairing the Huts without showing the least Concern. The Carpenter went
with part of his people into the Woods to cut and Square some Timber to
saw into boards for the use of the Ship, and to prepare two Posts to be
set up with inscriptions on them.

Wednesday, 31st. Little wind and Variable. In the P.M. the Carpenters
having prepared the 2 Posts with inscriptions upon them, setting forth
the Ship's Name, Month, and Year, one of them was set up at the Watering
Place, on which was hoisted the Union flag; and in the Morning I took the
other over to the Island which is known by the name of Motuouru, and is
the one that lies nearest to the Sea; but before I attempted to set up
the Post I went first to the Hippa, having Dr. Monkhouse and Tupia along
with me. We here met with the old Man I have before spoke of. The first
thing I did was to inquire after the Man said to be kill'd by our people,
and the one that was wounded at the same time, when it did not appear to
me that any such accidents had happened. I next (by means of Tupia)
explain'd to the old Man and several others that we were Come to set up a
Mark upon the Island, in order to shew to any ship that might put into
this place that we had been here before. They not only gave their free
Consent to set it up, but promised never to pull it down. I then gave
every one a present of one thing or another; to the old man I gave
Silver, three penny pieces dated 1763, and Spike Nails with the King's
Broad Arrow cut deep in them; things that I thought were most likely to
remain long among them. After I had thus prepared the way for setting up
the post, we took it up to the highest part of the Island, and after
fixing it fast in the ground, hoisted thereon the Union flag, and I
dignified this Inlet with the name of Queen Charlotte's Sound, and took
formal possession of it and the Adjacent lands in the Name and for the
use of his Majesty. We then drank her Majesty's health in a Bottle of
wine, and gave the Empty bottle to the old man (who had attended us up
the hill), with which he was highly pleased. Whilst the Post was setting
up we asked the old man about the Strait or Passage into the Eastern sea,
and he very plainly told us there was a Passage, and as I had some
Conjectures that the lands to the South-West of this Strait (which we are
now at) was an Island, and not a Continent, we questioned the old Man
about it, who said it consisted of two Wannuas, that is 2 lands or
Islands that might be Circumnavigated in a few days, even in 4. This man
spoke of 3 lands, the 2 above mentioned which he called Tovy-poinammu,*
(* The two Wannuas were doubtless the peninsulas lying west of Queen
Charlotte's Sound. The third was the North Island. Te Wai Pounamu (The
Water of the Greenstone, of which the most prized weapons were made) is
the native name of the Middle Island; but there must have been some
confusion as to the possibility of getting round this in four days. The
name of the North Island is Te Ika o Maui (The Fish of Maui), but is
given by Cook as Aeheino Mouwe. It has been suggested (Rusden) that the
name given to him was Tehinga o Maui (The Fishing of Maui), and
imperfectly rendered.) which Signifies green Talk or Stone, such as they
make their Tools or ornaments, etc., and for the third he pointed to the
land on the East side of the Strait; this, he said, was a large land, and
that it would take up a great many Moons to sail round it; this he called
Aeheino Mouwe, a name many others before had called it by. That part
which borders on the strait he called Teiria Whitte. After we had done
our business upon the Island we returned on board, bringing the old Man
along with us, who after dinner went ashore in a Canoe that came to
attend upon him.

[February 1770.]

Thursday, February 1st. P.M. having compleated the Ship with wood, and
filled all our water, the Boatswain was sent ashore with a party of Men
to cut and make brooms, while others were Employ'd about the rigging,
fishing, etc. In the night and the remainder of the day had a Strong Gale
from the North-West, attended with very much rain.

Friday, 2nd. In the P.M. the Gale increased to a Storm, attended with
rain and squalls, which came down in Excessive heavy gusts from off the
high land, in one of which the hawser we had fast to the shore broke;
this obliged us to let go another Anchor. Towards midnight the Gale
moderated, and in the morning it fell Calm, and we took up the Sheet
Anchor, looked at the best bower, and moored the ship again to the Shore.
The heavy rain, which both fell and Continues to fall, hath caused the
Brook we water'd at to overflow its banks, and carry away 10 small Casks
we had Standing there full of Water, and notwithstanding we searched the
whole Cove, we could not find one of them.

Saturday, 3rd. Winds Northerly, mostly fair weather. Very early in the
A.M. sent the Long boat for Sellery to boil for the Ship's Company's
breakfast, and as I intended sailing the first opportunity, I went over
to the Hippa, which is on the East side of the sound, and purchased of
the inhabitants a quantity of split and half dry'd fish, and such as I
could get. While we were at this Hippa, Tupia made farther enquiry about
the Lands and Strait, and these people confirm'd everything the old Man
had before told us. About noon we took our leave of them, which some
seem'd not sorry for; notwithstanding they sold us their fish very
freely, there were some few among them who shew'd evident signs of

Sunday, 4th. Winds Northerly, a fresh breeze and fair weather. In the
P.M., after returning from the Hippa, some of us made an Excursion along
shore to the Northward, in order to Traffic with the Natives for fish, in
which we had no great Success. In the evening got everything off from the
Shore, designing to sail in the Morning, but the wind not permitting, we
amused ourselves in fishing, collecting of shells, etc.

Monday, 5th. Winds and weather as Yesterday. In the A.M. Cast off the
Hawser, hove short on the Bower, and carried out the Kedge Anchor, in
order to warp the Ship out of the Cove. All the dry fish we have been
able to procure from the Natives since we came here were this day divided
amongst the Ship's Company.

Tuesday, 6th. At 2 p.m. hove up the Anchor, warped the Ship out of the
Cove, and got under Sail, but it soon after falling little wind, and that
very Variable, we anchor'd again a little above Motu-ouru. The old man,
seeing us under sail, came on board to take his leave of us. Amongst
other conversation that passed between him and Tupia, he was asked if
either he or any of his Ancestors had ever seen or heard of any Ship like
this being in these parts; to which question he answer'd in the Negative,
but said that his Ancestors had told him that there came once to this
place a small Vessel from a distant part, wherein were 4 Men that were
all kill'd upon their landing; and being asked where this distant land
lay, he pointed to the North, intimating that it would take up a great
many days to go thither. Something of this land was mentioned by the
People of the Bay of Islands, who said that some of their Ancestors had
been there; but it is very clear to us that there knowledge of this land
is only traditionary.* (* This was doubtless the tradition current among
the Maoris, that their ancestors came from islands to the north. See Note
below.) Had it Calm all night until 6 o'clock in the Morning, when a
light breeze sprung up at North, and we got again under sail; but as the
wind proved very unsteady, we got no farther than just without Motu-ouru
by noon, but had a fair prospect of getting clear out of the Sound, which
I shall next describe.


The entrance of this Sound is situated in the Latitude of 41 degrees
South and Longitude 184 degrees 45 minutes West, and near the middle of
the South-West side of the Strait before mentioned. The land off the
South-East head of the Sound called by the Natives, Koamaroo (off which
lies 2 Small Islands and some rocks) makes the Narrowest part of the
Strait. There stretcheth out 2 Miles North-East by North from the
North-West head a reef of rocks, a part of which is above Water. This
account of the 2 Heads will be found sufficient guide to know this sound,
which is 3 Leagues broad at the Entrance, and lies in South-West by
South-South-West, and West-South-West at least 10 Leagues, and is a
collection of some of the finest harbours in the world, as will evidently
appear from the plan which was taken with all the accuracy that time and
Circumstances would admit. The Harbour or Cove in which we lay, called
Ship Cove, is not inferior to any in the Sound, both in point of Security
and other Conveniences. It lies on the West side of the Sound, and is the
Southermost of 3 Coves lying within Motu-ouru, which Island bears East
from it. You may sail into this Cove either between this last mentioned
Island and the Isle Hamote, or Long Island, or between Motuouru and the
West shore; in this last Channell are 2 Ledges of Rocks 3 fathoms under
water, but they may be known by the Sea Weed which grows upon them. In
sailing in or out of this sound with little wind attention must be had to
the Tides, which flow 9 or 10 o'Clock full and Change of the Moon, and
rises and falls upon a Perpendicular 7 or 8 feet. The flood comes in
through the Strait from the South-East, and sets strong over upon the
North-West Head and the reef laying off it; the Ebb sets with great
rapidity to the South-East over upon the Islands and Rocks lying off the
South-East Head. The Variation of the Compass from good observations we
found to be 13 degrees 5 minutes East. The land about this Sound is of
such height that we first saw it at the distance of 20 Leagues. It
consists wholy of high hills and deep Valleys, well stored with a variety
of excellent Timber, fit for all purposes except Ships' Masts, for which
use it is too hard and heavy. The Sea abounds with a variety of fish, and
in such plenty that, without going out of the Cove where we lay, we
caught daily, what with the Sean, Hook, and Lines, quite sufficient for
all hands, and upon our first arrival we found plenty of Shags and some
few other Wild Fowls, which to people in our situation was fresh food not
to be dispised. The Number of Inhabitants hardly exceeds 300 or 400
People. They live dispers'd along the Shore in search of their daily
bread, which is fish and firn roots, for they Cultivate no part of the
lands. Upon the appearance of danger they Retire to their Hippas or
strongholds, for in this situation we found them, and they remain'd so
for some days after. This people are poor when compared to many we have
seen, and their Canoes are mean and without ornament. The little Traffick
we had with them was wholy for fish, for we saw little else they had to
dispose of. They had some knowledge of Iron, for they very readily took
Nails in Exchange for fish, and sometimes Prefer'd them to anything else,
which was more than the people of any other place would do. They were at
first fond of Paper, but when they found it spoile by being wet they
would not take it; nor did they set much value upon the cloth we got at
George's Island, but shew'd an extraordinary fondness for English broad
cloth and red Kersey, which shew'd them to be a more sensible People than
many of their Neighbours. Besides the common dress, many of these People
wore on their Heads round Caps made of Birds' feathers, which were far
from being unbecoming.* (* Cook was not able to explore the whole of
Queen Charlotte's Sound, which runs into the land for 25 miles. Towards
the southern end is Picton, the port of Blenheim, the capital of the
province of Marlborough.)

[In Cook's Strait, New Zealand.]

Wednesday, 7th. In the P.M. had a light breeze at North by West, with
which we got out of the Sound and stood over to the Eastward, in order to
get the Strait well open before the tide of Ebb Made. At 7 the 2 Small
Islands which lies off Cape Koamaroo, or the South-East head of Queen
Charlotte's Sound, bore East, distant 4 miles. At this time we had it
nearly Calm, and the tide of Ebb making out, we were Carried by the
Rapidity of the Stream in a very short time close upon one of the
Islands,* (* The Brothers. There is now a lighthouse on this island.)
where we narrowly escaped being dashed against the Rocks by bringing the
Ship to an Anchor in 75 fathoms Water, with 150 fathoms of Cable out.
Even this would not have saved us had not the Tide, which first set South
by East, by meeting with the Island changed its direction to South-East,
and carried us past the first point. When the Ship was brought up she was
about 2 Cables' Lengths of the Rocks and in the Strength of the Stream,
which set South-East at least 4 or 5 Knotts or miles per Hour. A little
before 12 o'Clock the Tide abated, and we began to heave; by 3 the Anchor
was at the bows, and having a light breeze at North-West, we made sail
over for the Eastern Shore; but having the tide against us we made but
little way. The wind afterwards freshned, and Came to North and
North-East, with which and the tide of Ebb we were in a short time
hurried thro' the narrowest part of the Strait, and then stood away for
the Southermost land we had in sight, which bore from us South by West.
Over this land appeared a Prodigious high Mountain,* (* The Kairoura
Range, the summit of which is 9500 feet high.) the Summit of which was
covered with snow. The narrowest part of the Strait we have passed lies
between Cape Koamaroo on Tovy-poinammu and Cape Teerawhitte on
Aeheino-mouwe; the distance from the one to the other I judged to be
between 4 and 5 Leagues. And notwithstanding the strength of the Tides,
now that is known, there is no great danger in passing it; in the doing
of which I am of opinion that the North-East Shore is the safest to keep
upon, for upon that side there appeared no danger, whereas on the other
shore there are not only the Islands and Rocks lying off Cape Koamaroo,
for I discover'd from the hill from which I had the Second View of the
Strait, a Reef of Rocks stretching from these Islands 6 or 7 Miles to the
Southward, and lay about 2 or 3 Miles off from the Shore. I shall not
pretend here to assign limits to the length of this Strait; a view of the
Chart will best illustrate that. About North 9 Leagues from Cape
Teerawhitte, under the same shore, is a high remarkable Island, that may
be distinctly seen from Queen Charlotte Sound, from which it lies
North-East by East 1/4 East, distant 6 or 7 Leagues. I have called it
Entry Isle, and was taken Notice of when we first past it on Sunday 14th
of last Month. On the East side of Cape Teerawhitte the Land Trends away
South-East by East about 8 Leagues, where it ends in a point, and is the
Southermost land on Aeheinomouwe, which I have named Cape Pallisser in
Honour of my worthy friend Capt. Pallisser.* (* Captain Palliser,
afterwards Sir Hugh, was Captain of the Eagle, Cook's first ship in the
Royal Navy. He discovered Cook's talents, and was his warm friend
throughout his life. Between Cape Teerawhitte and Cape Palliser is the
entrance to Port Nicholson, wherein is situated Wellington, the capital
of New Zealand. This entrance is, however, narrow, and Cook was never
near enough to the land to discover it.) Latitude 41 degrees 34 minutes,
Longitude 183 degrees 58 minutes, it bore from us this day at Noon South
79 degrees East, distant 12 or 13 Leagues, being then in the Latitude of
41 degrees 27 minutes South; at the same time Cape Koamaroo bore North
1/2 East, distant 7 or 8 Leagues. The Southermost point of land in sight
bore South 16 degrees West, and the snowy Mountain South-West being about
3 Leagues from the shore and abreast of a Deep Bay or inlet called Cloudy
bay, in the bottom of which appear'd low land cover'd with tall Trees.

Thursday, 8th. In the P.M. had a fresh breeze at North-North-East and
Cloudy weather. At 3 o'Clock was abreast of the Southermost point of land
set at Noon, which I named Cape Campbell, Latitude 41 degrees 42 minutes
South, Longitude 184 degrees 47 minutes West, it lies South by West,
distant 12 or 13 Leagues from Cape Koamaroo, and together with Cape
Pallisser forms the Southern Entrance of the Straits; the Distance of the
one to the other is 13 or 14 Leagues West by South and East by North.
From this Cape we steer'd along Shore South-West by South until 8
o'Clock, when the wind died away; but an Hour after a fresh breeze sprung
up at South-West, and we put the Ship right before it. The reason of my
doing this was owing to a notion, which some of the Officers had just
started, that Aeheinomouwe was not an Island; founding their opinion on a
supposition that the land might extend away to the South-East from
between Cape Turnagain and Cape Pallisser, there being a space of about
12 or 13 leagues which we had not seen. For my own part, I had seen so
far into this Sea the first time I discover'd the Strait, together with
many other Concurrent testimonies of its being an Island, that no such
supposition ever enter'd my thoughts; but being resolved to clear up
every doubt that might Arise on so important an Object, I took the
opportunity of the Shifting of the Wind to Stand to the Eastward, and
accordingly steer'd North-East by East all night. At 9 o'Clock A.M. we
were abreast of Cape Pallisser, where we found the Land trend away
North-East towards Cape Turnagain, which I reckon'd to be distant from us
about 26 Leagues, but as the weather was hazey so that we could not see
above 4 or 5 Leagues ahead, we Still kept standing to the North-East,
with a light breeze at South. At Noon Cape Pallisser bore North 72
degrees West, distant 3 Leagues; our Latitude by account is 41 degrees 30
minutes South.

[Complete the Circuit of North Island, New Zealand.]

Friday, 9th. Gentle breezes at South and South-South-East, hazey Cloudy
weather. In the P.M. 3 Canoes came off to the Ship, wherein were between
30 and 40 of the Natives, who had been pulling after us sometime. It
appeared from the behaviour of these people that they had heard of our
being upon the Coast, for they came alongside, and some of them on board
the Ship, without shewing the least signs of fear. They were no sooner on
board than they asked for Nails, but when Nails was given them they asked
Tupia what they were, which was plain that they had never seen any
before; yet they not only knowed how to ask for them, but know'd what use
to make of them, and therefore must have heard of Nails, which they call
Whow, the name of a Tool among them made generally of bone, which they
use as a Chisel in making Holes, etc. These people asking so readily for
Nails proves that their connections must extend as far North as Cape
Kidnapper, which is 45 Leagues, for that was the Southermost place on
this side the coast we had any Traffick with the Natives; and it is most
probable that the inhabitants of Queen Charlotte's sound got the little
knowledge they seem'd to have of Iron by the Connections they may have
with the Teerawhitteans bordering upon them; for we have no reason to
think that the inhabitants of any part of this land had the least
knowledge of Iron before we came amongst them. After a short stay these
people were dismissed with proper presents, and we continued our Course
along shore to the North-East until 11 o'Clock A.M., when the weather
clear'd up, and we saw Cape Turnagain bearing North by East 1/4 East,
distant 7 Leagues. I then called the Officers upon deck, and asked them
if they were now satisfied that this land was an Island; to which they
answer'd in the Affirmative, and we hauled our wind to the Eastward.* (*
The Endeavour had now completely circumnavigated the North Island of New
Zealand, having spent four months in the exploration. That Cook had
communicated his enthusiasm to his officers is evident; or, knowing his
determination to leave nothing doubtful, they would not have started the
idea that the North Island might not be really an island. The natural
wish after so many months' absence from civilization must have been to
get back to it, and to take things for granted that would otherwise delay
their progress.) At Noon our Latitude by observation was 40 degrees 55
minutes South, which is 21 Miles to the Southward of Cape Turnagain, it
bearing North by East, and Cape Pallisser by this day's run bears South
43 degrees West, 19 or 20 Leagues.

Saturday, 10th. Gentle breezes at South-East and Cloudy weather. At 4
P.M. Tack'd and stood South-West until 8 A.M., when being not above 3 or
4 Miles from the Shore we Tack'd, and stood off 2 hours, and then stood
again to the South-West until noon, when being in the Latitude of 41
degrees 13 minutes South, and about 2 Miles from the Shore, the land of
Cape Pallisser bearing South 53 degrees West, had 26 fathoms of water.

Sunday, 11th. P.M. had light breeze from the South-East. In the night it
was Calm until 9 a.m., when a Gentle breeze sprung up at East-North-East,
with which we made sail to the Southward, having a large swell rolling in
from that Quarter. At Noon was in the Latitude of 41 degrees 6 minutes
South, distant from the Shore 1 1/2 Leagues; a remarkable hillock,* (*
Castle Point.) which stands close to the Sea, bore North 1/2 East,
distance 4 Leagues. At this time 2 Canoes came alongside the Ship, with
whom we had some little Traffic, and then dismissed them.

Monday, 12th. Most part of P.M. had a fresh breeze at North-East, which
by sunset carried us the length of Cape Pallisser, and as the weather was
clear I had an opportunity of Viewing the land of this Cape, which is of
a height Sufficient to be seen in clear weather 12 or 14 Leagues, and is
of a broken and hilly surface. Between the foot of the high land and the
Sea is a border of low, flat land, off which lies some rocks, that appear
above water. Between this Cape and Cape Turnagain the land near the shore
is in many places low and flatt, and appear'd green and pleasant; but
inland are many Hills. From Cape Pallisser to Cape Teerawhitte the land
is tollerable high, making in Table-points, and the Shore forms 2 Bays;
at least it appear'd so, for we were always too far off this part of the
Coast to be particular.* (* The northern of these was the entrance to
Port Nicholson, the harbour of Auckland.) The wind continued at
North-East until 12 at Night, when it died away, and veer'd round to the
West, and afterwards to South and South-South-East little wind, so that
by noon we had advanced no farther than 41 degrees 52 minutes South
Latitude. Cape Pallisser bearing North, distant 5 Leagues, and the Snowy
mountain bore South 83 degrees West.

Tuesday, 13th. P.M. light Airs at South-East, the remainder Calm. At Noon
found ourselves in the Latitude of 42 degrees 2 minutes South, Cape
Pallisser bearing North 20 degrees East, distant 8 Leagues.

Wednesday, 14th. P.M. a fresh breeze sprung up at North-East, and we
Steer'd South-West by West for the Southermost land we had in sight,
which bore from us at sunset South 74 degrees West. At this time we found
the Variation to be 15 degrees 4 minutes East. At 8 A.M. it fell Calm; at
this time we had run 21 Leagues South 58 degrees West since Yesterday at
noon, which brought us abreast of the high Snowy mountain, it bearing
from us North-West in this direction. It lay behind a Mountainous ridge
of nearly the same height, which riseth directly from the Sea, and runs
Parrallel with the Shore, which lies North-East 1/2 North and South-West
1/2 South. The North-East end of the ridge takes its rise but a little
way inland from Cape Campbell. These mountains are distinctly seen both
from Cape Koamaroo and Cape Pallisser, being distant from the former
South-West 1/2 South 22 Leagues, and from the Latter West-South-West 30
Leagues: but they are of a height sufficient to be seen at a much greater
distance. By some on board they are thought to be much higher than the
Peak of Teneriffe, which I cannot agree to; neither do I think them so
high as Mount Egmont, on the South-West Coast of Aeheinomouwe, founding
my opinion on the summit of the Latter being almost wholy covered with
Snow, whereas it only lies upon these in patches.* (* The highest peak of
the Kaikoura Mountains, Mount Tapuaepuka, is 9500 feet high. It is
therefore higher than Mount Egmont, but not so high as the Peak of
Teneriffe. The snow lies thicker on the western side of New Zealand
mountains, so Cook's parallel was fallacious. The Endeavour was now near
the Kaikoura Peninsula, where a small town stands at the present day, the
shipping port of an agricultural district.) At noon was in the Latitude
of 42 degrees 34 minutes South; the Southermost land we had in sight bore
South-West 1/2 West, and some low land that made like an Island lying
close under the foot of the Ridge North-West by North, distant about 5 or
6 Leagues.

Thursday, 15th. In the P.M. 4 Double Canoes, in which were 57 Men, came
off to the Ship; they kept at the distance of about a Stone's throw from
us, and would not be prevailed upon to put alongside by all that Tupia
could say to them. From this we concluded that they never had heard of
our being upon the coast. At 8 p.m. a breeze sprung up at
South-South-West, with which we Stretched off South-East, because some on
board thought they saw land in that Quarter. We continued on this course
until 6 A.M., at which time we had run 11 Leagues, but saw no land but
that which we had left. Soon after this it fell calm, and continued so
for an hour; then a light breeze sprung up at West, which afterwards
veer'd to the North, and we stood to the Westward. At Noon our Latitude
by Observation was 42 degrees 56 minutes South, and the High Land we were
abreast of yesterday at Noon, North-North-West 1/2 West.

Friday, 16th. In the P.M. had a light breeze North-East, with which we
steer'd West, edging in for the land, which was distant from us about 8
Leagues. At 7 o'Clock the Southermost Extream of the land in sight bore
West-South-West, being about 6 Leagues from the Shore; soon after this it
fell Calm, and continued so most part of the night, with sometimes light
Airs from the land. At daylight we discover'd land bearing South by West,
and seemingly detached from the Coast we were upon; at 8 o'Clock a breeze
sprung up at North by East, and we steer'd directly for it. At Noon was
in the Latitude of 43 degrees 19 minutes South; the Peak on the Snowy
Mountains bore North 20 degrees East, distant 27 Leagues; the Southern
Extremity we could see of that land bore West, and the land discover'd in
the morning, making like an Island, extending from South-South-West to
South-West by West 1/2 West, distant about 8 Leagues; our Course and
distance sail'd since yesterday at Noon South-West by West, 43 Miles;
Variation by this Morning's Amplitude 14 degrees 39 minutes East.

[Off Banks Peninsula, New Zealand.]

Saturday, 17th. P.M. stood to the Southward for the land above mention'd,
with the wind at North, a fresh breeze and Clear weather. At 8 o'Clock we
had run 11 Leagues since Noon, when the land extended from South-West by
West to North by West, being distant from the nearest shore about 3 or 4
Leagues; in this situation had 50 fathoms, a fine sandy bottom. Soon
after this it fell Calm, and continued so until 6 A.M., when a light
breeze sprung up at North-West, which afterwards veer'd to North-East. At
sun rise, being very Clear, we plainly discover'd that the last mentioned
land was an Island by seeing part of the Land of Tovy-poenammu open to
the Westward of it, extending as far as West by South. At 8 o'Clock the
Extreams of the Island bore North 76 degrees West and North-North-East
1/2 East, and an opening that had the Appearance of a Bay or Harbour,
lying near the South point North 20 degrees West, distant 3 or 4 Leagues,
being in 38 fathoms, a brown Sandy bottom. This Island,* (* It is not an
island, but a mountainous peninsula, still called after Mr. Banks, but
from the lowness of the land it adjoins, looks like an island. On the
north side is the fine harbour of Lyttelton, the port of Christchurch, a
town of nearly 40,000 inhabitants. The harbour on the south side, that
Cook saw, is Akaroa, a magnificent port.) which I have named after Mr.
Banks, lies about 5 Leagues from the Coast of Tovy poenammu; the South
point bears South 21 degrees West from the higher peak on the Snowy
Mountain so often mention'd, and lies in the Latitude of 43 degrees 52
minutes South and in the Longitude of 186 degrees 30 minutes West, by
observations made of the Sun and Moon this morning. It is of a circular
figure, and may be about 24 Leagues in Compass; the land is of a height
sufficient to be seen 12 or 15 Leagues, and of a very broken, uneven
Surface, and hath more the appearance of barrenness than fertility. Last
night we saw smoke up it, and this morning some people, and therefore
must be inhabited. Yesterday Lieutenant Gore, having the Morning Watch at
the time we first saw this Island, thought he saw land bearing
South-South-East and South-East by East; but I, who was upon Deck at the
same time, was very Certain that it was only Clouds, which dissipated as
the Sun rose. But neither this, nor the running 14 Leagues to the South,
nor the seeing no land to the Eastward of us in the Evening, could
Satisfy Mr. Gore but what he saw in the morning was, or might be, land;
altho' there was hardly a possibility of its being so, because we must
have been more than double the distance from it at that time to what we
were either last night or this morning, at both of which times the
weather was Exceeding Clear, and yet we could see no land either to the
Eastward or Southward of us. Notwithstanding all this, Mr. Gore was of
the same opinion this morning; upon this I order'd the Ship to be wore,
and to be steer'd East-South-East by Compass on the other Tack, the point
on which he said the land bore at this time from us.* (* Another instance
of the general desire to leave nothing unexplored.) At Noon we were in
the Latitude of 44 degrees 7 minutes South; the South point of Banks
Island bore North, distant 5 Leagues.

Sunday, 18th. Gentle breezes at North and fair weather. P.M. stood
East-South-East in search of Mr. Gore's imaginary land until 7 o'clock,
at which time we had run 28 Miles since Noon; but seeing no land but that
we had left, or signs of any, we bore away South by West, and continued
upon that Course until Noon, when we found ourselves in the Latitude of
45 degrees 16 minutes South. Our Course and distance sail'd since
Yesterday is South 8 minutes East, 70 Miles; the South point of Banks
Island North 6 degrees 30 minutes West, distant 28 Leagues; Variation per
Amplitude this Morning 15 degrees 30 minutes. Seeing no signs of Land, I
thought it to no purpose standing any farther to the Southward, and
therefore hauled to the Westward, thinking we were far enough to the
Southward to weather all the land we had left; but this opinion was only
founded on the information we had had from the Natives of Queen
Charlotte's sound.* (* The ship was still 250 miles from the south point
of New Zealand.)

Monday, 19th. P.M. had a Moderate breeze at North-North-West and North
until 8 o'clock, when it fell little wind, and was very unsettled until
10, at which time it fix'd at South, and freshen'd in such a manner that
before the morning it brought us under our close reeft Topsails. At 8
a.m. having run 28 Leagues upon a West by North 1/2 North Course, and now
judging ourselves to be to the Westward of the Land of Tovy Poenammu, we
bore away North-West with a fresh Gale at South. At 10 o'clock, having
run 11 Miles upon this Course, we saw land extending from the South-West
to the North-West at the distance of about 10 Leagues from us, which we
hauled up for. At Noon our Latitude per observation was 44 degrees 38
minutes South; the South-East point of Banks Island bore North 59 degrees
30 minutes East, distant 30 Leagues, and the Main body of the land in
sight West by North. Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday at Noon
is North 66 degrees 45 minutes West, 96 Miles.

[Off Timaru, Middle Island, New Zealand.]

Tuesday, 20th. All P.M. had little wind, which veer'd round from South by
East to North-North-East. Steer'd South-South-West, but got very little
to the Southward on account of a head Sea. At 2 o'Clock sounded in 35
fathoms, fine sandy Bottom, being about 6 Leagues from the land. At 7
o'Clock the Extreams of the land extending from South-West by South to
North by West, distant from the nearest shore 6 Leagues, depth of water
32 fathoms. At 12 o'Clock it fell Calm, and continued so until 4 A.M.,
when a fresh breeze sprung up at South by West, with which we stood in
shore West by South, 4 Leagues, our Depth of Water from 32 to 13 fathoms.
In this last Depth we Tack'd and Stood off, being about 3 Miles from the
Shore, which lies nearly North and South, and is here very low and flatt,
and continues so up to the skirts of the hills, which are at least 4 or 5
Miles inland. The whole face of the Country appears barren, nor did we
see any signs of inhabitants.* (* This is a little south of Timaru, a
rising town in a fertile district; so deceptive is appearance from the
sea.) Latitude at Noon 44 degrees 44 minutes South; Longitude made from
Banks' Island to this land 2 degrees 22 minutes West.

Wednesday, 21st. Wind at South. A fresh Gale at 2 p.m., being in 50
fathoms, and 12 Leagues from the land, we tack'd and stood in Shore until
8 o'Clock, when we Tack'd and Stood off until 4 a.m.; then Tack'd and
Stood in, at 8 o'Clock being 10 Leagues from the Land; had 57 fathoms. At
Noon, being in the Latitude 44 degrees 35 minutes, and 5 or 6 Leagues
from the land, had 36 fathoms; notwithstanding we have Carried as much
sail as the Ship could bear, it is apparent from the observed Latitudes
that we have been drove 3 Leagues to leeward since Yesterday.

Thursday, 22nd. Moderate breezes between the South-East and South by
West, and dark gloomy weather, with a Swell from the South-East plying to
windward, keeping between 4 and 12 Leagues from the land; depth of water
from 35 to 53 fathoms, fine sandy bottom. A great many Sea fowl and
Grampusses about the Ship. In the A.M. Condemn'd 60 fathoms of the B.B.
Cable,* (* B.B. stands for Best Bower, one of the principal cables. The
hempen cables of those days were a continual cause of solicitude, and
required great care.) and converted it into Junk; at Noon had no
Observation, but by the land judged ourselves to be about 3 Leagues
farther North than Yesterday.

Friday, 23rd. Winds Southerly, a Gentle breeze, and for the most part
Cloudy weather. At sunset, the weather clearing up, presented to our View
a high peaked Mountain* (* There are so many lofty mountains in this
region that it is impossible to identify this. This ship was now no
farther south than she had been five days earlier.) bearing North-West by
North, and at the same time we saw the Land more Distincter than at any
time we had before, extending from North to South-West by South, the
inland parts of which appear'd to be high and Mountainous. We cannot tell
yet whether or no this land joins to, or makes a part of, the land we
have left; from the accounts received from the Natives of Queen
Charlotte's sound it ought not, because if it did it must have been
impossible for us to have sail'd round it in 4 Days; besides, the
Mountains inland and the soundings off the Coast seem to indicate this
Country to be more extensive than any they spoke of lying to the
Southward. Having a large hollow swell from the South-East, which made me
expect the Wind from the same quarter, we keept plying from 7 to 15
Leagues from the land, depth of Water 44 to 70 fathoms; at Noon our
Latitude, by Observation, was 44 degrees 40 minutes South; Longitude made
from Banks's Island 1 degree 31 minutes West.

Saturday, 24th. Calm until 6 p.m., at which time a light breeze sprung up
at East-North-East, with which we steer'd South-South-East all night,
edging off from the Land because of a hollow swell which we had from the
South-East; depth of water from 60 to 75 fathoms. At daylight the wind
began to freshen, and before noon blowed a fresh Gale, and veer'd to
North-North-East; at 8 a.m. Saw the land extending as far as South-West
by South, which we steer'd directly for, and at Noon we were in the
Latitude of 45 degrees 22 minutes South; the land in sight extending from
South-West 1/2 South to North-North-West making high and hilly. Course
and distance run since Yesterday at Noon is South 15 degrees West, 47
Miles. In the P.M., while we lay becalm'd, Mr. Banks, in a small Boat,
shott 2 Port Egmont Hens, which were in every respect the same sort of
Birds as are found in great Numbers upon the Island of Faro; they are of
a very dark brown plumage, with a little white about the under side of
their wings, and are as large as a Muscovy Duck. These were the first
that we have seen since we arrived upon the Coast of this Country, but we
saw of them for some days before we made land.

[Off Otago, Middle Island, New Zealand.]

Sunday, 25th. In the P.M. Steer'd South-West by South and South-West,
edging in for the land, having the Advantage of a fresh Gale at North,
which I was over desirous of making the most of, and by that means
carried away the Maintop Gallant Mast and Foretopmast Steering Sail Boom;
but these were soon replaced by others. Altho' we keept at no great
Distance from the Shore, yet the weather was so Hazey that we could see
nothing distinct upon the land, only that there were a ridge of Pretty
high Hills lying Parrallel with, and but a little way from, the Sea
Coast, which lies South by West and North by East, and seem'd to End in a
high Bluff point to the Southward, which we run the length of by 8
o'Clock, when, being dark, and not knowing which way the Land Trended, we
brought too for the night, having run 15 Leagues upon a South-West 1/2
West Course since Noon. The point bore at this time West, distant about 5
Miles, depth of Water 37 fathoms, the bottom small pebble stones. At 4
A.M. we made Sail, but by this time the Northerly wind was gone, and was
succeeded by one from the Southward, which proved very Var'ble and
unsteady. At day light the point above mention'd bore North, distant 3
Leagues, and we found that the land trended away from it South-West by
West, as far as we could see. This point of land I have Named Cape
Saunders, in Honour of Sir Charles* (* Admiral Sir Charles Saunders was
First Lord of the Admiralty in 1766. He commanded the fleet at the
capture of Quebec in 1759, in which Cook served.) (Latitude 45 degrees 55
minutes South; Longitude 189 degrees 4 minutes West). It requires no
discription to know it by, the Latitude and the Angle made here by the
Coast will be found quite sufficient; however, there is a remarkable
saddle hill laying near the Shore, 3 or 4 Leagues South-West of the Cape.
From 1 to 4 Leagues North of the Cape the Shore seem'd to form 2 or 3
Bays, wherein there appear'd to be Anchorage and Shelter from South-West,
Westerly, and North-West winds.* (* One of these is Otago Harbour, where
lies Dunedin, perhaps the most important commercial city in New Zealand.)
I had some thoughts of bearing up for one of these places in the morning
when the Wind came to South-West, but the fear of loosing time and the
desire I had of pushing to the Southward, in order to see as much of the
Coast as possible, or, if this land should prove to be an Island, to get
round it, prevented me. Being not far from the Shore all this morning, we
had an Opportunity of Viewing the Land pretty distinctly; it is of a
Moderate height, full of Hills, which appear'd green and Woody, but we
saw not the least signs of inhabitants. At Noon Cape Saunders bore North
30 degrees West, distant 4 Leagues. Latitude per Log, for we had no
Observation, 46 degrees 0 minutes South.

Monday, 26th. In the P.M. had the wind Whifling all round the Compass,
sometimes blowing a fresh Gale, and at other times almost Calm. At 5
o'Clock it fixed at West-South-West, and soon blow'd so hard as to put us
past our Topsails, and to split the foresail all to pieces. After getting
another to the Yard, we continued standing to the Southward under 2
Courses. At 1 A.M. the wind Moderating, set the Topsails with one Reef
out; but soon after day light the Gale increased to a Storm, with heavy
Squalls, attended with rain. This brought us again under our Courses, and
the Main Topsail being Split we unbent it and bent another. At 6 o'Clock
the Southermost land in sight bore West by North, and Cape Saunders bore
North by West, distant 8 Leagues; at Noon it bore North 20 minutes West,
distant 14 Leagues. Latitude observed 46 degrees 35 minutes.

Tuesday, 27th. A very hard gale at South-West by West, and
West-South-West, with heavy squalls attended with Showers of rain, and a
large hollow sea, without the least intermission the whole of this 24
Hours. We continued under our Courses from Noon until 7 P.M., when we
handed the Mainsail, and lay too under the Foresail with the head to the
Southward. Latitude at Noon 46 degrees 54 minutes; Longitude made from
Cape Saunders 1 degree 24 minutes East.

Wednesday, 28th. Strong Gale at South-West, with a large Sea from the
Same quarter. At 7 p.m. made sail under the Courses; at 8 a.m. set the
Topsails close reefed. At Noon, being in the Latitude of 47 degrees 43
minutes South, and Longitude East from Cape Saunders 2 degrees 10
minutes, wore and stood to the Northward.

[March 1770.]

Thursday, March 1st. Winds between the South-West and North-North-West, a
fresh gale. In the P.M. found the Variation to be 16 degrees 34 minutes
East. At 8 Tack'd and Stood to the Southward, with the wind at West,
which before the morning veer'd to North-West, accompanied with hazey
weather and drizzling rain; at day light loosed a reef out of Each
Topsail, and set some of the small sails. At Noon our Latitude by account
was 47 degrees 52 minutes South, and Longitude made from Cape Saunders 1
degree 8 minutes East.

Friday, 2nd. Strong Gales from the West, with heavy Squalls, attended
with showers of rain. In the P.M. Stood to the Southward till half-past
3, when being in the Latitude 48 degrees 0 minutes South and Longitude
188 degrees 00 minutes West, and seeing no Visible signs of Land, we
Tack'd and Stood to the Northward, having a very large swell from the
South-West by West. Soon after we tack'd we close reef'd the Topsails,
and in the night were obliged to hand them, but at day light set them
again. At Noon our Latitude by Observation was 46 degrees 42 minutes
South, Cape Saunders bearing North 46 degrees West, distant 68 Miles.

Saturday, 3rd. P.M. Wind and weather as Yesterday. A.M. quite Moderate,
yet the South-West swell continues, which makes me conjecture that there
is no land near in that quarter. At Noon our Latitude was 46 degrees 42
minutes South, being East of Cape Saunders 1 degree 30 minutes.

Sunday, 4th. At 4 p.m. the Wind coming to the Northward we stood to the
Westward with all the sail we could make. In the morning got up
Topgallant yards, and set the sails; found the Variation to be 16 degrees
16 minutes East. Saw several Whales, Seals, and one Penguin; this bird
was but Small of the sort, but seem'd to be such a one as we had never
seen before. We have seen several Seals since we passed the Straits, but
never saw one upon the whole Coast of Aeheinomouwe. We sounded both in
the Night and the morning, but found no bottom with 150 fathoms Line; at
Noon we saw Cape Saunders bearing North 1/2 West; our Latitude by
observation was 46 degrees 31 minutes South.* (* The Endeavour had been
blown off the land for seven days, and had barely recovered her

[Off South Part of Middle Island, New Zealand.]

Monday, 5th. Most part of P.M. had a fresh breeze at North by East. Half
past 1 saw Land bearing West by South, which we steer'd for; before dark
we were within 3 or 4 Leagues of it, and seeing no land farther to the
South we were in hopes this would prove the Southern point. At 7 shortned
sail, and kept under an easy sail all night, standing to the
West-South-West, having the wind at North-West, and North-North-West
until 2 a.m., when it fell Calm, and soon after a breeze sprung up at
South-East by South, and daylight coming on we made sail. During the
whole night we saw a large fire upon the land; a certain sign of its
being inhabited. At 7 the Extreams of the land bore from North 38 degrees
East to West 6 minutes South, being distant from the Shore about 3
Leagues. The land appear'd of a Moderate height, and not hilly. At 1/2
past 10 o'Clock the westermost land in sight bore West 1/2 North, distant
7 Leagues; at Noon had fresh Gales at South-South-East, and thick hazey
weather with rain. Our Latitude by account was 46 degrees 50 minutes
South, and Longitude made from Cape Saunders 1 degree 56 minutes West.*
(* The ship was now off the south point of the Middle Island.)

Tuesday, 6th. P.M. Winds at South by East and South-East, and thick hazey
weather until 3 o'clock, when it clear'd up, and we saw the land
extending from North-East by North to North-West 1/2 North, and soon
after low land, making like an Island, bearing West 1/2 South. Keeping on
our Course to the West by South, we in 2 hours' time saw high land over
the low, extending to the Southward as far as South-West by South; we
could not see this land join to that to the Northward of us, there either
being a total seperation, a deep Bay, or low land between them. At 8
o'Clock, being within 3 Leagues of the low land (which we now took to be
an Island* (* Ruapuke Island.)), we Tack'd and stood to the Eastward,
having the wind at South, which proved very unsettled all night; by which
means, and a little bad management, I found the Ship in the morning
considerably farther to the Eastward than I expected, and the wind
afterwards coming to South-West and West-South-West, so that at noon we
found ourselves much about the same place as we were Yesterday, our
Latitude by observation being 46 degrees 50 minutes South, the land
extending from North-East by East to West by North 1/2 North, the nearest
part bearing North, distance 3 Leagues; the land to the South-West just
in sight.

Wednesday, 7th. Light Airs in the South-West quarter. P.M. Clear weather,
remainder dark and Cloudy. In the P.M. found the Variation per several
Azimuths, and the Amplitude to be 15 degrees 10 minutes East, and by the
Amplitude in the morning to be 15 degrees 56 minutes East. Stood to the
South-East until 8 a.m., then tack'd and stood to the North-West; but it
soon after fell Calm, and continued so until noon, when by our account we
were in the Latitude of 47 degrees 6 minutes South, and had made 12 Miles
Easting since Yesterday at Noon.

Thursday, 8th. Light Airs next to a Calm from South-South-East to
North-East, with which we kept Steering to the South-West, but made but
little way because of a swell which took us right ahead. At daylight A.M.
we saw, or thought we saw, from the Masthead, the land which we have left
to the Northward of us joined to that to the South-West of us; and at the
same time we imagined we saw the land extend to the Southward as far as
South-South-West; but after steering this Course until noon we discovered
our Mistake, for there was no land to be seen to the Southward of West,
which Course we now steer'd, being by observation in the Latitude of 47
degrees 12 minutes; Longitude made from Cape Saunders 2 degrees 2 minutes

[Off South Cape of New Zealand.]

Friday, 9th. P.M. Winds at North, a Gentle breeze and Clear weather.
Stood to the Westward until sunset, at which time the Extreams of the
land bore from North by East to West, distant about 7 or 8 Leagues; Depth
of Water 55 fathoms; Variation by the Amplitude 16 degrees 29 minutes
East. The wind now veer'd to the Westward, and as the weather was fine
and Moonlight we kept standing close upon a Wind to the South-West all
night. At 4 a.m. Sounded, and had 60 fathoms; at daylight we discover'd
under our lee bow Ledges of Rocks, on which the Sea broke very high,
extending from South by West to West by South, and not above 3/4 of a
Mile from us; yet upon sounding we had 45 fathoms, a Rocky bottom. The
wind being at North-West we could not weather the Ledge, and as I did not
care to run to leeward, we tackt and made a Trip to the Eastward; but the
wind soon after coming to the North enabled us to go clear of all. Our
soundings in passing within the Ledge was from 35 to 47 fathoms, a rocky
bottom. This Ledge lies South-East, 6 Leagues from the Southermost part
of the Land, and South-East by South from some remarkable hills which
stand near the Shore. These rocks are not the only dangers that lay here,
for about 3 Leagues to the Northward of them is another Ledge of Rocks,
laying full 3 Leagues from the land, whereon the Sea broke very high. As
we passed these rocks in the night at no great distance, and discover'd
the others close under our Lee at daylight, it is apparent that we had a
very fortunate Escape. I have named them the Traps, because they lay as
such to catch unweary Strangers.* (* The dangerous Traps lie south and
east of the South Island of New Zealand. The Endeavour had now at last
got to the southward of the land. There is a small but high rock farther
south, the Snares, that Cook did not sight this voyage.) At Noon our
Latitude per observation was 47 degrees 26 minutes South; Longitude made
from Cape Saunders 3 degrees 4 minutes West, the land in sight--which has
very much the appearance of an Island* (* South or Stewart
Island.)--extending North-East by North to North-West by West, distant
from the Shore about 4 or 5 Leagues; the Eastermost ledge of rocks bore
South-South-East, distant 1 1/2 Leagues; and Northermost North-East 1/2
East, 3 Leagues. This land is of a moderate height, and has a very barren
Aspect; not a Tree to be seen upon it, only a few Small Shrubs. There
were several white patches, on which the sun's rays reflected very
strongly, which I take to be a kind of Marble such as we have seen in
many places of this Country, particularly to the Northward.

Saturday, 10th. P.M. Moderate breezes at North-West by North and North
with which we stood close upon a Wind to the Westward. At sunset the
Southermost point of land, which I afterwards named South Cape,* (* South
Cape is the southern point of Stewart Island. Cook's position for it is
wonderfully exact.) and which lies in the Latitude of 47 degrees 19
minutes South, Longitude 192 degrees 12 minutes West from Greenwich, bore
North 38 degrees East, distant 4 Leagues, and the Westermost land in
sight bore North 2 degrees East. This last was a small Island, lying off
the point of the Main.* (* Long Island, which lies, with others, on the
west side of Stewart Island.) I began now to think that this was the
Southermost land, and that we should be able to get round it by the West,
for we have had a large hollow swell from the South-West ever since we
had the last gale of wind from that Quarter, which makes one think there
is no land in that direction. In the Night it began to blow, so that at
or before daylight we were brought under our 2 Courses; but at 8 a.m. it
fell moderate, and we set the Topsails close Reeft, and the Mizn and Mizn
Staysail being split, we unbent them and bent others. At Noon, the wind
Coming at West, we Tackt and stood to the Northward, having no land in
sight; our Latitude by observation was 47 degrees 33 minutes South,
Longitude West from the South Cape 0 degrees 59 minutes.

Sunday, 11th. Winds between the West and North-West, a fresh Gale, and
Clear weather. Stood away North-North-East close upon a wind without
seeing any land until 2 A.M., when we discover'd an Island bearing
North-West by North, distant 4 or 5 Leagues. Two hours after this we saw
the Land ahead, upon which we Tackt and stood off until 6 o'Clock; then
stood in, in order to take a nearer View of it. At 11, being about 3
Leagues from the land, and the wind seem'd to incline on Shore, we Tackt
and stood off to the Southward. And now we thought that the land to the
Southward, or that we have been sailing round these 2 days past, was an
Island, because there appeared an Open Channell between the North part of
that land and the South part of the other in which we thought we saw the
Small Island we were in with the 6th Instant; but when I came to lay this
land down upon paper from the several bearings I had taken, it appeared
that there was but little reason to suppose it an Island. On the
contrary, I hardly have a doubt but what it joins to, and makes a part
of, the Mainland,* (* Cook was deceived, as Stewart is an island.) the
Western extremity of which bore at Noon North 59 degrees West, and the
Island seen in the Morning* (* This was called by Cook Solander Island.)
South 59 degrees West, distant 5 Leagues. Latitude observed 46 degrees 24
minutes South, Longitude 192 degrees 49 minutes West. It is nothing but a
barren rock of about a Mile in Circuit, remarkably high, and lies full 5
Leagues from the Main. The shore of the Main lies nearest East by South
and West by North, and forms a large open bay, in which there is no
appearance of a Harbour or other place of safety for shipping against
South-West and Southerly winds. The face of the Country bears a very
rugged Aspect, being full of high craggy hills, on the Summits of which
were several patches of Snow. However, the land is not wholy barren; we
could see wood, not only in the Valleys, but on several of the Hills; but
we saw no signs of inhabitants.

Monday, 12th. Fresh Gales between the West and North-West; latter part
squally, with rain. Stood to the South-West by South until 11 a.m., at
which time the wind shifted to the South-West by West. We wore, and stood
to the North-North-West, being then in the Latitude of 47 degrees 40
minutes South, and Longitude 193 degrees 50 minutes West, having a Hollow
Sea from the South-West.

Tuesday, 13th. Strong Gale between the South-West by West and
South-South-West, with a large Hollow sea from the same Quarter. In the
P.M. had frequent Squalls, with Showers of rain; in the night had several
very heavy squalls, attended with Showers of Hail, which obliged us to
take in our Topsails. During the night steer'd North-North-West until 6
a.m., when, seeing no land, we steer'd North by East, and set the Main
Topsail, single reeft. At 8 set the Foretopsail, single reeft, and loosed
all the Reefs out of the Maintopsail, and Steer'd North-East by East 1/2
East in order to make the land. At 10 saw it bearing East-North-East, and
appeared to be very high; but, being hazey over it, we could see nothing
distinct neither now nor at Noon, when, by Observation, we were in the
Latitude of 46 degrees 0 minutes South. Course and distance Sailed since
Yesterday North 5 degrees West, 96 Miles. Longitude made from the South
Cape 1 degree 40 minutes West.

[Off the New Zealand Sounds.]

Wednesday, 14th. In the P.M. had a fresh Gale from the Southward,
attended with Squalls. At 2 it Clear'd up over the land, which appeared
high and Mountainous. At 1/2 past 3 double reeft the Topsails, and hauld
in for a Bay, wherein their appear'd to be good Anchorage, and into which
I had thought of going with the Ship; but after standing in an hour, we
found the distance too great to run before dark, and it blow'd too hard
to attempt it in the night, or even to keep to Windward; for these
reasons we gave it up, and bore away along shore. This bay I have named
Dusky Bay. It lies in the Latitude of 45 degrees 47 minutes South; it is
about 3 or 4 Miles broad at the Entrance, and seems to be full as deep.
In it are several Islands, behind which there must be Shelter from all
winds, provided there is a Sufficient Depth of Water.* (* Dusky Bay is
one of the remarkable inlets known now as the New Zealand Sounds. They
are very deep, narrow fiords, running into the high mountains, that here
come close to the shore, and are much visited now for the sake of the
grandeur of the scenery. Cook visited and surveyed Dusky Bay in his next
voyage. The Endeavour had nearly as much tempestuous weather in rounding
the south end of New Zealand as she had off the North Cape; but Cook
managed to get a very fair idea of the coast, notwithstanding, by dint of
perseverance.) The North point of this bay, when it bears South-East by
South, is very remarkable, there being off it 5 high peaked rocks,
standing up like the 4 fingers and thumb of a Man's hand; on which
account I have named it Point Five Fingers. The land of this point is
farther remarkable by being the only Level land near it, and extends near
2 Leagues to the Northward. It is pretty high, wholy cover'd with wood,
and hath very much the Appearance of an Island, by its aspect being so
very different from the Land behind it, which is nothing but barren rocky
Mountains. At Sunset the Southermost Land in sight bore due South,
distant 5 or 6 Leagues; and as this is the Westermost point of land upon
the whole Coast I have called it West Cape. It lies about 3 Leagues to
the Southward of the bay above-mentioned, in the Latitude of 45 degrees
54 minutes South, and Longitude 193 degrees 17 minutes West. The land of
this Cape seems to be of a moderate height next the Sea, and hath Nothing
remarkable about it that we could see, Except a very White Clift 2 or 3
Leagues to the Southward of it. The land to the Southward of Cape West
trends away towards the South-East; to the Northward of it it Trends
North-North-East and North-East. At 7 o'Clock brought the Ship too under
the Foresail, with her head off Shore, having a fresh Gale at South by
East. At Midnight it moderated, and we wore and lay her head in shore
until 4 a.m.; then made Sail, and Steer'd along shore North-East 1/2
North, having a moderate breeze at South-South-East. At Noon we were by
observation in the Latitude 45 degrees 13 minutes South; Course and
distance sailed since Yesterday North 41 degrees East, 62 Miles;
Longitude made from Cape West 0 degrees 29 minutes East, being at this
time about 1 1/2 Leagues from Shore. Sounded, and had no ground with 70
fathoms Line. A little before Noon we passed a little Narrow opening in
the land, where there appear'd to be a very Snug Harbour,* (* Doubtful
Sound, another of the fiords mentioned in note above.) form'd by an
Island, in the Latitude of 45 degrees 16 minutes South; inland, behind
this Opening, were Mountains, the summits of which were Cover'd with Snow
that seem'd to have fallen lately, and this is not to be wondered at, for
we have found it very cold for these 2 days past. The land on each side
the Entrance of this Harbour riseth almost perpendicular from the Sea to
a very considerable Height; and this was the reason why I did not attempt
to go in with the Ship, because I saw clearly that no winds could blow
there but what was right in or right out, that is, Westerly or Easterly;
and it certainly would have been highly imprudent in me to have put into
a place where we could not have got out but with a wind that we have
lately found to blow but one day in a Month. I mention this because there
was some on board that wanted me to harbour at any rate, without in the
least Considering either the present or future Consequences.

Thursday, 15th. Clear weather, Winds at South-West and South-West by
South, a Gentle breeze, except in the night, when we had variable light
Airs and Calm. In the evening, being about 2 Leagues from the land, we
sounded, but had no ground with 103 fathoms. Variation per Azimuth 14
degrees East, per Amplitude 15 degrees 2 minutes East. With what wind we
had we made the best of our way along shore to the North-East, keeping at
the distance of 2 or 3 Leagues off from the Land. At Noon we were in the
Latitude of 44 degrees 47 minutes, having run only 12 Leagues upon a
North-East 1/4 North Course since Yesterday at Noon; Longitude made from
Cape West 1 degree 3 minutes East.

Friday, 16th. Winds at South-West; a fresh breeze and Clear. Steer'd
along shore North-East 1/4 East until 6 p.m., when we Shortned Sail, and
brought too for the Night. Variation per Azimuth 13 degrees 48 minutes
East. At 4 A.M. made sail, and Stood in for the land. At daylight saw the
appearance of an inlet into the land; but upon a nearer approach found
that it was only a deep Valley, bounded on each side by high lands, upon
which we bore away North-East 1/4 East along shore, keeping about 4 or 5

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